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1

SPACE TECHNOLOGY Actual Estimate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPACE TECHNOLOGY TECH-1 Actual Estimate Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY.7 247.0 Exploration Technology Development 144.6 189.9 202.0 215.5 215.7 214.5 216.5 Notional SPACE TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW .............................. TECH- 2 SBIR AND STTR

2

Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual" Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",999,1021,1041,1051,1056,1066,1073,1081,1087,1098,1107,1122,1121,1128,1143,1173,1201,1223 "AEO 1995",,1006,1010,1011,1016,1017,1021,1027,1033,1040,1051,1066,1076,1083,1090,1108,1122,1137 "AEO 1996",,,1037,1044,1041,1045,1061,1070,1086,1100,1112,1121,1135,1156,1161,1167,1173,1184,1190 "AEO 1997",,,,1028,1052,1072,1088,1105,1110,1115,1123,1133,1146,1171,1182,1190,1193,1201,1209 "AEO 1998",,,,,1088,1122,1127.746338,1144.767212,1175.662598,1176.493652,1182.742065,1191.246948,1206.99585,1229.007202,1238.69043,1248.505981,1260.836914,1265.159424,1284.229736

3

Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu / real GDP in billion 2005 chained dollars)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",11.24893441,11.08565002,10.98332766,10.82852279,10.67400621,10.54170176,10.39583203,10.27184573,10.14478673,10.02575883,9.910410202,9.810812106,9.69894802,9.599821783,9.486985399,9.394733753,9.303329725,9.221322623 "AEO 1995",,10.86137373,10.75116461,10.60467959,10.42268977,10.28668187,10.14461664,10.01081222,9.883759026,9.759022105,9.627404949,9.513643295,9.400418762,9.311729546,9.226142899,9.147374752,9.071102491,8.99599906 "AEO 1996",,,10.71047701,10.59846153,10.43655044,10.27812088,10.12746866,9.9694713,9.824165152,9.714832565,9.621874334,9.532324916,9.428169355,9.32931308,9.232716414,9.170931044,9.086870061,9.019963901,8.945602337

4

A comparative study on conventional and advanced exergetic analyses of geothermal district heating systems based on actual operational data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper comparatively evaluates exergy destructions of a geothermal district heating system (GDHS) using both conventional and advanced exergetic analysis methods to identify the potential for improvement and the interactions among the components. As a real case study, the Afyon GDHS in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, is considered based on actual operational data. For the first time, advanced exergetic analysis is applied to the GDHSs, in which the exergy destruction rate within each component is split into unavoidable/avoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. The results indicate that the interconnections among all the components are not very strong. Thus, one should focus on how to reduce the internal inefficiency (destruction) rates of the components. The highest priority for improvement in the advanced exergetic analysis is in the re-injection pump (PM-IX), while it is the heat exchanger (HEX-III) in the conventional analysis. In addition, there is a substantial influence on the overall system as the total avoidable exergy destruction rate of the heat exchanger (HEX-V) has the highest value. On the overall system basis, the value for the conventional exergetic efficiency is determined to be 29.29% while that for the modified exergetic efficiency is calculated to be 34.46% through improving the overall components.

Arif Hepbasli; Ali Keçeba?

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Table 14. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual (million short tons) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 914 939 963 995 1031 1080 AEO 1983 900 926 947 974 1010 1045 1191 AEO 1984 899 921 948 974 1010 1057 1221 AEO 1985 886 909 930 940 958 985 1015 1041 1072 1094 1116 AEO 1986 890 920 954 962 983 1017 1044 1073 1097 1126 1142 1156 1176 1191 1217 AEO 1987 917 914 932 962 978 996 1020 1043 1068 1149 AEO 1989* 941 946 977 990 1018 1039 1058 1082 1084 1107 1130 1152 1171 AEO 1990 973 987 1085 1178 1379 AEO 1991 1035 1002 1016 1031 1043 1054 1065 1079 1096 1111 1133 1142 1160 1193 1234 1272 1309 1349 1386 1433 AEO 1992 1004 1040 1019 1034 1052 1064 1074 1087 1102 1133 1144 1156 1173 1201 1229 1272 1312 1355 1397 AEO 1993 1039 1043 1054 1065 1076 1086 1094 1102 1125 1136 1148 1161 1178 1204 1237 1269 1302 1327 AEO 1994 999 1021

6

Table 23. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu / $Billion Nominal GDP) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 20.1 18.5 16.9 15.5 14.4 13.2 AEO 1983 19.9 18.7 17.4 16.2 15.1 14.0 9.5 AEO 1984 20.1 19.0 17.7 16.5 15.5 14.5 10.2 AEO 1985 20.0 19.1 18.0 16.9 15.9 14.7 13.7 12.7 11.8 11.0 10.3 AEO 1986 18.3 17.8 16.8 16.1 15.2 14.3 13.4 12.6 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.5 8.9 8.3 7.8 AEO 1987 17.6 17.0 16.3 15.4 14.5 13.7 12.9 12.1 11.4 8.2 AEO 1989* 16.9 16.2 15.2 14.2 13.3 12.5 11.7 10.9 10.2 9.6 9.0 8.5 8.0 AEO 1990 16.1 15.4 11.7 8.6 6.4 AEO 1991 15.5 14.9 14.2 13.6 13.0 12.5 11.9 11.3 10.8 10.3 9.7 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.3 6.0 AEO 1992 15.0 14.5 13.9 13.3 12.7 12.1 11.6 11.0 10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.1 7.7 7.3 6.9 6.6 6.2 AEO 1993 14.7 13.9 13.4 12.8 12.3 11.8 11.2 10.7 10.2 9.6 9.2 8.7 8.3 7.8 7.4 7.1 6.7 6.4

7

,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

January 23, 2008" ,"Next Update: October 2007" ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005...

8

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

9

Estimation of Regional Actual Evapotranspiration in the Panama Canal Watershed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The upper Río Chagres basin is a part of the Panama Canal Watershed. The least known water balance...SEBAL...). We use an image from March 27, 2000, for estimation of the distribution of the regional actual evapo...

Jan M.H. Hendrickx; Wim G.M. Bastiaanssen; Edwin J.M. Noordman…

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Pose estimation of an uncooperative spacecraft from actual space imagery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper addresses the preliminary design of a spaceborne monocular vision-based navigation system for on-orbit-servicing and formation-flying applications. The aim is to estimate the pose of a passive space resident object using its known three-dimensional model and single low-resolution two-dimensional images collected on-board the active spacecraft. In contrast to previous work, no supportive means are available on the target satellite (e.g., light emitting diodes) and no a-priori knowledge of the relative position and attitude is available (i.e., lost-in-space scenario). Three fundamental mechanisms - perceptual organisation, true perspective projection, and random sample consensus - are exploited to overcome the limitations of monocular passive optical navigation in space. The preliminary design is conducted and validated making use of actual images collected in the frame of the PRISMA mission at about 700 km altitude and 10 m inter-spacecraft separation.

Simone D'Amico; Mathias Benn; John L. Jørgensen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Self-actualization as it relates to aerobic physical fitness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

higher than the aerobic and archery group on the TC, Ex, and C scales. The archery group was significantly higher than the preaerobic and aerobic groups on the Fr and S scales. Females from the preaerobic group were significantly lower than archery... Inventory Sav Self-actualization values measures how well a person holds and lives by values of se 1f- ac tualizing people Ex Existentiality measures ability to flexibly apply self-actualizing values to one's own life Fr Feeling reactivity measures...

Russell, Kathryn Terese Vecchio

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

12

experiment actually sees," Smith says. "When we were  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experiment actually sees," Smith says. "When we were finished, we got much more ­ a method in science depend on atoms and molecules moving," Smith says. "We want to create movies of molecules science development," Smith says.--Morgan McCorkle A theoretical technique developed at ORNL is bringing

Pennycook, Steve

13

COORDINATING ADVICE AND ACTUAL TREATMENT Thomas A. Russ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Unfortunately, this information is not always immediately available. For example, the exact fluid infused via an intravenous line can only be determined after someone checks the infusion bottle to determine how much fluid differ in timing and exact amount from what is actually done. For example, an infusion order might call

Russ, Thomas A.

14

Attachment Implementation Procedures to Report Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Final July 01, 2010 Final July 01, 2010 1 Attachment Implementation Procedures to Report Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance On Real Property 1. The following is the FY 2010 implementation procedures for the field offices/sites to determine and report deferred maintenance on real property as required by the Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards (SFFAS) No. 6, Accounting for Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E) and DOE Order 430.1B, Real Property Asset Management (RPAM). a. This document is intended to assist field offices/sites in consistently and accurately applying the appropriate methods to determine and report deferred maintenance estimates and reporting of annual required and actual maintenance costs. b. This reporting satisfies the Department's obligation to recognize and record deferred

15

Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 2508 2373 2256 2161 2088 2022 1953 1891 1851 1825 1799 1781 1767 1759 1778 1789 1807 1862 AEO 1995 2402 2307 2205 2095 2037 1967 1953 1924 1916 1905 1894 1883 1887 1887 1920 1945 1967 AEO 1996 2387 2310 2248 2172 2113 2062 2011 1978 1953 1938 1916 1920 1927 1949 1971 1986 2000 AEO 1997 2362 2307 2245 2197 2143 2091 2055 2033 2015 2004 1997 1989 1982 1975 1967 1949 AEO 1998 2340 2332 2291 2252 2220 2192 2169 2145 2125 2104 2087 2068 2050 2033 2016 AEO 1999 2340 2309 2296 2265 2207 2171 2141 2122 2114 2092 2074 2057 2040 2025 AEO 2000 2193 2181 2122 2063 2016 1980 1957 1939 1920 1904 1894 1889 1889

16

Attachment Implementation Procedures to Report Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Draft July 9, 2009 Draft July 9, 2009 1 Attachment Implementation Procedures to Report Deferred, Actual, and Required Maintenance On Real Property 1. The following is the FY 2009 implementation procedures for the field offices/sites to determine and report deferred maintenance on real property as required by the Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards (SFFAS) No. 6, Accounting for Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E) and DOE Order 430.1B, Real Property Asset Management (RPAM). a. This document is intended to assist field offices/sites in consistently and accurately applying the appropriate methods to determine and report deferred maintenance estimates and reporting of annual required and actual maintenance costs. b. This reporting satisfies the Department's obligation to recognize and record deferred

17

Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",920,928,933,938,943,948,953,958,962,967,978,990,987,992,1006,1035,1061,1079 "AEO 1995",,935,940,941,947,948,951,954,958,963,971,984,992,996,1002,1013,1025,1039 "AEO 1996",,,937,942,954,962,983,990,1004,1017,1027,1033,1046,1067,1070,1071,1074,1082,1087 "AEO 1997",,,,948,970,987,1003,1017,1020,1025,1034,1041,1054,1075,1086,1092,1092,1099,1104 "AEO 1998",,,,,1009,1051,1043.875977,1058.292725,1086.598145,1084.446655,1089.787109,1096.931763,1111.523926,1129.833862,1142.338257,1148.019409,1159.695312,1162.210815,1180.029785

18

Table 4. Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 6450 6566 6643 6723 6811 6880 6957 7059 7125 7205 7296 7377 7446 7523 7596 7665 7712 7775 AEO 1995 6398 6544 6555 6676 6745 6822 6888 6964 7048 7147 7245 7337 7406 7472 7537 7581 7621 AEO 1996 6490 6526 6607 6709 6782 6855 6942 7008 7085 7176 7260 7329 7384 7450 7501 7545 7581 AEO 1997 6636 6694 6826 6953 7074 7183 7267 7369 7461 7548 7643 7731 7793 7833 7884 7924 AEO 1998 6895 6906 7066 7161 7278 7400 7488 7597 7719 7859 7959 8074 8190 8286 8361 AEO 1999 6884 7007 7269 7383 7472 7539 7620 7725 7841 7949 8069 8174 8283 8351 AEO 2000 7056 7141 7266 7363 7452 7578 7694 7815 7926 8028 8113 8217 8288

19

Table 6. Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 2935 3201 3362 3504 3657 3738 3880 3993 4099 4212 4303 4398 4475 4541 4584 4639 4668 4672 AEO 1995 2953 3157 3281 3489 3610 3741 3818 3920 4000 4103 4208 4303 4362 4420 4442 4460 4460 AEO 1996 3011 3106 3219 3398 3519 3679 3807 3891 3979 4070 4165 4212 4260 4289 4303 4322 4325 AEO 1997 3099 3245 3497 3665 3825 3975 4084 4190 4285 4380 4464 4552 4617 4654 4709 4760 AEO 1998 3303 3391 3654 3713 3876 4053 4137 4298 4415 4556 4639 4750 4910 4992 5087 AEO 1999 3380 3442 3888 4022 4153 4238 4336 4441 4545 4652 4780 4888 4999 5073 AEO 2000 3599 3847 4036 4187 4320 4465 4579 4690 4780 4882 4968 5055 5113

20

Tropical Africa: Calculated Actual Aboveground Live Biomass in Open and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Calculated Actual Aboveground Live Biomass in Open and Calculated Actual Aboveground Live Biomass in Open and Closed Forests (1980) image Brown, S., and G. Gaston. 1996. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates For 1980. ORNL/CDIAC-92, NDP-055. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. More Maps Land Use Maximum Potential Biomass Density Area of Closed Forests (By Country) Mean Biomass of Closed Forests (By Country) Area of Open Forests (By Country) Mean Biomass of Open Forests (By County) Percent Forest Cover (By Country) Total Forest Biomass (By Country) Population Density - 1990 (By Administrative Unit) Population Density - 1980 (By Administrative Unit) Population Density - 1970 (By Administrative Unit) Population Density - 1960 (By Administrative Unit)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Table 7b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual" b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per thousand cubic feet)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",1.983258692,2.124739238,2.26534793,2.409252566,2.585728477,2.727400662,2.854942053,2.980927152,3.13861755,3.345819536,3.591100993,3.849544702,4.184279801,4.510016556,4.915074503,5.29147351,5.56022351,5.960471854 "AEO 1995",,1.891706924,1.998384058,1.952818035,2.064227053,2.152302174,2.400016103,2.569033816,2.897681159,3.160088567,3.556344605,3.869033816,4.267391304,4.561932367,4.848599034,5.157246377,5.413405797,5.660917874 "AEO 1996",,,1.630674532,1.740334763,1.862956911,1.9915856,2.10351261,2.194934146,2.287655669,2.378991658,2.476043002,2.589847464,2.717610782,2.836870306,2.967124845,3.117719429,3.294003735,3.485657428,3.728419409

22

Table 10. Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual" Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (trillion cubic feet)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",2.02,2.4,2.66,2.74,2.81,2.85,2.89,2.93,2.95,2.97,3,3.16,3.31,3.5,3.57,3.63,3.74,3.85 "AEO 1995",,2.46,2.54,2.8,2.87,2.87,2.89,2.9,2.9,2.92,2.95,2.97,3,3.03,3.19,3.35,3.51,3.6 "AEO 1996",,,2.56,2.75,2.85,2.88,2.93,2.98,3.02,3.06,3.07,3.09,3.12,3.17,3.23,3.29,3.37,3.46,3.56 "AEO 1997",,,,2.82,2.96,3.16,3.43,3.46,3.5,3.53,3.58,3.64,3.69,3.74,3.78,3.83,3.87,3.92,3.97 "AEO 1998",,,,,2.95,3.19,3.531808376,3.842532873,3.869043112,3.894513845,3.935930967,3.976293564,4.021911621,4.062207222,4.107616425,4.164502144,4.221304417,4.277039051,4.339964867

23

Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million short tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 920 928 933 938 943 948 953 958 962 967 978 990 987 992 1006 1035 1061 1079 AEO 1995 935 940 941 947 948 951 954 958 963 971 984 992 996 1002 1013 1025 1039 AEO 1996 937 942 954 962 983 990 1004 1017 1027 1033 1046 1067 1070 1071 1074 1082 1087 AEO 1997 948 970 987 1003 1017 1020 1025 1034 1041 1054 1075 1086 1092 1092 1099 1104 AEO 1998 1009 1051 1044 1058 1087 1084 1090 1097 1112 1130 1142 1148 1160 1162 1180 AEO 1999 1040 1075 1092 1109 1113 1118 1120 1120 1133 1139 1150 1155 1156 1173 AEO 2000 1053 1086 1103 1124 1142 1164 1175 1184 1189 1194 1199 1195 1200 AEO 2001 1078 1112 1135 1153 1165 1183 1191 1220 1228 1228 1235 1240

24

Table 22. Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual (million metric tons) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 AEO 1983 AEO 1984 AEO 1985 AEO 1986 AEO 1987 AEO 1989* AEO 1990 AEO 1991 AEO 1992 AEO 1993 5009 5053 5130 5207 5269 5335 5401 5449 5504 5562 5621 5672 5724 5771 5819 5867 5918 5969 AEO 1994 5060 5130 5185 5240 5287 5335 5379 5438 5482 5529 5599 5658 5694 5738 5797 5874 5925 AEO 1995 5137 5174 5188 5262 5309 5361 5394 5441.3 5489.0 5551.3 5621.0 5679.7 5727.3 5775.0 5841.0 5888.7 AEO 1996 5182 5224 5295 5355 5417 5464 5525 5589 5660 5735 5812 5879 5925 5981 6030 AEO 1997 5295 5381 5491 5586 5658 5715 5781 5863 5934 6009 6106 6184 6236 6268 AEO 1998 5474 5621 5711 5784 5893 5957 6026 6098 6192 6292 6379 6465 6542 AEO 1999 5522 5689 5810 5913 5976 6036 6084 6152 6244 6325 6418 6493 AEO 2000

25

Table 16. Total Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual Electricity Sales, Projected vs. Actual (billion kilowatt-hours) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 2364 2454 2534 2626 2708 2811 AEO 1983 2318 2395 2476 2565 2650 2739 3153 AEO 1984 2321 2376 2461 2551 2637 2738 3182 AEO 1985 2317 2360 2427 2491 2570 2651 2730 2808 2879 2949 3026 AEO 1986 2363 2416 2479 2533 2608 2706 2798 2883 2966 3048 3116 3185 3255 3324 3397 AEO 1987 2460 2494 2555 2622 2683 2748 2823 2902 2977 3363 AEO 1989* 2556 2619 2689 2760 2835 2917 2994 3072 3156 3236 3313 3394 3473 AEO 1990 2612 2689 3083 3488.0 3870.0 AEO 1991 2700 2762 2806 2855 2904 2959 3022 3088 3151 3214 3282 3355 3427 3496 3563 3632 3704 3776 3846 3916 AEO 1992 2746 2845 2858 2913 2975 3030 3087 3146 3209 3276 3345 3415 3483 3552 3625 3699 3774 3847 3921 AEO 1993 2803 2840 2893 2946 2998 3052 3104 3157 3214 3271 3327

26

Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual" Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million barrels)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",2507.55,2372.5,2255.7,2160.8,2087.8,2022.1,1952.75,1890.7,1850.55,1825,1799.45,1781.2,1766.6,1759.3,1777.55,1788.5,1806.75,1861.5 "AEO 1995",,2401.7,2306.8,2204.6,2095.1,2036.7,1967.35,1952.75,1923.55,1916.25,1905.3,1894.35,1883.4,1887.05,1887.05,1919.9,1945.45,1967.35 "AEO 1996",,,2387.1,2310.45,2248.4,2171.75,2113.35,2062.25,2011.15,1978.3,1952.75,1938.15,1916.25,1919.9,1927.2,1949.1,1971,1985.6,2000.2 "AEO 1997",,,,2361.55,2306.8,2244.75,2197.3,2142.55,2091.45,2054.95,2033.05,2014.8,2003.85,1996.55,1989.25,1981.95,1974.65,1967.35,1949.1

27

Table 16. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",88.02,89.53,90.72,91.73,92.71,93.61,94.56,95.73,96.69,97.69,98.89,100,100.79,101.7,102.7,103.6,104.3,105.23 "AEO 1995",,89.21,89.98,90.57,91.91,92.98,93.84,94.61,95.3,96.19,97.18,98.38,99.37,100.3,101.2,102.1,102.9,103.88 "AEO 1996",,,90.6,91.26,92.54,93.46,94.27,95.07,95.94,96.92,97.98,99.2,100.38,101.4,102.1,103.1,103.8,104.69,105.5 "AEO 1997",,,,92.64,93.58,95.13,96.59,97.85,98.79,99.9,101.2,102.4,103.4,104.7,105.8,106.6,107.2,107.9,108.6 "AEO 1998",,,,,94.68,96.71,98.61027527,99.81855774,101.254303,102.3907928,103.3935776,104.453476,105.8160553,107.2683716,108.5873566,109.8798981,111.0723877,112.166893,113.0926208

28

Table 7a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual" a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per thousand cubic feet in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO Dollar Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",1992,1.9399,2.029,2.1099,2.1899,2.29,2.35,2.39,2.42,2.47,2.55,2.65,2.75,2.89,3.01,3.17,3.3,3.35,3.47 "AEO 1995",1993,,1.85,1.899,1.81,1.87,1.8999,2.06,2.14,2.34,2.47,2.69,2.83,3.02,3.12,3.21,3.3,3.35,3.39 "AEO 1996",1994,,,1.597672343,1.665446997,1.74129355,1.815978527,1.866241336,1.892736554,1.913619637,1.928664207,1.943216205,1.964540124,1.988652706,2.003382921,2.024799585,2.056392431,2.099974155,2.14731431,2.218094587

29

Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 AEO 1996 1994 7.09 6.99 6.94 6.93 6.96 6.96 6.96 6.97 6.98 6.97 6.98 6.95 6.95 6.94 6.96 6.95 6.91 AEO 1997 1995 6.94 6.89 6.90 6.91 6.86 6.84 6.78 6.73 6.66 6.60 6.58 6.54 6.49 6.48 6.45 6.36

30

Table 4. Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Petroleum Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million barrels)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",6449.55,6566.35,6643,6723.3,6810.9,6880.25,6956.9,7059.1,7124.8,7205.1,7296.35,7376.65,7446,7522.65,7595.65,7665,7712.45,7774.5 "AEO 1995",,6398.45,6544.45,6555.4,6675.85,6745.2,6821.85,6887.55,6964.2,7048.15,7146.7,7245.25,7336.5,7405.85,7471.55,7537.25,7581.05,7621.2 "AEO 1996",,,6489.7,6526.2,6606.5,6708.7,6781.7,6854.7,6942.3,7008,7084.65,7175.9,7259.85,7329.2,7383.95,7449.65,7500.75,7544.55,7581.05 "AEO 1997",,,,6635.7,6694.1,6825.5,6953.25,7073.7,7183.2,7267.15,7369.35,7460.6,7548.2,7643.1,7730.7,7792.75,7832.9,7884,7924.15

31

Table 9. Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual" Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (trillion cubic feet)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",17.71,17.68,17.84,18.12,18.25,18.43,18.58,18.93,19.28,19.51,19.8,19.92,20.13,20.18,20.38,20.35,20.16,20.19 "AEO 1995",,18.28,17.98,17.92,18.21,18.63,18.92,19.08,19.2,19.36,19.52,19.75,19.94,20.17,20.28,20.6,20.59,20.88 "AEO 1996",,,18.9,19.15,19.52,19.59,19.59,19.65,19.73,19.97,20.36,20.82,21.25,21.37,21.68,22.11,22.47,22.83,23.36 "AEO 1997",,,,19.1,19.7,20.17,20.32,20.54,20.77,21.26,21.9,22.31,22.66,22.93,23.38,23.68,23.99,24.25,24.65 "AEO 1998",,,,,18.85,19.06,20.34936142,20.27427673,20.60257721,20.94442177,21.44076347,21.80969238,22.25416183,22.65365219,23.176651,23.74545097,24.22989273,24.70069313,24.96691322

32

Table 7a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual a. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per thousand cubic feet in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 1992 1.94 2.03 2.11 2.19 2.29 2.35 2.39 2.42 2.47 2.55 2.65 2.75 2.89 3.01 3.17 3.30 3.35 3.47 AEO 1995 1993 1.85 1.90 1.81 1.87 1.90 2.06 2.14 2.34 2.47 2.69 2.83 3.02 3.12 3.21 3.30 3.35 3.39 AEO 1996 1994 1.60 1.67 1.74 1.82 1.87 1.89 1.91 1.93 1.94 1.96 1.99 2.00 2.02 2.06 2.10 2.15 2.22

33

Table 18. Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.6 AEO 1995 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.3 AEO 1996 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1 AEO 1997 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.2 AEO 1998 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 AEO 1999 7.4 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 AEO 2000 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.7 8.7 8.8 AEO 2001 7.8 8.1 8.3 8.6 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.7 AEO 2002 8.2 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.7 9.9 10.1

34

Table 21. Total Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 18.6 18.2 17.7 17.3 17.0 16.9 AEO 1983 19.8 20.1 20.4 20.4 20.5 20.5 20.7 AEO 1984 19.2 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.1 19.2 20.1 AEO 1985 20.0 19.8 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.1 20.3 AEO 1986 20.5 20.8 20.8 20.6 20.7 20.3 21.0 AEO 1987 21.3 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 22.0 22.0 22.0 21.9 22.3 AEO 1989* 21.8 22.2 22.4 22.4 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 23.0 23.2 AEO 1990 22.0 22.4 23.2 24.3 25.5 AEO 1991 22.1 21.6 21.9 22.1 22.3 22.5 22.8 23.1 23.4 23.8 24.1 24.5 24.8 25.1 25.4 25.7 26.0 26.3 26.6 26.9 AEO 1992 21.7 22.0 22.5 22.9 23.2 23.4 23.6 23.9 24.1 24.4 24.8 25.1 25.4 25.7 26.0 26.3 26.6 26.9 27.1 AEO 1993 22.5 22.8 23.4 23.9 24.3 24.7 25.1 25.4 25.7 26.1 26.5 26.8 27.2 27.6 27.9 28.1 28.4 28.7 AEO 1994 23.6

35

Table 10. Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production, Projected vs. Actual Production, Projected vs. Actual (trillion cubic feet) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 14.74 14.26 14.33 14.89 15.39 15.88 AEO 1983 16.48 16.27 16.20 16.31 16.27 16.29 14.89 AEO 1984 17.48 17.10 17.44 17.58 17.52 17.32 16.39 AEO 1985 16.95 17.08 17.11 17.29 17.40 17.33 17.32 17.27 17.05 16.80 16.50 AEO 1986 16.30 16.27 17.15 16.68 16.90 16.97 16.87 16.93 16.86 16.62 16.40 16.33 16.57 16.23 16.12 AEO 1987 16.21 16.09 16.38 16.32 16.30 16.30 16.44 16.62 16.81 17.39 AEO 1989* 16.71 16.71 16.94 17.01 16.83 17.09 17.35 17.54 17.67 17.98 18.20 18.25 18.49 AEO 1990 16.91 17.25 18.84 20.58 20.24 AEO 1991 17.40 17.48 18.11 18.22 18.15 18.22 18.39 18.82 19.03 19.28 19.62 19.89 20.13 20.07 19.95 19.82 19.64 19.50 19.30 19.08 AEO 1992 17.43 17.69 17.95 18.00 18.29 18.27 18.51 18.75 18.97

36

Table 17. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 79.1 79.6 79.9 80.8 82.1 83.3 AEO 1983 78.0 79.5 81.0 82.4 83.9 84.6 89.0 AEO 1984 78.5 79.4 81.2 83.1 85.1 86.4 93.0 AEO 1985 77.6 78.5 79.8 81.2 82.7 83.3 84.2 85.0 85.7 86.3 87.2 AEO 1986 77.0 78.8 79.8 80.7 81.5 82.9 83.8 84.6 85.3 86.0 86.6 87.4 88.3 89.4 90.2 AEO 1987 78.9 80.0 82.0 82.8 83.9 85.1 86.2 87.1 87.9 92.5 AEO 1989* 82.2 83.8 84.5 85.4 86.2 87.1 87.8 88.7 89.5 90.4 91.4 92.4 93.5 AEO 1990 84.2 85.4 91.9 97.4 102.8 AEO 1991 84.4 85.0 86.0 87.0 87.9 89.1 90.4 91.8 93.1 94.3 95.6 97.1 98.4 99.4 100.3 101.4 102.5 103.6 104.7 105.8 AEO 1992 84.7 87.0 88.0 89.2 90.5 91.4 92.4 93.4 94.5 95.6 96.9 98.0 99.0 100.0 101.2 102.2 103.2 104.3 105.2 AEO 1993 87.0 88.3 89.8 91.4 92.7 94.0 95.3 96.3 97.5 98.6

37

Table 3. Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual (cumulative average percent growth in projected real GDP from first year shown for each AEO) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 4.3% 3.8% 3.6% 3.3% 3.2% 3.2% AEO 1983 3.3% 3.3% 3.4% 3.3% 3.2% 3.1% 2.7% AEO 1984 2.7% 2.4% 2.9% 3.1% 3.1% 3.1% 2.7% AEO 1985 2.3% 2.2% 2.7% 2.8% 2.9% 3.0% 3.0% 3.0% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% AEO 1986 2.6% 2.5% 2.7% 2.5% 2.5% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% AEO 1987 2.7% 2.3% 2.4% 2.5% 2.5% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% AEO 1989* 4.0% 3.4% 3.1% 3.0% 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% AEO 1990 2.9% 2.3% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% AEO 1991 0.8% 1.0% 1.7% 1.8% 1.8% 1.9% 2.0% 2.1% 2.1% 2.1% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% AEO 1992 -0.1% 1.6% 2.0% 2.2% 2.3% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2%

38

Table 20. Total Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 24.0 24.1 24.4 24.9 25.5 26.1 AEO 1983 23.2 23.6 23.9 24.4 24.9 25.0 25.4 AEO 1984 24.1 24.5 25.4 25.5 27.1 27.4 28.7 AEO 1985 23.2 23.6 23.9 24.4 24.8 24.8 24.4 AEO 1986 22.2 22.8 23.1 23.4 23.4 23.6 22.8 AEO 1987 22.4 22.8 23.7 24.0 24.3 24.6 24.6 24.7 24.9 22.6 AEO 1989* 23.6 24.0 24.1 24.3 24.5 24.3 24.3 24.5 24.6 24.8 24.9 24.4 24.1 AEO 1990 25.0 25.4 27.1 27.3 28.6 AEO 1991 24.6 24.5 24.8 24.8 25.0 25.3 25.7 26.2 26.5 26.1 25.9 26.2 26.4 26.6 26.7 27.0 27.2 27.4 27.7 28.0 AEO 1992 24.6 25.3 25.4 25.6 26.1 26.3 26.5 26.5 26.0 25.6 25.8 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.4 26.7 26.9 27.2 27.3 AEO 1993 25.5 25.9 26.2 26.8 27.1 27.5 27.8 27.4 27.1 27.4 27.6 27.8 28.0 28.2 28.4 28.7 28.9 29.1 AEO 1994 25.4 25.9

39

Table 8. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual (current dollars per thousand cubic feet) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 4.32 5.47 6.67 7.51 8.04 8.57 AEO 1983 2.93 3.11 3.46 3.93 4.56 5.26 12.74 AEO 1984 2.77 2.90 3.21 3.63 4.13 4.79 9.33 AEO 1985 2.60 2.61 2.66 2.71 2.94 3.35 3.85 4.46 5.10 5.83 6.67 AEO 1986 1.73 1.96 2.29 2.54 2.81 3.15 3.73 4.34 5.06 5.90 6.79 7.70 8.62 9.68 10.80 AEO 1987 1.83 1.95 2.11 2.28 2.49 2.72 3.08 3.51 4.07 7.54 AEO 1989* 1.62 1.70 1.91 2.13 2.58 3.04 3.48 3.93 4.76 5.23 5.80 6.43 6.98 AEO 1990 1.78 1.88 2.93 5.36 9.2 AEO 1991 1.77 1.90 2.11 2.30 2.42 2.51 2.60 2.74 2.91 3.29 3.75 4.31 5.07 5.77 6.45 7.29 8.09 8.94 9.62 10.27 AEO 1992 1.69 1.85 2.03 2.15 2.35 2.51 2.74 3.01 3.40 3.81 4.24 4.74 5.25 5.78 6.37 6.89 7.50 8.15 9.05 AEO 1993 1.85 1.94 2.09 2.30

40

Table 16. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 88.0 89.5 90.7 91.7 92.7 93.6 94.6 95.7 96.7 97.7 98.9 100.0 100.8 101.7 102.7 103.6 104.3 105.2 AEO 1995 89.2 90.0 90.6 91.9 93.0 93.8 94.6 95.3 96.2 97.2 98.4 99.4 100.3 101.2 102.1 102.9 103.9 AEO 1996 90.6 91.3 92.5 93.5 94.3 95.1 95.9 96.9 98.0 99.2 100.4 101.4 102.1 103.1 103.8 104.7 105.5 AEO 1997 92.6 93.6 95.1 96.6 97.9 98.8 99.9 101.2 102.4 103.4 104.7 105.8 106.6 107.2 107.9 108.6 AEO 1998 94.7 96.7 98.6 99.8 101.3 102.4 103.4 104.5 105.8 107.3 108.6 109.9 111.1 112.2 113.1 AEO 1999 94.6 97.0 99.2 100.9 102.0 102.8 103.6 104.7 106.0 107.2 108.5 109.7 110.8 111.8

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41

Table 9. Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual Natural Gas Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (trillion cubic feet) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 17.71 17.68 17.84 18.12 18.25 18.43 18.58 18.93 19.28 19.51 19.80 19.92 20.13 20.18 20.38 20.35 20.16 20.19 AEO 1995 18.28 17.98 17.92 18.21 18.63 18.92 19.08 19.20 19.36 19.52 19.75 19.94 20.17 20.28 20.60 20.59 20.88 AEO 1996 18.90 19.15 19.52 19.59 19.59 19.65 19.73 19.97 20.36 20.82 21.25 21.37 21.68 22.11 22.47 22.83 23.36 AEO 1997 19.10 19.70 20.17 20.32 20.54 20.77 21.26 21.90 22.31 22.66 22.93 23.38 23.68 23.99 24.25 24.65 AEO 1998 18.85 19.06 20.35 20.27 20.60 20.94 21.44 21.81 22.25 22.65 23.18 23.75 24.23 24.70 24.97 AEO 1999 18.80 19.13 19.28 19.82 20.23 20.77 21.05 21.57 21.98 22.47 22.85 23.26 23.77 24.15

42

Table 19. Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 25.4 25.9 26.3 26.7 27.0 27.1 26.8 26.6 26.9 27.2 27.7 28.1 28.3 28.7 29.1 29.4 29.7 30.0 AEO 1995 26.2 26.3 26.5 27.0 27.3 26.9 26.6 26.8 27.1 27.5 27.9 28.2 28.4 28.7 29.0 29.3 29.6 AEO 1996 26.5 26.6 27.3 27.5 26.9 26.5 26.7 26.9 27.2 27.6 27.9 28.2 28.3 28.5 28.7 28.9 29.2 AEO 1997 26.2 26.5 26.9 26.7 26.6 26.8 27.1 27.4 27.8 28.0 28.4 28.7 28.9 29.0 29.2 29.4 AEO 1998 27.2 27.5 27.2 26.9 27.1 27.5 27.7 27.9 28.3 28.7 29.0 29.3 29.7 29.9 30.1 AEO 1999 26.7 26.4 26.4 26.8 27.1 27.3 27.5 27.9 28.3 28.6 28.9 29.2 29.5 29.7 AEO 2000 25.8 25.5 25.7 26.0 26.5 26.9 27.4 27.8 28.1 28.3 28.5 28.8 29.0

43

Table 18. Total Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.2 AEO 1983 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.1 10.0 AEO 1984 9.9 9.9 10.0 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.5 AEO 1985 9.8 10.0 10.1 10.3 10.6 10.6 10.9 AEO 1986 9.6 9.8 10.0 10.3 10.4 10.8 10.9 AEO 1987 9.9 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.6 AEO 1989* 10.3 10.5 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 AEO 1990 10.4 10.7 10.8 11.0 11.3 AEO 1991 10.2 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.9 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.4 11.5 11.6 AEO 1992 10.6 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.8 11.9 12.0 AEO 1993 10.7 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.4 11.5 AEO 1994 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.4

44

Table 6. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual (million barrels per day) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 8.79 8.85 8.84 8.80 8.66 8.21 AEO 1983 8.67 8.71 8.66 8.72 8.80 8.63 8.11 AEO 1984 8.86 8.70 8.59 8.45 8.28 8.25 7.19 AEO 1985 8.92 8.96 9.01 8.78 8.38 8.05 7.64 7.27 6.89 6.68 6.53 AEO 1986 8.80 8.63 8.30 7.90 7.43 6.95 6.60 6.36 6.20 5.99 5.80 5.66 5.54 5.45 5.43 AEO 1987 8.31 8.18 8.00 7.63 7.34 7.09 6.86 6.64 6.54 6.03 AEO 1989* 8.18 7.97 7.64 7.25 6.87 6.59 6.37 6.17 6.05 6.00 5.94 5.90 5.89 AEO 1990 7.67 7.37 6.40 5.86 5.35 AEO 1991 7.23 6.98 7.10 7.11 7.01 6.79 6.48 6.22 5.92 5.64 5.36 5.11 4.90 4.73 4.62 4.59 4.58 4.53 4.46 4.42 AEO 1992 7.37 7.17 6.99 6.89 6.68 6.45 6.28 6.16 6.06 5.91 5.79 5.71 5.66 5.64 5.62 5.63 5.62 5.55 5.52 AEO 1993 7.20 6.94 6.79 6.52 6.22 6.00 5.84 5.72

45

Table 17. Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Delivered Residential Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.6 10.6 AEO 1995 11.0 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 AEO 1996 10.4 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 AEO 1997 11.1 10.9 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12.0 AEO 1998 10.7 11.1 11.2 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.9 12.1 12.1 12.2 12.3 AEO 1999 10.5 11.1 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.6 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12.0 12.1 AEO 2000 10.7 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12.0

46

Table 2. Real Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Real Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual Real Gross Domestic Product, Projected vs. Actual Projected Real GDP Growth Trend (cumulative average percent growth in projected real GDP from first year shown for each AEO) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 3.1% 3.2% 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% AEO 1995 3.7% 2.8% 2.5% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% AEO 1996 2.6% 2.2% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 1.6% AEO 1997 2.1% 1.9% 2.0% 2.2% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.2% 2.1% 2.1% 1.5% AEO 1998 3.4% 2.9% 2.6% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% 1.8% AEO 1999 3.4% 2.5% 2.5% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 2.4% 1.8% AEO 2000 3.8% 2.9% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.5%

47

Table 7. Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Petroleum Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual (million barrels per day) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 7.58 7.45 7.12 6.82 6.66 7.09 AEO 1983 5.15 5.44 5.73 5.79 5.72 5.95 6.96 AEO 1984 4.85 5.11 5.53 5.95 6.31 6.59 8.65 AEO 1985 4.17 4.38 4.73 4.93 5.36 5.72 6.23 6.66 7.14 7.39 7.74 AEO 1986 5.15 5.38 5.46 5.92 6.46 7.09 7.50 7.78 7.96 8.20 8.47 8.74 9.04 9.57 9.76 AEO 1987 5.81 6.04 6.81 7.28 7.82 8.34 8.71 8.94 8.98 10.01 AEO 1989* 6.28 6.84 7.49 7.96 8.53 8.83 9.04 9.28 9.60 9.64 9.75 10.02 10.20 AEO 1990 7.20 7.61 9.13 9.95 11.02 AEO 1991 7.28 7.25 7.34 7.48 7.72 8.10 8.57 9.09 9.61 10.07 10.51 11.00 11.44 11.72 11.86 12.11 12.30 12.49 12.71 12.91 AEO 1992 6.86 7.42 7.88 8.16 8.55 8.80 9.06 9.32 9.50 9.80 10.17 10.35 10.56 10.61 10.85 11.00 11.15 11.29 11.50 AEO 1993 7.25 8.01 8.49 9.06

48

Table 7b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual b. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars per thousand cubic feet) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 1.98 2.12 2.27 2.41 2.59 2.73 2.85 2.98 3.14 3.35 3.59 3.85 4.18 4.51 4.92 5.29 5.56 5.96 AEO 1995 1.89 2.00 1.95 2.06 2.15 2.40 2.57 2.90 3.16 3.56 3.87 4.27 4.56 4.85 5.16 5.41 5.66 AEO 1996 1.63 1.74 1.86 1.99 2.10 2.19 2.29 2.38 2.48 2.59 2.72 2.84 2.97 3.12 3.29 3.49 3.73 AEO 1997 2.03 1.82 1.90 1.99 2.06 2.13 2.21 2.32 2.43 2.54 2.65 2.77 2.88 3.00 3.11 3.24 AEO 1998 2.30 2.20 2.26 2.31 2.38 2.44 2.52 2.60 2.69 2.79 2.93 3.06 3.20 3.35 3.48 AEO 1999 1.98 2.15 2.20 2.32 2.43 2.53 2.63 2.76 2.90 3.02 3.12 3.23 3.35 3.47

49

Table 20. Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 23.6 24.1 24.5 24.7 25.1 25.4 25.7 26.2 26.5 26.9 27.2 27.6 27.9 28.3 28.6 28.9 29.2 29.5 AEO 1995 23.3 24.0 24.2 24.7 25.1 25.5 25.9 26.2 26.5 26.9 27.3 27.7 28.0 28.3 28.5 28.7 28.9 AEO 1996 23.9 24.1 24.5 24.8 25.3 25.7 26.0 26.4 26.7 27.1 27.5 27.8 28.1 28.4 28.6 28.9 29.1 AEO 1997 24.7 25.3 25.9 26.4 27.0 27.5 28.0 28.5 28.9 29.4 29.8 30.3 30.6 30.9 31.1 31.3 AEO 1998 25.3 25.9 26.7 27.1 27.7 28.3 28.8 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.2 31.7 32.3 32.8 33.1 AEO 1999 25.4 26.0 27.0 27.6 28.2 28.8 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.2 31.7 32.2 32.8 33.1 AEO 2000 26.2 26.8 27.4 28.0 28.5 29.1 29.7 30.3 30.9 31.4 31.9 32.5 32.9

50

Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu / real GDP in billion 2005 chained dollars) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 11.2 11.1 11.0 10.8 10.7 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 AEO 1995 10.9 10.8 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.1 9.0 AEO 1996 10.7 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1997 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1998 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 AEO 1999 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.5 AEO 2000 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 AEO 2001 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.1 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.4

51

Table 15. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual (nominal cents per kilowatt-hour) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 6.38 6.96 7.63 8.23 8.83 9.49 AEO 1983 6.85 7.28 7.74 8.22 8.68 9.18 13.12 AEO 1984 6.67 7.05 7.48 7.89 8.25 8.65 11.53 AEO 1985 6.62 6.94 7.32 7.63 7.89 8.15 8.46 8.85 9.20 9.61 10.04 AEO 1986 6.67 6.88 7.05 7.18 7.35 7.52 7.65 7.87 8.31 8.83 9.41 10.01 10.61 11.33 12.02 AEO 1987 6.63 6.65 6.92 7.12 7.38 7.62 7.94 8.36 8.86 11.99 AEO 1989* 6.50 6.75 7.14 7.48 7.82 8.11 8.50 8.91 9.39 9.91 10.49 11.05 11.61 AEO 1990 6.49 6.72 8.40 10.99 14.5 AEO 1991 6.94 7.31 7.59 7.82 8.18 8.38 8.54 8.73 8.99 9.38 9.83 10.29 10.83 11.36 11.94 12.58 13.21 13.88 14.58 15.21 AEO 1992 6.97 7.16 7.32 7.56 7.78 8.04 8.29 8.57 8.93 9.38 9.82 10.26 10.73 11.25 11.83 12.37 12.96 13.58 14.23 AEO 1993

52

Table 11. Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual Natural Gas Net Imports, Projected vs. Actual (trillion cubic feet) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 1.19 1.19 1.19 1.19 1.19 1.19 AEO 1983 1.08 1.16 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23 AEO 1984 0.99 1.05 1.16 1.27 1.43 1.57 2.11 AEO 1985 0.94 1.00 1.19 1.45 1.58 1.86 1.94 2.06 2.17 2.32 2.44 AEO 1986 0.74 0.88 0.62 1.03 1.05 1.27 1.39 1.47 1.66 1.79 1.96 2.17 2.38 2.42 2.43 AEO 1987 0.84 0.89 1.07 1.16 1.26 1.36 1.46 1.65 1.75 2.50 AEO 1989* 1.15 1.32 1.44 1.52 1.61 1.70 1.79 1.87 1.98 2.06 2.15 2.23 2.31 AEO 1990 1.26 1.43 2.07 2.68 2.95 AEO 1991 1.36 1.53 1.70 1.82 2.11 2.30 2.33 2.36 2.42 2.49 2.56 2.70 2.75 2.83 2.90 2.95 3.02 3.09 3.17 3.19 AEO 1992 1.48 1.62 1.88 2.08 2.25 2.41 2.56 2.68 2.70 2.72 2.76 2.84 2.92 3.05 3.10 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.30 AEO 1993 1.79 2.08 2.35 2.49 2.61 2.74 2.89 2.95 3.00 3.05 3.10

53

Table 8. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Total Natural Gas Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (trillion cubic feet) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 19.87 20.21 20.64 20.99 21.20 21.42 21.60 21.99 22.37 22.63 22.95 23.22 23.58 23.82 24.09 24.13 24.02 24.14 AEO 1995 20.82 20.66 20.85 21.21 21.65 21.95 22.12 22.25 22.43 22.62 22.87 23.08 23.36 23.61 24.08 24.23 24.59 AEO 1996 21.32 21.64 22.11 22.21 22.26 22.34 22.46 22.74 23.14 23.63 24.08 24.25 24.63 25.11 25.56 26.00 26.63 AEO 1997 22.15 22.75 23.24 23.64 23.86 24.13 24.65 25.34 25.82 26.22 26.52 27.00 27.35 27.70 28.01 28.47 AEO 1998 21.84 23.03 23.84 24.08 24.44 24.81 25.33 25.72 26.22 26.65 27.22 27.84 28.35 28.84 29.17 AEO 1999 21.35 22.36 22.54 23.18 23.65 24.17 24.57 25.19 25.77 26.41 26.92 27.42 28.02 28.50

54

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual results satellitenexperiment Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The actual case here corresponds to the minor windows (U0.5) case in Table 6. Table A1: Load and energy... .96) 6343.77 (3316.14) 933.65 (901.44) Major windows (Actual) Diff. - -...

55

Table 19. Total Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual (quadrillion Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.9 AEO 1983 6.4 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 AEO 1984 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.3 AEO 1985 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.7 AEO 1986 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.5 7.1 7.4 AEO 1987 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.3 AEO 1989* 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 AEO 1990 6.6 6.8 7.1 7.4 7.8 AEO 1991 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.6 8.7 AEO 1992 6.8 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 AEO 1993 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.2 AEO 1994 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 AEO 1995 6.94 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 AEO 1996 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0

56

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales relacionadas con Sample Search...  

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for: actuales relacionadas con Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Departamento de Fsica (EPS) Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Summary: fsica relacionada con la implosin de los...

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales clasificaciones del Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 30 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

58

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales del sector Sample Search Results  

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Collection: Engineering 60 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

59

Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seven homes from the Pacific Northwest were selected to evaluate the differences between estimated and actual energy savings achieved from deep energy retrofits. The energy savings resulting from these retrofits were estimated, using energy modeling software, to save at least 30% on a whole-house basis. The modeled pre-retrofit energy use was trued against monthly utility bills. After the retrofits were completed, each of the homes was extensively monitored, with the exception of one home which was monitored pre-retrofit. This work is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. This work found many discrepancies between actual and estimated energy savings and identified the potential causes for the discrepancies. The differences between actual energy use and modeled energy use also suggest improvements to improve model accuracy. The difference between monthly whole-house actual and estimated energy savings ranged from 75% more energy saved than predicted by the model to 16% less energy saved for all the monitored homes. Similarly, the annual energy savings difference was between 36% and -14%, which was estimated based on existing monitored savings because an entire year of data is not available. Thus, on average, for all six monitored homes the actual energy use is consistently less than estimates, indicating home owners are saving more energy than estimated. The average estimated savings for the eight month monitoring period is 43%, compared to an estimated savings average of 31%. Though this average difference is only 12%, the range of inaccuracies found for specific end-uses is far greater and are the values used to directly estimate energy savings from specific retrofits. Specifically, the monthly post-retrofit energy use differences for specific end-uses (i.e., heating, cooling, hot water, appliances, etc.) ranged from 131% under-predicted to 77% over-predicted by the model with respect to monitored energy use. Many of the discrepancies were associated with occupant behavior which influences energy use, dramatically in some cases, actual versus modeled weather differences, modeling input limitations, and complex homes that are difficult to model. The discrepancy between actual and estimated energy use indicates a need for better modeling tools and assumptions. Despite the best efforts of researchers, the estimated energy savings are too inaccurate to determine reliable paybacks for retrofit projects. While the monitored data allows researchers to understand why these differences exist, it is not cost effective to monitor each home with the level of detail presented here. Therefore an appropriate balance between modeling and monitoring must be determined for more widespread application in retrofit programs and the home performance industry. Recommendations to address these deficiencies include: (1) improved tuning process for pre-retrofit energy use, which currently utilized broad-based monthly utility bills; (2) developing simple occupant-based energy models that better address the many different occupant types and their impact on energy use; (3) incorporating actual weather inputs to increase accuracy of the tuning process, which uses utility bills from specific time period; and (4) developing simple, cost-effective monitoring solutions for improved model tuning.

Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and 2009 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC",...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and 2007 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC",...

62

,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and 2007 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid",,,," " ,"Projected Year...

63

,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and 2008 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid",,,," " ,"Projected Year...

64

,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and 2003 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year...

65

,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and 2009 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid",,,," " ,"Projected Year...

66

,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year...

67

,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and 2004 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year...

68

A Measurement Method of Actual Thermal Performance of Detached Houses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of residential houses based on field measurement (In Japanese), AIJ Report on Environmental engineering Vol.3, 1981 2) Martin Sandberg, J?rgen Eriksson: Commissioning of residential buildings in Sweden, IEA ECBCS Annex40 meetings held in Quebec, 2001/9, Doc...

Iwamae, A.; Nagai, H.; Miura, H.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

XAFS Study of Phase-Change Recording Material Using Actual Media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of the interface layer to the local structure for atomic arrangement of a GeBiTe phase-change material was investigated by using XAFS on the actual rewritable HD DVD...

Nakai, Tsukasa; Yoshiki, Masahiko; Satoh, Yasuhiro

70

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del ultrasonido Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: : evolucin histrica y situacin actual. 8 l) Evaluacin de la capacidad de carga del Parque para los... Proyectos A lo largo del ao 2010 han estado vigentes 85...

71

E-Print Network 3.0 - anciano consideraciones actuales Sample...  

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mitigacin de los efectos del cambio climtico y con... polticas De proseguir las emisiones de GEI a una tasa igual o superior a la actual, el calentamiento Source: Binette,...

72

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual terrestrial rabies Sample Search...  

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and Information Sciences 56 innovati nNREL Advances a Unique Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Summary: actually begins at another of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)...

73

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del huemul Sample Search Results  

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and Information Sciences 88 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

74

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del franciscanismo Sample Search...  

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and Information Sciences 75 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

75

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del control Sample Search Results  

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and Information Sciences 30 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

76

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del tabaquismo Sample Search Results  

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and Information Sciences 91 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

77

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del no-acceso Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Information Sciences 73 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

78

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del rabdomiosarcoma Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Information Sciences 74 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

79

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del estreptococo Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Information Sciences 80 MTODO DE CENSO Y ESTIMA DE POBLACIN DEL PINZN AZUL DE GRAN CANARIA Summary: distribucin actual de la especie en Inagua, Ojeda y Pajonales. El...

80

A Sensitivity Study of Building Performance Using 30-Year Actual Weather  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sensitivity Study of Building Performance Using 30-Year Actual Weather Sensitivity Study of Building Performance Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data Title A Sensitivity Study of Building Performance Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data Publication Type Conference Paper Year of Publication 2013 Authors Hong, Tianzhen, Wen-Kuei Chang, and Hung-Wen Lin Date Published 05/2013 Keywords Actual meteorological year, Building simulation, Energy use, Peak electricity demand, Typical meteorological year, Weather data Abstract Traditional energy performance calculated using building simulation with the typical meteorological year (TMY) weather data represents the energy performance in a typical year but not necessarily the average or typical energy performance of a building in long term. Furthermore, the simulated results do not provide the range of variations due to the change of weather, which is important in building energy management and risk assessment of energy efficiency investment. This study analyzes the weather impact on peak electric demand and energy use by building simulation using 30-year actual meteorological year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels across all 17 climate zones. The simulated results from the AMY are compared to those from TMY3 to determine and analyze the differences. It was found that yearly weather variation has significant impact on building performance especially peak electric demand. Energy savings of building technologies should be evaluated using simulations with multi-decade actual weather data to fully consider investment risk and the long term performance.

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81

Gasoline direct injection: Actual trends and future strategies for injection and combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments have raised increased interest on the concept of gasoline direct injection as the most promising future strategy for fuel economy improvement of SI engines. The general requirements for mixture preparation and combustion systems in a GDI engine are presented in view of known and actual systems regarding fuel economy and emission potential. The characteristics of the actually favored injection systems are discussed and guidelines for the development of appropriate combustion systems are derived. The differences between such mixture preparation strategies as air distributed fuel and fuel wall impingement are discussed, leading to the alternative approach to the problem of mixture preparation with the fully air distributing concept of direct mixture injection.

Fraidl, G.K.; Piock, W.F.; Wirth, M.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

A COGNITIVE-SYSTEMIC RECONSTRUCTION OF MASLOW'S THEORY OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A COGNITIVE-SYSTEMIC RECONSTRUCTION OF MASLOW'S THEORY OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION by Francis Heylighen1-order, cognitive-sys- temic framework. A hierarchy of basic needs is derived from the ur- gency of perturbations: material, cognitive and subjective. Material and/or cognitive incompetence during child- hood create

Toint, Philippe

83

SAMPLE GENERAL TERMS WHEN PURCHASING SERVICES* ACTUAL TERMS REQUIRED WILL BE DETERMINED BY CONTRACTS &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 SAMPLE GENERAL TERMS WHEN PURCHASING SERVICES* ACTUAL TERMS REQUIRED WILL BE DETERMINED Contracts and Procurement (x4532) if you have questions regarding purchasing services. 1. Independent Status in an independent capacity and not as officers or employees or agents of the State of California. While Contractor

de Lijser, Peter

84

Actual Versus Estimated Utility Factor of a Large Set of Privately Owned Chevrolet Volts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculation of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.

John Smart; Thomas Bradley; Stephen Schey

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

"Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million metric tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",5060,5129.666667,5184.666667,5239.666667,5287.333333,5335,5379,5437.666667,5481.666667,5529.333333,5599,5657.666667,5694.333333,5738.333333,5797,5874,5925.333333,5984 "AEO 1995",,5137,5173.666667,5188.333333,5261.666667,5309.333333,5360.666667,5393.666667,5441.333333,5489,5551.333333,5621,5679.666667,5727.333333,5775,5841,5888.666667,5943.666667 "AEO 1996",,,5181.817301,5223.645142,5294.776326,5354.687297,5416.802205,5463.67395,5525.288005,5588.52771,5660.226888,5734.87972,5812.398031,5879.320068,5924.814575,5981.291626,6029.640422,6086.804077,6142.120972

86

BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

87

The Multiple Peril Crop Insurance Actual Production History (APH) Insurance Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economics, Professor and Extension Economist? Management, The Texas A&M System; and Extension Agricultural Economist, Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture?s (USDA) Risk..., levels of coverage, price elections, applicable premium rates and subsidy amounts. The special provisions list program calendar dates and contain general and special statements that may further define, limit or modify coverage. MPCI?s Actual...

Stokes, Kenneth; Barnaby, G. A. Art; Waller, Mark L.; Outlaw, Joe

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

.A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

89

Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC`s Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ``proof-of-principle`` demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings.

Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

90

Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations ({+-}10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample.

Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

91

¿Era el actual superávit de neurocirujanos previsible en 2009? Análisis de la situación sobre la base de los datos del Informe de oferta y necesidad de especialistas médicos en España (2008-2025)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ResumenIntroducción En el año 2009 el Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (MSC), en el Informe de oferta y necesidad de especialistas médicos en España (2008-2025), categorizó el escenario de nuestra especialidad como de déficit moderado de especialistas. Sin embargo, la neurocirugía española vive actualmente una situación caracterizada por un excedente de neurocirujanos. Objetivos Determinar si, tras el informe del MSC, era posible en el año 2009 prever el exceso actual de neurocirujanos, así como cuál será la proyección más probable de oferta y demanda en el año 2017. Material y métodos A partir de los datos crudos extraídos del informe del MSC, del estudio sobre la edad de los neurocirujanos españoles realizado por la Junta Directiva de la SENEC en 2001 y de las tasas de mortalidad anual para los distintos rangos de edad ofrecidas por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, realizamos una predicción de la evolución de la oferta y la demanda de neurocirujanos para los periodos 2008-2012 y 2013-2017. Resultados La situación actual de exceso de especialistas era previsible en 2009 y, de no tomarse las medidas oportunas, en el año 2017 probablemente existirá un superávit de más de 100 neurocirujanos en nuestro país, pudiendo alcanzarse una tasa de paro superior al 26% en el peor escenario. Conclusiones Es necesario y urgente limitar la oferta de plazas de residencia de neurocirugía y adecuarlas a la demanda real de especialistas existente. Para ello resulta imprescindible recabar información estructural actualizada y periódica de los distintos Servicios y Unidades de Neurocirugía, así como revisar las condiciones de acreditación de las más de 50 unidades docentes existentes en nuestro país. Introduction In 2009 the Spanish Ministry of Health (SMH) published the report of supply and demand of medical specialists in Spain (2008-2025), in which our specialty was considered as presenting a moderate deficit of consultants. However, Spanish neurosurgery is currently in a situation of having a surplus of neurosurgeons. Objectives To determine whether it was possible to predict the current excess of neurosurgeons in 2009 and to forecast the most likely perspective of supply and demand in 2017. Material and methods Raw data extracted from the SMH report, information on the ages of the Spanish neurosurgeons obtained from the study performed by our Board of Directors in 2001, and annual mortality rates for different age ranges provided by the National Institute of Statistics, were used to predict the evolution of supply and demand of neurosurgeons for the periods 2008-2012 and 2013-2017. Results The current situation of an excess of specialists was predictable in 2009, and if appropriate measures are not taken, a surplus of more than 100 neurosurgeons is likely in 2017, with an unemployment rate above 26% in the worst scenario. Conclusions In order to match the actual and future demand of specialists, it is necessary and urgent to reduce the number of neurosurgical in-training positions. To achieve this goal, it is essential to obtain periodical and up-to-date structural information of the different Neurosurgery Departments and Units, and to revisit the accreditation terms of the more than fifty current teaching units.

Rubén Martín-Láez; Javier Ibáñez; Alfonso Lagares; José Fernández-Alén; Ramiro Díez-Lobato

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

ACTUAL WASTE TESTING OF GYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE SRS TANK FARM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glycolic acid is being studied as a replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste Tank Farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the Tank Farm were addressed via a literature review and simulant testing, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the actual-waste tests to determine the impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The objectives of this study are to address the following: ? Determine the extent to which sludge constituents (Pu, U, Fe, etc.) dissolve (the solubility of sludge constituents) in the glycolate-containing 2H-evaporator feed. ? Determine the impact of glycolate on the sorption of fissile (Pu, U, etc.) components onto sodium aluminosilicate solids. The first objective was accomplished through actual-waste testing using Tank 43H and 38H supernatant and Tank 51H sludge at Tank Farm storage conditions. The second objective was accomplished by contacting actual 2H-evaporator scale with the products from the testing for the first objective. There is no anticipated impact of up to 10 g/L of glycolate in DWPF recycle to the Tank Farm on tank waste component solubilities as investigated in this test. Most components were not influenced by glycolate during solubility tests, including major components such as aluminum, sodium, and most salt anions. There was potentially a slight increase in soluble iron with added glycolate, but the soluble iron concentration remained so low (on the order of 10 mg/L) as to not impact the iron to fissile ratio in sludge. Uranium and plutonium appear to have been supersaturated in 2H-evaporator feed solution mixture used for this testing. As a result, there was a reduction of soluble uranium and plutonium as a function of time. The change in soluble uranium concentration was independent of added glycolate concentration. The change in soluble plutonium content was dependent on the added glycolate concentration, with higher levels of glycolate (5 g/L and 10 g/L) appearing to suppress the plutonium solubility. The inclusion of glycolate did not change the dissolution of or sorption onto actual-waste 2H-evaporator pot scale to an extent that will impact Tank Farm storage and concentration. The effects that were noted involved dissolution of components from evaporator scale and precipitation of components onto evaporator scale that were independent of the level of added glycolate.

Martino, C.

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

93

Table 3b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars per barrel) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 17.06 17.21 18.24 19.43 20.64 22.12 23.76 25.52 27.51 29.67 31.86 34.00 36.05 38.36 40.78 43.29 45.88 48.37 AEO 1995 15.24 17.27 18.23 19.26 20.39 21.59 22.97 24.33 25.79 27.27 28.82 30.38 32.14 33.89 35.85 37.97 40.28 AEO 1996 17.16 17.74 18.59 19.72 20.97 22.34 23.81 25.26 26.72 28.22 29.87 31.51 33.13 34.82 36.61 38.48 40.48

94

Table 11a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual a. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per million Btu in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 1992 1.47 1.48 1.53 1.57 1.58 1.57 1.61 1.63 1.68 1.69 1.70 1.72 1.70 1.76 1.79 1.81 1.88 1.92 AEO 1995 1993 1.39 1.39 1.38 1.40 1.40 1.39 1.39 1.42 1.41 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.47 1.50 AEO 1996 1994 1.32 1.29 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.26 1.25 1.27 1.27 1.27 1.28 1.27 1.28 1.27 1.28 1.26 1.28

95

Table 11b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual" b. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per million Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",1.502753725,1.549729719,1.64272351,1.727259934,1.784039735,1.822135762,1.923203642,2.00781457,2.134768212,2.217425497,2.303725166,2.407715232,2.46134106,2.637086093,2.775389073,2.902293046,3.120364238,3.298013245 "AEO 1995",,1.4212343,1.462640338,1.488780998,1.545300242,1.585877053,1.619428341,1.668671498,1.7584219,1.803937198,1.890547504,1.968695652,2.048913043,2.134750403,2.205281804,2.281690821,2.375434783,2.504830918 "AEO 1996",,,1.346101641,1.350594221,1.369020126,1.391737646,1.421340737,1.458772082,1.496497523,1.561369914,1.619940033,1.674758358,1.749420803,1.800709877,1.871110564,1.924495246,2.006850327,2.048938234,2.156821499

96

"Table 20. Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Delivered Transportation Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",23.62,24.08,24.45,24.72,25.06,25.38,25.74,26.16,26.49,26.85,27.23,27.55,27.91,28.26,28.61,28.92,29.18,29.5 "AEO 1995",,23.26,24.01,24.18,24.69,25.11,25.5,25.86,26.15,26.5,26.88,27.28,27.66,27.99,28.25,28.51,28.72,28.94 "AEO 1996",,,23.89674759,24.08507919,24.47502899,24.84881783,25.25887871,25.65527534,26.040205,26.38586426,26.72540092,27.0748024,27.47158241,27.80837631,28.11616135,28.3992157,28.62907982,28.85912895,29.09081459 "AEO 1997",,,,24.68686867,25.34906006,25.87225533,26.437994,27.03513145,27.52499771,27.96490097,28.45482063,28.92999458,29.38239861,29.84147453,30.26097488,30.59760475,30.85550499,31.10873222,31.31938744

97

"Table 19. Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Delivered Industrial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",25.43,25.904,26.303,26.659,26.974,27.062,26.755,26.598,26.908,27.228,27.668,28.068,28.348,28.668,29.068,29.398,29.688,30.008 "AEO 1995",,26.164,26.293,26.499,27.044,27.252,26.855,26.578,26.798,27.098,27.458,27.878,28.158,28.448,28.728,29.038,29.298,29.608 "AEO 1996",,,26.54702756,26.62236823,27.31312376,27.47668697,26.90313339,26.47577946,26.67685979,26.928811,27.23795407,27.58448499,27.91057103,28.15050595,28.30145734,28.518,28.73702901,28.93001263,29.15872662 "AEO 1997",,,,26.21291769,26.45981795,26.88483478,26.67847443,26.55107968,26.78246968,27.07367604,27.44749539,27.75711339,28.02446072,28.39156621,28.69999783,28.87316602,29.01207631,29.19475644,29.37683575

98

File:Theoretical vs Actual Data Lesson Plan .pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

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99

Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per barrel in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1994 1992 16.69 16.43 16.99 17.66 18.28 19.06 19.89 20.72 21.65 22.61 23.51 24.29 24.90 25.60 26.30 27.00 27.64 28.16 AEO 1995 1993 14.90 16.41 16.90 17.45 18.00 18.53 19.13 19.65 20.16 20.63 21.08 21.50 21.98 22.44 22.94 23.50 24.12 AEO 1996 1994 16.81 16.98 17.37 17.98 18.61 19.27 19.92 20.47 20.97 21.41 21.86 22.25 22.61 22.97 23.34 23.70 24.08

100

Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

"Table 18. Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" Total Delivered Commercial Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",6.82,6.87,6.94,7,7.06,7.13,7.16,7.22,7.27,7.32,7.36,7.38,7.41,7.45,7.47,7.5,7.51,7.55 "AEO 1995",,6.94,6.9,6.95,6.99,7.02,7.05,7.08,7.09,7.11,7.13,7.15,7.17,7.19,7.22,7.26,7.3,7.34 "AEO 1996",,,7.059859276,7.17492485,7.228339195,7.28186655,7.336973667,7.387932777,7.442782879,7.501244545,7.561584473,7.623688221,7.684037209,7.749266148,7.815915108,7.884147644,7.950204372,8.016282082,8.085801125 "AEO 1997",,,,7.401538849,7.353548527,7.420701504,7.48336792,7.540113449,7.603093624,7.663851738,7.723834991,7.783358574,7.838726044,7.89124918,7.947964668,8.008976936,8.067288399,8.130317688,8.197405815

103

Predicted and actual productions of horizontal wells in heavy-oil fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the comparison of predicted and actual cumulative and daily oil production. The predicted results were obtained from the use of Joshi's equation, wherein, the effects of anisotropy and eccentricity were included. The cumulative production obtained from the use of equations developed by Borisov, Giger, Renard and Dupuy resulted in errors in excess of 100%, thus, they were not considered applicable for predicting cumulative and daily flows of heavy oils in horizontal wells. The wells considered in this analysis varied from 537 to 1201 metres with corresponding well bores of 0.089 to. 0.110 m. Using Joshi's equation, the predicted cumulative oil-production was within a 20% difference for up to 12 months of production for long wells and up to 24 months for short wells. Short wells were defined as those being under 1000 m.

Peter Catania

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Submitted to ApJ Letters, June 29, 2005 Are Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Novae Actually from Supernovae?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Submitted to ApJ Letters, June 29, 2005 Are Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Novae Actually stellar nucleosynthesis and mixing. The best-studied presolar phase, silicon carbide (SiC), exhibits

Nittler, Larry R.

105

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

Miyashita, Yasushi

106

Experimental evaluation of actual delivered dose using mega-voltage cone-beam CT and direct point dose measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation therapy in patients is planned by using computed tomography (CT) images acquired before start of the treatment course. Here, tumor shrinkage or weight loss or both, which are common during the treatment course for patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancer, causes unexpected differences from the plan, as well as dose uncertainty with the daily positional error of patients. For accurate clinical evaluation, it is essential to identify these anatomical changes and daily positional errors, as well as consequent dosimetric changes. To evaluate the actual delivered dose, the authors proposed direct dose measurement and dose calculation with mega-voltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT). The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate dose calculation by MVCBCT. Furthermore, actual delivered dose was evaluated directly with accurate phantom setup. Because MVCBCT has CT-number variation, even when the analyzed object has a uniform density, a specific and simple CT-number correction method was developed and applied for the H and N site of a RANDO phantom. Dose distributions were calculated with the corrected MVCBCT images of a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Treatment processes from planning to beam delivery were performed for the H and N site of the RANDO phantom. The image-guided radiation therapy procedure was utilized for the phantom setup to improve measurement reliability. The calculated dose in the RANDO phantom was compared to the measured dose obtained by metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. In the polymethyl methacrylate phantom, the calculated and measured doses agreed within about +3%. In the RANDO phantom, the dose difference was less than +5%. The calculated dose based on simulation-CT agreed with the measured dose within±3%, even in the region with a high dose gradient. The actual delivered dose was successfully determined by dose calculation with MVCBCT, and the point dose measurement with the image-guided radiation therapy procedure.

Matsubara, Kana, E-mail: matsubara-kana@hs.tmu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa-ku Tokyo (Japan); Kohno, Ryosuke [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba (Japan); Nishioka, Shie; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Saitoh, Hidetoshi [Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa-ku Tokyo (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Table 12. Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants, Projected vs. Actual (nominal dollars per million Btu) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 2.03 2.17 2.33 2.52 2.73 2.99 AEO 1983 1.99 2.10 2.24 2.39 2.57 2.76 4.29 AEO 1984 1.90 2.01 2.13 2.28 2.44 2.61 3.79 AEO 1985 1.68 1.76 1.86 1.95 2.05 2.19 2.32 2.49 2.66 2.83 3.03 AEO 1986 1.61 1.68 1.75 1.83 1.93 2.05 2.19 2.35 2.54 2.73 2.92 3.10 3.31 3.49 3.68 AEO 1987 1.52 1.55 1.65 1.75 1.84 1.96 2.11 2.27 2.44 3.55 AEO 1989* 1.50 1.51 1.68 1.77 1.88 2.00 2.13 2.26 2.40 2.55 2.70 2.86 3.00 AEO 1990 1.46 1.53 2.07 2.76 3.7 AEO 1991 1.51 1.58 1.66 1.77 1.88 1.96 2.06 2.16 2.28 2.41 2.57 2.70 2.85 3.04 3.26 3.46 3.65 3.87 4.08 4.33 AEO 1992 1.54 1.61 1.66 1.75 1.85 1.97 2.03 2.14 2.26 2.44 2.55 2.69 2.83 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.58 3.78 4.01 AEO 1993 1.92 1.54 1.61 1.70

108

Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

Smith, A.E. [DFI/Aeronomics Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Building Energy Report Card is used to compare the actual annual energy consumption of buildings to a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Building Energy Report Card is used to compare the actual annual energy consumption Thermal Unit (Btu). For convenience, this annual energy consumption is expressed as thousands of Btus (i of buildings to a State of Minnesota "target." This target represents the amount of energy that would

Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

111

General Project Sequence The following are typical steps on many projects. Actual required steps may vary from project to project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

General Project Sequence The following are typical steps on many projects. Actual required steps may vary from project to project depending upon the scope, complexity, and specific features. Time periods indicated will vary depending on the nature of the project and needs of the user group

Mather, Patrick T.

112

An experimental and computational leakage investigation of labyrinth seals with rub grooves of actual size and shape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to that of a modified convex wall geometry. The test facility is a 33 times enlargement of the actual seal. The pressure drop leakage rate and flow visualization digital images for the standard geometry seal were measured at various Reynolds numbers...

Ambrosia, Matthew Stanley

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Actual Crimes Reported For: Offense Type (includes attempts) 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 0 0 0 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Drug Law Violations Arrest 0 3 4 0 1 0 0 4 4 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Liquor Law Violations Arrest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OSU-Tulsa Campus Crime Statistics Act. Number of Arrests/Referrals for Select Offenses #12;Actual Crimes Reported For

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

114

Production-ecological modelling explains the difference between potential soil N mineralisation and actual herbage N uptake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We studied two different grassland fertiliser management regimes on sand and peat soils: above-ground application of a combination of organic N-rich slurry manure and solid cattle manure (SCM) vs. slit-injected, mineral N-rich slurry manure, whether or not supplemented with chemical fertiliser (non-SCM). Measurements of field N mineralisation as estimated from herbage N uptake in unfertilised plots were compared with (i) potential N mineralisation as determined from a standard laboratory soil incubation, (ii) the contribution of groups of soil organisms to N mineralisation based on production-ecological model calculations, and (iii) N mineralisation calculated according to the Dutch fertilisation recommendation for grasslands. Density and biomass of soil biota (bacteria, fungi, enchytraeids, microarthropods and earthworms) as well as net plant N-uptake were higher in the SCM input grasslands compared to the non-SCM input grasslands. The currently used method in Dutch fertilisation recommendations underestimated actual soil N supply capacity by, on average, 102 kg N ha?1 (202 vs. 304 kg ha?1 = 34%). The summed production-ecological model estimate for N mineralisation by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and enchytraeids was 87–120% of the measured potential soil N mineralisation. Adding the modelled N mineralisation by earthworms to potential soil N mineralisation explained 98–107% of the measured herbage N uptake from soil. For all grasslands and soil biota groups together, the model estimated 105% of the measured net herbage N uptake from soil. Soil biota production-ecological modelling is a powerful tool to understand and predict N uptake in grassland, reflecting the effects of previous manure management and soil type. The results show that combining production ecological modelling to predict N supply with existing soil N tests using aerobic incubation methods, can add to a scientifically based improvement of the N fertilisation recommendations for production grasslands.

Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid; Ron G.M. de Goede; Lijbert Brussaard; Jaap Bloem; Egbert A. Lantinga

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Sugars Can Actually Be Good For Your Health (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Like peanut M&Ms, all cells are coated with sugars but the functions of these sugar coatings were a mystery until very recently. This presentation will highlight recent fascinating discoveries regarding why cells are coated with sugars, as well as new tools for cancer detection that take advantage of the cells sugar coating. Professor Bertozzis lab focuses on profiling changes in cell surface glycosylation associated with cancer, inflammation and bacterial infection, and exploiting this information for development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In addition, her group develops nanoscience-based technologies for probing cell function and for medical diagnostics.

Bertozzi, Carolyn

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

116

Why E-government Usage Lags Behind: Explaining the Gap Between Potential and Actual Usage of Electronic Public Services in the Netherlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the EU-15 countries illustrate a gap between potential usage and actual usage of electronic public services. Using a model ... the case of current Dutch electronic governmental service usage. Motivational...

Alexander van Deursen; Jan van Dijk; Wolfgang Ebbers

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Performance of high-velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed chromium carbide-nickel chromium coating in an actual boiler environment of a thermal power plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study aims to evaluate the performance of a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr (chromium carbide-nickel chromium) coating on a nickel-based super-alloy in an actual industrial environment of a coal-fired boiler, with the objective to protect the boiler super-heater and reheater tubes from hot corrosion. The tests were performed in the platen super heater zone of a coal-fired boiler for 1,000 h at 900 degrees C under cyclic conditions. The Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coating imparted the necessary protection to the nickel-based super alloy in the given environment. The dense and flat splat structure of the coating, and the formation of oxides of chromium and nickel and their spinels, might have protected the substrate super alloy from the inward permeation of corrosive species.

Sidhu, T.S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R.D. [Industrial Technology Institute, Roorkee (India)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

119

DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a result of the WAO reaction. (4) Off-gas composition was measured in the resulting gas phase from the reaction. Benzene and hydrogen were formed during the reaction, but they were reasonably low in the off-gas at 0.096 and 0.0063 vol% respectively. Considering the consistency in replicating similar test results with simulated waste and Tank 48H waste under similar test conditions, the results confirm the validity of the simulant for other WAO test conditions.

Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Software Engineering Model Schedule -(with CS 1131) example only; actual schedule may vary; see your academic dept. Includes 3 units of co-curricular activities.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Software Engineering Model Schedule - (with CS 1131) example only; actual schedule may vary; see FALL SPRING FALL SPRING CS 1000 1 CS 2321 3 CS 1141 2 CS 3141 3 CS 1131 5 MA 2160 4 CS 2311 3 CS 3421 4 Activity (1) Total 17 Total 15 Total 14-15 Total 16-17 3rd Year 4th Year FALL SPRING FALL SPRING CS 3311 3

122

Software Engineering Model Schedule -(Starting with CS 1121) example only; actual schedule may vary; see your academic dept. Includes 3 units of co-curricular activities.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Software Engineering Model Schedule - (Starting with CS 1121) example only; actual schedule may Year 2nd Year FALL SPRING FALL SPRING CS 1000 1 CS 1122 3 CS 1141 2 CS 2311 3 CS 1121 3 MA 2160 4 CS Cocurricular Activity (1) Total 15 Total 15 Total 14-15 Total 16-17 3rd Year 4th Year FALL SPRING FALL SPRING

123

Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

124

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165-174. Shipworth, M. ,and sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.timer/programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

Meier, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating Systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165- Shipworth,and Sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.Timer/Programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating Systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165- Shipworth,and Sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.Timer/Programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

Meier, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 8.233-238.244.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Diamond, R.

Meier, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 2, 91-100.Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 8.233-238.244.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Parker, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings https://Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings https://

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time The endPermian mass extinction: A rapid volcanic CO2 and CH4climatic catastrophe Uwe Brand a, , Renato

134

Economic evaluation of a residential photovoltaic system based on a probability model using actual meteorological data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To design a photovoltaic (PV) generation system economically, it is necessary to use date of the total insolation on a horizontal surface. However, such data is only the total daily values and does not represent the power variation caused by the cloud cover. This paper presents the probability method which represents not only the average but also the variance of the PV generation power, and shows simulated results using this methodology. This study's results indicate that the distribution of the PV power divided by the estimated value of the total insolation on a tilted surface is similar to a normal distribution and that a residential (privately-owned) system without storage, whose PV capacity is more than 2 kWp, has little effect upon the reduction of the energy of an average Japanese household.

Sutoh, T.; Suzuki, H.; Sekine, Y.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

CITY OF SANTA FE V. KOMIS REVISITED: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ACTUAL IMPACTS OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE SANTA FE BYPASS ON THE VALUE OF NEARBY REAL ESTATE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Santa Fe Bypass for transport of transuranic waste (TRU) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico has been constructed and is operational (as of 2000). This paper presents a review of actual empirical data from the sales of real estate in the Santa Fe City/County area since the filing of the City of Santa Fe v. Komis lawsuit in 1988. The data analyzed covers the time period from 1989 through the last quarter of 2001.

Bentz, Dr. E. J., Jr.,; Bentz, C. B.; O'Hora, T. D.; Baepler, Dr. D.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

137

Comparison of Planned Versus Actual Dose Delivered for External Beam Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Cone-Beam CT and Deformable Registration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess the adequacy of dose delivery to the clinical target volume (CTV) using external beam (EB) accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients treated with EB APBI underwent cone beam CT (CBCT) before each fraction and daily helical CT (HCT) scans to determine setup errors and calculate the dose per fraction. For 12 patients, an in-house image-intensity-based deformable registration program was used to register the HCTs to the planning CT and generate the cumulative dose. Treatment was 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. EB APBI constraints from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413 Phase III protocol were used. Results: The mean setup error per CBCT registration was 9 {+-} 5 mm. Dose-volume histogram analysis showed only one patient (8%) with a decrease in the CTV V90 (8% underdosage). All other patients demonstrated adequate target coverage. PTV{sub E}VAL V90 was on average 3% (range, 0%-16%) less than planned. For the ipsilateral breast, four patients had an increase in V50 ({<=}1% increase) and three patients had an increase in V100 ({<=}9% increase). Only one patient showed an increase >5%. Four patients had an increase in ipsilateral lung V30 (maximum 3%), and one had an increase in heart V5 (1%). Four patients had an increase in MaxDose (maximum 89 cGy). Conclusions: The current CTV-to-PTV margin of 10 mm appears sufficient for {approx}92% of patients treated with EB APBI. Although expansion of the population PTV margin to 14 mm would provide {approx}97% confidence level for CTV coverage, online image guidance should be considered.

Hasan, Yasmin; Kim, Leonard; Wloch, Jennifer; Chi, Y.; Liang, J.; Martinez, Alvaro; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank, E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system...

White, T. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Espasticidad muscular: situación actual y perspectivas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

La espasticidad muscular forma parte de las manifestaciones clínicas del síndrome piramidal. En el campo de las neurociencias, este trastorno constituye una buena introducción a la plasticidad neuronal (a través de los conceptos de plasticidad espinal, reorganización de redes funcionales [vicarianza o adaptación de la orden motora]) y a las estrategias de selección de las dianas neurofarmacológicas. A pesar de la gran incidencia de este trastorno, sobre todo en la enfermedad cerebrovascular, la dificultad clínica reside en la elección del objetivo terapéutico, en particular si es funcional. En este sentido, no hay una relación unívoca entre espasticidad y rendimiento motor o entre espasticidad y calidad de vida. Además, la valoración analítica y funcional de este trastorno todavía presenta numerosas deficiencias. Las perspectivas de investigación en esta área son, en consecuencia, muy amplias y están dirigidas a los tratamientos, de los cuales los más recientes son relativamente costosos, como la toxina botulínica y el baclofeno intratecal. Así, la tecnología aplicada, propuesta para la evaluación de los trastornos motores en algunas afecciones neurológicas crónicas como la enfermedad de Parkinson, tiene un elevado potencial de desarrollo en la espasticidad muscular y efecto sobre el resultado funcional en el entorno de la persona.

P. Le Cavorzin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Did Hospital Engagement Networks Actually Improve Care?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of evidence to assess the effect of the PfP. We agree with Pronovost and Jha that science should drive quality-improvement efforts, and we look forward to collaborating with them and others on improving the science while also driving rapid, large-scale improvements to benefit patients. To the Editor: The Partnership for Patients model test (PfP), discussed in a Perspective article by Pronovost and Jha (Aug. 21 issue),1 is a large-scale quality-improvement program designed to make hospital care safer, more reliable, and less costly by ...

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

CTES Temp staff employee actual salary + 34% 72202568058 Temp health employee actual salary + 36%  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Refrigeration Specialist $75/hr Security Specialist $75/hr Sheet Metal Worker $68/hr Sign Maker $68/hr RUSH foot of mail per week $65/mo Labor Rate $22/hour Peritem charge (FedEx, UPS, etc.) $1/transaction Discounted charge for up to 10 additional boxes $10 Delivery of palletized material $50 Delivery or pickup

Rose, Michael R.

142

9/18/09 2:44 PMThunderbolts Forum View topic -Dark Energy may not actually exist Page 1 of 12http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?p=25303&sid=87fbf6c3a5361ee50b143431ee0e553d  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?p=25303&sid=87fbf6c3a5361ee50b143431ee0e553d of 12http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?p=25303&sid=87fbf6c3a5361ee50b143431ee0e553 Forum · View topic - Dark Energy may not actually exist Page 3 of 12http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/php

Temple, Blake

143

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Axion physics in a Josephson junction environment Christian Beck Queen Mary University of London junction Axions SQUIDs a b s t r a c t We show that recent experiments based on Josephson junctions, SQUIDs experimental setups in which SQUID-like axionic interactions in a resonant Josephson junction environment can

Beck, Christian

144

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the static pressure in a predetermined range. A dynamic, penalty-based, electromagnetism-like algorithm has increased over the years. Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems use as much energy consumption in the United States [2]. The energy efficiency of HVAC systems is being considered

Kusiak, Andrew

145

Ecological Research Some ethical scenarios These research scenarios are based, at least in part, on actual experiments performed in the field.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the invasive species, Phragmites australis, that is becoming dominant in the dune slack. Two other populations are left with Phragmites still present. You also study two additional populations of Sabatia, which

Gotelli, Nicholas J.

146

Predicted vs. Actual Energy Savings of Retrofitted House  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-physical properties of the envelope and the changes in schedules and number of users. In order to account for those differences, electrical consumption attributed to A/C in summer was isolated and compared. The study followed the International Performance Measurement...

Al-Mofeez, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Actual and Counterfactual Attitudes: Reply to Brueckner and Fischer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a recent article, I criticized Anthony L. Brueckner and John Martin Fischer’s influential argument— ... and prenatal non-existence are relevantly similar. Brueckner and Fischer have replied, however, that ... ...

Jens Johansson

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Steam Trap Testing and Evaluation: An Actual Plant Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on there is a hydraul ic shock in the forn! of a water hammer. The standard trap used at the Olin-Joliet Plant is an Armstrong carbon steel inverted bucket. The hydraulic shock has not only broken the valve assembly on the inverted buckets, but has also... service is what caused the traps to fail closed. The last set of traps tested was the Armstrong 1013LV stainless steel inverted buckets. The capacity of these units required that for each coil two traps in parallel would be required. The traps do...

Feldman, A. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Introduction: Self–organization as an actual theme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...knowledge is dominated by two, perhaps three, hierarchical ontologies. The world...his view such `agents' are seen as a pillar for the development of a new theory of...dimen- sions of life into a science of sustainability. New York: Doubleday. Corning, P...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Self-actualization as it relates to sports participation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Richard Magill, chairman of the author's committee, who gave freely of his time and assistance; Dr. Brad Chissom and Dr. Homer Toison, members of the author's committee; and Dr. Carl Land1ss. Sincere appreciation is expressed to William Husak for his... character1stic profile, athletes from that particular sport may not fit the stereotype. Morgan (25) stated that appl1cation of psychological methods to groups will l1kely be as ineffective as the prescr1ption of medication on a group basis. Personalized...

Husak, Patricia Larkin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

151

books & arts prayed-for group actually did worse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

all on the afterlife); the problem of evil, or why bad things happen to good people (why can't God and Innovation at CERN, in Geneva. Fittingly for an exhibition at CERN, several particle physicists feature among particle, made at Brookhaven National Laboratory in November 1974 -- on the right is the unmissable peak

Loss, Daniel

152

How Well Do Social Ratings Actually Measure Corporate Social Responsibility?*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental strengths, in contrast, do not accurately predict pollution levels or compliance violations. Levine Haas School of Business University of California at Berkeley 545 Student Services Building #1900 Responsibility? Abstract: Ratings of corporations' environmental activities and capabilities influence billions

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

153

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O'Sullivan, Francis

154

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

155

Actual operating experience with a new NRU unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Baker Gas Plant in the Oklahoma Panhandle is a turbo-expander plant combined with a nitrogen rejection unit (NRU). The NRU unit was installed to remove nitrogen and recover helium. Operating problems and solutions of the NRU are discussed.

McKenzie, D. [Williams Field Services, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, B.D. [ABB Randall Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

El desarrollo de la actual producción teatral en México  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

calificados que mostraban sobre el escenario solidez y calidad de conjunto. En la actualidad se ha reducido paulatinamente este personal, desmembrando un conjunto ejemplar. No se ha podido competir con la iniciativa privada que ha ido contratando a sus...

Gimeno, Luis

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

The Actuality and Prospect of Solar Collector Technology in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development tendency and the future of the solar heater utilization product are going to determine the solar energy collector technology development. The vacuum tube solar water heater development direction i...

Luo Yunjun; Liu Airong

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Preschool English Language Learners with Disabilities: A Comparison of Recommended and Actual Language of Instruction Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) 27 th Annual Report to Congress (2005) states that since 1992, an 89% reduction exists in the percentage of students ages 6 through 11 receiving special education services under ?specific learning disabilities? (SLD). OSERS... also reports that starting in 1998 the new DD label appears to have de facto replaced the SLD label for children 3 through 9. As a result, the numbers of children identified with SLD have decreased as the numbers of children assigned under the DD...

Cole, Corinna V.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

159

IEEE BCTM5.1 Dependenceof ThermalResistanceon Ambientand Actual Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the temperature dependence of the thermal resistance. We extract the thermal resistance as function of ambient, that the temperature dependence of the thermal resistance has not yet being taken into account. It is well-known that the thermal conductivity changes with temperature [I]. For many ofthe,materials used in semiconduc- tor

Technische Universiteit Delft

160

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales del metabolismo Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

y un mnimo del 10% de xido de calcio. El resultado no es txico ni... del tipo triclosan, altamente txicos y contaminantes. Liberacin de iones por parte de las...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual higher education Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 7 Models of Mathematics Curriculum Development in Egypt Fayez M. Mina, MA PhD C.Math FIMA Summary: of secondary education, its curricula,...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - antecedentes situacion actual Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

<< < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 21 Carro, R.M., Pulido, E. and Rodrguez, P. (2000): Utilizacin del sistema TANGOW en aplicaciones de enseanza adaptativa a...

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del marco Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Marco Q SILI SCAVALLIAntonio RICERCATORI E PERSONALE DI RUOLO EQUIPARATO AI SENSI DEL D.P.R. 382... AVVISO ELETTORALE Elezioni per la designazione delle rappresentanze del...

164

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual flow calibration Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Saiers1, David P. Genereux2, and Carl H... of data in automated calibration of a ground water flow and solute transport model at a complex field site... Targets ... Source:...

165

Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

166

Behavioral strategies to bridge the gap between potential and actual savings in commercial buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2. Electricity and natural gas use trends in Californiacapita electricity and natural gas use trends in Californiaelectricity use, and natural gas use trends for California

Moezzi, Mithra; Hammer, Christine; Goins, John; Meier, Alan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Correlated preferences for facial masculinity and ideal or actual partner's masculinity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of past health problems (assessed from medical records; Rhodes et al. 2003a ). While...women may be better placed to offset the costs associated with preferring a masculine...taken in the same room under the same lighting. (b) Stimulus calibration Seventy-six...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual intec calcines Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrodes calcined at 750... electrodes calcined at 750 C on phenol degradation. 3.3. Removal efficiency of TOC with Eu doped SnO2Sb... electrodes calcined at different...

169

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual acidic tank Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Attachment A PPOP 08.10 Summary: < Refrigerant Storage Tanks Ventilated vaults: < Acid Vaults (May or may not require a permit depending... Boilers...

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual hanford high-level Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

three major facilities are planned: a pretreatment facility, a high-level... -shell tanks) that contain millions of liters of high-level liquid waste. The 400 Area is...

171

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual hanford tank Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

T. M. Poston Summary: -West Areas on the Hanford Site. The tank farms house 177 tanks (149 single-shell tanks and 28 double... Hanford's tank waste). Hanford At A Glance...

172

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual tank 48h Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

septic... Purdue AgronomyPurdue Agronomy CROP, SOIL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Septic Tanks: The Primary... Introduction Septic tanks play an essential role in effectively...

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual living liver Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A. - Department of Genetics, Stanford University Collection: Biology and Medicine 67 Semi-Automated Soft-Tissue Acquisition and Modeling for Surgical Simulation Summary: measure...

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual key success Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

explains the property as the ability for an ... Source: Schneier, Bruce - BT Group plc Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >>...

175

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual car fleet Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

potential for misidentifying the ... Source: Denver, University of - Fuel Efficiency Automobile Test Data Center Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 15 Smog...

176

The Impacts of Contributory Factors in the Gap between Predicted and Actual Office Building Energy Use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ten years ago, the primary author developed the Building Energy-Efficient Hive (BEEHive) concept in order ... – can support the design and operation of energy-efficient office buildings. This was a result of his ...

Emeka E. Osaji; Subashini Suresh; Ezekiel Chinyio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales para determinar Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

<< < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 F. Ciencias Revisado a fecha: Calendario de exmenes Summary: Primer Parcial T Segundo Parcial T Final T Convocatoria de Septiembre T ALGEBRA I Por...

178

An innovative experimental approach aiming to understand and quantify the actual fire hazards of ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

access to fundamental flammability properties of these chemicals through the use of Pyrolysis Combustion to flash point values, various threshold values being considered in different regulatory frameworks to rate, in the Classification Labelling and Packaging regulation,14 flammable liquids are those having a flash point below

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del trasplante Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

plazo, como: - enfermedad del... con una enfermedad o problema mdico que reduce la resistencia del cuerpo a las infecciones, como Source: Oliver, Douglas L. - Department of...

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual gobierno venezolano Sample Search...  

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Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 2 CONDICIONES DE TRABAJO EN VENEZUELA EN EL PERODO 1999-2005: ELEMENTOS PARA UN BALANCE DE LA CUESTIN LABORAL EN EL...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

E-Print Network 3.0 - agudo estado actual Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

de Agudo" para la Conservacin de... . 1990 First report of Stenella clymene in Venezuela. Agudo, 1990 1991 First ... Source: NOAA Marine Fisheries Review Collection:...

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual waste sample Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0.1 1 10 Fission... though this low-level waste was added to these tanks, the ... Source: Yucca Mountain Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 3 PUB-3093,...

183

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual acid sulfate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

16 6, 116, 2006 Hygroscopicity of Summary: phase sulfuric acid is in the form of10 ammoniated sulfate clusters. Hence, these compounds are expected... particles either as...

184

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual driving performance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

designed to provide "buffering" for a disk ... Source: Mann, Tim - VMware, Palo Alto, California Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 2 A...

185

Evaluation of the accuracy of DHIA predicted milk using actual milk shipped  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the levels of variables for comparisons of interest. Types of tests were grouped for comparison in three ways: Official versus Unofficial, DHI versus DHK and 2X versus APCS versus APT. Official records were compared to Unofficial records and showed a...

Coker, Richard Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

186

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales del choque Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DE FLUIDOS Asignatura Curso: 1 del Mster en... : Espaol Pgina web: http:www.iac.esenseanza.master Departamento y Datos del Profesorado Telfonos... diferenciales...

187

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual doe savannah Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alaska Fairbanks Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 28 Hydrogen Delivery Pipeline Working Group Workshop September 25-26, 2007 Center for Hydrogen Research, Aiken, GA...

188

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual beta-blocker prescribing Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

patient care and treatment--such as who should be prescribed beta-blocker therapy after a heart attack... the effectiveness of beta- blocker therapy. The data included informa-...

189

Do we get actual vendor name while we searched with zip code...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Co has utility id 14006 located in Ohio". But I had also check the zip code in google earth, It falling in other state "Rincorn, PR". Please let me know? Submitted by SUTHARI on...

190

Behavioral strategies to bridge the gap between potential and actual savings in commercial buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. American CouncilStudy on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. American CouncilStudy on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. American Council

Moezzi, Mithra; Hammer, Christine; Goins, John; Meier, Alan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual site soil Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bosque Del Apache Wildlife Refuge. The first soil at the Sevilleta site... % clay. The bulk density of the soil is approximately 1.6 ... Source: Borchers, Brian - Department of...

192

No actual conflict over colony inheritance despite high potential conflict in the social wasp Polistes dominulus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...0 and 3.0, respectively, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA: H 2,32=5.595...quartiles=2.0 and 4.0, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA: H 2,32=0.894...2 and 26.2, respectively, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA: H 2,32=1.689...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

H-delta in the Integrated Light of Galaxies: What Are We Actually Measuring?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a cautionary study exploring the reliability of the H-delta line in the integrated spectra of galaxies for determining galaxy ages. Our database consists of the observed integrated spectra of ~120 early-type galaxies, of 7 metal-rich globular clusters in M31 and the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc, and of the open cluster M67. We have measured H-delta using index definitions designed to assess contamination from the CN molecule in and around H-delta by choosing combinations of bandpasses that both avoid and include a region of CN molecular lines redward of H-delta. We find systematic differences in the ages derived from H-delta measurements among the various definitions when extracting ages from H-delta in old stellar populations with enhanced CN bands due to non-solar abundance ratios. We propose that neighboring CN lines have a strong effect on pseudocontinuum and central bandpass levels. For stellar populations which have non-solar abundance ratios in C and/or N, population synthesis models that do not account for abundance ratio variations cannot reproduce accurately the CN 4216 \\AA band, which leads to a corresponding inaccuracy in reproducing the various H-delta indices. Hence, caution must be used when extracting galaxy ages from the H-delta line in old stellar populations with significant non-solar abundance ratios.

L. C. Prochaska; J. A. Rose; N. Caldwell; B. V. Castilho; K. Concannon; P. Harding; H. Morrison; R. P. Schiavon

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

194

E-Print Network 3.0 - actuales para los Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pg. 2 -http:www.eduteka.orgEstandaresDocentesUnesco.php Summary: Comunicacin (TIC) pueden ayudar a los estudiantes a adquirir las capacidades necesarias para llegar a...

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual assistance received Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as- sistance and the other did not. The study used a client-side automated ... Source: Jansen, James - College of Information Sciences and Technology, Pennsylvania State University...

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual genome-wide single-nucleotide Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine 28 Modified version of: Li Y, Tesson BM, Churchill GA and Jansen RC (2010) Critical reasoning on causal inference in genome-wide linkage and...

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual una perspectiva Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 9 Publi dans TRACE 54, diciembre 2008, p92-94 Atlas de la diversidad religiosa en Mxico, Rene de la...

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - algunas tendencias actuales Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

e Inteligencia Artificial, Universitat d'Alacant Collection: Engineering 7 Publi dans TRACE 54, diciembre 2008, p92-94 Atlas de la diversidad religiosa en Mxico, Rene de la...

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual fatigue usage Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2007 Published online 18 June 2007 Keywords: Bone Dentin Fatigue Mineralized tissues Fracture Life... in the fatigue and fracture of mineralized tissues, and to discover how these...

200

,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Organization (MRO)." ," * The MRO, SERC, and SPP regional boundaries were altered as utilities changed reliability organizations. The historical data series " ,"have not been...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del resultado Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

un ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 30 INGENIERA TCNICA EN INFORMTICA DE SISTEMAS Curso Acadmico 2002 2003 Summary: condiciones...

202

E-Print Network 3.0 - adventicia estado actual Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Uso indebido o malgastar recursos del estado incluyendo... identidad de Mensaje del Auditor del Estado DENUNCIA ACTIVIDADES IMPROPIOS HOY -- Contacta la Lnea Directa...

203

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual dos conhecimentos Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

qualquer conhecimento prvio sobre a linguagem Perl Source: Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica - Polo de Lisboa (Institute for Systems and Robotics, Lisbon pole) Portugal...

204

Estimating actual evapotranspiration for a coupled human environment system: sensitivity to drought  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the overall aim of this study is to quantify regional water consumption using remote sensing. More Remote sensing can estimate ET as a residual of the energy balance: Friction Velocity Roughness Length Aerodynamic Resistance Net radiation (Rn) Soil Heat Flux (G) T Hot & Cold Pixels Sensible Heat Flux (H

Hall, Sharon J.

205

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual situation analysis Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(ACL) Anthology Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 100 Learning Organizational Roles in a Heterogeneous Multi-agent System Summary: 's subjective...

206

The myth of the single mode man : how the mobility pass better meets actual travel demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this thesis is to investigate how employer transportation subsidy programs can result in more sustainable outcomes. Cities are growth machines that increasingly seek to mitigate the effects of that growth caused ...

Block-Schachter, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Students' Perceived and Actual Use of Strategies for Reading and Writing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the two interrelated processes: reading and writingfor the two interrelated processes: reading and writinginterrelated studies, examined university students' processes

Yoo, Monica

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual radioecological problems Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and radiobiology Radioecology Environmental pollution Reliability and risk analysis of industrial installations... is in the field of radioecology in relation to the dynamics of...

209

Actual compatibility between three-dimensional time conjecture and experienced doppler effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To remove some doubts in this regard, it is pointed out that the idea of one temporal co-ordinate for each spatial freedom degree is by no means in disagreement either with Ives and Stilwell experiment or with mo...

G. Ziino

1983-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

210

Behavioral strategies to bridge the gap between potential and actual savings in commercial buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2006, Vol. III, 393-for keynote lecture at Healthy Buildings. December 7-11.In Proceedings of Healthy Buildings Vol. III, 365-370. June.

Moezzi, Mithra; Hammer, Christine; Goins, John; Meier, Alan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - aporte actual del Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

California, al suroeste a travs de la... No Inundacin, la Represa Imperial en el Ro Colorado contribuy con el 85% ... Source: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development,...

212

,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

which oversees electric reliability. * NERC Regional names may be found on the EIA web page for electric reliability. " ," * Regional name and function has changed from...

213

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual screening platform Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technologies and Information Sciences 88 Correlating the Visual Representation of User Interfaces with their Internal Structures and Metadata Summary: and evaluate two new...

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual del mecanismo Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surez - Cartography and Graphic Engineering Department, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 46 081009 Acta...

215

Tracking target objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for tracking objects that are in earth orbit via a constellation or network of satellites having imaging devices is provided. An object tracking system includes a ground controller and, for each satellite in the constellation, an onboard controller. The ground controller receives ephemeris information for a target object and directs that ephemeris information be transmitted to the satellites. Each onboard controller receives ephemeris information for a target object, collects images of the target object based on the expected location of the target object at an expected time, identifies actual locations of the target object from the collected images, and identifies a next expected location at a next expected time based on the identified actual locations of the target object. The onboard controller processes the collected image to identify the actual location of the target object and transmits the actual location information to the ground controller.

De Vries, Willem H; Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

216

9/18/09 2:58 PMDark energy may not actually exist Page 1 of 4http://blog.taragana.com/n/dark-energy-may-not-actually-exist-142560/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rules Ascorbic acid, sugar with green tea helps absorb antioxidants Related News Type 1a superno Australian green lacewing toughest: Study Cell isolated from bio-clock can still keep time Robot trawls

Temple, Blake

217

6.0 UNCERTAINTIES The major uncertainty in this analysis is the actual exposure that people will experience.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-lying aquifers, so shallow open-pit or underground mines may not contaminate the water because of the limited will experience. Because many abandoned uranium mines are on federal lands, the most likely exposure scenario to this are Native Americans who live around the uranium mines and personnel who may work around the sites

218

How Continuous Quantum Measurements in Finite Dimensions Are Actually Discrete Giulio Chiribella* and Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* and Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ``A. Volta'' and INFM, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

219

How the Bayesians Got Their Beliefs (and What Those Beliefs Actually Are): Comment on Bowers and Davis (2012)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Bowers and Davis (2012) Thomas L. Griffiths University of California, Berkeley Nick Chater University view as the unique merits of the Bayesian approach. Keywords: Bayesian inference, probabilistic models the weaknesses of the Bayesian approach rather than considering its merits relative to other theoretical

Pillow, Jonathan

220

Actual Crimes Reported For: Offense Type (includes attempts) 2008 2009 2010 2008 2009 2010 2008 2009 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 0 1 0 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Drug Law Violations Arrest 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Liquor Law Violations Arrest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Crimes Reported of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. Number of Arrests/Referrals for Select Offenses

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Actual Crimes Reported For: Offense Type (includes attempts) 2011 2012 2013 2011 2012 2013 2011 2012 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 0 0 0 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Drug Law Violations Arrest 3 4 0 1 0 0 4 4 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Liquor Law Violations Arrest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Referral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Crimes Reported and the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act. Number of Arrests/Referrals

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

222

Improving the schedulability of soft real-time open dynamic systems: The inheritor is actually a debtor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a debtor Rodrigo Santos a,*, Giuseppe Lipari b , Jorge Santos a a Dep. Ing. Ele´ctrica y Computadoras. Santos), lipari@sssup.it (G. Lipari), iesantos@criba.edu.ar (J. Santos). www

Lipari, Giuseppe

223

A simple method to estimate actual evapotranspiration from a combination of net radiation, vegetation index, and temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the dynamic nature of heat transfer processes. Satellite remote sensing is a promising tool which has been] Satellite remote sensing is a promising technique for estimating global or regional evapotranspiration (ET). A simple and accurate method is essential when estimating ET using remote sensing data. Such a method

Li, Zhanqing

224

4. The amount of food a person actually eats is called a . . . 5. Americans get most of their sodium from . . .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? (check only one box) Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic/Latino 9. With what race do you identify? (You may 10. How many people live in your household (total number)? _________________ 11. How many children under 18 live in your household (total number)? ___________________ 12. What is your current marital

225

Knowledge-based modeling using GIS: nonpoint source pollution application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

loss over the watershed ANSI (2 inch event). . 58 V. l 1 Simulated effect of recommended BMPs on actual soil loss (2 inch event). 59 V. 12 Spatial distribution of the actual soil loss over the watershed ANSI (3 inch event) . . 60 V. 13 Simulated... Modeling Environment 29 IV MATERIALS AND METHODS 1 Inputs from AGNPS/GRASS Interface 33 2 Knowledge-based Approa. ch 35 2. 1 Study Area: Animal Science Watershed (ANSI) 35 2. 2 Identification 2. 3 Watershed Management using Best Management Practices...

Mohite, Mahendra P.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

226

Occupancy Based Demand Response HVAC Control Strategy Varick L. Erickson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Occupancy Based Demand Response HVAC Control Strategy Varick L. Erickson University of California an efficient demand response HVAC control strategy, actual room usage must be considered. Temperature and CO2 are used for simulations but not for predictive demand response strategies. In this paper, we develop

Cerpa, Alberto E.

227

Face-based multiple instance analysis for smart electronics billboard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper introduces a visual-based system, which can count the number of viewers and recognize their gender in front of an electronic billboard in real-time video streams. The viewers actually watching an advertisement are captured via frontal face ... Keywords: Electronic billboard, Gender recognition, Viewer counting

Duan-Yu Chen; Kuan-Yi Lin

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Towards Model-Based Estimation of the Cardiac Electro-Mechanical Activity from ECG Signals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Towards Model-Based Estimation of the Cardiac Electro-Mechanical Activity from ECG Signals by comparing the actual patient's ECG with computational results and the deformation of the biomechani- cal-to-access measurements on a patient: the ECG (Electrocardiogram), and a time sequence of volumetric ultrasound images

Coudière, Yves

229

Results of fracture mechanics analyses of the Adorer cranes in the device assembly facility using actual, rather than conservative, stress-components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fracture mechanics analyses were done on 3 critical locations on the lower flange of the load beam of the Ederer 5 ton and 4 ton cranes in the D.A.F. Facility. This was done to determine appropriate flaw sizes for NDE detection during periodic inspection, and appropriate inspection intervals.

Dalder, E.N.C.

1996-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

230

5.1 DREAM 2012 Annual Report Executive Summary While the Moon is often considered a stagnant "dead" body, it actually percolates with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

animated by incoming solar energy and matter. In fact, the oxide-rich interface is in constant interaction with its environment, acting as an obstacle to inflowing solar plasma and continually releasing solar solar energy and matter affects the lunar surface (including the effect on surficial water, OH, Na

Christian, Eric

231

Assessment of actual versus modeled SO/sub 2/ impacts of two pulps mills in a northwestern river valley using complex I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 8, 1982, the Air Quality Division of the state of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) informed Publishers Paper Company, and Crown Zellerbach Corporation West Linn that recent ambient air quality modeling in support of a proposed municipal solid waste resource recovery facility indicated that the mills were causing violations of state and national ambient air quality standards for SO/sub 2/. These violations were predicted in elevated terrain surrounding the West Linn/Oregon city area. The department stated that the mills had two options: one, have their air contaminant discharge permits restricted to some amount of low or no sulfur boiler fuels; or two, perform an ambient monitoring program to resolve the SO/sub 2/ attainment status of the area and to ''calibrate/validate'' the air quality impact model. Discussions with DEQ regarding the companies' concerns led to a cooperative five month monitoring program involving equipment and personnel resources from Publishers, Crown and DEQ. All sampling was done in conformance with Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ambient monitoring guidelines for prevention of significant deterioration with strict quality assurance and quality control. The monitoring program began in October of 1982 and ended in April of 1983. Five months of valid ambient SO/sub 2/ and meteorological data were acquired (November through March).

Crews, W.B.; Gilbert, R.E.; Walther, J.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

changes of HVAC source EUI between AMY and TMY3. (a) largeof total building source EUI. (a) large office, 90.1-2004a) changes in HVAC source EUI; (b) changes in total source

Hong, Tianzhen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

While 84,559 homebuyers in Illinois put in a claim for the Federal Home Buyer Tax Credit, only 25,504 sales were actually boosted by the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While 84,559 homebuyers in Illinois put in a claim for the Federal Home Buyer Tax Credit, only 25 (REAL) at the University of Illinois have estimated that the real boost from the Home Buyer Tax Credit that only about 16.5% of the sales in Illinois could be attributed to the Home Buyer Tax Credit rather than

Frank, Thomas D.

235

Simultaneous estimation of actual litter enzymatic catalysis and respiration rates with a simple model of C dynamics in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

caerulea, Betula spp, soluble carbohydrates, Water Extractable Organic Carbon. insu-00852055,version1-19Aug and decomposition, leading to organic matter (OM) accumulation and long-term C-sequestration in peat (Clymo, 1984

Boyer, Edmond

236

Compensation of Handicap and Autonomy Loss through e-Technologies and Home Automation for Elderly People in Rural Regions: An Actual Need for International Initiatives Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To face the problems of elderly and disabled people in a rural environment, the district of Guéret (department of Creuse, France) has set up the “Home automation and Health Pole”. In association with ... on the u...

Laurent Billonnet; Jean-Michel Dumas; Emmanuel Desbordes…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Examining the Cycle: How Perceived and Actual Bicycling Risk Influence Cylcing Frequency, Roadway Design Preferences, and Support for Cycling Among Bay Area Residents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guppy, A. , 1996. Driver awareness and motorcycle accidents.of the International Motorcycle Safety Conference, 2(10):No person riding upon any motorcycle, motorized bicycle,

Sanders, Rebecca L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

53: Total energy use in buildings – evaluation and analysisTY. A design day for building load and energy estimation.Building and Environment, 1999; 34(4): 469-477. [5] Hong TZ,

Hong, Tianzhen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.

Daily, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM); Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

240

Performance-Based Incentive | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Performance-Based Incentive Performance-Based Incentive Jump to: navigation, search Performance-based incentives (PBIs), also known as production incentives, provide cash payments based on the number of kilowatt-hours (kWh) or BTUs generated by a renewable energy system. A "feed-in tariff" is an example of a PBI. To ensure project quality, payments based on a system's actual performance are generally more effective than payments based on a system's rated capacity. (Note that tax incentives based on the amount of energy produced by an eligible commercial facility are categorized as "Corporate Tax Incentives" in DSIRE.) [1] Contents 1 Performance-Based Incentive Incentives 2 References Performance-Based Incentive Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 194) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

STEPNCMillUoA: a CNC system based on STEP-NC and Function Block architecture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

STEPNCMillUoA is the prototype of a new CNC system that utilises the STEP-NC data model and IEC 61499. STEP-NC provides a high-level data model and enables feature-based machining whereas the enabled layered Function Block architecture simplifies the design of the CNC controller. The architecture layers are responsible for data processing, storage and execution. The object-oriented Model-View-Control design pattern supports the system architecture and the design framework, in which simulation of the machining becomes natural and inherent part of the design process, with seamless transition from simulation to actual machining. This system possesses interoperability, portability, re-configurability and distribution characteristics. The system was tested through simulation and actual machining.

Mohamad Minhat; Xun Xu; Valeriy Vyatkin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Development of a Web-based Emissions Reduction Calculator for Green Power Purchases from Texas Wind Energy Providers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED, EMISSIONS REDUCTION CALCULATOR FOR GREEN POWER PURCHASES FROM TEXAS WIND ENERGY PROVIDERS Zi Liu, Ph.D. Research Engineer Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. Professor/Assc. Director Juan... that have been developed to calculate the emissions reductions from electricity provided by wind energy providers in the Texas ERCOT region, including an analysis of actual hourly wind power generated from a wind turbine in Randall County, Texas...

Liu, Z.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Gilman, D.; Haberl, J.; Culp, C.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Vision Based SLAM in Mobile Robots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter is an extension of the previous chapter and it discusses how the previously discussed concept of SLAM for mobile robots can be actually implemented in real-life...

Amitava Chatterjee; Anjan Rakshit…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Surface effects of cement-based solidified waste forms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the proper size aggregate now using 400-Itm and 250-lrm meshed sieves to attain the 250 Itm sand. The radionuclide to be used in the mixture had to be representative of actual simulated low-level radioactive waste. The nuclide also had to have a sufficient... Selection of the counting equipment was based on three criteria: effectiveness of counting the specified radionuclide, the experimenter's knowledge of the system, and the availability of the chosen system. Since the nuclide chosen as the simulated waste...

Pavlonnis, George

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

A study of Shanghai fuel oil futures price volatility based on high frequency data: Long-range dependence, modeling and forecasting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In existing researches, the investigations of oil price volatility are always performed based on daily data and squared daily return is always taken as the proxy of actual volatility. However, it is widely accepted that the popular realized volatility (RV) based on high frequency data is a more robust measure of actual volatility than squared return. Due to this motivation, we investigate dynamics of daily volatility of Shanghai fuel oil futures prices employing 5-minute high frequency data. First, using a nonparametric method, we find that RV displays strong long-range dependence and recent financial crisis can cause a lower degree of long-range dependence. Second, we model daily volatility using RV models and GARCH-class models. Our results indicate that RV models for intraday data overwhelmingly outperform GARCH-class models for daily data in forecasting fuel oil price volatility, regardless the proxy of actual volatility. Finally, we investigate the major source of such volatile prices and found that trader activity has major contribution to fierce variations of fuel oil prices.

Li Liu; Jieqiu Wan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Cloud-Based Model Calibration Using OpenStudio: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OpenStudio is a free, open source Software Development Kit (SDK) and application suite for performing building energy modeling and analysis. The OpenStudio Parametric Analysis Tool has been extended to allow cloud-based simulation of multiple OpenStudio models parametrically related to a baseline model. This paper describes the new cloud-based simulation functionality and presents a model cali-bration case study. Calibration is initiated by entering actual monthly utility bill data into the baseline model. Multiple parameters are then varied over multiple iterations to reduce the difference between actual energy consumption and model simulation results, as calculated and visualized by billing period and by fuel type. Simulations are per-formed in parallel using the Amazon Elastic Cloud service. This paper highlights model parameterizations (measures) used for calibration, but the same multi-nodal computing architecture is available for other purposes, for example, recommending combinations of retrofit energy saving measures using the calibrated model as the new baseline.

Hale, E.; Lisell, L.; Goldwasser, D.; Macumber, D.; Dean, J.; Metzger, I.; Parker, A.; Long, N.; Ball, B.; Schott, M.; Weaver, E.; Brackney, L.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Implementing agent-based emissions trading for controlling Virtual Power Plant emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A methodology was developed and tested for controlling the emissions from a group of micro-generators aggregated in a Virtual Power Plant. The methodology is based on the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. A multi-agent system was designed and simulations were performed. The operation of the system was demonstrated experimentally using micro-generation sources installed in two laboratories. Two days of experiments were performed. Results show that system emissions have been controlled with a good accuracy, since only small deviations between desired and actual emissions output were observed. It was found that Virtual Power Plant controllability increases significantly by increasing the number of participating micro-generators.

Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos; Evangelos Rikos; Efstathia Kolentini; Liana M. Cipcigan; Nick Jenkins

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fuzzy rule-based methodology for residential load behaviour forecasting during power systems restoration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inadequate load pickup during power system restoration can lead to overload and underfrequency conditions, and even restart the blackout process, due to thermal energy losses. Thus, load behaviour estimation during restoration is desirable to avoid inadequate pickups. This work describes an artificial intelligence method to aid the operator in taking decisions during system restoration by estimating residential load behaviour parameters such as overload in buses and the necessary time to recover steady-state power consumption. This method uses a fuzzy rule-based system to forecast the residential load, obtaining correct estimates with low computational cost. Test results using actual substation data are presented.

Lia Toledo Moreira Mota; Alexandre Assis Mota; Andre Luiz Morelato Franca

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analyzing bearing faults in wind turbines: A data-mining approach Andrew Kusiak*, Anoop Verma Department to wear prematurely, leading to increased turbine maintenance costs, and could lead to sudden, expensive mining is applied to identify bearing faults in wind turbines. Historical wind turbine data are analyzed

Kusiak, Andrew

250

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- gated and used as permanent magnets because of their high mag- netization (Ms), Curie temperature (Tc on the structural and magnetic properties of high coercivity (Hc) SrFe10Al2O19 hexaferrite have been investigated are ferromagnetically aligned but the coupling between Fe moments at the different crystallographic positions may

Liu, J. Ping

251

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

have attracted considerable interest as a promising "green" substitute for organic solvents. The broad as an environmentally-benign source for alternative solvents. By tuning their molecular compositions, ILs exhibit into the atmosphere. In consequence, ILs have been used in recent years in diverse applica- tions, both as solvents

Jelinek, Raz

252

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on physically or chemically textured surfaces are encoun- tered in dropwise mode of vapor condensation features are altered when sliding drops leach away the promoter layer. In the absence of chemical reactions between the promoter and the condensing liquid, the wall shear stress is the primary parameter controlling

Khandekar, Sameer

253

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thickness, viscosity of the boundary layer, and considered hydrothermal and lower boundary heat losses and exposing detachment scars to the melting front, (3) due to rapid melting, hydrothermal heat loss through and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing

Bindeman, Ilya N.

254

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from various devices (e.g., engines, hot gas exhausts, reactors, furnaces, heaters, boilers, hot water and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing generation Energy harvesting refers to the conversion to electricity of var- ious forms of energy (mechanical

Chung, Deborah D.L.

255

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydraulic flow unit tortuosity porosity­permeability relationship cementation exponent Although several techniques have been proposed to predict permeability using porosity­permeability rela- tionships, the Kozeny in any reservoir rock. Its importance arises due to the major role it plays during the development phase

Hossain, M. Enamul

256

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil

Galland, Olivier

257

Actual trends of decentralized CHP integration -- The Californian investment subsidy system and its implication for the energy efficiency directive (Aktuelle Trends in der dezentralen KWK Technologie Integration -- Das kalifornische Fordermodell und dessen Implikation fur die Endenergieeffizienzrichtlinie)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

http://www.epa.gov/chp/project_resources/calculator.htmVerbrennungsmotoren. Quelle: Midwest CHP Application Center,Mikroturbinen. Quelle: Midwest CHP Application Center, 2003

Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Actual trends of decentralized CHP integration -- The Californian investment subsidy system and its implication for the energy efficiency directive (Aktuelle Trends in der dezentralen KWK Technologie Integration -- Das kalifornische Fordermodell und dessen Implikation fur die Endenergieeffizienzrichtlinie)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

z.B. Wind versus Brennstoffzelle) und der Vermaschung desBrennstoffzellen Eine Brennstoffzelle konvertiert Energierichtig gewarteten Brennstoffzelle, enorm - im Vergleich zu

Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany n Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA l Ashima Research, 600 S

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

260

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An in vitro injury model for SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: Effect of strain and strain rate Maciej Skotak, Fang injury model wherein a wide range of strain () and strain rate ( ) can be precisely and independently encounter during either blunt or blast impact-induced traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). In combination

Farritor, Shane

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Solid state synthesis Solid electrolyte LiPON Lithium ion battery Computational prediction X as amorphous thin film electrolytes for use in all solid state micro-batteries. In the course-ray diffraction The new crystalline compound, Li2PO2N, was synthesized using high temperature solid state methods

Holzwarth, Natalie

263

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data. " Advantages and issues with different types of wind turbine wake data are given. " Metrics of offshore wind farms to maximized power production and minimize turbine fatigue loading. This paper of the drive towards optimizing multi-mega- watt wind farm layouts to both maximize power production [1

Pryor, Sara C.

264

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and herbicide-fire treatments affected survival of cotton rats, but the evidence for the effect of her- bicide- fire treatment in both species. Without clear understanding of their ecological impacts, alternatives Longleaf pine management practices and their impact on small mammal populations Binab Karmacharya

Oli, Madan K.

265

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,11], to name a few. Among the various techniques hydrothermal processing is a widely contested method and kinetics. Owing to this unique characteristic hydrothermal processing has been used to synthesize a wide Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Copper; Crystal growth; Hydrothermal synthesis; Dendrite formation

Zheng, Yufeng

266

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by comparison to recent experimental data of Dietze, and to an analytical solution for an oscillating free, in the pharmaceutical industry or in nuclear reactors. Their main advan- tages are the good heat transfer liquid and gas phase. The concern of the present paper is the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of wavy

Bothe, Dieter

267

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a transport phenomenon in reservoirs that came to be known as CBM (Coalbed Methane). Today, production from has been focused on their characteristics in the recent years. Studies of methane production from coal

Mohaghegh, Shahab

268

CODES AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR INVESTIGATOR DATA SHEET (VA FORM 10-5368; PAGE 18) 5a. ACADEMIC RANK: The default Academic Rank for each Series is shown. If actual rank is different, or code is 06,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= Not Applicable 34 = Dermatopathology 14 = Immunology 21 = Pediatric Allergy 07 = Diagnostic Radiology 15 = Oral Surgery 58 = Radiology 08 = Biology 24 = Health Economics 42 = Orthopedic Surgery 59 = Speech Pathology 68 = Clinical Pathology 28 = Mathematics 46 = Pediatrics 63 = Surgery (General) 12

Karsai, Istvan

269

7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

Bahrami, Majid

270

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Roads have varied ecological impacts on the adjacent, roadside maintenance, and vehicle emis- sions (Forman, 2000; Lee e

Neher, Deborah A.

271

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and Barrett (2003) review this litera- ture. IEA members internalize the effect of their actions on other strategy We modify a canonical participation game used to study International Environmental Agreements (IEA Environmental Agreements (IEAs) attempt to alleviate the free riding problem associated with transboundary

Karp, Larry S.

272

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experimentally by Fairbrother and Stubbs (1935), Taylor (1961) and theoretically by Bretherton (1961). Using

Muradoglu, Metin

273

(This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Despite the absence of subcritical crack growth, average fracture toughness values of 6.1 and 3.3 MPa m1, fiber toughening, transformation toughening and micro- crack toughening. Over the past decade, many

Ritchie, Robert

274

Design and Application of LED Beam Display Based on LED Number Display Interface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper introduces a design actualizing LED beam display. The design directly used LED number display interface on single-chip micro- ... to obtain font and bit interface line through LED number display socket...

Hong Deng; Xiuhui Chang; Yanling Zhang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

High-Order Sliding Mode Control of DFIG-Based Wind Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Actually, variable speed wind turbines are continuously increasing their market share, since it is possible to track the changes in wind speed by adapting shaft speed, and thus maintaining optimal power genera...

Mohamed Benbouzid

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

An X-based spatial oxide growth visualization software for furnace characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

important utility-oxide growth on the silicon wafer. The software developed is completely generic and has no affiliation to any make of furnace. The data required for simulation can easily be obtained from the actual piece of equipment. Simulation...

Kumar, Ravi C.K

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

277

Performance benefits of telerobotics and teleoperation - enhancements for an arm-based tank waste retrieval system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates telerobotic and teleoperational arm-based retrieval systems that require advanced robotic controls. These systems will be deployed in waste retrieval activities in Hanford`s Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The report assumes that arm-based, retrieval systems will combine a teleoperational arm and control system enhanced by a number of advanced and telerobotic controls. The report describes many possible enhancements, spanning the full range of the control spectrum with the potential for technical maturation. The enhancements considered present a variety of choices and factors including: the enhancements to be included in the actual control system, safety, detailed task analyses, human factors, cost-benefit ratios, and availability and maturity of technology. Because the actual system will be designed by an offsite vendor, the procurement specifications must have the flexibility to allow bidders to propose a broad range of ideas, yet build in enough restrictions to filter out infeasible and undesirable approaches. At the same time they must allow selection of a technically promising proposal. Based on a preliminary analysis of the waste retrieval task, and considering factors such as operator limitations and the current state of robotics technology, the authors recommend a set of enhancements that will (1) allow the system to complete its waste retrieval mission, and (2) enable future upgrades in response to changing mission needs and technological advances.

Horschel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibbons, P.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Operational modal identification of offshore wind turbine structure based on modified stochastic subspace identification method considering harmonic interference  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structural modal parameter information can be generally obtained from different vibration responses triggered by unknown excitations using the classic modal identification methods which are based on the assumption that the input to the structure is exactly the same or close to the stationary random white noise. For the actual projects such as the offshore wind turbine structure however the imposed loads cannot be considered as the pure white noise excitation because the harmonic components emerge obviously in vibration responses due to periodic rotation excitations of the rotor. When the created harmonic components have greater energy and their frequencies are close to any natural modal frequency of the structure the classic methods can no longer separate harmonic modes from actual structural operational modes under this strong harmonic disturbance thus false modes may be generated and the identification accuracy may be badly affected. To identify the actual structural operational modes accurately under strong harmonic excitation a modified stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method considering harmonic interference called the harmonic modification SSI (HM-SSI) method was proposed in this paper assuming the input harmonic frequencies are known and time-invariant. Then the effectiveness and accuracy of the HM-SSI method were verified through a simple numerical model of cantilever beam excited by various harmonic inputs superimposed on random loads. Besides the superior robustness and better accuracy of identification results affected by the level of noise and the proportion of harmonic energy were reflected. Finally the modal parameter information under different operational conditions was obtained and the safety assessment of an operational wind turbine was made based on the measured data from one offshore wind turbine test prototype at high running speed.

Jijian Lian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Network Flow Modeling Via Lattice-Boltzmann Based Channel Conductance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) computations of single phase, pore-to-pore conductance are compared to models in which such conductances are computed via standard pore body-channel-pore body series resistance (SR), with the conductance of each individual element (pore body, channel) based on geometric shape factor measurements. The LB computations, based upon actual channel geometry derived from X-ray computed tomographic imagery, reveal that the variation in conductance for channels having similar shape factor is much larger than is adequately captured by the geometric models. Fits to the dependence of median value of conductance versus shape factor from the LB-based computations show a power law dependence of higher power than that predicted by the geometric models. We introduce two network flow models based upon the LB conductance computations: one model is based upon LB computations for each pore-to-pore connection; the second is based upon a power law fit to the relationship between computed conductance and throat shape factor. Bulk absolute permeabilities for Fontainebleau sandstone images are computed using the SR-based network models and the two LB-based models. Both LB-based network models produce bulk absolute permeability values that fit published data more accurately than the SR-based models.

Sholokhova, Y.; Kim, D; Lindquist, W

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Study on effects of resident-perceived neighborhood boundaries on public services accessibility & its relation to utilization: using Geographic Information System, focusing on the case of public parks in Austin, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parks based on equity consideration and its relationship to park utilization. The study also addressed whether the neighborhood boundaries perceived by the actual residents may exhibit more actual neighborhood construct than Census-based Neighborhood...

Cho, Chun Man

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Journey planning based on user needs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss potential developments to the design of pre-trip in-home journey planning services, to include support for additional user needs. These needs were identified through stakeholder interviews as contributing to actual decisions ... Keywords: exploratory study, journey planner, public transport

Paul André; Max L. Wilson; Alisdair Owens; Daniel Alexander Smith

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

ANN-based reactive power controller with real-time web monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study introduced a real-time reactive power controller based on artificial neural network with web-based monitoring. A feed-forward employing back-propagation was used as training technique. The inputs to the network were the active and reactive power of each load. The targets were to switch on/off the capacitor banks during normal and abnormal conditions. The network was trained using developed MATLAB program and the weights resulted to minimum mean-square-error were fed to the microcontroller unit. The method was then tested in a three-bus radial distribution system model and implemented using Zilog microcontroller. The system actions were monitored using web-based monitoring application. The method was validated in actual operation of the system using the test data and results were satisfactorily obtained.

Carl John O. Salaan; Mark Joseph M. Victoria; Noel R. Estoperez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Bistatic occlusion effect of missile warhead based on micro-Doppler effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Micro-Doppler effect is induced by the micro-motion dynamics of the radar target itself or any structure on the target. Spinning, coning and wobble are typical basic micro-motions of missile warhead. In this paper, a cone-shaped model for missile warhead with micro-nutation is established under the case of bistatic radar system, followed by the theoretical formula of bistatic micro-nutation is derived. Using the method of short-time Fourier transform, which confirms the simulated results are identical to the theoretical results. In addition, in order to further approach the actual environment. Base on micro-Doppler effect, the effective scattering center model with occlusion effect is considered under the case of bistatic radar system. The simulated results are compared with the fixed scattering point model without the occlusion effect. By the simulation studies, it shows the otherness between the actual environment and ideal assumption. A certain of theoretical analysis conclusions for extracting the features of missile warhead in bistatic radar system are gained, which can be applied to radar target recognition in the future work.

Ming Li; Yuesong Jiang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Low Dissolved Oxygen in an Estuarine Channel (San Joaquin River, California): Mechanisms and Models Based on Long-term Time Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

peak, the net effect on the Ship Channel compared toThe actual effect of these materials on Ship Channelits direct effects on dissolved oxygen balance in the Ship

Jassby, Alan; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Erwin E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles Speaker(s): Nobuyuki Yamaguchi Date: March 26, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 This seminar provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. We examined the performance of the proposed models with respect to the validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial

286

MMCR Spectra-based Hydrometeor Phase Classifier: Evaluation & New Insights  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MMCR Spectra-based Hydrometeor Phase Classifier: Evaluation & New Insights MMCR Spectra-based Hydrometeor Phase Classifier: Evaluation & New Insights Edward Luke 1 , Pavlos Kollias 1 , Matthew Shupe 2 1. Brookhaven National Laboratory 2. CIRES/NOAA/ETL Predicting HSRL depolarization with MMCR classifier Actual Depolarization Predicted Depolarization How accurately can combined HSRL, MMCR, MWR, and radiosonde generate the "golden" phase retrievals needed to train an MMCR-only classifier? For further discussion see Shupe, 2007. How well can the MMCR-only classifier predict the phase of "golden" retrievals it has not been trained on? We focus here on this second question. KEY EVALUATION QUESTIONS Classifier Sensitivity to Certain Input Parameters Probability Distributions of Certain Input Parameters Probability of Correct Phase Classification

287

JGI - Statistics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Statistics Statistics FY 2014 Overall Sequencing Progress, Updated Quarterly Quarter Total Bases (trillions) Operating Hours Goal Actual Total* Actual % of Goal Goal (hours)** Actual Total Actual % Goal Q1 2014 15,000 18.827 126% 2,164 2208 102% Q2 2014 17,000 2,117 Q3 2014 18,000 2,140 Q4 2014 18,000 2,164 FY 2014 Total 68,000 18.827 28% 8,585 2208 26% * Includes Illumina HiSeq, MiSeq and PacBio sequencing platforms. ** Operating Hour target is based on 98% of the total available hours. FY 2013 Overall Sequencing Progress, Updated Quarterly Quarter Total Bases (Billions) Operating Hours Goal Actual Total* Actual % of Goal Goal (hours)** Actual Total Actual % Goal Q1 2013 15,000 20,004 133% 2,164 2,208 102%

288

Model-based concerns mashups for mobile hypermedia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mobile (or Physical) Hypermedia combines the navigational style typical of Web applications with the functionality of location and context-aware software. Users explore digital and physical relationships while accessing to information about their actual ... Keywords: architectures, context-aware applications, mobile computing, mobile hypermedia

Cecilia Challiol; Andrés Fortier; Silvia E. Gordillo; Gustavo Rossi

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Probabilistic annotation of protein sequences based on functional classifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.2.1.1 (alpha-amylase). Actually, the EC 2.4.1.19 activity of P17692 has been described in the literature [27]. In addition, we found that Q11119 [Swiss-Prot:Q11119] (EC 3.1.2.14, oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] hydrolase) should be annotated as EC 3...

Levy, Emmanuel D; Ouzounis, Christos A; Gilks, Walter R; Audit, Benjamin

2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

290

`ODDS ALGORITHM'-BASED OPPORTUNISTIC MAINTENANCE FOR PRESERVING COMPONENT PERFORMANCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into account a `lifecycle management'-oriented approach (Takata, et al., 2004). Indeed, limits on resources, at the manufacturing stage, an innovative culture wherein maintenance activities become of equal importance to actual planning and the production strategy planning to develop opportunistic maintenance tasks guaranteeing

Boyer, Edmond

291

Field testing of component-level model-based fault detection methods for mixing boxes and VAV fan systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An automated fault detection and diagnosis tool for HVAC systems is being developed, based on an integrated, life-cycle, approach to commissioning and performance monitoring. The tool uses component-level HVAC equipment models implemented in the SPARK equation-based simulation environment. The models are configured using design information and component manufacturers' data and then fine-tuned to match the actual performance of the equipment by using data measured during functional tests of the sort using in commissioning. This paper presents the results of field tests of mixing box and VAV fan system models in an experimental facility and a commercial office building. The models were found to be capable of representing the performance of correctly operating mixing box and VAV fan systems and detecting several types of incorrect operation.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip

2002-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

292

Energy consumption comparison analysis of high energy efficiency office buildings in typical climate zones of China and U.S. based on correction model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Actual operation energy consumption of the high energy efficiency buildings built and operated in China and U.S. has been quite different than expected. This paper compares actual energy consumption to expect high energy efficiency office buildings in U.S. and China. Considering the different indoor design temperature, climate conditions and operated period between the compared cases in the two countries impact on the building energy consumption, correction model was built to eliminate the influence of the three factors on the comparison result and put the comparison analysis of high energy efficiency office buildings in the two countries into the same level. Regard to building general information and climate condition, four pairs of buildings in typical climate zones of China and U.S. were selected to compare the building energy conservation technology and building energy consumption based on a large scale of investigation and testing. After corrected, the energy consumption data are analyzed, including total energy consumption, and sub-metering energy consumption such as heating, cooling, lighting, office equipment, etc.. The energy saving technologies applied in these four pairs of buildings was also compared to explain energy consumption differences.

Long Liu; Jing Zhao; Xin Liu; Zhaoxia Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

An SRP-based energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for dependent real-time tasks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we are interested in the energy-efficient scheduling of dependent real-time tasks which may access multiunit resources. Based on the well-known stack resource policy (SRP), we propose the blocking-time stealing (BTS) algorithm to schedule dynamic-priority and fixed-priority tasks on a non-ideal dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) processor. Under the BTS algorithm, tasks are scheduled to be executed at proper processor speeds which are determined according to the sufficient schedulability conditions of the earliest deadline first (EDF) and the rate monotonic (RM) algorithms. The BTS algorithm measures dynamically the slack between the actual blocking time of a task and its estimated worst-case blocking time. The slack is then exploited to lower the processor speed guaranteeing that the feasibility of tasks is not affected. As a result, the energy consumption can be reduced while satisfying the timing constraints of real-time tasks.

Jun Wu; Jun-Xing Wu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Midterm decision-making framework for an electricity retailer based on Information Gap Decision Theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In midterm planning, the objective of an electricity retailer is to manage a portfolio of different contracts and to determine the selling price offered to its clients. This paper provides a novel technique based on Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) to assess different strategies for a retailer under unstructured pool price uncertainty. This method can be used as a tool for assessing the risk levels, considering whether a retailer is risk-taking or risk-averse regarding its midterm strategies. Supply sources include forward contracts, a limited self-generating facility, and the pool. It is shown that in robust strategy, procurement from sources with uncertain prices decreases. Also, the selling price offered to the consumers rises, decreasing the actual demand of the retailer, and consequently the expected profit is decreased. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed technique.

Mansour Charwand; Zeinab Moshavash

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

CERTS 2012 Program Review - Measurement-Based Stability Assessment - Dan Trudnowski, U Montana  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stability Stability Assessment DOE/CERTS Transmission Reliability R&D Internal Program Review Meeting June 12-13, 2012 Washington DC Presenter: Dan Trudnowski, Montana Tech Participants: Dan Trudnowski John Pierre, U of Wyoming Ning Zhou, PNNL Louis Scharf, Consultant 2 Project Objective and Application * Objective: Develop, test, and refine algorithms to automatically estimate oscillations from PMUs in real time. - estimate modal frequency, damping, and shape - estimate mode-estimation performance and validation indices (e.g., error bounds) - detect forced oscillations and identify the cause(s) of such oscillations - collaborate with power-industry partners to test potential algorithms - assist in the WECC system tests * Application - Real-Time Situational Awareness based upon actual system

296

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Midwest) 1998-1999 Actual 1999-2000 Actual 2000-2001 Actual 2001-2002 Base Forecast Consumption (Mcf) 84.5 81.7 97.3 89.7 Avg. Price (Mcf) 6.29 6.67 9.49 6.98 Expenditure...

297

Search based algorithms for test sequence generation in functional testing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractContext The generation of dynamic test sequences from a formal specification, complementing traditional testing methods in order to find errors in the source code. Objective In this paper we extend one specific combinatorial test approach, the Classification Tree Method (CTM), with transition information to generate test sequences. Although we use CTM, this extension is also possible for any combinatorial testing method. Method The generation of minimal test sequences that fulfill the demanded coverage criteria is an NP-hard problem. Therefore, search-based approaches are required to find such (near) optimal test sequences. Results The experimental analysis compares the search-based technique with a greedy algorithm on a set of 12 hierarchical concurrent models of programs extracted from the literature. Our proposed search-based approaches (GTSG and ACOts) are able to generate test sequences by finding the shortest valid path to achieve full class (state) and transition coverage. Conclusion The extended classification tree is useful for generating of test sequences. Moreover, the experimental analysis reveals that our search-based approaches are better than the greedy deterministic approach, especially in the most complex instances. All presented algorithms are actually integrated into a professional tool for functional testing.

Javier Ferrer; Peter M. Kruse; Francisco Chicano; Enrique Alba

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

Redondo, L. M.; Canacsinh, H.; Ferrao, N.; Mendes, C. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL), R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro 1, Lisbon 1959-007 (Portugal); Nuclear Physics Center-Lisbon University (CFNUL), Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, Lisbon 1649-003 (Portugal); Silva, J. Fernando [Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering-TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Soares, R. [Nuclear Physics Center--Lisbon University (CFNUL), Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, Lisbon 1649-003 (Portugal); ABT Group, TE Department, Site de Prevessin, FR-01631 CERN (Switzerland); Schipper, J.; Fowler, A. [ABT Group, TE Department, Site de Prevessin, FR-01631 CERN (Switzerland)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

An index based on the biodiversity of cetacean species to assess the environmental status of marine ecosystems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires the assessment of the environmental status in relation to human pressures. In this study the biodiversity of the cetacean community is proposed as MSFD descriptor of the environmental status and its link with anthropogenic pressures is investigated. Functional groups are generally favoured over indicator species since they are thought to better reflect to anthropogenic stressors. Cetaceans are in many situations the most well known component of pelagic ecosystems. Their habitat requirements are known and can be used to evaluate the theoretical biodiversity that should be expected in a certain area. The deviations between the theoretical biodiversity and the actual biodiversity may be used to detect the impacts of human activities. Based on this analysis fishery resulted to be by far the most significant of the existing pressures. Among all the species, bottlenose dolphin was found the most correlated with the fishery sector dynamics.

Arianna Azzellino; Maria Cristina Fossi; Stefania Gaspari; Caterina Lanfredi; Giancarlo Lauriano; Letizia Marsili; Simone Panigada; Michela Podestà

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

A graph-based approach enhancing correctness and speed of web services composition through explicit specification of functional semantics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since most of studies on the automated composition of web services do not consider the functional semantics of services, unsatisfied results may be generated against users' intentions. Their time complexity is very high since every possible combination of available services must be considered. To enhance the correctness and speed of the composition of services, we propose a graph-based composition method, which explicitly specifies and uses the functional semantics of web services. A representative action, which represents what a service actually does, is identified. Data dependencies among available services are organised and stored as an AND/OR graph, on which service composition is performed. Rules are devised to map a service onto an appropriate action and to combine service actions. Effective pruning rules are also proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in terms of the correctness and speed of service composition.

Dong-Hoon Shin; Kyong-Ho Lee; Fuyuki Ishikawa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Waste Segregation Based on Derived Clearance Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the methodology and results of a radiological modeling in support of an application to release very low level radiologically contaminated waste from regulatory control and allow its haulage and disposal in a hazardous waste landfill. The Canadian regulatory body responsible for licensing operations involving nuclear materials (the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission), has not yet formally defined clearance levels for free release of low level radiologically contaminated waste. The IAEA clearance levels have been derived for certain situations and receptor characteristics, which might be too conservative for an actual case. A site-specific pathways analysis was therefore completed to define conditional clearance levels using the concept of de minimis dose limit. Derived Conditional Clearance Levels were calculated for each radionuclide based on the maximally exposed hypothetical individuals to determine whether each waste stream can be 'cleared' from regulatory controls. The results showed that haulage of the waste from the station to the haulage/processing facility and transportation of waste or sludge from the haulage/processing facility to the disposal facility, handling of the waste or sludge at the haulage/processing facility, and incineration and/or disposal of waste or sludge at the disposal facility would not expose the workers to doses above 0.1 {mu}Sv/yr., which is less than the de minimis dose limit of 10 {mu}Sv/yr. (authors)

Garisto, N.C.; Parhizgari, Z. [SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, ON (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Linear eddy mixing based tabulation and artificial neural networks for large eddy simulations of turbulent flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large eddy simulation (LES) sub-grid model is developed based on the artificial neural network (ANN) approach to calculate the species instantaneous reaction rates for multi-step, multi-species chemical kinetics mechanisms. The proposed methodology depends on training the ANNs off-line on a thermo-chemical database representative of the actual composition and turbulence (but not the actual geometrical problem) of interest, and later using them to replace the stiff ODE solver (direct integration (DI)) to calculate the reaction rates in the sub-grid. The thermo-chemical database is tabulated with respect to the thermodynamic state vector without any reduction in the number of state variables. The thermo-chemistry is evolved by stand-alone linear eddy mixing (LEM) model simulations under both premixed and non-premixed conditions, where the unsteady interaction of turbulence with chemical kinetics is included as a part of the training database. The proposed methodology is tested in LES and in stand-alone LEM studies of three distinct test cases with different reduced mechanisms and conditions. LES of premixed flame-turbulence-vortex interaction provides direct comparison of the proposed ANN method against DI and ANNs trained on thermo-chemical database created using another type of tabulation method. It is shown that the ANN trained on the LEM database can capture the correct flame physics with accuracy comparable to DI, which cannot be achieved by ANN trained on a laminar premix flame database. A priori evaluation of the ANN generality within and outside its training domain is carried out using stand-alone LEM simulations as well. Results in general are satisfactory, and it is shown that the ANN provides considerable amount of memory saving and speed-up with reasonable and reliable accuracy. The speed-up is strongly affected by the stiffness of the reduced mechanism used for the computations, whereas the memory saving is considerable regardless. (author)

Sen, Baris Ali; Menon, Suresh [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 270 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 (United States)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Reliability and performance of a system-on-a-chip by predictive wear-out based activation of functional components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A processor-implemented method for determining aging of a processing unit in a processor the method comprising: calculating an effective aging profile for the processing unit wherein the effective aging profile quantifies the effects of aging on the processing unit; combining the effective aging profile with process variation data, actual workload data and operating conditions data for the processing unit; and determining aging through an aging sensor of the processing unit using the effective aging profile, the process variation data, the actual workload data, architectural characteristics and redundancy data, and the operating conditions data for the processing unit.

Cher, Chen-Yong; Coteus, Paul W; Gara, Alan; Kursun, Eren; Paulsen, David P; Schuelke, Brian A; Sheets, II, John E; Tian, Shurong

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Review of Current Practice in the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are based on actual energy production rather than on thecredits (RECs) via energy production-based payments areof estimated annual energy production – expressed either on

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Tracking the Sun II: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

based on solar energy production. Tracking the Sun II: Thea projection of annual energy production. Several programs,based on actual energy production, as either a supplement or

Barbose, Galen L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Construction Strategies of Public Rental Housing Based on Energy Efficiency Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy Efficiency is the indispensable investment factor in the social economic growth. As a macroscopic direction to evaluate the energy effect, the energy efficiency mechanism is integrating into the actual operation of our urban development gradually ... Keywords: energy efficiency mechanism, Public Rental Housing, existed residential renewal, social energy efficiency, economic energy efficiency, environmental energy efficiency, Construction strategy

Xu Yuhui; Lv Yanke

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

An enriched undergraduate research experience based on the simulation, experiments, and theory of fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cells are one of the key enabling technologies for future hydrogen economy. Some applications for fuel cells can be found in aerospace, automobile vehicles, power generation, etc. Despite their modern high-tech aura, fuel cells actually have been ... Keywords: fuel cell, mathematical model, mentoring, power electronics, renewable energy, undergraduate research

Eduardo Ortiz-Rivera; Andres Salazar-Llinas; Jose Velez-Delgado

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

BEAM: Bus Encoding Based on Instruction-Set-Aware Memories Yazdan Aghaghiri  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hardware overhead. The actual power savings of 85% for the instruction bus and 64% for the data bus were achieved for a per-line bus capacitance of 10pF. 1 Introduction With the rapid increase in the complexity consumption has become a key consideration in the design process. In every processor, a considerable number

Pedram, Massoud

309

Wire-Tap Codes as Side-Channel Countermeasure an FPGA-based experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

designs to actualize a full AES- 128 encryption engine of the scheme, we provide practical side features of the scheme ­ with respect to its area and power overhead its advantages are very marginal]). Along the same line different masking approaches like additive [6], multiplicative [1], and affine [9

310

Can the U.S. Oil and Gas Resource Base Support Sustained Production?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that stable U.S. production levels ofthe first half...stable levels of domestic production? The productive character...Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC). Statistics show...682,000 barrels a day (12). If adjustments...actual increase in Alaska production during 1986 and for...

WILLIAM L. FISHER

1987-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

311

Towards Agent-Based Multi-Site Scheduling Jrgen Sauer1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

networks, where apart from the actual production process transport and stock keeping gain importance transport and stock keeping are of increased importance, since they strongly affect a company's ability In the past companies have often been regarded as self-contained units with well-defined business

Appelrath, Hans-Jürgen

312

Comparison of strength and load-based methods for testing wind turbine blades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods of blade test loading and show how they are applied in an actual blade test. Strength and load-based methods were examined to determine the test load for an Atlantic Orient Corporation (AOC) 15/50 wind turbine blade for fatigue and static testing. Fatigue load-based analysis was performed using measured field test loads extrapolated for extreme rare events and scaled to thirty-year spectra. An accelerated constant amplitude fatigue test that gives equivalent damage at critical locations was developed using Miner`s Rule and the material S-N curves. Test load factors were applied to adjust the test loads for uncertainties, and differences between the test and operating environment. Similar analyses were carried, out for the strength-based fatigue test using the strength of the blade and the material properties to determine the load level and number of constant amplitude cycles to failure. Static tests were also developed using load and strength criteria. The resulting test loads were compared and contrasted. The analysis shows that, for the AOC 15/50 blade, the strength-based test loads are higher than any of the static load-based cases considered but were exceeded in the fatigue analysis for a severe hot/wet environment.

Musial, W.D.; Clark, M.E.; Egging, N. [and others

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A novel voltage and frequency controller for standalone DFIG based Wind Energy Conversion System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a new speed-sensorless control strategy for a stand-alone doubly-fed induction generator supplying energy to an isolated load. The method is based on the root mean square (rms) detection scheme. The generated stator voltage is controlled via rotor currents. Amplitude of stator voltage and its frequency are controlled simultaneously. The output signals from the voltage controllers are the reference signals for the rotor current amplitude and frequency of the stator voltage is regulated with the help of frequency control loop. This developed direct voltage control method is applicable for both the balanced and unbalanced load and also for standalone and grid connected mode. The control pulses for the rotor side converter is supplied by the hysteresis controller which is operated on the error signal calculated between actual and reference rotor currents. This paper also provides the brief idea about the voltage and frequency control on modern Autonomous DFIG based Wind Energy Systems via single phase mathematical model of standalone DFIG system. A short state-of-the-art review on mechanical position/speed sensorless control schemes for autonomous DFIG based \\{WESs\\} is presented, which helps the present researcher and students working in this area. These include stator flux oriented control techniques; direct voltage control techniques; MARS observer based techniques for autonomous DFIG-based variable-speed WESs. Simulation results obtained from a 2MVA DFIG system, prototype in MATLab/Simulink, are presented and discussed in this paper.

Rishabh Dev Shukla; Ramesh Kumar Tripathi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Radioisotope power system based on derivative of existing Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a recent paper, the authors presented the results of a system design study of a 75-watt(c) RSG (Radioisotope Stirling Generator) for possible application to the Pluto Fast Flyby mission. That study was based on a Stirling engine design generated by MTI (Mechanical Technology, Inc.). The MTI design was a derivative of a much larger (13 kwe) engine that they had developed and tested for NASA`s LERC. Clearly, such a derivative would be a major extrapolation (downsizing) from what has actually been built and tested. To avoid that, the present paper describes a design for a 75-watt RSG system based on derivatives of a small (11-watt) engine and linear alternator system that has been under development by STC (Stirling Technology Company) for over three years and that has operated successfully for over 15,000 hours as of March 1995. Thus, the STC engines would require much less extrapolation from proven designs. The design employs a heat source consisting of two standard General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, coupled to four Stirling engines with linear alternators, any three of which could deliver the desired 75-watt(e) output if the fourth should fail. The four engines are coupled to four common radiators with redundant heatpipes for rejecting the engines` waste heat to space. The above engine and radiator redundancies promote system reliability. The paper describes detailed analyses to determine the effect of radiator geometry on system mass and performance, before and after an engine or heatpipe failure.

Schock, A.; Or, C.T.; Kumar, V. [Orbital Sciences Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Avalanche photodiode based detector for beam emission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An avalanche photodiode based (APD) detector for the visible wavelength range was developed for low light level, high frequency beam emission spectroscopy (BES) experiments in fusion plasmas. This solid state detector has higher quantum efficiency than photomultiplier tubes, and unlike normal photodiodes, it has internal gain. This paper describes the developed detector as well as the noise model of the electronic circuit. By understanding the noise sources and the amplification process, the optimal amplifier and APD reverse voltage setting can be determined, where the signal-to-noise ratio is the highest for a given photon flux. The calculations are compared to the absolute calibration results of the implemented circuit. It was found that for a certain photon flux range, relevant for BES measurements ({approx_equal}10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} photons/s), the new detector is superior to both photomultipliers and photodiodes, although it does not require cryogenic cooling of any component. The position of this photon flux window sensitively depends on the parameters of the actual experimental implementation (desired bandwidth, detector size, etc.) Several detector units based on these developments have been built and installed in various tokamaks. Some illustrative results are presented from the 8-channel trial BES system installed at Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) and the 16-channel BES system installed at the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR).

Dunai, D.; Zoletnik, S.; Sarkoezi, J. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Field, A. R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Patch-Levy-based initialization algorithm for Bees Algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Bees Algorithm (BA) is a population-based metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of honeybees. This algorithm has been successfully used as an optimization tool in combinatorial and functional optimization fields. In addition, its behavior very closely mimics the actual behavior that occurs in nature, and it is very simple and easy to implement. However, its convergence speed to the optimal solution still needs further improvement and it also needs a mechanism to obviate getting trapped in local optima. In this paper, a novel initialization algorithm based on the patch concept and Levy flight distribution is proposed to initialize the population of bees in BA. Consequently, we incorporate this initialization procedure into a proposed enhanced BA variant. The proposed variant is more natural than conventional variants of BA. It mimics the patch environment in nature and Levy flight, which is believed to characterize the foraging patterns of bees in nature. The results of experiments conducted on several widely used high-dimensional benchmarks indicate that our proposed enhanced BA variant significantly outperforms other BA variants and state-of-the-art variants of the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm in terms of solution quality, convergence speed, and success rate. In addition, the results of experimental analyses conducted indicate that our proposed enhanced BA is very stable, has the ability to deal with differences in search ranges, and rapidly converges without getting stuck in local optima.

Wasim A. Hussein; Shahnorbanun Sahran; Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell utilizing the structure CuInGaSe.sub.2 CdZnS/ZnO  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin film I-III-VI.sub.2 based solar cell having a first layer of copper indium gallium selenide, a second layer of cadmium zinc sulfide, a double layer of zinc oxide, and a metallization structure comprised of a layer of nickel covered by a layer of aluminum. An optional antireflective coating may be placed on said metallization structure. The cadmium zinc sulfide layer is deposited by means of an aqueous solution growth deposition process and may actually consist of two layers: a low zinc content layer and a high zinc content layer. Photovoltaic efficiencies of 12.5% at Air Mass 1.5 illumination conditions and 10.4% under AMO illumination can be achieved.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

318

Smart Home Design for Disabled People based on Neural Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Toward facilitating the everyday life of disabled people researches have put together technologies such as computing, networking and telecommunication in one environment called a Smart Home. Enabling disabled people to overcome their handicap by providing a system that replaces what they lack is what makes such a work interesting and important. We have developed such a space by stepping ahead of past researches and not only reaching a preprogrammed automatic home, but also a learning and self-adapting intelligent home. This was accomplished by integrating two types of neural networks to our system. To show the effectiveness of the system, we developed a first prototype that covers parts of the theoretical design. Further work can be done by actually transforming our prototype to an actual house where disabled people may benefit from.

Ali Hussein; Mehdi Adda; Mirna Atieh; Walid Fahs

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

NETL: Pilot Testing of a Highly Effective Pre-Combustion Sorbent-Based  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pilot Testing of a Highly Effective Pre-Combustion Sorbent-Based Carbon Capture System Pilot Testing of a Highly Effective Pre-Combustion Sorbent-Based Carbon Capture System Project No.: DE-FE0013105 TDA is developing a new sorbent-based pre-combustion carbon capture technology for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The process, which was evaluated at bench-scale under a previous effort, uses an advanced physical adsorbent that selectively removes CO2 from coal derived synthesis gas (syngas) above the dew point of the gas. The sorbent consists of a mesoporous carbon grafted with surface functional groups that remove CO2 via an acid-base interaction. The reactor design will be optimized by using computational fluid dynamics and adsorption modeling to improve the pressure swing adsorption cycle sequence. The research will include: two 0.1 MWe tests with a fully-equipped prototype unit using actual synthesis gas to prove the viability of the new technology; long-term sorbent life evaluation in a bench-scale setup of 20,000 cycles; the fabrication of a pilot-scale testing unit that will contain eight sorbent reactors; and the design of a CO2 purification sub-system. The CO2 removal technology will significantly improve (3 to 4 percent) the IGCC process efficiency needed for economically viable production of power from coal.

320

Dynamic characteristic testing for MEMS micro-devices with base excitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study of the dynamic characteristics of MEMS micro-devices depends on relevant testing facilities. Testing with a base excitation method was studied and employed in practical tests. A system for the dynamic characteristic testing of MEMS micro-devices was built based on a PZT transducer as the shock excitation source. A high voltage power source for the PZT transducer, which can provide large transient current, was developed for impact generation. Experiments for testing micro piezoelectric cantilevers were accomplished with the base excitation method. The impact response, i.e. electric charge signal generated by the micro piezoelectric cantilever, was acquired. By performing spectral analysis and comparison of the result with another cantilever having different resonance frequencies, the resonance frequency of the tested microstructure was determined. For comparison, simulation of the piezoelectric cantilever with a finite element analysis (FEA) method was carried out. Because the theory analysis is in good agreement with the experiment results, it can be used to estimate the actual resonance frequency of the tested microstructure. The base excitation method was also applied in the dynamic testing of microstructures under a high-g force environment. By the exclusion of the resonance peaks of PZT transducer and noise frequencies, the resonance frequency of the tested microstructure was determined. The applicability and the limitation of the method were briefly discussed.

X D Wang; N Li; T Wang; M W Liu; L D Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Auto-DR and Pre-cooling of Buildings at Tri-City Corporate Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Daily Electrical Consumption of Simulation Model vs. ActualDaily Electrical Consumption of Simulation Model vs. ActualHourly Electrical Consumption of Simulation Model vs. Actual

Yin, Rongxin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

1.Field intensity values in the original source documents were expressed in a range of upper and lower values (e.g.40 to 80 milligauss).For illustrative purposes,mid-point values were used in this chart.Actual values may be higher or lower.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to 5 mG Transmission Lines (115-500 kV) Distribution Lines (34.5 kV and under) 50 feet 100 to electric transmission and distribution lines.You will see that many common items are higher than LIPA that the magnetic fields at the edge of right-of-way for transmission lines would not exceed 150 mG.

Krstic, Miroslav

323

FY 2015 Budget Request Webinar  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

based on actual integrated biorefinery project plant performance data. eere.energy.gov 19 Bioenergy Technologies - FY 2015 Budget Request (Dollars in Thousands) FY 2013 Current FY...

324

Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

processing technology data based on actual experimental data - SimaPro - a commercial LCA software package used for life cycle analysis Source: Powell et. al (2010) 13 Managed...

325

Automated Measurement and Signaling Systems for the Transactional Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

difference between the actual load data and the baseline.4 Model based on load dataon historic electric load data and explanatory variables (

Piette, Mary Ann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

winter_peak_2005.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)...

327

Title Slide Examples  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

measures * Multi-fuel, performance based * Total energy use performance period * Target EUI vs. actual * Piloting in deep retrofit program * 6 projects in pilot Construction...

328

Software Quality Assurance Plan Example | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assurance Plan Example Software Quality Assurance Plan Example An example of a software quality assurance plan developed from an actual DOE project SQA plan based on DOE G...

329

"We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimation of late effects was based on the actual doses in the Soviet scientists argued that health effects caused by radiation

Kuchinskaya, Olga

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

A REVIEW OF ASSUMPTIONS AND ANALYSIS IN EPRI EA-3409, "HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE CHOICE: REVISION OF REEPS BEHAVIORAL MODELS"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

construction costs and fuel prices were used to translatethe model to the data. Fuel Price Expectations EPRl's modelswere based on the actual fuel prices faced by the consumer

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

United States Entity Columbia River Treaty  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

that reflects the actual value of coordinated power operations with Canada, maintains an acceptable level of flood risk and supports a resilient and healthy ecosystem-based...

332

Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Review of Current Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

based on the actual energy production of the PV system overof estimated annual energy production, expressed either onto maximize annual energy production. Although some programs

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Data bases for rapid response to power reactor problems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The urgency of the TMI-2 incident demanded prompt answers to an imperious situation. In responding to these challenging circumstances, both government and industry recognized deficiencies in both availability of essential retrievable data and calculational capabilities designed to respond immediately to actual abnormal events. Each responded by initiating new programs to provide a remedy for the deficiencies and to generally improve all safety measures in the nuclear power industry. Many data bases and information centers offer generic data and other technology resources which are generally useful in support of nuclear safety programs. A few centers can offer rapid access to calculational methods and associated data and more will make an effort to do so. As a beneficial spin-off from the lessons learned from TMI-2, more technical effort and financial resources will be devoted to the prevention of accidents, and to improvement of safety measures in the immediate future and for long term R and D programs by both government and the nuclear power industry.

Maskewitz, B.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Manganese-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intent of this study is to perform a preliminary screening on a particular Mn-based sorbent, CST-939 (from Chemetals), for hot gas desulfurization. The purpose of the preliminary screening is to determine which temperature and type of coal gas this sorbent demonstrates the greatest capacity and efficiency for sulfur removal. The following conclusions were made from the data collected on the CST-939 sorbent: The sorbent efficiency and capacity are much greater at 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F) than at 871{degrees}C (1,600{degrees}F). The sorbent efficiency and capacity are much greater in the presence of the more highly-reducing Shell gas than with the less-reducing KRW gas. The sorbent showed tremendous capacity for sulfur pickup, with actual loadings as high as 21 weight percent. Oxidative regeneration at 871{degrees}C (1,600{degrees}F) appeared to decompose sulfate; however, unusually high SO{sub 2} release during the second sulfidations and/or reductive regenerations indicated incomplete regeneration. The average crush strength of the reacted sorbent did not indicate any loss of strength as compared to the fresh sorbent. Superior sorbent performance was obtained in the presence of simulated Shell gas at 538{degrees}C (1,000{degrees}F).

Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Fisher, E.P. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Goyette, W.J. [Chemetals, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Taming Wild Horses: The Need for Virtual Time-based Scheduling of VMs in Network Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The next generation of scalable network simulators employ virtual machines (VMs) to act as high-fidelity models of traffic producer/consumer nodes in simulated networks. However, network simulations could be inaccurate if VMs are not scheduled according to virtual time, especially when many VMs are hosted per simulator core in a multi-core simulator environment. Since VMs are by default free-running, on the outset, it is not clear if, and to what extent, their untamed execution affects the results in simulated scenarios. Here, we provide the first quantitative basis for establishing the need for generalized virtual time scheduling of VMs in network simulators, based on an actual prototyped implementations. To exercise breadth, our system is tested with multiple disparate applications: (a) a set of message passing parallel programs, (b) a computer worm propagation phenomenon, and (c) a mobile ad-hoc wireless network simulation. We define and use error metrics and benchmarks in scaled tests to empirically report the poor match of traditional, fairness-based VM scheduling to VM-based network simulation, and also clearly show the better performance of our simulation-specific scheduler, with up to 64 VMs hosted on a 12-core simulator node.

Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Henz, Brian J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Fault diagnosis of electric railway traction substation with model-based relation guiding algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Most diagnosis systems used in electric railway traction substation are expert systems based on experience, which cannot diagnose faults beyond experience and are very difficult for transplantation and maintenance. In this paper, the model-based diagnosis (MBD) with integration reasoning is firstly used for fault diagnosis of electric railway traction substation. Aiming at the structural characteristics and actual demands of traction substation, we propose a detailed application plan. Rules for element and system models are established. In addition, we propose a relation guiding algorithm (RGA) for searching candidates of minimal conflict set, in which the hidden messages of analytical redundancy relations can be made full use of and the searching space is reduced further. Taking the autotransformer (AT) traction substation in Hefei–Nanjing Passenger Link of China Railway as an example, we construct models for different device objects, and give the descriptions of system model in traction substation. Based on a sequence of fault observations, the fault diagnosis is tested with the proposed plan. The diagnosis result shows that the application plan with MBD and integration reasoning is feasible and effective for traction substation.

Zhigang Liu; Zhiwei Han

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Artificial neural network based torque calculation of switched reluctance motor without locking the rotor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Feedback of motor torque is required in most of switched reluctance (SR) motor applications in order to control torque and its ripple. An SR motor shows highly nonlinear property which does not allow calculating torque analytically. Torque can be directly measured by torque sensor but it inevitably increases the cost and has to be properly mounted on the motor shaft. Instead of torque sensor finite element analysis(FEA) may be employed for torque calculation. However motor modeling and calculation takes relatively long time. The results of FEA may also differ from the actual results. The most convenient way seems to calculate torque from the measured values of rotor position current and flux linkage while locking the rotor at definite positions. However this method needs an extra assembly to lock the rotor. In this study a novel torque calculation based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented. Magnetizing data are collected while a 6/4 SR motor is running. They need to be interpolated for torque calculation. ANN is very strong tool for data interpolation. ANN based torque estimation is verified on the 6/4 SR motor and is compared by FEA based torque estimation to show its validity.

Fuat Kucuk; Hiroki Goto; Hai-Jiao Guo; Osamu Ichinokura

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A robust CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation control strategy for multi-zone HVAC systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There have been increasingly growing concerns over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV is one of the strategies that could offer a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC systems. However, implementing CO2-based DCV under ASHRAE Standard 62.1 2004–2010 is not simple as it was under previous versions due to the changes in breathing-zone ventilating rate calculations. Thus, this paper provides insight into the performance of a multi-zone VAV system under different operating and ventilation conditions, discusses the difficulties in the CO2-based DCV, and proposes a robust DCV strategy based on the supply air CO2 concentration. The proposed strategy offers great benefits in terms of better indoor air control and improved energy efficiency. To evaluate the proposed strategy, energy simulations were performed on various USA locations and for a typical two-story office building conditioned by a VAV system. The results show that a significant energy saving could be achieved by implementing the proposed strategy as compared to the design-occupancy ASHRAE Standard 62.1 2010 multi-zone procedure and the amount of saving that could be up to 23% depends mainly on locations and the actual occupancy profile.

Nabil Nassif

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Latitude Based Model for Tilt Angle Optimization for Solar Collectors in the Mediterranean Region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper inspects the different parameters that intervene in the determination of the optimal tilt angle for maximum solar energy collection. It proposes a method for calculating the optimal tilt angle based upon the values of the daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. A computer program using the mathematical model to calculate the solar radiation incident on an inclined surface as a function of the tilt angle is implemented. Four years data of daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in 35 sites in different countries of the Mediterranean region is used. The program assumes a due south orientation of the collectors and it determines the optimal tilt angle for maximum solar radiation collection for sites in the Mediterranean region. A regression analysis using the results of the computer simulation is conducted to develop a latitude based tilt angle optimization mathematical model for maximum solar radiation collection for the sites. We tested both a linear and a quadratic model (of the form ax2+bx) for representing the relationship between the annual optimal tilt angle and the site's latitude. The quadratic model is better; it provides very high prediction accuracy. 99.87% of the variation in the annual optimal tilt angle is explained by the variability in site's latitude with an average residual angle of only 0.96° for all 35 sites studied. It also gives an average percentage decrease in the annual solar radiation of only 0.016% when compared with actual optimal tilt angles.

Hassane Darhmaoui; Driss Lahjouji

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hybrid data mining-regression for infrastructure risk assessment based on zero-inflated data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Infrastructure disaster risk assessment seeks to estimate the probability of a given customer or area losing service during a disaster, sometimes in conjunction with estimating the duration of each outage. This is often done on the basis of past data about the effects of similar events impacting the same or similar systems. In many situations this past performance data from infrastructure systems is zero-inflated; it has more zeros than can be appropriately modeled with standard probability distributions. The data are also often non-linear and exhibit threshold effects due to the complexities of infrastructure system performance. Standard zero-inflated statistical models such as zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models do not adequately capture these complexities. In this paper we develop a novel method that is a hybrid classification tree/regression method for complex, zero-inflated data sets. We investigate its predictive accuracy based on a large number of simulated data sets and then demonstrate its practical usefulness with an application to hurricane power outage risk assessment for a large utility based on actual data from the utility. While formulated for infrastructure disaster risk assessment, this method is promising for data-driven analysis for other situations with zero-inflated, complex data exhibiting response thresholds.

S.D. Guikema; S.M. Quiring

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Connectivity-based, all-hexahedral mesh generation method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a computer-based method and apparatus for constructing all-hexahedral finite element meshes for finite element analysis. The present invention begins with a three-dimensional geometry and an all-quadrilateral surface mesh, then constructs hexahedral element connectivity from the outer boundary inward, and then resolves invalid connectivity. The result of the present invention is a complete representation of hex mesh connectivity only; actual mesh node locations are determined later. The basic method of the present invention comprises the step of forming hexahedral elements by making crossings of entities referred to as "whisker chords." This step, combined with a seaming operation in space, is shown to be sufficient for meshing simple block problems. Entities that appear when meshing more complex geometries, namely blind chords, merged sheets, and self-intersecting chords, are described. A method for detecting invalid connectivity in space, based on repeated edges, is also described, along with its application to various cases of invalid connectivity introduced and resolved by the method.

Tautges, Timothy James (Albuquerque, NM); Mitchell, Scott A. (Albuquerque, NM); Blacker, Ted D. (Green Oaks, IL); Murdoch, Peter (Salt Lake City, UT)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Spectrum survey for reliable communications of cognitive radio based smart grid network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The smart grid (SG) system is expected to involve huge amount of data with different levels of priorities to different applications or users. The traditional grid which tend to deploy propriety networks with limited coverage and bandwidth, is not sufficient to support large scale SG network. Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising communication platform for SG network by utilizing potentially all available spectrum resources, subject to interference constraint. In order to develop a reliable communication framework for CR based SG network, thorough investigations on the current radio spectrum are required. This paper presents the spectrum utilization in Malaysia, specifically in the UHF/VHF bands, cellular (GSM 900, GSM 1800 and 3G), WiMAX, ISM and LTE band. The goal is to determine the potential spectrum that can be exploit by the CR users in the SG network. Measurements was conducted for 24 hours to quantify the average spectrum usage and the amount of available bandwidth. The findings in this paper are important to provide insight of actual spectrum utilization prior to developing a reliable communication platform for CR based SG network.

Wan Farah Aqilah; Shanjeevan Jayavalan; Norazizah Mohd Aripin; Hafizal Mohamad; Aiman Ismail

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Thermodynamic and economic evaluations of a geothermal district heating system using advanced exergy-based methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, a geothermal district heating system (GDHS) is comparatively evaluated in terms of thermodynamic and economic aspects using advanced exergy-based methods to identify the potential for improvement, the interactions among system components, and the direction and potential for energy savings. The actual operational data are taken from the Sarayköy GDHS, Turkey. In the advanced exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses, the exergy destruction and the total operating cost within each component of the system are split into endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable parts. The advantages of these analyses over conventional ones are demonstrated. The results indicate that the advanced exergy-based method is a more meaningful and effective tool than the conventional one for system performance evaluation. The exergetic efficiency and the exergoeconomic factor of the overall system for the Sarayköy GDHS were determined to be 43.72% and 5.25% according to the conventional tools and 45.06% and 12.98% according to the advanced tools. The improvement potential and the total cost-savings potential of the overall system were also determined to be 2.98% and 14.05%, respectively. All of the pumps have the highest improvement potential and total cost-savings potential because the pumps were selected to have high power during installation at the Sarayköy GDHS.

Mehmet Tan; Ali Keçeba?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Discovering New Agents Active against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Ligand-Based Approaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(32-35) Additionally, the actual predication power of each model was evaluated with three independent external testing sets. ... (30, 41-45) To identify the descriptors that are significantly associated with anti-MRSA activity, we conducted Student’s t-tests (p-value, Table 2). ... Distribution of MCC values and overall accuracy values based on different active cutoff values using ECFP_6 and LCFP_4 fingerprints (Figure S1), important favorable and unfavorable fragments for anti-MRSA activity obtained from Bayesian classifiers (Figure S2), schematic representation of anti-MRSA compounds discovery strategy (Figure S3), detailed information on training set and test set and their predicted results based on NB_LCPF_12 model (5451, Table S1), structural diversity comparison of the compounds from COMDECOM, DrugBank, and WDI databases (Tables S2), detailed information on 217 external tested compounds, 284 MIC50 and 348 MIC90 assay compounds (Tables S3, S4, S5), and EstPGood score of 219 compounds from GSMTL database and 56 hits selected for in vitro microbiological assay (Table S6). ...

Ling Wang; Xiu Le; Long Li; Yingchen Ju; Zhongxiang Lin; Qiong Gu; Jun Xu

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

345

Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for cement manufacturing plants.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing the plant performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing plants can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the cement manufacturing industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for assembly plants that produce a variety of products, including Portland cement and other specialty cement products, in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for cement manufacturing plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

Boyd, G.; Decision and Information Sciences

2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

346

Economic analysis of coal-fired cogeneration plants for Air Force bases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Appropriations Act of 1986 requires the Department of Defense to use an additional 1,600,000 tons/year of coal at their US facilities by 1995 and also states that the most economical fuel should be used at each facility. In a previous study of Air Force heating plants burning gas or oil, Oak Ridge National Laboratory found that only a small fraction of this target 1,600,000 tons/year could be achieved by converting the plants where coal is economically viable. To identify projects that would use greater amounts of coal, the economic benefits of installing coal-fired cogeneration plants at 7 candidate Air Force bases were examined in this study. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed that included two types of financing (Air Force and private) and three levels of energy escalation for a total of six economic scenarios. Hill, McGuire, and Plattsburgh Air Force Bases were identified as the facilities with the best potential for coal-fired cogeneration, but the actual cost savings will depend strongly on how the projects are financed and to a lesser extent on future energy escalation rates. 10 refs., 11 figs., 27 tabs.

Holcomb, R.S.; Griffin, F.P.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Development and application of proposed ASME Section XI Code changes for risk-based inspection of piping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This synopsis has been written to describe a perspective on the development and application of ASME Section XI Code changes for risk-based inspection of piping. The content is specifically related to the use of risk-based technology for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of piping and efforts made to support the ASME Research/Westinghouse Owners Group/Millstone Unit 3 approach for use of this technology. The opinions contained herein may or may not reflect those of the ASME Codes and Standards Committees responsible for these activities. In order to take such a detailed technical subject and put it into an understandable format, the author has chosen to provide an analogy to simplify what is actually taking place. Risk-based technology in the ISI of piping can be likened to the process of making and using specifically ground prescription glasses to allow for better vision. It provides a process to develop and use these uniquely ground glasses that will dynamically focus on all the locations and obstacles within a plant`s piping systems that could cause that plant to trip and fall; more importantly it identifies the locations where the fall could possibly hurt someone else. In this way, Nuclear Safety is being addressed.

West, R.A. [Northeast Utilities Millstone Nuclear Power Station-USA, Hartford, CT (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

New MS-Windows-Based Educational Software for Teaching the Sunpath Diagram and Shading Mask Protractor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mask 1 Degrees South Latitude. This combined le sunpath diagram and shading mask yrurr uuurjur u gertical surface facing 30 degrees east of south. FIGURE 7: Data Input Summaryfor the Partial Shading Device. The dimensions of the partial shading..., the shac similarly dimensioned device published in thc In Figure 7 and 8 the front shade is actually the has been rotated 90 degrees, re-sized and moved 1 directly below the horizontal shade. Architectural Graphics Standard is shown in Figure 9...

Oh, J. K. W.; Haberl, J. S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

ESTIMATION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT BURDEN RESULTING FROM A PROLONGED INHALATION EXPOSURE TO AEROSOLS OF DU, BASED ON THE U IN A 24-H URINE SAMPLE TAKEN YEARS AFTER EXPOSURE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the actual DU fraction is undetermined...a preferential release of the 234U with...gets one per DU fraction, namely 673.108...20 m3 and a mean airborne concentration of...the uncontrolled release of DU. Individuals...particles generated in fires or during the impact......

M. Valdés

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Developing a CD-CBM Anticipatory Approach for Cavitation - Defining a Model-Based Descriptor Consistent Across Processes, Phase 1 Final Report Context-Dependent Prognostics and Health Assessment: A New Paradigm for Condition-based Maintenance SBIR Topic No. N98-114  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research, and subsequent testing, was to identify specific features of cavitation that could be used as a model-based descriptor in a context-dependent condition-based maintenance (CD-CBM) anticipatory prognostic and health assessment model. This descriptor is based on the physics of the phenomena, capturing the salient features of the process dynamics. The test methodology and approach were developed to make the cavitation features the dominant effect in the process and collected signatures. This would allow the accurate characterization of the salient cavitation features at different operational states. By developing such an abstraction, these attributes can be used as a general diagnostic for a system or any of its components. In this study, the particular focus will be pumps. As many as 90% of pump failures are catastrophic. They seem to be operating normally and fail abruptly without warning. This is true whether the failure is sudden hardware damage requiring repair, such as a gasket failure, or a transition into an undesired operating mode, such as cavitation. This means that conventional diagnostic methods fail to predict 90% of incipient failures and that in addressing this problem, model-based methods can add value where it is actually needed.

Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Kercel, S.W.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Routing performance analysis and optimization within a massively parallel computer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus, program product and method optimize the operation of a massively parallel computer system by, in part, receiving actual performance data concerning an application executed by the plurality of interconnected nodes, and analyzing the actual performance data to identify an actual performance pattern. A desired performance pattern may be determined for the application, and an algorithm may be selected from among a plurality of algorithms stored within a memory, the algorithm being configured to achieve the desired performance pattern based on the actual performance data.

Archer, Charles Jens; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

352

Forecasting GHG emissions using an optimized artificial neural network model based on correlation and principal component analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The prediction of GHG emissions is very important due to their negative impacts on climate and global warming. The aim of this study was to develop a model for GHG forecasting emissions at the national level using a new approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and broadly available sustainability, economical and industrial indicators acting as inputs. The ANN model architecture and training parameters were optimized, with inputs being selected using correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The developed ANN models were compared with the corresponding multiple linear regression (MLR) model, while an ANN model created using transformed inputs (principal components) was compared with a principal component regression (PCR) model. Since the best results were obtained with the ANN model based on correlation analysis, that particular model was selected for the actual 2011 GHG emissions forecasting. The relative errors of the 2010 GHG emissions predictions were used to adjust the ANN model predictions for 2011, which subsequently resulted in the adjusted 2011 predictions having a MAPE value of only 3.60%. Sensitivity analysis showed that gross inland energy consumption had the highest sensitivity to GHG emissions.

Davor Z. Antanasijevi?; Mirjana ?. Risti?; Aleksandra A. Peri?-Gruji?; Viktor V. Pocajt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Control Technology - Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Control Control Control Technologies - Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation Up-Flow Wet Precipitation The primary objective of this work is to compare the performance of metallic collecting surfaces to the performance of membrane collecting surfaces in a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), in terms of their efficiency in removing fine particulates, acid aerosols, and mercury from an actual power plant flue gas stream. The relative durability and overall cost-effectiveness of the membrane collectors versus metallic collectors will also be evaluated. Due to the higher specific powers, superior corrosion resistance, and better wetting and cleaning qualities, the membrane-collecting surface is expected to perform better than the metallic surface. The second objective of the project will be to compare the overall fine particulate, acid aerosol, and mercury removal efficiency of the baseline flue gas treatment system on BMP Units 1 and 2 to the efficiencies obtained when the two wet ESP systems (metallic and membrane collectors) are added to the existing treatment system.

354

Neural Network Based State of Health Diagnostics for an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to determine the state-of-health (SOH) of the Automated Radioxenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA). ARSA is a gas collection and analysis system used for non-proliferation monitoring in detecting radioxenon released during nuclear tests. SOH diagnostics are important for automated, unmanned sensing systems so that remote detection and identification of problems can be made without onsite staff. Both recurrent and feed-forward ANNs are presented. The recurrent ANN is trained to predict sensor values based on current valve states, which control air flow, so that with only valve states the normal SOH sensor values can be predicted. Deviation between modeled value and actual is an indication of a potential problem. The feed-forward ANN acts as a nonlinear version of principal components analysis (PCA) and is trained to replicate the normal SOH sensor values. Because of ARSA’s complexity, this nonlinear PCA is better able to capture the relationships among the sensors than standard linear PCA and is applicable to both sensor validation and recognizing off-normal operating conditions. Both models provide valuable information to detect impending malfunctions before they occur to avoid unscheduled shutdown. Finally, the ability of ANN methods to predict the system state is presented.

Keller, Paul E.; Kangas, Lars J.; Hayes, James C.; Schrom, Brian T.; Suarez, Reynold; Hubbard, Charles W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

355

Rate-dependent deformation behavior of Zr-based metallic-glass coatings examined by nanoindentation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zr-based metallic-glass coatings with micrometer-scale thickness are prepared by the radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering technique on silicon substrates. Using the load- and displacement-sensing nanoindentation technique, we have examined the dependence of their deformation behavior, especially the indentation hardness, on the strain rate and maximum indentation depth. For shallow indentation in which the substrate effect can be neglected, the increase of the penetration rate leads to the decrease of the hardness. This seemingly "negative" strain-rate-sensitivity is actually a result of the dependence of the degree of elastic deformation on the effective strain rate. The coating interface will block the shear-band propagation and promote the shear-band multiplication, so that the plastic flow is much easier to occur as the increase of the maximum penetration depth from a few percent of, to that comparable to, the coating thickness. We use a power-law viscoplastic constitutive relationship to illustrate key issues related to the indentation response of rate-dependent materials, while a phenomenological viscoplastic model with strain softening behavior is used to understand the unique features of the inhomogeneous deformation in metallic glasses. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to examine the shear bands and pileup around the indents.

Liu, F. X. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A novel approach for efficiency assessment of conventional power plants based on principal component analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The investigation of performance efficiency and productivity in power generation sector has become a need due to the importance of energy consumption in the world. Several studies have concentrated on the performance assessment of conventional power plants through mathematical and statistical methods. This paper presents a novel approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) for efficiency assessment of conventional power plants. This study considers the previous approaches, namely: data envelopment analysis (DEA) and PCA for ranking of decision-making units (DMUs). The applicability and superiority of the proposed approach is shown for 15 actual conventional power plants. We also applied the proposed approach to other datasets in previous studies to show its advantages. The numerical results showed that the proposed approach provides better solution than previous studies. It has been shown that in some cases the effect of the number of efficient units is contrary to what previous studies have already predicted. Moreover, the results of the novel approach provide better rankings than previous studies.

Ali Azadeh; Mahmoud Ghiasi Moaser

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs based contour error reduction in CNC machines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new approach for reducing the contour errors in two-dimensional CNC machines is presented in this study. In the approach proposed here, two pre-trained nonlinear autoregressive networks with exogenous inputs (NARX), one for each axis, are used to predict the output position of the machine in the next sampling instant. The contour error in the next instant is then estimated and, based on this, the required compensation terms to be added to the reference input positions to reduce the contour error are determined. In the proposed approach, the compensation terms can be updated through an iteration process which reduces the contour error each time. Simulation experiments applying this approach to linear, circular and parabolic contours show that, even without extensive training of the NARX models, the contour errors can be significantly reduced. Actual experiments conducted on a small two-axis CNC machine confirm the effectiveness of this approach in reducing contour errors for linear, circular, parabolic and a free-form “goggles” contours.

Feng Huo; Aun-Neow Poo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Investigation of the bases for use of the K sub Ic curve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50 (10CFR50), Appendix G, establishes the bases for setting allowable pressure and temperature limits on reactors during heatup and cooldown operation. Both the K{sub Ic} and K{sub Ia} curves are utilized in prescribed ways to maintain reactor vessel structural integrity in the presence of an assumed or actual flaw and operating stresses. Currently, the code uses the K{sub Ia} curve, normalized to the RT{sub NDT}, to represent the fracture toughness trend for unirradiated and irradiated pressure vessel steels. Although this is clearly a conservative policy, it has been suggested that the K{sub Ic} curve is the more appropriate for application to a non-accident operating condition. A number of uncertainties have been identified, however, that might convert normal operating transients into a dynamic loading situation. Those include the introduction of running cracks from local brittle zones, crack pop-ins, reduced toughness from arrested cleavage cracks, description of the K{sub Ic} curve for irradiated materials, and other related unresolved issues relative to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Some observations and conclusions can be made regarding various aspects of those uncertainties and they are discussed in this paper. A discussion of further work required and under way to address the remaining uncertainties is also presented.

McCabe, D.E.; Nanstad, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rosenfield, A.R.; Marschall, C.W. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (USA)); Irwin, G.R. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Economic analysis of exergy efficiency based control strategy for geothermal district heating system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, the exergy efficiency based control strategy (ExEBCS) for exergy efficiency maximization in geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs) is economically evaluated. As a real case study, the Afyon GDHS in the city of Afyonkarahisar/Turkey is considered. Its actual thermal data as of average weekly data are collected in heating seasons during the period 2006–2010 for artificial neural network (ANN) modeling. The ANN modeling of the Afyon GDHS is used as a test system to demonstrate the effectiveness and economic impact of the ExEBCS under various operating conditions. Then, the ExEBCS is evaluated economically in case of application to real Afyon GDHS of the ExEBCS. The results show that the initial cost for the ExEBCS is more expensive than that for the old one by 6.33 kUS$/year as a result of replacing automatic controller. The saving in heat production makes the ExEBCS profitable by up to 7% of annual energy saving as a result of the increase in the heat production by 88% when the control system is operated. This results in a short payback period of 3.8 years. This study confirms that the use of ExEBCS in district heating systems (especially GDHS) is quite suitable.

Ali Keçeba?; ?smail Yabanova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Reliable and redundant FPGA based read-out design in the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Tile Calorimeter at ATLAS is a hadron calorimeter based on steel plates and scintillating tiles read out by PMTs. The current read-out system uses standard ADCs and custom ASICs to digitize and temporarily store the data on the detector. However, only a subset of the data is actually read out to the counting room. The on-detector electronics will be replaced around 2023. To achieve the required reliability the upgraded system will be highly redundant. Here the ASICs will be replaced with Kintex-7 FPGAs from Xilinx. This, in addition to the use of multiple 10 Gbps optical read-out links, will allow a full read-out of all detector data. Due to the higher radiation levels expected when the beam luminosity is increased, opportunities for repairs will be less frequent. The circuitry and firmware must therefore be designed for sufficiently high reliability using redundancy and radiation tolerant components. Within a year, a hybrid demonstrator including the new read-out system will be installed in one slice of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. This will allow the proposed upgrade to be thoroughly evaluated well before the planned 2023 deployment in all slices, especially with regard to long term reliability. Different firmware strategies alongside with their integration in the demonstrator are presented in the context of high reliability protection against hardware malfunction and radiation induced errors.

Henrik Åkerstedt; Steffen Muschter; Gary Drake; Kelby Anderson; Christian Bohm; Mark Oreglia; Fukun Tang

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Photovoltaic micro-grid in a remote village in India: Survey based identification of socio-economic and other characteristics affecting connectivity with micro-grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Load prediction is an essential component of the planning process of decentralized electricity supply systems based on micro-grids. However, accurate demand forecasting is a challenging task particularly for rural electrification projects. In this paper, actual operational data of a PV based micro-grid system in Sagar Island of India are analyzed in order to understand the role of different factors affecting households' connectivity, their electricity consumption and potential demands, thereby proposing an approach for planning (and designing) a micro-grid based decentralized electricity supply system. The analysis shows that potential demands for electricity within (as well as outside of) the current reach of the micro-grid are high and future expansion of the system would be effective by taking a 'phased approach’ of rural electrification. The analysis also shows that households with certain socio-economic characteristics have higher probability for connecting with the micro-grid and the relationship can be used to predict additional load requirements in case of grid extensions. Few recommendations for enhancing the connectivity further are also included in the discussion section of the paper.

Toru Kobayakawa; Tara C. Kandpal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

The use of artificial neural networks in PVT-based radiation portal monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) based gamma-ray scintillation detectors are cost effective for use in radiation portal monitors (RPMs) applied to screening for illicit radioactive materials at international border crossings. While PVT detectors provide good sensitivity in detecting the presence of radioactive materials, they provide poor spectral resolution, limiting their ability to identify the isotopic content of the source of radiation. Thus using only total-spectrum or gross-count alarm algorithms, PVT-based RPMs cannot distinguish innocent materials that contain low-levels of normally occurring radioactivity from special nuclear materials of concern. To reduce the number of “nuisance” alarms produced in PVT-based RPMs by innocent materials, algorithms that analyze spectra from PVT detectors must be optimized to make use of the limited information contained in their energy spectra. This paper discusses how artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used in such an analysis. The objective was to reduce the nuisance/false alarm probability while maintaining high detection probabilities, thus allowing gross count alarm thresholds to be raised without loss of performance and sensitivity to radioactive materials of interest. The spectra used in this study were obtained from actual PVT-based RPM data, and included cases where simulated spectra were inserted into the measured spectra. This paper also includes an analysis of spectral channel importance and shows evaluations of two methods used to rebin energy spectra into smaller sets. The results show that ANNs can be used with RPMs to reduce nuisance alarms. The algorithms described can be used in analyzing PVT spectra, and potentially sodium iodide spectra.

Kangas, Lars J.; Keller, Paul E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.

2008-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

363

Allocating timber to mills based on stand and mill characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Both the Study System and the Validation System. 83 20. Paired t-test Examining the Cost of Delivered Timber to Each Destination 84 21. 22. Coding Used for Paired t-test Examining the Allocation of Sawtimber From Each Timber Source Area.... In general, the more knots or the larger the 20 Table 1. --Diameter at breast height classes and class boundaries. Nominal Measurements Actual Measurements 8 II (9 II 9 ? 12" 13 ? 17" 18 ? 22" 23"+ 9. 0 ? 12. 98 13. 0 ? 17. 9" 18. 0 ? 22. 95 )22...

Rodgers, Joseph Adam

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Solutions of Eshelby-Type Inclusion Problems and a Related Homogenization Method Based on a Simplified Strain Gradient Elasticity Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.34) Eq. (2.34) is valid for any (uniform or non-uniform) *lm? and *lmp? . For the Eshelby problem with *lm? and *lmp? being uniform in the inclusion and vanishing outside the inclusion and the elastic body being homogeneous (with ijklC = constants... CGGLCGG ?? ??? ?? ????? (2.40) as the actual (disturbance) strain, ?ij, induced by the presence of the eigenstrain, *lm? , and the eigenstrain gradient, *lmp? , where ? ? ? ? .2,2 1 ,, 2 ,, qklmkpijqkpjiqijlmpqklmkijqkjiqijlm CGG...

Ma, Hemei

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

365

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 8): Ellsworth Air Force Base, Operable Unit 8, Rapid City, SD, June 7, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This ROD is for a remedial action at OU-8 and is the 11th ROD for EAFB. Area 1 is the area surrrouding the actual EOD Area itself. The selected alternative for Area 1 (EOD Area), vegetative soil cover and institutional controls, includes: Constructing an earth cover over a portion of the EOD Area; Institutional controls for the EOD Area; Long-term sediment sampling; and, Long-term maintenance of earth cover.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

CRSP CASH PROJECTIONS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CASH PROJECTIONS CASH PROJECTIONS FY 2012-FY 2014 ($ IN THOUSANDS) KEY: = more than $70 million = less than $70 million more than $35 million = less than $35 million ACTUAL FORECAST ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL FORECAST ACTUAL ACTUAL FORECAST FORECAST FY 2012 FY 2013 OCT 2012 NOV 2012 DEC 2012 JAN 2013 FEB 2013 MAR 2013 APR 2013 MAY 2013 JUN 2013 JUL 2013 AUG 2013 SEP 2013 SEP 2013 FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 Note REVENUES Firm 141,638 $ 150,984 $ 9,356 $ 14,951 $ 15,015 $ 13,131 $ 12,470 $ 11,088 $ 11,817 $ 11,754 $ 12,954 $ 19,737 $ 13,914 $ 12,582 $ 10,652 $ 156,839 $ 152,591 $ 164,182 $ a WRP 32,170 $ 62,774 $ 755 $ 2,418

367

Annual Energy Outlook Forecast Evaluation - Tables  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Energy Outlook Forecast Evaluation Table 2. Total Energy Consumption, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 3. Total Petroleum Consumption, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 4. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 5. Total Coal Consumption, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 6. Total Electricity Sales, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 7. Crude Oil Production, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 8. Natural Gas Production, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 9. Coal Production, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 10. Net Petroleum Imports, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 11. Net Natural Gas Imports, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 12. Net Coal Exports, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 13. World Oil Prices, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 14. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Actual vs. Forecasts Table 15. Coal Prices to Electric Utilities, Actual vs. Forecasts

368

A framework for simulation-based real-time whole building performance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A framework for simulation-based real-time whole building performance A framework for simulation-based real-time whole building performance assessment Title A framework for simulation-based real-time whole building performance assessment Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number 0360-1323 Year of Publication 2012 Authors Pang, Xiufeng, Michael Wetter, Prajesh Bhattacharya, and Philip Haves Journal Building and Environment Volume 54 Start Page 100 Pagination 100-108 Date Published 08/2012 ISSN 0360-1323 Keywords building controls virtual test bed, building performance, energy modeling, energyplus, real-time building simulation Abstract Most commercial buildings do not perform as well in practice as intended by the design and their performances often deteriorate over time. Reasons include faulty construction, malfunctioning equipment, incorrectly configured control systems and inappropriate operating procedures. One approach to addressing this problems is to compare the predictions of an energy simulation model of the building to the measured performance and analyze significant differences to infer the presence and location of faults. This paper presents a framework that allows a comparison of building actual performance and expected performance in real time. The realization of the framework utilized the EnergyPlus, the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and the Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) was developed. An EnergyPlus model that represents expected performance of a building runs in real time and reports the predicted building performance at each time step. The BCVTB is used as the software platform to acquire relevant inputs from the EMCS through a BACnet interface and send them to the EnergyPlus and to a database for archiving. A proof-of-concept demonstration is also presented.

369

Interpreting Velocities from Heat-Based Flow Sensors by NumericalSimulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have carried out numerical simulations of three-dimensional non-isothermal flow around an in situ heat-based flow sensor to investigate how formation heterogeneities can affect the interpretation of ground water flow velocities from this instrument. The flow sensor operates by constant heating of a 0.75 m long, 5 cm diameter cylindrical probe, which contains 30 thermistors in contact with the formation. The temperature evolution at each thermistor can be inverted to obtain an estimate of the ground water flow velocity vector using the standard interpretive method, which assumes that the formation is homogeneous. Analysis of data from heat-based flow sensors installed in a sand aquifer at the Former Fort Ord Army Base near Monterey, California suggested an unexpected component of downward flow. The magnitudes of the vertical velocities were expected to be much less than the horizontal velocities at this site because the sensors were installed just above a clay aquitard. Numerical simulations were conducted to examine how differences in thermal conductivities may lead to spurious indications of vertical flow velocities. We found that a decrease in the thermal conductivity near the bottom of the sensor can perturb the temperature profiles along the instrument in such a manner that analyses assuming homogeneous thermal conductivity could indicate a vertical flow component even though flow is actually horizontal. This work demonstrates how modeling can be used to simulate instrument response to formation heterogeneity, and shows that caution must be used in interpreting data from such devices using overly simplistic assumptions.

Su, Grace W.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Jordan,Preston D.; Daley, Paul F.

2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

370

A fuzzy-based reliability approach to evaluate basic events of fault tree analysis for nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fault tree analysis has been widely utilized as a tool for nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment. This analysis can be completed only if all basic events of the system fault tree have their quantitative failure rates or failure probabilities. However, it is difficult to obtain those failure data due to insufficient data, environment changing or new components. This study proposes a fuzzy-based reliability approach to evaluate basic events of system fault trees whose failure precise probability distributions of their lifetime to failures are not available. It applies the concept of failure possibilities to qualitatively evaluate basic events and the concept of fuzzy sets to quantitatively represent the corresponding failure possibilities. To demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the actual basic event failure probabilities collected from the operational experiences of the David–Besse design of the Babcock and Wilcox reactor protection system fault tree are used to benchmark the failure probabilities generated by the proposed approach. The results confirm that the proposed fuzzy-based reliability approach arises as a suitable alternative for the conventional probabilistic reliability approach when basic events do not have the corresponding quantitative historical failure data for determining their reliability characteristics. Hence, it overcomes the limitation of the conventional fault tree analysis for nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment.

Julwan Hendry Purba

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Wind speed and power density analysis based on Weibull and Rayleigh distributions (a case study: Firouzkooh county of Iran)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study aimed to analyze the wind speed data of Firouzkooh region. For this purpose, the wind speed data for a 3-h period measuring over a 10-year period (2001–2010) were analyzed to calculate and estimate the wind power generation potential. Similar trends of the wind speeds were seen in different years where the highest and the lowest mean wind speeds belonged to May 2010 and June 2002, respectively. The diurnal wind speed analysis demonstrated that the fastest winds blew from 6 am to 3 pm. Weibull and Rayleigh distribution functions were applied to find out the best fitting tool to the wind speed data. Results showed that Weibull and Rayleigh distribution functions can fit the actual values of wind speed well with almost the same coefficient of determination value (R2) of 0.97. The average values of wind power based on mean and root mean cube speed approaches were 203 and 248 W m?2 year?1, respectively indicating that Firouzkooh region stands in class 4 (which is a suitable area for wind turbine establishment). Finally, wind rose diagram revealed that the prevailing wind direction falls in the sector between 180° and 270° clockwise from North.

S.H. Pishgar-Komleh; A. Keyhani; P. Sefeedpari

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

National Medical Care System May Impede Fostering of True Specialization of Radiation Oncologists: Study Based on Structure Survey in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. Methods and Materials In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time \\{ROs\\} were crosschecked with data for part-time \\{ROs\\} by using their identification data. Data of 954 \\{ROs\\} were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). Results The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. \\{ROs\\} working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists.

Hodaka Numasaki; Hitoshi Shibuya; Masamichi Nishio; Hiroshi Ikeda; Kenji Sekiguchi; Norihiko Kamikonya; Masahiko Koizumi; Masao Tago; Yutaka Ando; Nobuhiro Tsukamoto; Atsuro Terahara; Katsumasa Nakamura; Michihide Mitsumori; Tetsuo Nishimura; Masato Hareyama; Teruki Teshima

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

GIS-based energy-economic model of low temperature geothermal resources: A case study in the Italian Marche region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a computational procedure designed to derive a regional model of the low temperature geothermal potential and its economic exploitability. The model was applied to the Italian Marche region and developed with the support of a Geographic Information System (GIS), which highlights the spatial dependencies in the distribution of geothermic resources. The Low Temperature Geothermal Energy has already gained attention as a renewable energy resource for domestic heating and represents a growing opportunity for investment. Although it is common practice to conduct an accurate evaluation of the geothermal potential and its exploitability on a site during the construction of a single installation, there is not an established practice or guidelines for estimating this resource over large territories. This information could support an institution’s ability to conduct regional energy planning and guide private entrepreneurship to meet new economic opportunities. To address these issues, the main contribution of this work is a model that reduces the distance between the physical knowledge of the territory/environment and economic analysis. The model is based on a useful assessment of low temperature geothermal potential obtained from physical parameters on a regional scale, from which a set of economic indicators are calculated to evaluate the actual economic accessibility to the geothermal energy resource.

Alberto Gemelli; Adriano Mancini; Sauro Longhi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory results of a comprehensive, regulatory performance test program, utilizing an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using a 53 millimeter, Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of type three, air blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, containing about 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium and strontium was utilized. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, forty, fifty and sixty wt % salt. Performance test results include the ninety day ANS 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP Toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented also include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy. Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements.

Mattus, A.J.; Kaczmarsky, M.M.

1986-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

\\textsc{MaGe} - a {\\sc Geant4}-based Monte Carlo Application Framework for Low-background Germanium Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a physics simulation software framework, MAGE, that is based on the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. MAGE is used to simulate the response of ultra-low radioactive background radiation detectors to ionizing radiation, specifically the MAJORANA and GERDA neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. MAJORANA and GERDA use high-purity germanium detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge, and MAGE is jointly developed between these two collaborations. The MAGE framework contains the geometry models of common objects, prototypes, test stands, and the actual experiments. It also implements customized event generators, GEANT4 physics lists, and output formats. All of these features are available as class libraries that are typically compiled into a single executable. The user selects the particular experimental setup implementation at run-time via macros. The combination of all these common classes into one framework reduces duplication of efforts, eases comparison between simulated data and experiment, and simplifies the addition of new detectors to be simulated. This paper focuses on the software framework, custom event generators, and physics lists.

Melissa Boswell; Yuen-Dat Chan; Jason A. Detwiler; Padraic Finnerty; Reyco Henning; Victor M. Gehman; Rob A. Johnson; David V. Jordan; Kareem Kazkaz; Markus Knapp; Kevin Kröninger; Daniel Lenz; Lance Leviner; Jing Liu; Xiang Liu; Sean MacMullin; Michael G. Marino; Akbar Mokhtarani; Luciano Pandola; Alexis G. Schubert; Jens Schubert; Claudia Tomei; Oleksandr Volynets

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

377

Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Effects of fishing effort allocation scenarios on energy efficiency and profitability: An individual-based model applied to Danish fisheries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Global concerns about CO2 emissions, national CO2 quotas, and rising fuel prices are incentives for the commercial fishing fleet industry to change their fishing practices and reduce fuel consumption, which constitutes a significant part of fishing costs. Vessel-based fuel consumption, energy efficiency (quantity of fish caught per litre of fuel used), and profitability are factors that we simulated in developing a spatially explicit individual-based model (IBM) for fishing vessel movements. The observed spatial and seasonal patterns of fishing effort for each fishing activity are evaluated against three alternative effort allocation scenarios for the assumed fishermen's adaptation to these factors: (A) preferring nearby fishing grounds rather than distant grounds with potentially larger catches and higher values, (B) shifting to other fisheries targeting resources located closer to the harbour, and (C) allocating effort towards optimising the expected area-specific profit per trip. The model is informed by data from each Danish fishing vessel >15 m after coupling its high resolution spatial and temporal effort data (VMS) with data from logbook landing declarations, sales slips, vessel engine specifications, and fish and fuel prices. The outcomes of scenarios A and B indicate a trade-off between fuel savings and energy efficiency improvements when effort is displaced closer to the harbour compared to reductions in total landing amounts and profit. Scenario C indicates that historic effort allocation has actually been sub-optimal because increased profits from decreased fuel consumption and larger landings could have been obtained by applying a different spatial effort allocation. Based on recent advances in VMS and logbooks data analyses, this paper contributes to improve the modelling of fishing effort allocation, fuel consumption and catch distribution on a much disaggregated level compared to the fleet-based models we developed so far.

Francois Bastardie; J. Rasmus Nielsen; Bo Sølgaard Andersen; Ole Ritzau Eigaard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

designer phase transitions in lithium-based spinels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When electrons in a metal become correlated with each other, new cooperative behavior can arise. This correlation is magnified when the metal has magnetic ions embedded in it. These atomic magnets try to line up with each other, but in doing so actually create a correlation between the motions of conduction electrons. In turn, these correlated electron motions prevent the magnetic ions from aligning, even at zero Kelvin. When this competition is strongest (at the so-called quantum critical point-QCP) the response of the system can no longer be described using the text book theory for metals. In addition, a range of new phenomena has been seen to emerge in the vicinity of a QCP, such as heavy-fermion superconductivity, coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity and hyper-scaling. The main goal of our research is to try to unravel the details of the feedback mechanism between electron motion and magnetism that lies at the heart of this new physics. We have chosen lithium-based spinel structures as the most promising family of systems to achieve our goal. Known lithium-based spinels Li{sub x}M{sub 2}O{sub 4} [M=V, Ti and Mn] show a variety of ground states: heavy-fermion, superconducting, or geometrically frustrated local moment systems. Li{sub x}M{sub 2}O{sub 4} should be ideal systems for studying QCPs since their properties can easily be fine-tuned, simply by extracting some Li [which can be done without introducing disorder in the immediate surroundings of the magnetic ions]. The premise of the proposal was that since this Li-extraction can be done both in the metallic as well as in insulating compounds, that we can expand the types of quantum phase transitions that can be studied to beyond transitions in magnetic metals. The project called for developing a better understanding of quantum phase transitions by measuring all aspects of the electronic response of Li{sub x}M{sub 2}O{sub 4} by means of neutron scattering, giving microscopic information about the behavior of the individual magnetic moments and their interactions, as well as by macroscopic measurements. In addition, the aim was to synthesize new lithium-based spinel compounds by using other transition metals that exhibit both 3{sup +} and 4{sup +} valencies. Here we report on the progress we have made during the course of this grant both towards the stated goals and on new avenues that developed as a direct result of the data we collected during this grant.

Wouter Montfrooij

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Assessing the Value of Regulation Resources Based on Their Time Response Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast responsive regulation resources are potentially more valuable as a power system regulation resource (more efficient) because they allow applying controls at the exact moment and in the exact amount as needed. Faster control is desirable because it facilitates more reliable compliance with the NERC Control Performance Standards at relatively lesser regulation capacity procurements. The current California ISO practices and markets do not provide a differentiation among the regulation resources based on their speed of response (with the exception of some minimum ramping capabilities). Some demand response technologies, including some generation and energy storage resources, can provide quicker control actions. California ISO practices and markets could be updated to welcome more fast regulation resources into the California ISO service area. The project work reported in this work was pursuing the following objectives: • Develop methodology to assess the relative value of generation resources used for regulation and load following California ISO functions • This assessment should be done based on physical characteristics including the ability to quickly change their output following California ISO signals • Evaluate what power is worth on different time scales • Analyze the benefits of new regulation resources to provide effective compliance with the mandatory NERC Control Performance Standards • Evaluate impacts of the newly proposed BAAL and FRR standards on the potential value of fast regulation and distributed regulation resources • Develop a scope for the follow-up projects to pave a road for the new efficient types of balancing resources in California. The work included the following studies: • Analysis of California ISO regulating units characteristics • California ISO automatic generation system (AGC) analysis • California ISO regulation procurement and market analysis • Fast regulation efficiency analysis • Projection of the California ISO load following and regulation requirements into the future • Value of fast responsive resources depending on their ramping capability • Potential impacts of the balancing authority area control error limit (BAAL), which is a part of the newly proposed NERC standard “Balancing Resources and Demand” • Potential impacts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) frequency responsive reserve (FRR) standard • Recommendations for the next phase of the project. The following main conclusions and suggestions for the future have been made: • The analysis of regulation ramping requirements shows that the regulation system should be able to provide ramps of at least 40-60 MW per minute for a period up to 6 minutes. • Evaluate if changes are needed in the California ISO AGC system to effectively accommodate new types of fast regulation resources and minimize the California ISO regulation procurement. • California ISO may consider creating better market opportunities for and incentives for fast responsive resources. • An additional study of low probability high ramp events can be recommended to the California ISO. • The California ISO may be willing to consider establishing a more relaxed target CPS2 compliance level. • A BAAL-related study can be recommended for the California ISO as soon as more clarity is achieved concerning the actual enforcement of the BAAL standard and its numerical values for the California ISO. The study may involve an assessment of advantages of the distributed frequency-based control for the California ISO system. The market-related issues that arise in this connection can be also investigated. • A FRR-related study can be recommended for the California ISO as soon as more clarity is achieved concerning the actual enforcement of the FRR standard and its numerical values for the California ISO.

Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Ma, Jian; Nguyen, Tony B.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hill, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Sliding mode observer design for a PWR to estimate the xenon concentration & delayed neutrons precursor density based on the two point nuclear reactor model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract One of the important operations in nuclear power plants is load-following in which imbalance of axial power distribution induces xenon oscillations. These oscillations must be maintained within acceptable limits otherwise the nuclear power plant could become unstable. Therefore, bounded xenon oscillation considered to be a constraint for the load-following operation. In other hands, precursors produce delayed neutrons which are most important in control of nuclear reactor, but xenon concentration & precursor density cannot be measured directly. In this paper, non-linear sliding mode observer which has the robust characteristics facing the parameters uncertainties and disturbances is proposed based on the two point nuclear reactor model to estimate the xenon concentration & delayed neutron precursor density of the Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR) using reactor power measurement. The stability analysis is given by means Lyapunov approach, thus the system is guaranteed to be stable within a large range. The employed method is easy to implement in practical applications. This estimation is done taking into account the effects of reactivity feedback due to temperature and xenon concentration. Simulation results clearly show that the sliding mode observer follows the actual system variables accurately and is satisfactory in the presence of the parameters uncertainties & disturbances.

G.R. Ansarifar; M.H. Esteki; M. Arghand

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

A Gaussian Process Based Online Change Detection Algorithm for Monitoring Periodic Time Series  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Online time series change detection is a critical component of many monitoring systems, such as space and air-borne remote sensing instruments, cardiac monitors, and network traffic profilers, which continuously analyze observations recorded by sensors. Data collected by such sensors typically has a periodic (seasonal) component. Most existing time series change detection methods are not directly applicable to handle such data, either because they are not designed to handle periodic time series or because they cannot operate in an online mode. We propose an online change detection algorithm which can handle periodic time series. The algorithm uses a Gaussian process based non-parametric time series prediction model and monitors the difference between the predictions and actual observations within a statistically principled control chart framework to identify changes. A key challenge in using Gaussian process in an online mode is the need to solve a large system of equations involving the associated covariance matrix which grows with every time step. The proposed algorithm exploits the special structure of the covariance matrix and can analyze a time series of length T in O(T^2) time while maintaining a O(T) memory footprint, compared to O(T^4) time and O(T^2) memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation methods. We experimentally demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over several existing time series change detection algorithms on a set of synthetic and real time series. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for identifying land use land cover changes using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data collected for an agricultural region in Iowa state, USA. Our algorithm is able to detect different types of changes in a NDVI validation data set (with ~80% accuracy) which occur due to crop type changes as well as disruptive changes (e.g., natural disasters).

Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Impact of fluorine based reactive chemistry on structure and properties of high moment magnetic material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of the fluorine-based reactive ion etch (RIE) process on the structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of NiFe and CoNiFe-plated materials was investigated. Several techniques, including X-ray fluorescence, 4-point-probe, BH looper, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), were utilized to characterize both bulk film properties such as thickness, average composition, Rs, ?, Bs, Ms, and surface magnetic “dead” layers' properties such as thickness and element concentration. Experimental data showed that the majority of Rs and Bs changes of these bulk films were due to thickness reduction during exposure to the RIE process. ? and Ms change after taking thickness reduction into account were negligible. The composition of the bulk films, which were not sensitive to surface magnetic dead layers with nano-meter scale, showed minimum change as well. It was found by TEM and EELS analysis that although both before and after RIE there were magnetic dead layers on the top surface of these materials, the thickness and element concentration of the layers were quite different. Prior to RIE, dead layer was actually native oxidation layers (about 2?nm thick), while after RIE dead layer consisted of two sub-layers that were about 6?nm thick in total. Sub-layer on the top was native oxidation layer, while the bottom layer was RIE “damaged” layer with very high fluorine concentration. Two in-situ RIE approaches were also proposed and tested to remove such damaged sub-layers.

Yang, Xiaoyu, E-mail: xiaoyu.yang@wdc.com; Chen, Lifan; Han, Hongmei; Fu, Lianfeng; Sun, Ming; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Jinqiu [Western Digital Corporation, 44100 Osgood Road, Fremont, California 94539 (United States)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

386

A new design criterion based on pressure testing of torispherical heads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two vessels with torispherical heads were pressurized to destruction at the Praxair Tonawanda facility on September 12--13, 1994. The objective was to determine pressures at which observable or measurable indications of failure could be detected. Plastic limit pressures for the two heads were calculated at 190 and 240 psi, respectively. For Vessel 1, the only observable action was a slow formation of some waviness of the knuckle profile at approximately 600 psi. It lost pressure at 700 psi when a crack developed at a nozzle weld at the bottom of the shell. For Vessel 2, no indication of any sign of failure was observed until it burst at a pressure of 1,080 psi by a ductile fracture along the longitudinal weld of the shell. The main conclusion is that there is a problem in the application of the double elastic slope collapse criterion to torispherical heads. It was determined that when using this criterion a collapse pressure signaling excessive deformation cannot be determined with any certainty. Furthermore, the test data do not show anything at any of the calculated collapse pressures that suggests excessive deformation. Thus, the collapse pressures for torispherical heads cannot be confirmed by test. This leads to the inconsistency that if the collapse load is divided by a safety factor, say 1.5, to obtain an allowable pressure, the actual safety margin of the design is not known and may not be 1.5. For a material with sufficient ductility, the use of an estimated burst pressure appears preferable. A design criterion based on the membrane stress at the crown of a torispherical head reaching the ultimate tensile strength is proposed, which is simple, can be supported by theoretical arguments, and is shown to be conservative by current test results as well as by those of two previous test programs.

Kalnins, A. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics; Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Plasma based devices. Final report, 1 July 1995--30 June 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most important result relates to the reduction of emissions from NOx sources, and is basically a breakthrough in energy efficiency, based on the application of a transient, short-pulse plasma. The project was a study of physics and applications of plasma devices, and as a result of promising early data, focused on the use of transient plasma devices for NOx remediation. The most important results are: (1) A cost-effective regime, maintaining the simplicity of a pulsed discharge, was successfully found. (2) The pulsed discharge, a ``plasma muffle``, achieves results of 30% NOx reduction, requiring less than or equal to 10eV/molecule energy cost for flow rates from operating diesel engines, corresponding to operating efficiencies that would be useful for the transportation industry. (3) The role of transient discharges in this process is found to be key, and a preliminary, phenomenological rationale has been found. (4) Further research leading to the understanding of the transient processes, and the subsequent chemistry, promises many new applications. (5) Preliminary results of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies are now available. (6) Low energy cost was found to be driven by current density, so that an efficient operation at a low energy cost is actually better at low current densities. (7) Power modulator design, and reactor design, are found to be interrelated. (8) New reactor and power modulator designs have been developed, and, following the goals of the previous work as well as the requirements for many practical implementations, miniaturization of the power conditioning is under development.

Gundersen, M.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Experimental evaluation of radiator control based on primary supply temperature for district heating substations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we evaluate whether the primary supply temperature in district heating networks can be used to control radiator systems in buildings connected to district heating; with the purpose of increasing the ?T. The primary supply temperature in district heating systems can mostly be described as a function of outdoor temperature; similarly, the radiator supply temperature in houses, offices and industries can also be described as a function of outdoor temperature. To calibrate the radiator control system to produce an ideally optimal radiator supply temperature that produces a maximized ?T across the substation, the relationship between the primary supply temperature and outdoor temperature must be known. However, even if the relation is known there is always a deviation between the expected primary supply temperature and the actual temperature of the received distribution media. This deviation makes the radiator control system incapable of controlling the radiator supply temperature to a point that would generate a maximized ?T. Published simulation results show that it is possible and advantageous to utilize the primary supply temperature for radiator system control. In this paper, the simulation results are experimentally verified through implementation of the control method in a real district heating substation. The primary supply temperature is measured by the heat-meter and is shared with the radiator control system; thus no additional temperature sensors were needed to perform the experiments. However additional meters were installed for surveillance purposes. To maintain a stable indoor temperature at times when the primary supply and outdoor temperatures deviates from their assumed relation, the radiator system flow must be controlled by an additional control-loop. The results confirms that it is possible to control the radiator system based on the primary supply temperature while maintaining comfort; however, conclusions regarding improvements in ?T were hard to distinguish.

Jonas Gustafsson; Jerker Delsing; Jan van Deventer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

The effect of construction variables on the dynamic modulus of asphalt treated base courses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to specimen diameter. The actual coring of specimens was accomplished by the Tex"s 11igh;-ay Department utilizing a six-inch diameter, truck- mounted, water- cooled, coring machine, Saz!plcs were taI'en during January when the air tcz?perature ranged from... into each of the two baskets of. the cxLraction device and the device placed in operaLion. Extraction was stopped when both basioets produced a clear discharge, The average t ime for each extraction was 2 l/2 hours . After drying and cool ing...

Moeller, William Ernest

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Evaluation of wave energy generation from buoy heave response based on linear generator concepts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Previous studies of linear generator power extraction from ocean waves have usually ignored the buoy heave dynamics and taken the linear generator movement to coincide with the wave motion. Here the actual buoy motion is first determined and then used to solve the coupled hydrodynamic and electromagnetic problem of electrical power generation for both regular and irregular waves. Several buoy sizes are modeled to exploit the buoys' natural frequency in an attempt to create a greater heave response for a given sea state. Power output ranging from 75 to 375?W is predicted for the dimensions chosen.

M. A. Stelzer; R. P. Joshi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

NA22 Model Cities Project - LL244T An Intelligent Transportation System-Based Radiation Alert and Detection System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was twofold: first, provide an understanding of the technical foundation and planning required for deployment of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)-based system architectures for the protection of New York City from a terrorist attack using a vehicle-deployed nuclear device; second, work with stakeholders to develop mutual understanding of the technologies and tactics required for threat detection/identification and establish guidelines for designing operational systems and procedures. During the course of this project we interviewed and coordinated analysis with people from the New Jersey State Attorney General's office, the New Jersey State Police, the Port Authority of New York/New Jersey, the Counterterrorism Division of the New York City Police Department, the New Jersey Transit Authority, the State of New Jersey Department of Transportation, TRANSCOM and a number of contractors involved with state and federal intelligent transportation development and implementation. The basic system architecture is shown in the figure below. In an actual system deployment, radiation sensors would be co-located with existing ITS elements and the data will be sent to the Traffic Operations Center. A key element of successful system operation is the integration of vehicle data, such as license plate, EZ pass ID, vehicle type/color and radiation signature. A threat data base can also be implemented and utilized in cases where there is a suspect vehicle identified from other intelligence sources or a mobile detector system. Another key aspect of an operational architecture is the procedures used to verify the threat and plan interdiction. This was a major focus of our work and discussed later in detail. In support of the operational analysis, we developed a detailed traffic simulation model that is described extensively in the body of the report.

Peglow, S

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

392

Japanese Structure Survey of Radiation Oncology in 2007 Based on Institutional Stratification of Patterns of Care Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the ongoing structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and improve any deficiencies. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national structure survey was conducted from March to December 2008 by the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO). These data were analyzed in terms of the institutional stratification of the Patterns of Care Study. Results: The total numbers of new cancer patients and total cancer patients (new and repeat) treated with radiation in 2007 were estimated at 181,000 and 218,000, respectively. There were 807 linear accelerator, 15 telecobalt, 46 Gamma Knife, 45 {sup 60}Co remote-controlled after-loading, and 123 {sup 192}Ir remote-controlled after-loading systems in actual use. The linear accelerator systems used dual-energy function in 539 units (66.8%), three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 555 (68.8%), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy in 235 (29.1%). There were 477 JASTRO-certified radiation oncologists, 826.3 full-time equivalent (FTE) radiation oncologists, 68.4 FTE medical physicists, and 1,634 FTE radiation therapists. The number of interstitial radiotherapy (RT) administrations for prostate, stereotactic body radiotherapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy increased significantly. Patterns of Care Study stratification can clearly identify the maturity of structures based on their academic nature and caseload. Geographically, the more JASTRO-certified physicians there were in a given area, the more RT tended to be used for cancer patients. Conclusions: The Japanese structure has clearly improved during the past 17 years in terms of equipment and its use, although a shortage of personnel and variations in maturity disclosed by Patterns of Care Study stratification were still problematic in 2007.

Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.j [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Dental and Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhito [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

B  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Utility Form (actual form was pink) EIA-457G Fuel Oil Supplier Form (actual form was green) EIA-457H Liquefied Petroleum Gas Supplier Form (actual form was blue) RECS:...

394

Molecular dimension explored in evolution to promote proteomic complexity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...obtained by using a learning strategy...based dehydron predictions might actually...for disorder prediction using machine learning techniques and...evolution-related and disease-related) and the...Escherichia coli, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana...

Ariel Fernández; R. Stephen Berry

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Stuck in the Adoption Funnel: The Effect of Interruptions in the Adoption Process on Usage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many firms have introduced Internet-based customer self-service applications such as online payments or brokerage services. Despite high initial sign-up rates, not all customers actually shift their dealings online. We ...

Lambrecht, Anja

396

Project scheduling using fuzzy PERT and risk management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Program evaluation and review techniques (PERT) is an efficient tool for large project management. In actual project control decisions, classical PERT, which is based upon beta distribution, presents a few deficiencies. Generally speaking, classical...

Yoo, Wi Sung

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

397

Public-private partnerships in the fight against terrorism?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on a case study of the role of private financial institutions in the fight against terrorist financing, this article examines the rationales for, and actual results of, public-private partnerships in cou...

Oldrich Bures

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Initial Commissioning of a Water-to-Water GHP System in KIER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the actual and the manufacture data. The key result of this study is the development of a simplified GHP performance verification technique using the ISO standard based manufacture data. The manufacture performance data includes the information of EWT...

Kim, J.; Jang, J.C.; Kang, E.C.; Chang, K.C.; Lee, E.J.; Kim, Y.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

New developments in the primal-dual column generation technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jan 24, 2011 ... problem (CSP), the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW), and the .... Actually, any column with a negative reduced cost can be added to the RMP. ...... OBOE: the Oracle Based Optimization Engine, 2010.

2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

400

--No Title--  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

when you are not actually speaking. See below for connection information. H.323 Video H.323 based video connections to the meeting are provided using the ESnet video bridge....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

EIA - Household Transportation report: Household Vehicles Energy...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

all comparisons reported in the text are statistically significant, based on a standard test made at the 0.05 significance level. These tests were made using the actual RSE's...

402

Chapter 1. Introduction  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

all comparisons reported in the text are statistically significant, based on a standard test made at the 0.05 significance level. These tests were made using the actual RSE's...

403

The VLDB Journal DOI 10.1007/s00778-014-0367-9  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for something Coka-Cola flavored but I don't want an actual Coke", and a dictionary with two enti- ties "Coca Cola" and "Coke". Dictionary-based entity extraction finds the predefined entity "Coke" from the doc

Li, Guoliang

404

E-Print Network 3.0 - antibiotic-loaded cement spacers Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in this study. Sealed Reference Sample Sample Cement Paste 10 mm 10 mm 11.5mm 8mm Plastic Spacers 5 mm... based on Stokes equation actually suggests that some of the...

405

Adapting the International System of Units to the twenty-first century  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Discussion Meeting on The new SI: units of measurement based on fundamental constants...actually fixes the value of the unit of energy per temperature interval...the new SI, electromagnetic measurements and units will be brought into the system...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Modelling user experience with web sites: Usability, hedonic value, beauty and goodness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......2003, 2004 ); System characteristics have an effect on actual...using a system, system characteristics directly influence perceived...interaction-based model, system characteristics, such as the presentation...an existing educational intranet site to address the following......

Paul van Schaik; Jonathan Ling

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

An Analysis of the Economic Impact on Tooele County, Utah, from...  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

it was actually cheaper for Xcel Energy (based in Colorado) customers to sign up for "green" energy programs that provided electricity from wind turbines than it was to buy...

408

Analysis of the Economic Impact on Box Elder County, Utah, from...  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

it was actually cheaper for Xcel Energy (based in Colorado) customers to sign up for "green" energy programs that provided electricity from wind turbines than it was to buy...

409

Change in the electrical resistance of the metallic composite material-steel contact under friction and electric current  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The I–V characteristics of the sliding contact of metallic composites of grade 45 steel without a lubricant are presented. Steel-based composites are shown to increase the actual electric-contact area due to the ...

V. V. Fadin; M. I. Aleutdinova

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shows how the actual load profile follows the hourly bidscriteria were as follows: Low load variability – enhancesloads, the actual loads do not closely follow the forecasted

Kiliccote, Sila

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Microsoft Word - sDE-FOA-0000033.rtf  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reporting Requirements Checklist. The Milestone Status will present actual performance in comparison with Milestone Log, and include: (1) the actual status and progress of the...

412

Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium-Size Office Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Buildingand actual building energy consumption can be attributed touncertainties in energy consumption due to actual weather

Wang, Liping

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

WTI Crude Oil Price: Base Case and 95% Confidence Interval  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Spot WTI prices broke $35 and even $36 per barrel in November as anticipated boosts to world supply from OPEC and other sources failed to find much realization in actual stocks data. The idea that stocks are still languishing at below-normal levels is particularly persuasive when one views current levels (for key consuming regions) relative to "normal" values which account for the long-term trend in OECD stocks. We believe that monthly average WTI prices will stay around $30 per barrel for the first part of 2001. This is a noticeable upward shift in our projected average prices from even a month ago. The shift reflects greater emphasis on the lack of stock builds and less emphasis on the assumption that supply from OPEC and non-OPEC suppliers may be exceeding demand by 1-2

414

WTI Crude Oil Price: Base Case and 95% Confidence Interval  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: Spot WTI prices broke $35 and even $36 per barrel in November as anticipated boosts to world supply from OPEC and other sources did not show up in actual stocks data. The recent decline in prices seems to be more the result of an unraveling of speculative pressures than a change in underlying fundamentals. Prices had been running higher than supply/demand fundamentals would have indicated throughout the fall months as a result of rising Mideast tensions, concern over the adequacy of distillate supplies, and expectations of Iraqi supply interruptions. But Mideast tensions seemed to ease in December and the market appeared to perceive a quick return of Iraqi crude oil supplies at full capacity. Pledges by Saudi Arabia/OPEC to offset a longer term Iraqi

415

WTI Crude Oil Price: Base Case and 95% Confidence Interval  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Spot WTI crude oil prices broke $35 and even $36 per barrel in November as anticipated boosts to world supply from OPEC and other sources did not show up in actual stocks data. The recent decline in prices seems to be more the result of an unraveling of speculative pressures than a change in underlying fundamentals. Prices had been running higher than supply/demand fundamentals would have indicated throughout the fall months as a result of rising Mideast tensions, concern over the adequacy of distillate supplies, and expectations of Iraqi supply interruptions. But Mideast tensions seemed to ease in December and the market appeared to perceive a quick return of Iraqi crude oil supplies at full capacity. Pledges by Saudi Arabia/OPEC to offset a longer term Iraqi

416

Guidelines for Modeling Based on Experiences with Radiantly Stabilized Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental measurements were confined to the central channel, and the other six were considered to be “guard heaters” to minimize radial heat losses. ... “Flameless incandescent surface combustion” was, according to Bone and Townend,8 actually identified by that name by Bone and M'Court, who, in the period of 1906?1909, observed for the combustion of a mixture of a gaseous fuel and air in various types of porous media “an intensely glowing surface ? a veritable wall of fire, but without a flame ? throwing out a genial radiant heat, .... the surface temperature being about 900° to 1000 °C”. ... They also produced one great surprise, namely that the internal heat transfer coefficient corresponding to the uniform heating varied radically with length for some conditions, including the attainment of unbounded and negative values. ...

Stuart W. Churchill

2008-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

417

Laser-based characterization of nuclear fuel plates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ensuring the integrity of fuel-clad and clad-clad bonding in nuclear fuels is important for safe reactor operation and assessment of fuel performance, yet the measurement of bond strengths in actual fuels has proved challenging. The laser shockwave technique (LST) originally developed to characterize structural adhesion in composites is being employed to characterize interface strength in a new type of plate fuel being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large-amplitude acoustic waves and is well suited for application to both fresh and irradiated nuclear-fuel plates. This paper will report on initial characterization results obtained from fresh fuel plates manufactured by different processes, including hot isostatic pressing, friction stir welding, and hot rolling.

Smith, James A.; Cottle, Dave L.; Rabin, Barry H. [Idaho National Laboratory, Fuel Performance and Design, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho, 83415-6188 (United States)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

418

National Medical Care System May Impede Fostering of True Specialization of Radiation Oncologists: Study Based on Structure Survey in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. Methods and Materials: In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). Results: The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences in the average practice index for patients by ROs working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: ROs working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists.

Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Japanese Structure Survey of Radiation Oncology in 2005 Based on Institutional Stratification of Patterns of Care Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and improve any deficiencies. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national structure survey was conducted between March 2006 and February 2007 by the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. These data were analyzed in terms of the institutional stratification of the Patterns of Care Study. Results: The total numbers of new cancer patients and total cancer patients (new and repeat) treated with radiotherapy in 2005 were estimated at approximately 162,000 and 198,000, respectively. In actual use were 765 linear accelerators, 11 telecobalt machines, 48 GammaKnife machines, 64 {sup 60}Co remote-controlled after-loading systems, and 119 {sup 192}Ir remote-controlled after-loading systems. The linear accelerator systems used dual-energy function in 498 systems (65%), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 462 (60%), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in 170 (22%). There were 426 Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-certified radiation oncologists, 774 full-time equivalent radiation oncologists, 117 medical physicists, and 1,635 radiation therapists. Geographically, a significant variation was found in the use of radiotherapy, from 0.9 to 2.1 patients/1,000 population. The annual patient load/FTE radiation oncologist was 247, exceeding the Blue Book guidelines level. Patterns of Care Study stratification can clearly discriminate the maturity of structures according to their academic nature and caseload. Conclusions: The Japanese structure has clearly improved during the past 15 years in terms of equipment and its use, although the shortage of manpower and variations in maturity disclosed by this Patterns of Care Study stratification remain problematic. These constitute the targets for nationwide improvement in quality assurance and quality control.

Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Dental and Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Hisao [Department of Radiology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Radiological Technology, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Masaki, Hidekazu [Department of Radiology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku University Hospital Cancer Center, Sendai (Japan)

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the 1960s, the U.S. electric power system has experienced a major blackout about once every 10 years. Each has been a vivid reminder of the importance society places on the continuous availability of electricity and has led to calls for changes to enhance reliability. At the root of these calls are judgments about what reliability is worth and how much should be paid to ensure it. In principle, comprehensive information on the actual reliability of the electric power system and on how proposed changes would affect reliability ought to help inform these judgments. Yet, comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system is lacking. This report helps to address this information gap by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on information reported by electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. Our research augments prior investigations, which focused only on power interruptions originating in the bulk power system, by considering interruptions originating both from the bulk power system and from within local distribution systems. Our research also accounts for differences among utility reliability reporting practices by employing statistical techniques that remove the influence of these differences on the trends that we identify. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. The questions analyzed include: 1. Are there trends in reported electricity reliability over time? 2. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system? 3. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the use of IEEE Standard 1366-2003?

Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Real-time estimation of gas turbine engine damage using a control-based Kalman filter algorithm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper a second-generation Kalman filter algorithm is described that has sufficient accuracy and response for real-time detection and estimation of gas turbine engine gas path damage caused by normal wear, mechanical failures, and ingestion of foreign objects. The algorithm was developed for in-flight operation of aircraft engines but also has application for marine and industrial gas turbines. The control measurement and microcomputer requirements are described. The performance and sensitivity to engine transients and measurement errors is evaluated. The algorithm is demonstrated with actual engine data of ice and bird ingestion tests.

Kerr, L.J.; Nemec, T.S.; Gallops, G.W. (Pratt and Whitney, United Technologies Corp., West Palm Beach, FL (US))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Chemical Kinetic Simulation of the Combustion of Bio-based Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to environmental and economic issues, there has been an increased interest in the use of alternative fuels. However, before widespread use of biofuels is feasible, the compatibility of these fuels with specific engines needs to be examined. More accurate models of the chemical combustion of alternative fuels in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are necessary, and this project evaluates the performance of emissions models and uses the information gathered to study the chemical kinetics involved. The computer simulations for each alternative fuel were executed using the Chemkin chemical kinetics program, and results from the runs were compared with data gathered from an actual engine that was run under similar conditions. A new heat transfer mechanism was added to the existing model's subroutine, and simulations were then conducted using the heat transfer mechanism. Results from the simulation proved to be accurate when compared with the data taken from the actual engine. The addition of heat transfer produced more realistic temperature and pressure data for biodiesel when biodiesel's combustion was simulated in an HCCI engine. The addition of the heat transfer mechanism essentially lowered the peak pressures and peak temperatures during combustion of all fuels simulated in this project.

Ashen, Ms. Refuyat [Oak Ridge High School; Cushman, Ms. Katherine C. [Oak Ridge High School

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Theoretical full power correction factors as related to changes in ambient temperature, pressure and absolute humidity for aircraft turbine engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

turbine or jet engine since it is based on the actual thermodynamic Brayton cycle. ACKNOHLEDGEMEHTS Assistance and advice from many people have contributed greatly to this research. The Author is grateful to Professor Stanley H. Lowy from... The nature of the probj em Objectives Background 1 3 4 4 7 1I EFFECTS OF STATE POINT VARIATIONS ? General ? Variations of inlet state points with temperature and pressure III IDEAL AND ACTUAL CYCLE ANALYSIS 21 General Variations of power...

Raphael, Michel Antoun

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry previously was unable to answer; • Proof-of-concept analytics tools that can be adapted and used by others; and • Guidelines and protocols that summarize analytical best practices. This report focuses on one example of the kind of value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether behavior-based (BB) efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings.

Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

425

A High shear stress segment along the San Andreas Fault: Inferences based on near-field stress direction and stress magnitude observations in the Carrizo Plain Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nearly 200 new in-situ determinations of stress directions and stress magnitudes near the Carrizo plain segment of the San Andreas fault indicate a marked change in stress state occurring within 20 km of this principal transform plate boundary. A natural consequence of this stress transition is that if the observed near-field ``fault-oblique`` stress directions are representative of the fault stress state, the Mohr-Coulomb shear stresses resolved on San Andreas sub-parallel planes are substantially greater than previously inferred based on fault-normal compression. Although the directional stress data and near-hydrostatic pore pressures, which exist within 15 km of the fault, support a high shear stress environment near the fault, appealing to elevated pore pressures in the fault zone (Byerlee-Rice Model) merely enhances the likelihood of shear failure. These near-field stress observations raise important questions regarding what previous stress observations have actually been measuring. The ``fault-normal`` stress direction measured out to 70 km from the fault can be interpreted as representing a comparable depth average shear strength of the principal plate boundary. Stress measurements closer to the fault reflect a shallower depth-average representation of the fault zone shear strength. If this is true, only stress observations at fault distances comparable to the seismogenic depth will be representative of the fault zone shear strength. This is consistent with results from dislocation monitoring where there is pronounced shear stress accumulation out to 20 km of the fault as a result of aseismic slip within the lower crust loading the upper locked section. Beyond about 20 km, the shear stress resolved on San Andreas fault-parallel planes becomes negligible. 65 refs., 15 figs.

Castillo, D. A., [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Adelaide (Australia); Younker, L.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

426

Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data collected from energy suppliers are supplemented withmail questionnaires from energy suppliers who provide actual

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

UvA in the spotlight interview with Susan Bgels `Learning how to think really means learning how to exercise some control over how and what  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, so lame and unexciting on the surface, actually expresses a great and terrible truth.' David Foster

van Rooij, Robert

428

Creswell is appointed as new faculty senator,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(actually, we just raised our hands and identified ourselves) * Midway through the meeting, I looked over

429

Electric Power from the Rhine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... prepared and verified before they are actually made by direct control or by signals to substations: ...

1933-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

430

Estimation of Atmospheric Corrosion of High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the corrosion resistance of low-alloy weathering steels from chemical composition data and from actual

431

Are You Saved? HIM, an Intranet-based Expert System Reduces Fatality Risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On July 28, 1998 a devastating accident occurred at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The accident cost a man his life and caused injury to others. In addition to the significant human loss, Lockheed Martin (LMITCO) experienced economic losses that reached millions of dollars. LMITCO eventually lost the managing and operating contract of a premier Department of Energy Laboratory. Just as with the INEEL, companies throughout industry today must face an ever increasingly complex world of government alphabet soup of regulations—OSHA, CAA, TSCA, FIFRA, ADA, and more. For businesses, non-compliance can quickly evaporate profits. For humans, mistakes can seriously affect health, and some work areas are so complicated that a single event could cost human life. Finally, adherence to the regulations can protect the community and the environment. Compliance with regulations is essential and multifaceted. Regulations require interpretation into company policy. Policies must be implemented as standard work practices. The workforce must be trained to follow the procedures. Management must coordinate flow down of requirements and policy for standardized work planning processes and consistent compliance with regulations. Implementing controls to ensure absolute compliance can be a very costly and cumbersome effort, thus, a graded approach is necessary to ensure cost effectiveness and relevance to actual work. The INEEL has developed technology for hazard evaluation and work planning called the Hazards Identification and Mitigation System. The HIM System is a web-based expert system that is available to all INEEL employees through the company Intranet. This tool simplifies and streamlines work planning by using a graded approach to standardize practices. The tool assists in evaluating hazards and ascertaining the required rigor for planning work. The tool integrates the knowledge of INEEL and DOE experts and previously proven review checklists and processes.The manual process is lengthy—sometimes taking 12 to 18 hours to complete. As such, it is difficult, prone to errors, and very tempting to shortcut. Automation of this process through the HIM system reduced a monumental hazard identification task for each work order, into a streamlined, efficient, and accurate process that can be completed in less than one hour. The result is that the process gets done, the regulations are met, and risk to human life is reduced.

Crofts, Von David; Simpson, Wayne Winger; Hopkins, Deborah Jean; Hawke, Scott Allen

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

EPICS BASE  

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

002230MLTPL00 Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System BASE  http://www.aps.anl.gov/epics 

433

Geodesic Transport Barriers in Jupiter's Atmosphere: A Video-Based Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jupiter's zonal jets and Great Red Spot are well known from still images. Yet the planet's atmosphere is highly unsteady, which suggests that the actual material transport barriers delineating its main features should be time-dependent. Rare video footages of Jupiter's clouds provide an opportunity to verify this expectation from optically reconstructed velocity fields. Available videos, however, provide short-time and temporally aperiodic velocity fields that defy classical dynamical systems analyses focused on asymptotic features. To this end, we use here the recent theory of geodesic transport barriers to uncover finite-time mixing barriers in the wind field extracted from a video captured by NASA's Cassini space mission. More broadly, the approach described here provides a systematic and frame-invariant way to extract dynamic coherent structures from time-resolved remote observations of unsteady continua.

Alireza Hadjighasem; George Haller

2014-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

434

Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4?nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500?nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650?nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365?nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210?mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent.

?ermák, Jan, E-mail: cermakj@fzu.cz; Rezek, Bohuslav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnická 10, 16200 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Koide, Yasuo [Sensor Materials Center, National Institute for Material Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Takeuchi, Daisuke [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

435

A Breakthrough toward Long Wavelength Cationic Photopolymerization: Initiating Systems Based on Violanthrone Derivatives and Silyl Radicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of very soft irradiations (household fluorescent and LED bulbs, sunlight and xenon lamp as visible light sources) is described. ... Using a fluorescence bulb irradiation and the V-78 (or V-79)/TTMSS/Ph2I+ three-component PIS under air, quite good EPOX polymerization profiles under air are observed (Figure 3A). ... Fluorescence quenching rate const. of >60 typical electron donor-acceptor systems, such as fluorescing compds. of 3-pyrenecarboxylic acid (electron acceptor), and naphthalene (electron donor), and quenching compds. of tetracyanoethylene (electron acceptor), and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (electron donor), were measured in MeCN, and are correlated with the free enthalpy change, ?G23, involved in the actual electron transfer process 1F* ... Q ? F.-+. .... Q± (F* is an excited mol., and Q is a non-excited mol.) in the encounter complex, and varying between +5 and -60 kcal/mole. ...

Mohamad-Ali Tehfe; Jacques Lalevée; Fabrice Morlet-Savary; Bernadette Graff; Jean-Pierre Fouassier

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

436

Political space for the civil society: The work of two community-based organizations in Kolkata  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

West Bengal was a pioneer in democratic decentralization in India, but the dominance of one political party and its hierarchical institutional structure have thwarted the scope for effective bottom-up planning in its principal city, Kolkata. Nevertheless, new local organizations have undertaken the task of creating space—social and metaphoric—for the underprivileged. The paper looks beyond normative expectations and analyzes two actually existing civil society organizations to see what civil society actually does or does not do for different people who inhabit the sphere. It demonstrates how one organization—the Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee (DMSC)—succeeded in empowering its target community, whereas another organization—Unnayan—after initial success, failed to sustain itself. Unnayan was an NGO, the leadership of which came from western-educated elites with its grassroots workers being mostly ex-radical naxalites. As Unnayan chose to address issues that related to housing, infrastructure, land tenure, etc. that was part of an already politicized public agenda, it failed to find the needed political space for it to make any significant impact in Kolkata's planning. The paper observes that partisan political class have primarily tried to address issues relating to the mainstream conservative Bengali society and have not wanted to be associated with stigmatized people such as prostitutes. The author draws from the comparison of the workings of both DMSC and Unnayan to argue that the marginalization of the sex workers has prevented them from being incorporated into the mainstream politics, although this has also provided DMSC with the much needed political space for successful collective social action to improve their lives without being co-opted by any political party.

Anirban Pal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

An automated vision-based method for rapid 3D energy performance modeling of existing buildings using thermal and digital imagery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Modeling the energy performance of existing buildings enables quick identification and reporting of potential areas for building retrofit. However, current modeling practices of using energy simulation tools do not model the energy performance of buildings at their element level. As a result, potential retrofit candidates caused by construction defects and degradations are not represented. Furthermore, due to manual modeling and calibration processes, their application is often time-consuming. Current application of 2D thermography for building diagnostics is also facing several challenges due to a large number of unordered and non-geo-tagged images. To address these limitations, this paper presents a new computer vision-based method for automated 3D energy performance modeling of existing buildings using thermal and digital imagery captured by a single thermal camera. First, using a new image-based 3D reconstruction pipeline which consists of Graphic Processing Unit (GPU)-based Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) algorithms, the geometrical conditions of an existing building is reconstructed in 3D. Next, a 3D thermal point cloud model of the building is generated by using a new 3D thermal modeling algorithm. This algorithm involves a one-time thermal camera calibration, deriving the relative transformation by forming the Epipolar geometry between thermal and digital images, and the MVS algorithm for dense reconstruction. By automatically superimposing the 3D building and thermal point cloud models, 3D spatio-thermal models are formed, which enable the users to visualize, query, and analyze temperatures at the level of 3D points. The underlying algorithms for generating and visualizing the 3D spatio-thermal models and the 3D-registered digital and thermal images are presented in detail. The proposed method is validated for several interior and exterior locations of a typical residential building and an instructional facility. The experimental results show that inexpensive digital and thermal imagery can be converted into ubiquitous reporters of the actual energy performance of existing buildings. The proposed method expedites the modeling process and has the potential to be used as a rapid and robust building diagnostic tool.

Youngjib Ham; Mani Golparvar-Fard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Summary of number of over-estimated results between AEO Reference 2. Summary of number of over-estimated results between AEO Reference cases and realized outcomes All AEOs NEMS AEOs Percent of Projections Over-Estimated Percent of Projections Over-Estimated Table 3. Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth), Actual vs. Projected 24% 37% Table 4. World Oil Prices, Actual vs. Projected 52% 24% Table 5. Total Petroleum Consumption, Actual vs. Projected 44% 61% Table 6. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Actual vs. Projected 59% 65% Table 7. Petroleum Net Imports, Actual vs. Projected 56% 61% Table 8. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Actual vs. Projected 54% 23% Table 9. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Actual vs. Projected 49% 70% Table 10. Natural Gas Production, Actual vs. Projected 56% 71% Table 11. Natural Gas Net Imports, Actual vs. Projected 45% 64%

439

Viscoelastic Properties, Ionic Conductivity, and Materials Design Considerations for Poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene)-Based Ion Gel Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The viscoelastic properties and ionic conductivity of ion gels based on the self-assembly of a poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene) (SOS) triblock copolymer (M{sub n,S} = 3 kDa, M{sub n,O} = 35 kDa) in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([EMI][TFSA]) were investigated over the composition range of 10-50 wt % SOS and the temperature range of 25-160 C. The poly(styrene) (PS) end-blocks associate into micelles, whereas the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) midblocks are well-solvated by this ionic liquid. The ion gel with 10 wt % SOS melts at 54 C, with the longest relaxation time exhibiting a similar temperature dependence to that of the viscosity of bulk PS. However, the actual values of the gel relaxation time are more than 4 orders of magnitude larger than the relaxation time of bulk PS. This is attributed to the thermodynamic penalty of pulling PS end-blocks through the PEO/[EMI][TFSA] matrix. Ion gels with 20-50 wt % SOS do not melt and show two plateaus in the storage modulus over the temperature and frequency ranges measured. The one at higher frequencies is that of an entangled network of PEO strands with PS cross-links; the modulus displays a quadratic dependence on polymer weight fraction and agrees with the prediction of linear viscoelastic theory assuming half of the PEO chains are elastically effective. The frequency that separates the two plateaus, {omega}{sub c}, reflects the time scale of PS end-block pull-out. The other plateau at lower frequencies is that of a congested micelle solution with PS cores and PEO coronas, which has a power law dependence on domain spacing similar to diblock melts. The ionic conductivity of the ion gels is compared to PEO homopolymer solutions at similar polymer concentrations; the conductivity is reduced by a factor of 2.1 or less, decreases with increasing PS volume fraction, and follows predictions based on a simple obstruction model. Our collective results allow the formulation of basic design considerations for optimizing the mechanical properties, thermal stability, and ionic conductivity of these gels.

Zhang, Sipei; Lee, Keun Hyung; Sun, Jingru; Frisbie, C. Daniel; Lodge, Timothy P. (UMM)

2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

440

Model-Based Calculations of the Probability of a Country's Nuclear Proliferation Decisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first nuclear weapon was detonated in August 1945 over Japan to end World War II. During the past six decades, the majority of the world's countries have abstained from acquiring nuclear weapons. However, a number of countries have explored the nuclear weapons option, 23 in all. Among them, 14 countries have dropped their interest in nuclear weapons after initiating some efforts. And nine of them today possess nuclear weapons. These countries include the five nuclear weapons states - U.S., Russia, U.K., France, and China - and the four non- NPT member states - Israel, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. Many of these countries initially used civilian nuclear power technology development as a basis or cover for their military program. Recent proliferation incidents in Iraq, Iran, and North Korea brought the world together to pay much attention to nuclear nonproliferation. With the expected surge in the use of nuclear energy for power generation by developing countries, the world's nuclear nonproliferation regime needs to be better prepared for potential future challenges. For the world's nuclear nonproliferation regime to effectively cope with any future proliferation attempts, early detection of potentially proliferation-related activities is highly desirable. Early detection allows the international community to respond and take necessary actions - ideally using political and diplomatic influences without resorting to harsh measures such as sanctions or military actions. In this regard, a capability to quantitatively predict the chance of a country's nuclear proliferation intent or activities is of significant interest. There have been various efforts in the research community to understand the determinants of nuclear proliferation and develop quantitative tools to predict nuclear proliferation events. These efforts have shown that information about the political issues surrounding a country's security along with economic development data can be useful to explain the occurrences of proliferation decisions. However, predicting major historical proliferation events using model-based predictions has been unreliable. Nuclear proliferation decisions by a country is affected by three main factors: (1) technology; (2) finance; and (3) political motivation [1]. Technological capability is important as nuclear weapons development needs special materials, detonation mechanism, delivery capability, and the supporting human resources and knowledge base. Financial capability is likewise important as the development of the technological capabilities requires a serious financial commitment. It would be difficult for any state with a gross national product (GNP) significantly less than that of about $100 billion to devote enough annual governmental funding to a nuclear weapon program to actually achieve positive results within a reasonable time frame (i.e., 10 years). At the same time, nuclear proliferation is not a matter determined by a mastery of technical details or overcoming financial constraints. Technology or finance is a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition for nuclear proliferation. At the most fundamental level, the proliferation decision by a state is controlled by its political motivation. To effectively address the issue of predicting proliferation events, all three of the factors must be included in the model. To the knowledge of the authors, none of the exiting models considered the 'technology' variable as part of the modeling. This paper presents an attempt to develop a methodology for statistical modeling and predicting a country's nuclear proliferation decisions. The approach is based on the combined use of data on a country's nuclear technical capability profiles economic development status, security environment factors and internal political and cultural factors. All of the information utilized in the study was from open source literature. (authors)

Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David N. [Department of Nuclear Engineering North Carolina State University (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

An Energy-Based Comparison of Long-Hop and Short-Hop Routing in MIMO Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper considers the problem of selecting appropriate routes in a network of multiple-antenna nodes. Specifically, the problem of selecting either routes that consist of long hops or routes that consist of short hops is considered. This distance-dependent route selection problem is approached from the viewpoint of energy efficiency, where a route is selected with the objective of minimizing the transmission energy consumed while satisfying a target outage criterion at the final destination. Deterministic line networks and two-dimensional random networks are considered, and the energy consumption of long-hop and short-hop routing is compared in several limiting cases. It is also shown that in many scenarios of practical interest, short hops actually outperform long hops in terms of energy consumption. The obtained analytical and simulation results highlight the inherent energy efficiency of multiple-antenna signaling.

Lo, Caleb K; Heath, Robert W

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

win0203SelUpdates.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December December 2002 Short-Term Energy Outlook Figure WF1. U.S. Winter Natural Gas Demand (Year-to-Year Percent Change) Table WF1. Illustrative Consumer Prices and Expenditures for Heating Fuels During the Winter 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 Actual Actual Actual Base Forecast Natural Gas (Midwest) Consumption (mcf) 81.7 99.1 81.3 93.1 Avg. Price ($/mcf) 6.69 9.54 7.34 8.38 Expenditures ($) 546 945 597 780 Heating Oil (Northeast) Consumption (gals) 644 731 584 716 Avg. Price ($/gal) 1.16 1.37 1.10 1.27 Expenditures ($) 751 999 643 909 Propane (Midwest) Consumption (gals) 807 979 803 920 Avg. Price ($/gal) 1.02 1.37 1.10 1.13 Expenditures ($) 824 1344 887 1036 Notes: Consumption based on typical per household use for regions noted.

443

win0203SelUpdates.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

November November 2002 Short-Term Energy Outlook Figure WF1. U.S. Winter Natural Gas Demand (Year-to-Year Percent Change) Table WF1. Illustrative Consumer Prices and Expenditures for Heating Fuels During the Winter 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 Actual Actual Actual Base Forecast Natural Gas (Midwest) Consumption (mcf) 81.7 99.1 81.3 92.5 Avg. Price ($/mcf) 6.69 9.54 7.34 8.06 Expenditures ($) 546 945 597 746 Heating Oil (Northeast) Consumption (gals) 644 731 584 703 Avg. Price ($/gal) 1.16 1.37 1.10 1.28 Expenditures ($) 751 999 643 901 Propane (Midwest) Consumption (gals) 807 979 803 914 Avg. Price ($/gal) 1.02 1.37 1.10 1.15 Expenditures ($) 824 1344 887 1054 Notes: Consumption based on typical per household use for regions noted.

444

win0203SelUpdates0303.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

En En ergy Outlook -- October 2002 Updated Feb 2003) 1 Winter Fuels Outlook: 2002-2003 Selected Table and Figure Updates Based on the March 2003 Short-Term Energy Outlook Figure WF1. U.S. Winter Natural Gas Demand (Year-to-Year Percent Change) Table WF1. Illustrative Consumer Prices and Expenditures for Heating Fuels During the Winter 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 Actual Actual Actual Base Forecast Natural Gas (Midwest) Consumption (mcf) 81.7 99.1 81.3 92.1 Avg. Price ($/mcf) 6.69 9.54 7.33 8.43 Expenditures ($) 546 945 596 776 Heating Oil (Northeast) Consumption (gals) 644 731 584 751 Avg. Price ($/gal) 1.16 1.37 1.10 1.37 Expenditures ($) 751 999 643 1029 Propane (Midwest) Consumption (gals) 807 979 803 910 Avg. Price ($/gal)

445

Hindawi Publishing Corporation EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) steered response power- (SRP-) based methods, (3) energy ratio estimation, and (4) subspace environments, etc.), the choices for sound source localization will be actually limited to TDOA- and SRP-complexity. Although SRP-based algorithms, espe- cially the well-known SRP-PHAse transform (SRP-PHAT) method, have

446

Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review: Evaluation of Projections in Past Editions (1982-2006)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Table 1. Summary of Differences between AEO Reference Cases and Realized Outcomes Percent Over- Estimated Average Absolute Percent Difference Percent Over- Estimated Average Absolute Percent Difference Table 3. Gross Domestic Product, Actual vs. Forecasts 34% 5.5% 18% 4.5% Table 4. World Oil Prices, Actual vs. Forecasts 68% 52.9% 36% 20.8% Table 5. Total Petroleum Consumption, Actual vs. Forecasts 31% 2.9% 44% 1.8% Table 6. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Actual vs. Forecasts 51% 4.9% 53% 5.2% Table 7. Petroleum Net Imports, Actual vs. Forecasts 49% 6.4% 51% 3.6% Table 8. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Actual vs. Forecasts 61% 63.5% 23% 28.9% Table 9. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Actual vs. Forecasts 38% 6.7% 59% 5.6% Table 10. Natural Gas Production, Actual vs. Forecasts 51% 5.5% 70% 5.8%

447

March  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Table 2. Table 2. Summary of Differences between AEO Reference Cases and Realized Outcomes Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Average Absolute Percent Difference Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Average Absolute Percent Difference Table 3. Gross Domestic Product, Actual vs. Projected 41% 1.0% 51% 1.0% Table 4. World Oil Prices, Actual vs. Projected 55% 51.1% 26% 30.6% Table 5. Total Petroleum Consumption, Actual vs. Projected 40% 3.3% 56% 3.0% Table 6. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Actual vs. Projected 58% 5.8% 64% 6.5% Table 7. Petroleum Net Imports, Actual vs. Projected 53% 6.5% 57% 4.7% Table 8. Natural Gas Wellhead Prices, Actual vs. Projected 53% 57.6% 18% 32.7% Table 9. Total Natural Gas Consumption, Actual vs. Projected 47% 7.1% 68% 7.0% Table 10. Natural Gas Production, Actual vs. Projected

448

Inverse Fluid Convection Problems in Enclosures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency, security, and reliability of industrial and domestic processes essentially depend on the deep understanding of their actual processes of fluid flow and heat transfer. Actual processes of fluid flow control and ...

Zhao, Fu-Yun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Microsoft PowerPoint - Session2_Rogers.pptx  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

2008 - 2015 1,400 ACTUAL FORECAST search Program 1,200 Yemen USA - Kenai Trinidad Russia ACTUAL FORECAST atural Gas Res 1,000 Qatar Peru Papua New Guinea Oman Nameplate...

450

Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uncertainties in Energy Consumption Introduced by Building Operations and Weather for a Medium between predicted and actual building energy consumption can be attributed to uncertainties introduced in energy consumption due to actual weather and building operational practices, using a simulation

451

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steps include: 1) Using an actual 2006 weather file with measured solar radiation, 2) Modifying lighting & equipment schedule using ASHRAE's RP-1093 methods, 3) Using actual equipment performance curves (i.e., scroll chiller), 4) Using the Winkelmann...

Im, Piljae

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

452

Mobilization of plasmid pHSV106 from Escherichia coli HB101 in a laboratory-scale waste treatment facility.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...approximating that of an actual wastewater treatment plant) did not prevent plas...proportionally) those of an actual wastewater treatment plant, which suggests that there...R-plasmid transfer in wastewater treatment plant. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...

P Mancini; S Fertels; D Nave; M A Gealt

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Pumping System Measurements To Estimate Energy Savings: Why and How  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring performance parameters (flow rate, pressures, and power) for existing systems is essential to understanding how both the pump(s) and system are actually performing. Examples of reasons why actual measurements are critical and practical...

Casada, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Natural disasters and the challenge of extreme events: risk management from an insurance perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...high uncertainty in actual risk evaluation to an acceptable level. Due to the rarity...extreme events, specific risk prevention measures are hardly...high uncertainty in actual risk evaluation to an acceptable level. Due to the rarity...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

CX-001393: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3: Categorical Exclusion Determination 3: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001393: Categorical Exclusion Determination High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation - Award Number DE-EE0002060 Date: 03/21/2010 Location(s): Arizona Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office Arizona Public Service (APS) will study the high penetration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on a typical residential utility power distribution circuit. The purpose of this work is to develop a model of an actual utility system and develop a model that incorporates actual performance data from a grid with PV installed on the system. The intention is that a model that is validated with actual utility performance data will provide a utility with a model based upon their own information so they can

456

Grays Harbor PUD - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Grays Harbor PUD - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Grays Harbor PUD - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Grays Harbor PUD - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate Verifiable Savings: up to 70% of project cost Heat Pumps/Air Conditioners: 50% of actual project cost Economizers: 50% of actual economizer system installed cost Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Verifiable Savings: $0.17/kWh, based upon annual kilowatt-hours saved Heat Pumps/Air Conditioners: $200 per ton X minimum or actual SEER

457

Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Definitions Definitions Definitions Since 2006, EIA has reported two measures of aggregate capacity, one based on demonstrated peak working gas storage, the other on working gas design capacity. Demonstrated Peak Working Gas Capacity: This measure sums the highest storage inventory level of working gas observed in each facility over the 5-year range from May 2005 to April 2010, as reported by the operator on the Form EIA-191M, "Monthly Underground Gas Storage Report." This data-driven estimate reflects actual operator experience. However, the timing for peaks for different fields need not coincide. Also, actual available maximum capacity for any storage facility may exceed its reported maximum storage level over the last 5 years, and is virtually certain to do so in the case of newly commissioned or expanded facilities. Therefore, this measure provides a conservative indicator of capacity that may understate the amount that can actually be stored.

458

Dynamic aspects of individual design activities. A cognitive ergonomics viewpoint  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper focuses on the use of knowledge possessed by designers. Data collection was based on observations (by the cognitive ergonomics researcher) and simultaneous verbalisations (by the designers) in empirical studies conducted in the context of industrial design projects. The contribution of this research is typical of cognitive ergonomics, in that it provides data on actual activities implemented by designers in their actual work situation (rather than on prescribed and/or idealised processes and methods). Data presented concern global strategies (the way in which designers actually organise their activity) and local strategies (reuse in design). Results from cognitive ergonomics and other research that challenges the way in which people are supposed to work with existing systems are generally not received warmly. Abundant corroboration of such results is required before industry may consider taking them into account. The opportunistic organisation of design activity is taken here as an example of this ...

Visser, Willemien

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.

Gokhan Alptekin

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "actual actual base" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Dynamic load measurement on an LPG carrier during voyage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are few actual ship measurement data showing the propriety of the design loads given by classification societies rules or other relevant rules. Therefore, the authors measured acceleration of ship motion and fluctuating loads on tank supports and chocks of a 75,000 m{sup 3} LPG carrier during her voyage. This paper introduces the subject ship and typical measurement results over about 1.3 years. From the analysis of these data, the authors have made clear the amount of frequency of fluctuating loads during actual navigation and ascertained the propriety of the ship`s design base.

Kamoi, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Kiso, Takashi; Kada, Kazuo; Motoi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Shinichi [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

462

Investigation of some renewable energy and exergy parameters for two Geothermal District Heating Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, three new exergy parameters, namely total exergy destruction ratio, component exergy destruction ratio and dimensionless exergy destruction are introduced in addition to energetic renewability ratio, exergetic renewability ratio, energetic reinjection ratio and exergetic reinjection ratio, and compared for Edremit and Bigadic Geothermal District Heating Systems (GDHSs) based on their actual data. The respective daily graphs of these parameters are presented. Also, regression analyses using the actual data are performed to obtain some correlations for practical use. In brief, these parameters help us to identify the degree of renewability and other aspects and provide some insights.

C. Coskun; Z. Oktay; I. Dincer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

GL Report BU 355  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MC MC BUDGET ACTIVITY REPORT ($ IN THOUSANDS) CRSP MC CRSP MC BUDGET BUDGET FY 09 FY 10 FY 11 FY 12 FY 13 TOTAL DESCRIPTION ACTIVITY ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL ACTUAL BUDGET OBS EXPEND OBS OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP O&M N/FLCR ANLVM 100 $ - $ 539 $ 354 $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ Power Billing N/FLCR BILLM - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ - $ Conserv & Renew Energy N/FLCR CAREM 159 $ 118

464

Calculation Theory of Nonuniform Distribution in Cleanroom  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Due to the nonuniform distributions of airflow and dust particles, particles in cleanroom are actually not evenly distributed. This chapter...

Zhonglin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Literature Survay in the Field of Primary and Secondary Concentrating Solar Energy Systems Concerning the Choice and Manufacturing Process of Suitable Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The following report summarizes the actual knowledge concerning aspects of solar energy, that had been specified in the convocation.

A. Grychta; J. Kaufmann; P. Lippert; G. Lensch

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Commissariat l'nergie Atomique Centre de Grenoble -17, rue des Martyrs -38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 France  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that is a key research area for the development of electric car. A problem observed on actual graphitic

Sart, Remi

467

Preparado como una iniciativa de NARSTO, esta evaluacin de Ozono (O3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emisiones de estos precursores de O3 están directamente relacionadas a los actuales estilos de vida, las

468

CONGRESSMAN SHERWOOD BOEHLERT (R-NY) OPENING STATEMENT FOR ENERGY MARK-UP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-deep drilling program and landmark compromise on the Clean Coal Program to ensure that it actually leads to true

469

Design of Integrated Laboratory and Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing Center  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Both simulated and actual diesel emissions were able to be measured and analyzed using a bench-top adiabatic reactor.

470

Fundamental Characteristics of Semiconductor Nanowires for Intersubband Optoelectronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bulk e?ective permittivity to a layer actually comprised of subwavelength variations relies on the identification

Burnett, Benjamin Adams

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Cooling Tower Energy Conservation Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? State of art retrofit, pumping head reduction methodology and hydraulic calculations will be discussed with actual field illustrations....

Burger, R.

472

Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: A Review of Current Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Program Washington Renewable Energy Production Incentivesfor Renewable Energy October 2006 actual energy productionrenewable energy credits (RECs) through energy production-

Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

The Effects of Synthesis, Sr-doping, and Co3O4 on the Perovskite LaCoO3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Josephson junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a sample via two Josephson junctions, which can detect verymaterial (the actual Josephson junctions). A schematic can

Durand, Alice Marica

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON ENERGY RESEARCH AT HISTORICALLY BLACK UNIVERSITIES, JUNE 17-19, 1980, SHERATON PATRIOT INN, WILLIAMSBURG, VIRGINIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy availability (gas, oil, electricity), unit cost and alternatives, actual usage, and detailed measurement and adjustments of principal units.

Authors, Various

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Coupling of laser energy into plasma channels D. A. Dimitrov, R. E. Giacone, D. L. Bruhwiler, and R. Busby  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ramp leads to an actual focus at the top of the ramp due to plasma focusing, resulting in reduced spot

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

476

Topical Lunch Minutes 1. Dave Dieterich: the mission of CCSF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are not equal to healthy buildings a. Is green housing actually healthy housing? i. Asthma 1. Mold and dust

Angenent, Lars T.

477

Law, Sustainability, and the Pursuit of Happiness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the steps needed for sustainability can actually improvesatisfaction. Thus, sustainability for society and theSustainability.

Farber, Daniel A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Validating the Estimated Cost of Saving Water Through Infrastructure Rehabilitation in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley (Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Case Study Using Actual Construction Costs for the Curry Main Pipeline Project, Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 1 (Edinburg)...

Lacewell, R. D.; Rister, M.; Sturdivant, A. W.

479

The family of object-related depictives in English and Spanish: towards a usage-based constructionist analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Drawing on naturally-occurring data extracted from the British National Corpus (BNC) and the Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual (CREA) in conjunction with data elicited from native speakers by means of questionnaires, this paper provides a bottom-up, usage-based analysis of instances of depictive secondary predicates involving mainly verba cogitandi (e.g. “considerar”/“consider”, “encontrar”/“find”, etc.) in English and Spanish. Building on Gonzálvez-García [Gonzálvez-García, F., 2006a. Passives without Actives: Evidence from Verbless Complement Constructions in Spanish. Constructions SV1-5/2006; Gonzálvez-García, F., 2003. Reconstructing object complements in English and Spanish. In: Martínez Vázquez, M. (Eds.), Gramática de Construcciones (Contrastes entre el Inglés y el Español). Grupo de Gramática Contrastiva, Huelva, pp. 17–58], these configurations are argued to be constructions in their own right, viz. the subjective–transitive construction. The main focus of this paper is on the investigation of the most salient semantico-pragmatic hallmarks of four lower-level configurations of the subjective–transitive construction in the light of coercion [Michaelis, L.A., 2003a. Word meaning, sentence meaning, and syntactic meaning. In: Cuyckens, H., Dirven, R., Taylor, J., (Eds.), Cognitive Approaches to Lexical Semantics. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, pp. 163–209; Michaelis, L.A., 2003b. Headless constructions and coercion by construction. In: Francis, E., Michaelis, L.A., (Eds.), Mismatch: Form-Function Incongruity and the Architecture of Grammar. CSLI, Stanford, pp. 259–310; Michaelis, L.A., 2004a. Type shifting in construction grammar: an integrated approach to aspectual coercion. Cognitive Linguistics 15 (1), 1–67; Michaelis, L.A., 2004b. Why we believe that syntax is construction-based. Unpublished plenary delivered at the Third International Conference on Construction Grammar(s), Université de Provence, Marseille, July 9, 2004.] via (i) obligatory reflexive pronouns in the object slot, (ii) a progressive verb form with an inherently stative situation/state of affairs, (iii) an imperative verb with a prima facie non-controllable situation/state of affairs, and (iv) an imperfect tense with a counterfactual interpretation. It is shown that while the first three types of coercion are observable in both English and Spanish, type (iv) points to an interesting asymmetry between these two languages, thus lending further credence to the assumption that argument structure is construction-specific as well as language-specific. Moreover, it is demonstrated that these configurations can be aptly regarded as a family of constructions and that a non-monotonic, default inheritance system of the type invoked in the cognitively-influenced strand of Construction Grammar [Goldberg, A.E., 1995. Constructions. A Construction Approach to Argument Structure. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London; Goldberg, A.E., 2006. Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language. Oxford University Press, New York] can capture the commonalities and the idiosyncratic particulars of these conventional extensions in the construct-i-con.

Francisco Gonzálvez-García

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Models for CSP with availability information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider models of CSP based on recording what events are available as possible alternatives to the events that are actually performed. We present many different varieties of such models. For each, we give a compositional semantics, congruent to the operational semantics, and prove full abstraction and no-junk results. We compare the expressiveness of the different models.

Lowe, Gavin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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481

Modeling the Complex Dynamics of Distributed Communities of the Web with Pretopology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the Complex Dynamics of Distributed Communities of the Web with Pretopology Vincent analysis of web communities. This approach is based upon the pretopological concepts of pseudoclosure through the actual limits of graph theory modeling. The problem of modeling and understanding web

482

Why Cogeneration Development Projects Fail  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the particip8llts. Keep in mind the developllent problems listed below are all based on actual experiences. Sane were encountered by my company, Ebasco, some by others. The names of the developers and the projects have been concealed to protect...

Greenwood, R. W.

483

An ounce of prevention or a pound of cure: bioeconomic risk analysis of invasive species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...control strategy. Based on nuclear power industry data...of zebra mussel control cost (CX = US$1.6 million...expenditure at which the costs of prevention equalled...expenditure for prevention. The graph shows the prevention expenditure...power plant. The actual cost of such a reduction would...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Procedure and Application for Determining the Cold Deck and Hot Deck Airflow in a Dual-Duct System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces an innovative method to determine the cold and hot airflow through a dual-duct variable air volume (VAV) system. The actual building load can be identified based on the calculated airflow and temperature for both the cold...

Liu, G.; Mingsheng, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Batched Searching of Sequential and Tree Structured Files  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the potential reduct.ion in processor demand may actually reduce response time. An analysis with sample a higher demand on the processor (or processors) and thereby potentially increases the response time of disk based online systems and the demand for real-time response for individual retrievals, the use

Shneiderman, Ben

486

American Journal of Botany 89(4): 707725. 2002. RAPID DIVERSIFICATION OF THE COTTON GENUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

707 American Journal of Botany 89(4): 707­725. 2002. RAPID DIVERSIFICATION OF THE COTTON GENUS cotton (Gossypium) lineages, and it has been unclear whether this reflects actual history (rapid relationships of diploid cotton genome groups using DNA sequences from 11 single-copy nuclear loci (10293 base

Small, Randall

487

RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...being based on firmer information. It also attempts to weigh fusion and fission as they have actually occurred. About 9.4 X...the stratosphere for years, the tritium from high-yield thermonuclear detonations does not, but descends in a matter of 1 or 2...

W. F. Libby

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

This is the full version of the extended abstract, which appeared at CRYPTO '2004 [9]. Journal of Cryptology, Volume 20 -Number 1.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Thomas Pornin2 1 CNRS­LIENS, Ecole Normale Sup´erieure, Paris, France {Dario exhaustive search is feasible. This is actually the goal of password-based key exchange protocols, secure to exhaustive search. Indeed, by using a short password, one cannot prevent a brute force on-line exhaustive

Pointcheval, David

489

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant design validation: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides documentation of actual underground conditions encountered as they relate to the design criteria, design bases, and design configurations for the reference design of the underground openings. It includes a selection of the more essential data collected during the design validation effort and an interpretation of these data.

Not Available

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Evaluating the MEI 'Enabling Access to Further Mathematics' project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......average (of enrolling local students) is not good at Maths. So this has been a really...computer, they might even go on to the internet but getting on to that actual website...development, implementation and evaluation of Internet-based undergraduate materials for the......

Patrick Barmby; Robert Coe

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/nanoenergy Available online at www.sciencedirect.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effect Abstract Piezoelectric nanowire based nanogenerator is a promising technology to harvest ambient mechanical energy. It is essential to experimentally quantify the strain­piezopotential relation- ship to remove the charge screening effect and recover the actual piezopotential generated by the MW, an external

Wang, Xudong

492

CERFACS: Scientific Report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CERFACS: Scientific Report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Project 1992 ­ 1993 October 25 th. The ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' project has played a key role in this achievement, after two years­of­the art climate model. Based on these actual and potential achievements, the Global Change CERFACS project

493

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2012 State of Technology and Projections to 2017  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the economic impact of the work performed at PNNL during FY12 to improve fast pyrolysis oil upgrading via hydrotreating. A comparison is made between the projected economic outcome and the actual results based on experimental data. Sustainability metrics are also included.

Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

494

Free piston stirling engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book presents a basic introduction to free piston Stirling engine technology through a review of specialized background material. It also includes information based on actual construction and operation experience with these machines, as well as theoretical and analytical insights into free piston Stirling engine technology.

Walker, C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Chapter 9 Water Resources 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pearson Education, Inc. Transpiration Capillary rise is the rise in a liquid above the level of zero pressure due to a net upward force produced by the attraction of the water molecules to a solid surface (e, Inc. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) calculation based on soil moisture PET ET 0 0 wp fc Soil moisture

Pan, Feifei

496

Investigation of stepped labyrinth seal leakage performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance. Experimental tests were conducted using two test rigs. one of these test rigs was a 100:1 scale and the other was a 4:1 scale of an actual labyrinth seal. Both test rigs operated based on a two-dimensional planar flow concept. Tests were...

Reed, Thomas Stanley

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

497

Analyze Data to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Once the relevant data have been collected, the next step is to identify the biggest building energy users and their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribution. Ideally would be done at the program level using actual building characteristic and performance data. However, assumptions may be established about energy performance of buildings based on general location and building type.

498

Gaussian Process Regression for Vessel Performance Monitoring Benjamin Pjedsted Pedersen, FORCE Technology, Copenhagen/Denmark, bpp@force.dk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fouling has been evaluated by comparing e.g. the actual fuel consumption with a theoretical estimate basedGaussian Process Regression for Vessel Performance Monitoring Benjamin Pjedsted Pedersen, FORCE of the energy consumption on a ship. Using different data sets, from five sister container ships, the method

499

248 Tokarev, A.A. Technical Note 'I Ut = 75.40 -37.70 -25.13 -12.57 -8.38 -6.28 -5.03 -3.97 -3.28  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gear is usualIy provided for reducing fuel consumption in actual vehicle operation. Let us discuss engine power. Conclusions The regression analysis confirms that vehicle productiveness and fuel economy of the series described are the highest maximum speed (based on maximum engine power), high acceleration rate

Hull, Maury

500

Order reduction for a realtime engine model using flat and nonlinear Galerkin methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper a methodology for the order reduction of large scale nonlinear dynamic systems is proposed and discussed. It is based on the known concepts of linear and nonlinear Galerkin projection. For the actual mode of operation the projection space ... Keywords: Galerkin methods, local model network, model order reduction, singular value decomposition, snapshot method

Georg Fuchs; Alois Steindl; Stefan Jakubek

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z