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Sample records for activity thermal gradient

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes...

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Ross, 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient...

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient...

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Ingebritsen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Ingebritsen, Et Al., 1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal...

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (U.S. Geothermal Inc., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal...

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal...

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Sorey, Et Al., 1978) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal...

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Conservation, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal...

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Niggemann, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal...

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date 1998 - 2002...

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date...

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient...

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Matlick...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gradient wells and Grace Geothermal Corporation drilled 13. Unocal's wells were 76 m deep and Grace Geothermal's were 152 m deep. The thermal gradient wells revealed an anomaly...

  14. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1, -2, -3, and -4, and all four encountered geothermal fluids. The holes provided valuable water geochemistry, supporting the geothermometry results obtained from the hot springs and Magma well. The temperature data gathered from all the wells clearly indicates the presence of a major plume of thermal water centered on the Pumpernickel Valley fault, and suggests that the main plume is controlled, at least in part, by flow from this fault system. The temperature data also defines the geothermal resource with gradients >100oC/km, which covers an area a minimum of 8 km2. Structural blocks, down dropped with respect to the Pumpernickel Valley fault, may define an immediate reservoir. The geothermal system almost certainly continues beyond the recently drilled holes and might be open to the east and south, whereas the heat source responsible for the temperatures associated with this plume has not been intersected and must be at a depth greater than 920 meters (depth of the deepest well – Magma well). The geological and structural setting and other characteristics of the Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area are markedly similar to the portions of the nearby Dixie Valley geothermal field. These similarities include, among others, the numerous, unexposed en echelon faults and large-scale pull-apart structure, which in Dixie Valley may host part of the geothermal field. The Pumpernickel Valley project area, for the majority of which Nevada Geothermal Power Company has geothermal rights, represents a geothermal site with a potential for the discovery of a relatively high temperature reservoir suitable for electric power production. Among locations not previously identified as having high geothermal potential, Pumpernickel Valley has been ranked as one of four sites with the highest potential for electrical power production in Nevada (Shevenell and Garside, 2003). Richards and Blackwell (2002) estimated the total heat loss and the preliminary production capacity for the entire Pumpernickel Valley geothermal system to be at 35MW. A more conservative estimate, for

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Edmunds...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the North Brawley, Heber, East Mesa, and Salton Sea Geothermal Areas. Notes Well logs, thermal gradient data, and magnetic data were correlated to form a better geologic...

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    regional heat flux around the hot springs and potentially identify the location of the geothermal reservoir feeding the hot springs Notes Eight thermal gradient boreholes were...

  17. Molecular Rotation and Polarization under Thermal Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpha A Lee

    2015-10-21

    Recent molecular dynamics simulations show that a thermal gradient induces an electric field in water that is comparable to that seen in ionic thin films and biomembranes. This counterintuitive phenomena of thermo-orientation is also observed more generally in simulations of polar and non-polar size-assymetric dumbbell fluids. However, a microscopic theory for this novel non-equilibrium phenomenon is yet unknown. We develop a microscopic theory of thermo-orientation using a mean-field, local equilibrium approach. Our theory reveals analytically how thermo-orientation depends on the molecular volume, size anisotropy, and dipole moment. Predictions of the theory agree quantitatively with molecular dynamics simulations. Crucially, our framework shows how thermo-orientation can be controlled and maximised by tuning microscopic molecular properties.

  18. Molecular Rotation and Polarization under Thermal Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Alpha A

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular dynamics simulations show that a thermal gradient induces an electric field in water that is comparable to that seen in ionic thin films and biomembranes. This counterintuitive phenomena of thermo-orientation is also observed more generally in simulations of polar and non-polar size-assymetric dumbbell fluids. However, a microscopic theory for this novel non-equilibrium phenomenon is yet unknown. We develop a microscopic theory of thermo-orientation using a mean-field, local equilibrium approach. Our theory reveals analytically how thermo-orientation depends on the molecular volume, size anisotropy, and dipole moment. Predictions of the theory agree quantitatively with molecular dynamics simulations. Crucially, our framework shows how thermo-orientation can be controlled and maximised by tuning microscopic molecular properties.

  19. Category:Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,Thermal Gradient Holes Jump to: navigation, search

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gradient holes up to 500' deep were initially planned but higher than anticipated drilling and permitting costs within a fixed budget reduced the number of holes to five....

  1. Pararell Electron temperature and Density Gradients measured in the JET Mk I Divertor using Thermal Helium Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pararell Electron temperature and Density Gradients measured in the JET Mk I Divertor using Thermal Helium Beams

  2. ENERGY SCAVENGING BASED ON TRANSIENT THERMAL GRADIENTS: APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF AIRCRAFTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ENERGY SCAVENGING BASED ON TRANSIENT THERMAL GRADIENTS: APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING health monitoring 1. INTRODUCTION Aircraft in-service structural health monitoring (SHM) by wireless be considered in the context of aircraft structural health monitoring, we will restrict ourselves

  3. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation, flow measurements, evaluation methods FLOWACT, FLOW RATE MEASUREMENTS IN PIPES WITH THE PULSED-NEUTRON ACTIVATION METHOD PER LINDÉN,* GUDMAR GROSSHÖG- neutron activation (PNA) in a specially designed test loop. A stationary neutron generator was used

  4. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  5. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  6. Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a...

  7. Magneto-Seebeck effect in spin-valve with in-plane thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S. Bose, A. Palkar, V. R. Tulapurkar, A. A.; Lam, D. D. Suzuki, Y.; Sharma, H. Tomy, C. V.

    2014-12-15

    We present measurements of magneto-Seebeck effect on a spin valve with in-plane thermal gradient. We measured open circuit voltage and short circuit current by applying a temperature gradient across a spin valve stack, where one of the ferromagnetic layers is pinned. We found a clear hysteresis in these two quantities as a function of magnetic field. From these measurements, the magneto-Seebeck effect was found to be same as magneto-resistance effect.

  8. Technical and economic feasibility of a Thermal Gradient Utilization Cycle (TGUC) power plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raiji, Ashok

    1980-01-01

    be used to exploit solar, geothermal or other low grade energy sources is to utilize the temperature gradient that naturally occurs in the atmosphere to provide the temperature differential for a power production cycle. This concept known... low grade energy (geothermal, solar oonds, etc. ) to vaporize the working fluid. The following sections describe the operating principles of the TGUC, the digital computer model, the Atmospheric Thermal Gradient Cycle, the parametric study...

  9. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-03-12

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in lessmore »than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.« less

  10. THERMALLY ACTIVATED MARTENSITE: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO NON-THERMALLY ACTIVATED (ATHERMAL) MARTENSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    THERMALLY ACTIVATED MARTENSITE: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO NON-THERMALLY ACTIVATED (ATHERMAL) MARTENSITE Keywords: Thermal Activation, Isothermal, Athermal, Activation Energy Abstract The classification of no thermal activation. Processes with no thermal activation do not depend on time, as there is no need

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Collaboration with the gold mining industry has brought two new geothermal discoveries to the attention of the geothermal...

  12. Geothermal Resource/Reservoir Investigations Based on Heat Flow and Thermal Gradient Data for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. D. Blackwell; K. W. Wisian; M. C. Richards; J. L. Steele

    2000-04-01

    Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of the use and applications of the database are described. The database and results are available on the world wide web. In this report numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships between structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series of steady state, two-dimensional numerical models evaluate the effect of permeability and structural variations on an idealized, generic Basin and Range geothermal system and the results are described.

  13. Wax diffusivity under given thermal gradient: a mathematical model , A. Fasano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    Wax diffusivity under given thermal gradient: a mathematical model S. Correra , A. Fasano , L. Fusi , M. Primicerio , F. Rosso Abstract In this paper we describe how to obtain wax diffusivity and solubility in a saturated crude oil using the measurements of solid wax deposit in the experimental apparatus

  14. Thermal lens elimination by gradient-reduced zone coupling of optical beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Ralph H. (San Ramon, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal gradient-reduced-zone laser includes a laser medium and an optically transparent plate with an index of refraction that is less than the index of refraction of the laser medium. The pump face of the laser medium is bonded to a surface of the optically transparent member. Pump light is directed through the transparent plate to optically pump the solid state laser medium. Heat conduction is mainly through the surface of the laser medium where the heat is introduced by the pump light. Heat flows in a direction opposite to that of the pump light because the side of the laser medium that is opposite to that of the pump face is not in thermal contact with a conductor and thus there is no heat flux (and hence, no temperature gradient), thus producing a thermal gradient-reduced zone. A laser cavity is formed around the laser medium such that laser light oscillating within the laser cavity reflects by total-internal-reflection from the interface between the pump face and the optically transparent plate and enters and exits through a thermal gradient-reduced zone.

  15. The thermal structure of continental crust in active orogens: insight fromMioceneeclogiteandgranulitexenolithsofthePamirMountains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    The thermal structure of continental crust in active orogens: insight from in the Pamir Mountains, southeastern Tajikistan, preserve a compositional and thermal record at mantle depths. The extraction depths exceed the present-day Pamir Moho at 65 km depth and suggest an average thermal gradient

  16. The mechanics of coating delamination in thermal gradients A.G. Evans a,, J.W. Hutchinson b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    The mechanics of coating delamination in thermal gradients A.G. Evans a,, J.W. Hutchinson b in revised form 16 March 2007 Available online 27 March 2007 Abstract Oxide coatings used for various stress gradient in the coating, governed by these thermal circumstances. Two extreme cool-down scenarios

  17. THERMALLY ACTIVATED REVERSAL IN MAGNETIC NANOSTRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usadel, K. D.

    THERMALLY ACTIVATED REVERSAL IN MAGNETIC NANOSTRUCTURES ULRICH NOWAK Theoretische Physik, Gerhard to the nanometer scale. With decreasing size of magnetic particles thermal activation becomes rel­ evant an overview on numerical ap­ proaches to thermal activation in magnetic systems as far as they can

  18. Thermal gradient-induced forces on geodesic reference masses for LISA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, L.; Ciani, G.; Dolesi, R.; Hueller, M.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.; Cavalleri, A.

    2007-11-15

    The low frequency sensitivity of space-borne gravitational wave observatories will depend critically on the geodesic purity of the trajectories of orbiting test masses. Fluctuations in the temperature difference across the enclosure surrounding the free-falling test mass can produce noisy forces through several processes, including the radiometric effect, radiation pressure, and outgassing. We present here a detailed experimental investigation of thermal gradient-induced forces for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave mission and the LISA Pathfinder, employing high resolution torsion pendulum measurements of the torque on a LISA-like test mass suspended inside a prototype of the LISA gravitational reference sensor that will surround the test mass in orbit. The measurement campaign, accompanied by numerical simulations of the radiometric and radiation pressure effects, allows a more accurate and representative characterization of thermal-gradient forces in the specific geometry and environment relevant to LISA free-fall. The pressure dependence of the measured torques allows clear identification of the radiometric effect, in quantitative agreement with the model developed. In the limit of zero gas pressure, the measurements are most likely dominated by outgassing, but at a low level that does not threaten the current LISA noise estimate, which assumes a maximum net force per degree of temperature difference of 100(pN/K) for the overall thermal gradient-induced effects.

  19. A Note on Thermal Activation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boyanovsky; Richard Holman; Da-Shin Lee; João P. Silva

    1994-03-10

    Thermal activation is mediated by field configurations that correspond to saddle points of the energy functional. The rate of probability flow along the unstable functional directions, i.e the activation rate, is usually obtained from the imaginary part of a suitable analytic continuation of the equilibrium free energy. In this note we provide a real-time, non-equilibrium interpretation of this imaginary part which is analogous to the real-time interpretation of the imaginary part of the one-loop effective potential in theories with symmetry breaking. We argue that in situations in which the system is strongly out of equilibrium the rate will be time dependent and illustrate this with an example.

  20. ESTIMATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES FROM TEMPERATURE GRADIENT MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoang, V.T.

    2010-01-01

    to Evaluate Regional Geothermal Gradients t " Journal ofin wells, a linear geothermal gradient profile has beenfluid saturations. The geothermal gradient is caused by the

  1. Thermal gradient-induced forces on geodetic reference masses for LISA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Carbone; A. Cavalleri; G. Ciani; R. Dolesi; M. Hueller; D. Tombolato; S. Vitale; W. J. Weber

    2007-06-29

    The low frequency sensitivity of space-borne gravitational wave observatories will depend critically on the geodetic purity of the trajectories of orbiting test masses. Fluctuations in the temperature difference across the enclosure surrounding the free-falling test mass can produce noisy forces through several processes, including the radiometric effect, radiation pressure, and outgassing. We present here a detailed experimental investigation of thermal gradient-induced forces for the LISA gravitational wave mission and the LISA Pathfinder, employing high resolution torsion pendulum measurements of the torque on a LISA-like test mass suspended inside a prototype of the LISA gravitational reference sensor that will surround the test mass in orbit. The measurement campaign, accompanied by numerical simulations of the radiometric and radiation pressure effects, allows a more accurate and representative characterization of thermal-gradient forces in the specific geometry and environment relevant to LISA free-fall. The pressure dependence of the measured torques allows clear identification of the radiometric effect, in quantitative agreement with the model developed. In the limit of zero gas pressure, the measurements are most likely dominated by outgassing, but at a low level that does not threaten the LISA sensitivity goals.

  2. Active Thermal Extraction of Near-field Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Radiative heat transport between materials supporting surface-phonon polaritons is greatly enhanced when the materials are placed at sub-wavelength separation as a result of the contribution of near-field surface modes. However, the enhancement is limited to small separations due to the evanescent decay of the surface waves. In this work, we propose and numerically demonstrate an active scheme to extract these modes to the far-field. Our approach exploits the monochromatic nature of near-field thermal radiation to drive a transition in a laser gain medium, which, when coupled with external optical pumping, allows the resonant surface mode to be emitted into the far-field. Our study demonstrates a new approach to manipulate thermal radiation that could find applications in thermal management.

  3. Thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory with generalized-gradient approximations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Jeng-Da

    2014-05-14

    We extend the recently proposed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)] to generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals. Relative to our previous TAO-LDA (i.e., the local density approximation to TAO-DFT), the resulting TAO-GGAs are significantly superior for a wide range of applications, such as thermochemistry, kinetics, and reaction energies. For noncovalent interactions, TAO-GGAs with empirical dispersion corrections are shown to yield excellent performance. Due to their computational efficiency for systems with strong static correlation effects, TAO-LDA and TAO-GGAs are applied to study the electronic properties (e.g., the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and symmetrized von Neumann entropy) of acenes with different number of linearly fused benzene rings (up to 100), which is very challenging for conventional electronic structure methods. The ground states of acenes are shown to be singlets for all the chain lengths studied here. With the increase of acene length, the singlet-triplet energy gaps, vertical ionization potentials, and fundamental gaps decrease monotonically, while the vertical electron affinities and symmetrized von Neumann entropy (i.e., a measure of polyradical character) increase monotonically.

  4. Thermally Activated Processes in Polymer Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Parihar; D. Drosdoff; A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava

    2005-12-03

    A derivation is given for the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law for the glassy state of a bulk polymer. Our microscopic considerations involve the entropy of closed polymer molecular chains (i.e. polymer closed strings). For thin film polymer glasses, one obtains open polymer strings in that the boundary surfaces serve as possible string endpoint locations. The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law thereby holds true for a bulk polymer glass but is modified in the neighborhood of the boundaries of thin film polymers.

  5. Thermally Activated Martensite: Its Relationship to Non-Thermally Activated (Athermal) Martensite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, D E; Jones, N J; Schwartz, A J; Massalski, T B

    2008-10-21

    The classification of martensitic displacive transformations into athermal, isothermal or anisothermal is discussed. Athermal does not mean 'no temperature dependence' as is often thought, but is best considered to be short for the notion of no thermal activation. Processes with no thermal activation do not depend on time, as there is no need to wait for sufficient statistical fluctuations in some specific order parameter to overcome an activation barrier to initiate the process. Clearly, this kind of process contrasts with those that are thermally activated. In the literature, thermally activated martensites are usually termed isothermal martensites, suggesting a constant temperature. Actually such martensites also typically occur with continuous cooling. The important distinctive feature of these martensites is that they are thermally activated and hence are distinguishable in principle from athermal martensites. A third type of process, anisothermal, has been introduced to account for those transformations which are thought to be thermally activated but which occur on continuous cooling. They may occur so rapidly that they do not appear to have an incubation time, and hence could be mistakenly called an athermal transformation. These designations will be reviewed and discussed in terms of activation energies and kinetic processes of the various martensitic transformations.

  6. Activated Charcoal Based Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films for in Situ Monitoring of Bisphenols in Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Activated Charcoal Based Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films for in Situ Monitoring of Bisphenols, Gainesville, Florida 32611, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Widespread use of bisphenols monitoring of BPs in waters. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including bisphenols (BPs), are widely used

  7. ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 163 (1998) 149165 High geothermal gradient metamorphism during thermal subsidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandiford, Mike

    1998-01-01

    metamorphism during thermal subsidence Mike Sandiford L , Martin Hand, Sandra McLaren Department of Geology producing elements during thermal subsidence following rifting produces two concomitant changes subsidence reduces the heat flowing into the deeper crust from the mantle. Because the process of thermal

  8. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  9. Thermally Activated Dynamics of the Capillary Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Restagno; L. Bocquet; T. Biben; E. Charlaix

    1999-08-10

    This paper is devoted to the thermally activated dynamics of the capillary condensation. We present a simple model which enables us to identify the critical nucleus involved in the transition mechanism. This simple model is then applied to calculate the nucleation barrier from which we can obtain informations on the nucleation time. We present a simple estimation of the nucleation barrier in slab geometry both in the two dimensional case and in the three dimensional case. We extend the model in the case of rough surfaces which is closer to the experimental case and allows comparison with experimental datas.

  10. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC) [Sanford, NC

    2010-03-02

    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  11. Harvesting thermal fluctuations: Activation process induced by a nonlinear chain in thermal equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galán, Antonio Sarmiento

    Harvesting thermal fluctuations: Activation process induced by a nonlinear chain in thermal of a bistable system is a molecular chain which in turn is connected to a thermal environment of the Langevin. The distribution, intensity, and mobility of thermal fluctuations in these chains is strongly dependent

  12. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Paul R. (Madison, WI)

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  13. Femtosecond Chemically Activated Reactions: Concept of Nonstatistical Activation at High Thermal Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Femtosecond Chemically Activated Reactions: Concept of Nonstatistical Activation at High Thermal Femtosecond chemical activation of reactions at very high thermal energies, much above the bond energy activation, collision-free, and temporally and spatially defined. Introduction Since the work in the 1920s

  14. Nonadiabatic Spin Torque Investigated Using Thermally Activated Magnetic Domain Wall Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Nonadiabatic Spin Torque Investigated Using Thermally Activated Magnetic Domain Wall Dynamics M microscopy, we investigate the thermally activated motion of domain walls (DWs) between two positions properly analyzed, thermally activated processes at tem- peratures even well below the Curie temperature

  15. Local formation of HArF in solid argon: Low-temperature limit and thermal activation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lignell, H.; Khriachtchev, L.; Lignell, A.; Räsänen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Räsänen, IR light. The thermal activation of the process wasand R. ?ArHAr? and thermal activation of these processes aretemperature limit and thermal activation H. Lignell, a? L.

  16. Thermal and quantum noise in active systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Michel Courty; Francesca Grassia; Serge Reynaud

    2001-10-03

    We present a quantum network approach to the treatment of thermal and quantum fluctuations in measurement devices. The measurement is described as a scattering process of input fluctuations towards output ones. We present the results obtained with this method for the treatment of a cold damped capacitive accelerometer.

  17. A miniature shock-activated thermal battery for munitions applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Kirby, D.L.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The feasibility of a small, fast-rise thermal battery for non-spinning munitions applications was examined by studying the response of conventional thermal cells to impact (mechanical) energy to simulate a setback environment. This is an extension of earlier work that demonstrated that shock activation could be used to produce power from a conventional thermal-battery cell. The results of tests with both single and multiple cells are presented, along with data for a 5-cell miniature (5-mm diameter) thermal battery. The issues needing to be resolved before such a device can become a commercial reality are also discussed.

  18. Groundwater Flow and Thermal Modeling to Support a Preferred Conceptual Model for the Large Hydraulic Gradient North of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGraw, D.; Oberlander, P.

    2007-12-18

    The purpose of this study is to report on the results of a preliminary modeling framework to investigate the causes of the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. This study builds on the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (referenced herein as the Site-scale model (Zyvoloski, 2004a), which is a three-dimensional saturated zone model of the Yucca Mountain area. Groundwater flow was simulated under natural conditions. The model framework and grid design describe the geologic layering and the calibration parameters describe the hydrogeology. The Site-scale model is calibrated to hydraulic heads, fluid temperature, and groundwater flowpaths. One area of interest in the Site-scale model represents the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. Nearby water levels suggest over 200 meters of hydraulic head difference in less than 1,000 meters horizontal distance. Given the geologic conceptual models defined by various hydrogeologic reports (Faunt, 2000, 2001; Zyvoloski, 2004b), no definitive explanation has been found for the cause of the large hydraulic gradient. Luckey et al. (1996) presents several possible explanations for the large hydraulic gradient as provided below: The gradient is simply the result of flow through the upper volcanic confining unit, which is nearly 300 meters thick near the large gradient. The gradient represents a semi-perched system in which flow in the upper and lower aquifers is predominantly horizontal, whereas flow in the upper confining unit would be predominantly vertical. The gradient represents a drain down a buried fault from the volcanic aquifers to the lower Carbonate Aquifer. The gradient represents a spillway in which a fault marks the effective northern limit of the lower volcanic aquifer. The large gradient results from the presence at depth of the Eleana Formation, a part of the Paleozoic upper confining unit, which overlies the lower Carbonate Aquifer in much of the Death Valley region. The Eleana Formation is absent at borehole UE-25 p#1 at Yucca Mountain, which penetrated the lower Carbonate Aquifer directly beneath the lower volcanic confining unit. The Site-scale model uses an area of very low permeability, referenced as the east-west barrier, to simulate the large hydraulic gradient. The Site-scale model is further refined in this study to provide a base-case model for exploring the geologic causes of the large hydraulic gradient.

  19. Decay of de Sitter vacua by thermal activation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaume Garriga; Ariel Megevand

    2004-04-14

    Decay of a de Sitter vacuum may proceed through a "static" instanton, representing pair creation of critical bubbles separated by a distance comparable to the Hubble radius -- a process somewhat analogous to thermal activation in flat space. We compare this with related processes recently discussed in the literature.

  20. The gas metallicity gradient and the star formation activity of disc galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tissera, Patricia B; Sillero, Emanuel; Vilchez, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    We study oxygen abundance profiles of the gaseous disc components in simulated galaxies in a hierarchical universe. We analyse the disc metallicity gradients in relation to the stellar masses and star formation rates of the simulated galaxies. We find a trend for galaxies with low stellar masses to have steeper metallicity gradients than galaxies with high stellar masses at z ~0. We also detect that the gas-phase metallicity slopes and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of our simulated disc galaxies are consistent with recently reported observations at z ~0. Simulated galaxies with high stellar masses reproduce the observed relationship at all analysed redshifts and have an increasing contribution of discs with positive metallicity slopes with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with low stellar masses a have larger fraction of negative metallicity gradients with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with positive or very negative metallicity slopes exhibit disturbed morphologies and/or have a clo...

  1. Active People Recognition using Thermal and Grey Images on a Mobile Security Robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duckett, Tom

    Active People Recognition using Thermal and Grey Images on a Mobile Security Robot Andr´e Treptow is an ActivMedia PeopleBot mobile robot that is equipped with several sensors including a thermal camera and a pan-tilt camera unit (see figure 1). Fig. 1. ActivMedia Peoplebot, thermal camera (NEC Thermal Tracer

  2. THERMAL IMAGING OF ACTIVE MAGNETIC REGERNERATOR MCE MATERIALS DURING OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shassere, Benjamin [ORNL] [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    An active magnetic regenerator (AMR) prototype was constructed that incorporates a Gd sheet into the regenerator wall to enable visualization of the system s thermal transients. In this experiment, the thermal conditions inside the AMR are observed under a variety of operating conditions. An infrared (IR) camera is employed to visualize the thermal transients within the AMR. The IR camera is used to visually and quantitatively evaluate the temperature difference and thus giving means to calculate the performance of the system under the various operating conditions. Thermal imaging results are presented for two differing experimental test runs. Real time imaging of the thermal state of the AMR has been conducted while operating the system over a range of conditions. A 1 Tesla twin-coil electromagnet (situated on a C frame base) is used for this experiment such that all components are stationary during testing. A modular, linear reciprocating system has been realized in which the effects of regenerator porosity and utilization factor can be investigated. To evaluate the performance variation in porosity and utilization factor the AMR housing was constructed such that the plate spacing of the Gd sheets may be varied. Each Gd sheet has dimensions of 38 mm wide and 66 mm long with a thickness of 1 mm and the regenerator can hold a maximum of 29 plates with a spacing of 0.25 mm. Quantitative and thermal imaging results are presented for several regenerator configurations.

  3. Thermal activation and ATP dependence of the cytoskeleton remodeling dynamics R. Sunyer,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritort, Felix

    Thermal activation and ATP dependence of the cytoskeleton remodeling dynamics R. Sunyer,1,2 F-energy barriers induced by thermally activated forces mediated by ATP. The measured activation energy in- tramolecular and intermolecular weak interactions that are thermally activated and use ATP

  4. Glassy dynamics in thermally-activated list sorting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling-Nan Zou; Sidney R. Nagel

    2010-04-01

    Sorting the integers 1 through $N$ into an ordered list is a simple task that can be done rapidly. However, using an algorithm based on the thermally-activated pairwise exchanges of neighboring list elements, we find sorting can display many features of a glass, even for lists as small as $N = 5$. This includes memory and rejuvenation effects during aging --- two hallmarks of glassy dynamics that have been difficult to reproduce in standard glass simulations.

  5. Thermally activated breakdown in a simple polymer model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Fugmann; I. M. Sokolov

    2009-10-28

    We consider the thermally activated fragmentation of a homopolymer chain. In our simple model the dynamics of the intact chain is a Rouse one until a bond breaks and bond breakdown is considered as a first passage problem over a barrier to an absorbing boundary. Using the framework of the Wilemski-Fixman approximation we calculate activation times of individual bonds for free and grafted chains. We show that these times crucially depend on the length of the chain and the location of the bond yielding a minimum at the free chain ends. Theoretical findings are qualitatively confirmed by Brownian dynamics simulations.

  6. Double active shielded magnetic field gradient design with minimum inductance method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xu

    1992-01-01

    ratio, m; may have 2i + 1 values, i, i ? 1, . . . . . . , ? i. For the hydrogen nucleus, the spin is &i, and p is 42. 58 MHz/Tesla. The Hamiltonian for this system in the lab frame can be written as H = H, yg+ H;?u (1. 1. 2) where = p' H, fy ? + V... As has been discussed before, some MRI techniques require fast switching of the gradient. However, in many MRI instruments today, the main static magnetic fields (around the order of 1 Tesla) are provided by superconducting inagnets. They have...

  7. Physica B 372 (2006) 286289 Thermal activation in Permalloy nanorectangles at room temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Cervera, Carlos J.

    2006-01-01

    Physica B 372 (2006) 286­289 Thermal activation in Permalloy nanorectangles at room temperature E, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA Abstract The effect of thermal activation in planar: 75.40.Mg; 75.75.+1; 75.20.�g Keywords: Thermal activation; Langevin dynamics; Relaxation time 1

  8. Energy landscape and thermally activated switching of submicron-sized ferromagnetic elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Den Eijnden, Eric

    Energy landscape and thermally activated switching of submicron-sized ferromagnetic elements Weinan September 2002; accepted 18 November 2002 Thermally activated switching and the energy landscape the magnetic recording industry in the next five to ten years.2,3 For this reason, thermal activated switching

  9. The effect of thermal activation on the coercivity of domain walls L. LopezDiaz a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moro, Esteban

    The effect of thermal activation on the coercivity of domain walls L. Lopez­Diaz a) Departamento de of temperature was taken into account. However, it is well known that thermal activation over finite energy the inclusion and, consequently, the coercivity is low­ ered. In this article, the effect of thermal activation

  10. Thermally activated current transport in MgB2 films S. Patnaik,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eom, Chang Beom

    Thermally activated current transport in MgB2 films S. Patnaik,1,2 A. Gurevich,1 S. D. Bu,1 S. D 2004) Thermally-activated flux flow (TAFF) resistivity above the irreversibility field Bi is reported of thermally-activated drift of pre-existing quenched dislocations in the vortex lattice. Our results indicate

  11. The effect of thermal activation on the coercivity of domain walls L. Lopez-Diaza)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moro, Esteban

    The effect of thermal activation on the coercivity of domain walls L. Lopez-Diaza) Departamento de of temperature was taken into account. However, it is well known that thermal activation over finite energy the inclusion and, consequently, the coercivity is low- ered. In this article, the effect of thermal activation

  12. MODIS and ASTER synergy for characterizing thermal volcanic activity S.W. Murphy a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Robert

    MODIS and ASTER synergy for characterizing thermal volcanic activity S.W. Murphy a, , R. Wright b in thermal activity due to the eruption of lava however intervening periods are characterized by weak or absent thermal anomalies. Láscar, on the other hand, provides an example of volcanic activity

  13. Temperature-Gated Thermal Rectifier for Active Heat Flow Control Kedar Hippalgaonkar,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Temperature-Gated Thermal Rectifier for Active Heat Flow Control Jia Zhu,, Kedar Hippalgaonkar to develop advanced all-thermal solid-state devices that actively control heat flow without consuming other of solid-state active-thermal devices with a large rectification in the Rectifier state. This temperature

  14. Does the thermal disc instability operate in active galactic nuclei?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Burderi; A. R. King; E. Szuszkiewicz

    1998-03-19

    We examine all possible stationary, optically thick, geometrically thin accretion disc models relevant for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and identify the physical regimes in which they are stable against the thermal-viscous hydrogen ionization instability. Self-gravity and irradiation effects are included. We find that most if not all AGN discs are unstable. Observed AGN therefore represent the outburst state, although some or all quasars could constitute a steady population having markedly higher fuelling rates than other AGN. It has important implications for the AGN mass supply and for the presence of supermassive black holes in nearby spirals.

  15. From thermally activated to viscosity controlled fracture of biopolymer hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Baumberger; O. Ronsin

    2008-10-22

    We report on rate-dependent fracture energy measurements over three decades of steady crack velocities in alginate and gelatin hydrogels. We evidence that, irrespective of gel thermo-reversibility, thermally activated "unzipping" of the non-covalent cross-link zones results in slow crack propagation, prevaling against the toughening effect of viscous solvent drag during chain pull-out, which becomes efficient above a few mm.s$^{-1}$. We extend a previous model [Baumberger {\\it et al.} Nature Materials, {\\bf 5}, 552 (2006)] to account for both mechanisms, and estimate the microscopic unzipping rates.

  16. Human Cellular Retinaldehyde-Binding Protein Has Secondary Thermal 9-cis-Retinal Isomerase Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Human Cellular Retinaldehyde-Binding Protein Has Secondary Thermal 9-cis-Retinal Isomerase Activity molecules in both CRALBP-assisted specificity toward 9-cis-retinal and its thermal isomerase activity opsin receptor molecules into photosensitive retinoid pigments of the eye. We report a thermal secondary

  17. High performance electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries through oxygen-enriched thermal activation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA h i g h l i g h t s Thermal activation of carbon paper: Vanadium redox flow battery Carbon paper Kinetics Surface area Thermal activation Electrode a b s t r a cHigh performance electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries through oxygen-enriched thermal

  18. Thermal and Photochemical Silicon-Carbon Bond Activation in Donor-Stabilized Platinum(0)-Alkyne

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Thermal and Photochemical Silicon-Carbon Bond Activation in Donor-Stabilized Platinum(0)-Alkyne-CtC-CtC-SiMe3 have been thermally activated by a (PN)Pt fragment to afford the dinuclear Pt(II) species (PN)- Pt. In contrast, the bisphosphino-substituted compound 3 has been isolated as a thermally robust Pt(0) complex

  19. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2005-09-30

    Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very simple short-term prediction models to realize almost all of the theoretical potential of this control strategy. Further work evaluated the impact of modeling accuracy on the model-based closed-loop predictive optimal controller to minimize utility cost. The following guidelines have been derived: For an internal heat gain dominated commercial building, reasonable geometry simplifications are acceptable without a loss of cost savings potential. In fact, zoning simplification may improve optimizer performance and save computation time. The mass of the internal structure did not show a strong effect on the optimization. Building construction characteristics were found to impact building passive thermal storage capacity. It is thus advisable to make sure the construction material is well modeled. Zone temperature setpoint profiles and TES performance are strongly affected by mismatches in internal heat gains, especially when they are underestimated. Since they are a key factor in determining the building cooling load, efforts should be made to keep the internal gain mismatch as small as possible. Efficiencies of the building energy systems affect both zone temperature setpoints and active TES operation because of the coupling of the base chiller for building precooling and the icemaking TES chiller. Relative efficiencies of the base and TES chillers will determine the balance of operation of the two chillers. The impact of mismatch in this category may be significant. Next, a parametric analysis was conducted to assess the effects of building mass, utility rate, building location and season, thermal comfort, central plant capacities, and an economizer on the cost saving performance of optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory. The key findings are: (1) Heavy-mass buildings, strong-incentive time-of-use electrical utility rates, and large on-peak cooling loads will likely lead to attractive savings resulting from optimal combined thermal storage control. (2) By using economizer to take advantage of the cool fresh air during the night, the bu

  20. Quantitative Enzyme Activity Determination with Zeptomole Sensitivity by Microfluidic Gradient-Gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, Amy E.

    for enzyme activity have fundamental importance to biochemical analysis in the life sciences. Miniaturization to the enzyme active site. PLENZ offers a robust platform for rapid and multiplexed functional analysis of candidate drug libraries against panels of enzyme markers of pharmacodynamic or kinetic function is a costly

  1. Real Time Analysis of Thermal Activation via Sphaleron Transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Boyanovsky; C. A. de Carvalho

    1993-06-07

    We study the process of thermal activation mediated by sphaleron transitions by analyzing the real-time dynamics of the decay out of equilibrium in a $1+1$ dimensional field theory with a metastable state. The situation considered is that of a rapid supercooling in which the system is trapped in a metastable state at a temperature larger than the mass of the quanta, but smaller than the energy to create a critical droplet. The initial density matrix is evolved in time and the nucleation rate (probability current at the saddle point) is computed. The nucleation rate is {\\it time dependent}, vanishing at early times, reaching a maximum at a time $t \\approx 1/m$ with $m$ the mass of quanta in the metastable state, and decreasing at long times as a consequence of unitarity. An estimate for the average number of particles of ``true vacuum'' produced as a function of time during the nucleation process is obtained.

  2. Active frequency tuning for micro resonators by localized thermal stressing effects$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Active frequency tuning for micro resonators by localized thermal stressing effects$ Todd Remtema1 are established to characterize the electrical, thermal and frequency responses of active frequency tuning, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740, USA Abstract A method of active frequency tuning on comb-shape micro resonators

  3. Safety and Thermal Comfort Concerns for Active Travel to School: As Mediators and Correlates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Young Jae

    2014-12-03

    Children’s active travel to school (ATS), considered a regular source of physical activity, is influenced heavily by their parents’ perceived barriers to ATS such as safety and thermal comfort concerns. This dissertation focuses on environmental...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACTIVELY COOLED METAL FOIL THERMAL RADIATION SHIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feller, J. R.; Salerno, L. J.; Kashani, A.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.

    2010-04-09

    Zero boil-off (ZBO) or reduced boil-off (RBO) systems that involve active cooling of large cryogenic propellant tanks will most likely be required for future space exploration missions. For liquid oxygen or methane, such systems could be implemented using existing high technology readiness level (TRL) cryocoolers. However, for liquid hydrogen temperatures (approx20 K) no such coolers exist. In order to partially circumvent this technology gap, the concept of broad area cooling (BAC) has been developed, whereby a low mass thermal radiation shield could be maintained at temperatures around 100 K by steady circulation of cold pressurized gas through a network of narrow tubes. By this method it is possible to dramatically reduce the radiative heat leak to the 20 K tank. A series of experiments, designed to investigate the heat transfer capabilities of BAC systems, have been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Results of the final experiment in this series, investigating heat transfer from a metal foil film to a distributed cooling line, are presented here.

  5. Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-12-01

    A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

  6. Estimating the influence of the thermal environment on activity patterns of the desert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Felisa A.

    Estimating the influence of the thermal environment on activity patterns of the desert woodrat temperature influences the ecology and life history of animals. In habitats near the thermal range boundary temperature might influence both the timing and the duration of activity. To test this idea, we attached i

  7. Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,2 * Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) have energy is high enough and the 3 LE state is higher than the 3 CT state. O rganic light-emitting diodes

  8. Unraveling the mysteries of the non-thermal universe using -ray observations of Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Unraveling the mysteries of the non-thermal universe using -ray observations of Active Galactic hole at the center (~106 to 109 x solar mass) At least 5% of all galaxies are active galaxies Active galaxies: small ''bright'' core of emission in otherwise typical galaxy AGN = Active Galactic Nucleus (i

  9. Thermal influences on the activity and energetics of yellow bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armitage, Kenneth

    1990-01-01

    Thermal Influences on the Activ ity and Energetics of Yellow-bellied Marmots {Marmota flaviventris) Jaye C. Melcher1 Kenneth B. Armitage1* Warren P. Porter2 'Department of Systematics and Ecology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045... such an approach is a useful heuristic for the study of time and energy allocation, knowledge of proximate environ­ mental factors that influence activity is equally important to understanding observed patterns. Thermal constraints limit the activity of animals...

  10. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

    1997-10-28

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

  11. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

  12. INT. J. REMOTE SENSING, 2003, VOL. 24, NO. 11, 23232344 Resolution dependence of infrared imagery of active thermal features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    of active thermal features at Kilauea Volcano H. GAONAC'H Centre GEOTOP, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Montre of various vol- canic features in the thermal infrared spectral region (8­12 mm) acquired above the active the (essentially subjective) sensor resolution when interpreting and model- ling active volcanic thermal fields

  13. Urban heat island mitigation strategies and lizard thermal ecology: landscaping can quadruple potential activity time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

    Urban heat island mitigation strategies and lizard thermal ecology: landscaping can quadruple potential activity time in an arid city Jeffrey W. Ackley1 & Michael J. Angilletta Jr.1 & Dale DeNardo1 of 3 °C warmer than the surrounding desert. With continuing urbanization and climate change, thermal

  14. Boundary Creek Thermal areas of Yellowstone National Park I: thermal activity and geologic setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    Proposed geothermal leasing in the Island Park Geothermal Area (IPGA) in national forest and public lands adjacent to Yellowstone National Park has called attention to the moderate to high temperature springs of the Boundary Creek Thermal Areas. Up until late 1977 no description or geochemical inventory studies had been conducted in these areas. The thermal springs are scattered in four major groups along the Boundary Creek drainage with three to six km. of the IPGA - park border. Observations and analyses of physical and chemical indicators suggest that the source is under the Madison Plateau and that the waters are generally similar in the lower three thermal units. These hot springs should be monitored so as to provide early warning of change in the event that geothermal development in the IPGA causes withdrawal of groundwater from Yellow Stone National Park.

  15. CHANGES IN GAPE FREQUENCY, SIPHON ACTIVITY AND THERMAL RESPONSE IN THE FRESHWATER BIVALVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schöne, Bernd R.

    CHANGES IN GAPE FREQUENCY, SIPHON ACTIVITY AND THERMAL RESPONSE IN THE FRESHWATER BIVALVES ANODONTA of temperature on rhythms in gape and the formation of siphons at the mantle edge. Frequency and duration

  16. Parylene-based active micro space radiator with thermal contact switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Ai; Suzuki, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    Thermal management is crucial for highly functional spacecrafts exposed to large fluctuations of internal heat dissipation and/or thermal boundary conditions. Since thermal radiation is the only means for heat removal, effective control of radiation is required for advanced space missions. In the present study, a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) active radiator using the contact resistance change has been proposed. Unlike previous bulky thermal louvers/shutters, higher fill factor can be accomplished with an array of electrostatically driven micro diaphragms suspended with polymer tethers. With an early prototype developed with parylene MEMS technologies, radiation heat flux enhancement up to 42% has been achieved.

  17. Emergent comet-like swarming of optically driven thermally active colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jack A. Cohen; Ramin Golestanian

    2013-09-12

    We propose a simple system of optically driven colloids that convert light into heat and move in response to self- and collectively- generated thermal gradients. We show that the system exhibits self-organization into a moving comet-like swarm and characterize the structure and response of the swarm to a light intensity dependent external tuning parameter. We observe many interesting features in this nonequilibrium system including circulation and evaporation, intensity-dependent shape, density and temperature fluctuations, and ejection of hot colloids from the swarm tip.

  18. GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT DATA FOR UTAH Robert E. Blackett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    of a geothermal system at depth. Temperature logs of boreholes are made by lowering a sensitive thermistor probeGEOTHERMAL GRADIENT DATA FOR UTAH by Robert E. Blackett February 2004 UTAH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-gradient boreholes in Utah showing relative gradient magnitudes. PLATE Plate 1. Thermal-gradient boreholes in Utah

  19. Biomedical Applications of Thermally Activated Shape Memory Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Singhal, P; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

    2009-04-10

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can remember a primary shape and can return to this primary shape from a deformed secondary shape when given an appropriate stimulus. This property allows them to be delivered in a compact form via minimally invasive surgeries in humans, and deployed to achieve complex final shapes. Here we review the various biomedical applications of SMPs and the challenges they face with respect to actuation and biocompatibility. While shape memory behavior has been demonstrated with heat, light and chemical environment, here we focus our discussion on thermally stimulated SMPs.

  20. Correction to "Precursor activation and substorm expansion associated with observations of a dipolarization front by Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Correction to "Precursor activation and substorm expansion associated with observations of a dipolarization front by Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS)" C. L. Tang, V. Angelopoulos, A. Runov, C. T, K. H. Fornacon, and Z. Y. Li (2010), Correction to "Precursor activation and substorm expansion

  1. Solar-induced thermal activity and stratification in pond water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownridge, James D

    2015-01-01

    Ponds are universally used to store water for a large number of uses. With the increasing demand for more fresh water, ponds, lakes and reservoirs are likely to be constructed on a larger scale. We must understand the effects of environmental changes on fresh water if we are to most efficiently utilize this resource. This study undertakes to increase our understanding of the rate of thermal response of ponds and other bodies of water to every-day environmental changes. The central research agenda is to investigate how the temperature of pond water from top to bottom responds to the day/night cycle, changes in air temperature just above the surface, cloud conditions, and other sudden environmental changes. Data collection for this study spanned October 2007 to June 2011 and had a continuous time resolution of 50 seconds.

  2. Gradients of meteorological parameters in convective and nonconvective areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCown, Milton Samuel

    1976-01-01

    involve horizontal gradients. For example, the equations of motion relate wind speed to pressure gradient, and the thermal wind equation relates vertical wind shear to the horizontal temperature gradient. The study of gradients may help... GRADIENTS OF METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CONVECTIVE AND NONCONVECTIVE AREAS A Thesis by Milton Samuel McCown Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  3. Plasma-activated direct bonding of diamond-on-insulator wafers to thermal oxide grown silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, Tayfun

    Plasma-activated direct bonding of diamond-on-insulator wafers to thermal oxide grown silicon microscopy, profilometer and wafer bow measurements. Plasma-activated direct bonding of DOI wafers to thermal September 2010 Keywords: Diamond-on-insulator Plasma activation Ultrananocrystalline diamond Direct bonding

  4. Decay of the Cosmological Constant. Equivalence of Quantum Tunneling and Thermal Activation in Two Spacetime Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andres Gomberoff; Marc Henneaux; Claudio Teitelboim

    2005-01-19

    We study the decay of the cosmological constant in two spacetime dimensions through production of pairs. We show that the same nucleation process looks as quantum mechanical tunneling (instanton) to one Killing observer and as thermal activation (thermalon) to another. Thus, we find another striking example of the deep interplay between gravity, thermodynamics and quantum mechanics which becomes apparent in presence of horizons.

  5. Active microuidic mixer and gas bubble lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Active micro¯uidic mixer and gas bubble ®lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$ Jr-Hung Tsaia interface to increase the contact area of mixing ¯uids to accelerate the mixing process. The micro and successfully demonstrated in the micro¯uidic mixing system. A model based on the principle of threshold

  6. Thermal activation energy for the passivation of the n-type crystalline silicon surface by hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal activation energy for the passivation of the n-type crystalline silicon surface of crystalline silicon wafers is known to occur following post-deposition thermal annealing of intrinsic a this, an activation energy of 0.7 0.1 eV was calculated, suggesting that surface passivation

  7. Measurements of Non-Thermal Line Widths in Solar Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David H

    2015-01-01

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1--5MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of $\\textit{Hinode}$ Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17km s$^{-1}$, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfv\\'en wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small their measurements are ...

  8. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance and Thermal Activation Spectroscopy Study of Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang-Hwan Kim

    2003-12-12

    Organic electronic materials are a new class of emerging materials. Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are the most promising candidates for future flat panel display technologies. The photophysical characterization is the basic research step one must follow to understand this new class of materials and devices. The light emission properties are closely related to the transport properties of these materials. The objective of this dissertation is to probe the relation between transport and photophysical properties of organic semiconductors. The transport characteristics were evaluated by using thermally stimulated current and thermally stimulated luminescence techniques. The photoluminescence detected magnetic resonance and photoluminescence quantum yield studies provide valuable photophysical information on this class of materials. OLEDs are already in the market. However, detailed studies on the degradation mechanisms are still lacking. Since both optically detected magnetic resonance and thermal activation spectroscopy probe long-lived defect-related states in organic semiconductors, the combined study generates new insight on the OLED operation and degradation mechanisms.

  9. What Are People's Responses to Thermal Discomfort? Sensing Clothing and Activity Levels Using SenseCam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauthier, Stephanie Marie

    2011-01-01

    BS EN ISO 8996:2004, Ergonomics of the thermal environment –EN ISO 10551: 2001, Ergonomics of the thermal environment -

  10. Thermal Activation Rates in the Chirally Asymmetric Gross-Neveu Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Boyanovsky; David E. Brahm; R. Holman; Da-Shin Lee

    1995-11-14

    We address the problem of how to incorporate quantum effects into the calculation of finite-temperature decay rates for a metastable state of a quantum field theory. To do this, we consider the Gross-Neveu model with an explicit chiral symmetry breaking term, which allows for a metastable state. This theory can be shown to have a "critical bubble" which is a solution to the *exact* equations of motions (i.e. to all orders in perturbation theory, including all higher derivative, quantum and thermal corrections). This configuration mediates the thermal activation of the metastable vacuum to the true ground state, with a decay rate $\\Gamma \\propto \\exp(-F_c/T)$, where $F_c$ is the free energy of the critical bubble. We then compare this exact calculation to various approximations that have been used in previous work. We find that these approximations all *overestimate* the activation rate. Furthermore, we study the effect of finite baryon number upon the bubble profile and the activation barriers. We find that beyond a critical baryon number the activation barriers disappear altogether.

  11. Donor binding energy and thermally activated persistent photoconductivity in high mobility ,,001... AlAs quantum wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson, Matthew

    material parameters such as the donor binding energy and doping efficiency have been obscured by substrateDonor binding energy and thermally activated persistent photoconductivity in high mobility ,,001. Graysonb Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston

  12. Thermal Activation and Quantum Field Emission in a Sketch-Based Oxide Nano Transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng Cen; Daniela Bogorin; Jeremy Levy

    2010-09-13

    We report direct measurements of the potential barriers and electronic coupling between nanowire segments within a sketch-based oxide nanotransistor (SketchFET) device. Near room temperature, switching is governed by thermally activation across a potential barrier controlled by the nanowire gate. Below T=150 K, a crossover to quantum field emission is observed that is sensitive to structural phase transitions in the SrTiO3 layer. This direct measurement of the source-drain and gate-drain energy barriers is crucial for the development of room-temperature logic and memory elements and low-temperature quantum devices.

  13. Sun-tracking optical element realized using thermally activated transparency-switching material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apostoleris, Harry; Lilliu, Samuele; Chiesa, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We present a proof of concept demonstration of a novel optical element: a light-responsive aperture that can track a moving light beam. The element is created using a thermally-activated transparency-switching material composed of paraffin wax and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Illumination of the material with a focused beam causes the formation of a localized transparency at the focal spot location, due to local heating caused by absorption of a portion of the incident light. An application is proposed in a new design for a self-tracking solar collector.

  14. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-09

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  15. ALD Functionalized Nanoporous Gold: Thermal Stability, Mechanical Properties, and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Wichmann, A; Wittstock, A; Baumann, T F; Baeumer, M; Hamza, A V

    2011-03-24

    Nanoporous metals have many technologically promising applications but their tendency to coarsen limits their long-term stability and excludes high temperature applications. Here, we demonstrate that atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to stabilize and functionalize nanoporous metals. Specifically, we studied the effect of nanometer-thick alumina and titania ALD films on thermal stability, mechanical properties, and catalytic activity of nanoporous gold (np-Au). Our results demonstrate that even only one-nm-thick oxide films can stabilize the nanoscale morphology of np-Au up to 1000 C, while simultaneously making the material stronger and stiffer. The catalytic activity of np-Au can be drastically increased by TiO{sub 2} ALD coatings. Our results open the door to high temperature sensor, actuator, and catalysis applications and functionalized electrodes for energy storage and harvesting applications.

  16. Chaotic mean wind in turbulent thermal convection and long-term correlations in solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2009-12-25

    It is shown that correlation function of the mean wind velocity in a turbulent thermal convection (Rayleigh number $Ra \\sim 10^{11}$) exhibits exponential decay with a very long correlation time, while corresponding largest Lyapunov exponent is certainly positive. These results together with the reconstructed phase portrait indicate presence of a chaotic component in the examined mean wind. Telegraph approximation is also used to study relative contribution of the chaotic and stochastic components to the mean wind fluctuations and an equilibrium between these components has been studied. Since solar activity is based on the thermal convection processes, it is reasoned that the observed solar activity long-term correlations can be an imprint of the mean wind chaotic properties. In particular, correlation function of the daily sunspots number exhibits exponential decay with a very long correlation time and corresponding largest Lyapunov exponent is certainly positive, also relative contribution of the chaotic and stochastic components follows the same pattern as for the convection mean wind.

  17. Observation of an incoherent thermally activated proton hopping process in calix-[4]-arene by means of anelastic spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Paolone; R. Cantelli; R. Caciuffo; A. Arduini

    2002-03-04

    The anelastic spectrum of calix[4]arene was measured at two different vibrational frequencies. Three thermally activated peaks were detected. The lowest temperature peak can be described considering a continous distribution function of activation energies for the relaxation. This anelastic peak can be ascribed to a thermally activated hopping process of H atoms of the OH groups, corresponding to a flip-flop of the OH bond. From the results of the present study, it seems that anelastic spectroscopy is a good experimental technique to study atomic motion inside molecules at a mesoscopic (few molecules) level.

  18. Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature and by-products formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature efficiency together with the catalyst activation temperature when a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) is placed downstream to a multi-plans Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor. In order to simulate Diesel engine

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation Policy andInstitute JumpWash Tidal

  20. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +}-implants in Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, B. R.; Darby, B. L.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Petersen, D. H. [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, O. [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); CINF, Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Lin, R.; Nielsen, P. F. [CAPRES A/S, Scion-DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Romano, L. [IMM-CNR MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Doyle, B. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-1056, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Kontos, A. [Applied Materials, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in crystalline (c-Ge) and preamorphized Ge (PA-Ge) following rapid thermal annealing was investigated using micro Hall effect and ion beam analysis techniques. The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23.2%, 21.4%, and 17.6% due to ion backscattering for 2, 4, and 6 keV implants in Ge, respectively. The electrical activation of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants at 2, 4, and 6 keV to fluences ranging from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} was studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400-600 Degree-Sign C for 60 s. For both c-Ge and PA-Ge, a large fraction of the implanted dose is rendered inactive due to the formation of a presumable B-Ge cluster. The B lattice location in samples annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C for 60 s was characterized by channeling analysis with a 650 keV H{sup +} beam by utilizing the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha})2{alpha} nuclear reaction and confirmed the large fraction of off-lattice B for both c-Ge and PA-Ge. Within the investigated annealing range, no significant change in activation was observed. An increase in the fraction of activated dopant was observed with increasing energy which suggests that the surface proximity and the local point defect environment has a strong impact on B activation in Ge. The results suggest the presence of an inactive B-Ge cluster for ultra-shallow implants in both c-Ge and PA-Ge that remains stable upon annealing for temperatures up to 600 Degree-Sign C.

  1. Resonant activation in a colored multiplicative thermal noise driven closed system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Somrita; Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Mondal, Debasish

    2014-05-28

    In this paper, we have demonstrated that resonant activation (RA) is possible even in a thermodynamically closed system where the particle experiences a random force and a spatio-temporal frictional coefficient from the thermal bath. For this stochastic process, we have observed a hallmark of RA phenomena in terms of a turnover behavior of the barrier-crossing rate as a function of noise correlation time at a fixed noise variance. Variance can be fixed either by changing temperature or damping strength as a function of noise correlation time. Our another observation is that the barrier crossing rate passes through a maximum with increase in coupling strength of the multiplicative noise. If the damping strength is appreciably large, then the maximum may disappear. Finally, we compare simulation results with the analytical calculation. It shows that there is a good agreement between analytical and numerical results.

  2. Temperature dependence of photoluminescence properties in a thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niwa, Akitsugu; Kobayashi, Takashi Nagase, Takashi; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Goushi, Kenichi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-05-26

    Using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, we have investigated the temperature dependence of PL properties of 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-4,6-dicyano-benzene (4CzIPN), which have a small energy gap between its singlet and triplet excited states and thus exhibits efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence [H. Uoyama et al., Nature 492, 235 (2012)]. Below around 100?K, PL quantum efficiency of 4CzIPN thin films is largely suppressed and strong photoexcitation intensity dependence appears. These features can be explained by using rate equations for the densities of singlet and triplet excited states considering a triplet-triplet annihilation process.

  3. Comparison of thermal annealing effects on electrical activation of MBE grown and ion implant Si-doped In0.53Ga0.47As

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Comparison of thermal annealing effects on electrical activation of MBE grown and ion implant Si are metastable and susceptible to deactivation upon subsequent thermal treatments after growth. Active Si doping.47As Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 042113 (2014); 10.1063/1.4892079 Electrically active Er doping in InAs, In0

  4. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B+-implants in Ge B. R. Yates, B. L. Darby, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, R. Lin et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B+-implants in Ge B. R. Yates, B. L. Darby, D. H://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B1 -implants in Ge B. R. Yates,1,a) B. L. Darby 2012; published online 27 December 2012) The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow Bþ

  5. Geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.E.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Keith, T.E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone caldera at the common intersection of the caldera rim and the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, a zone of faults, volcanic vents, and thermal activity that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. The dominant quartz sand is hydrothermally cemented by chalcedony and is extremely hard, thereby justifying the term hydrothermal quartzite. The fundamental water type in Norris Basin is nearly neutral in pH and high in Cl and SiO/sub 2/. Another common type of water in Norris Basin is high in SO/sub 4/ and moderately high in Cl, with Cl/SO/sub 4/ ratios differing considerably. This study provides no new conclusive data on an old problem, the source or sources of rare dissolved constitutents. An important part of this paper consists of examples of numerous changes in behavior and chemical composition of most springs and geysers, to extents not known elsewhere in the park and perhaps in the world. Hydrothermal mineralogy in core samples from three research holes drilled entirely in Lava Creek Tuff to a maximum depth of -331.6 m permits an interpretation of the hydrothermal alteration history. A model for large, long-lived, volcanic-hydrothermal activity is also suggested, involving all of the crust and upper mantle and using much recent geophysical data bearing on crust-mantle interrelations.

  6. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  7. Short wavelength ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Brunner, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Villard, L. [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode in the high wavenumber regime (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}>1), referred to as short wavelength ion temperature gradient mode (SWITG) is studied using the nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic code GENE. It is shown that, although the SWITG mode may be linearly more unstable than the standard long wavelength (k{sub y}{rho}{sub s}<1) ITG mode, nonlinearly its contribution to the total thermal ion heat transport is found to be low. We interpret this as resulting from an increased zonal flow shearing effect on the SWITG mode suppression.

  8. Benchmark Test of Differential Emission Measure Codes and Multi-Thermal Energies in Solar Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aschwanden, M J; Caspi, A; McTiernan, J M; Ryan, D; Warren, H P

    2015-01-01

    We compare the ability of 11 Differential Emission Measure (DEM) forward-fitting and inversion methods to constrain the properties of active regions and solar flares by simulating synthetic data using the instrumental response functions of SDO/AIA, SDO/EVE, RHESSI, and GOES/XRS. The codes include the single-Gaussian DEM, a bi-Gaussian DEM, a fixed-Gaussian DEM, a linear spline DEM, the spatial synthesis DEM, the Monte-Carlo Markov chain DEM, the regularized DEM inversion, the Hinode/XRT method, a polynomial spline DEM, an EVE+GOES, and an EVE+RHESSI method. Averaging the results from all 11 DEM methods, we find the following accuracies in the inversion of physical parameters: the EM-weighted temperature $T_w^{fit}/T_w^{sim}=0.9\\pm0.1$, the peak emission measure $EM_p^{fit}/EM_p^{sim}=0.6\\pm0.2$, the total emission measure $EM_t^{fit}/EM_t^{sim}=0.8\\pm0.3$, and the multi-thermal energies $E_{th}^{fit}/EM_{th}^{sim}=1.2\\pm0.4$. We find that the AIA spatial synthesis, the EVE+GOES, and the EVE+RHESSI method yiel...

  9. Thermal Infrared 3--5 $?$m Colors of Obscured and Unobscured Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masatoshi Imanishi

    2001-01-06

    Thermal infrared photometry in the $L$- and $M'$-band and $L - M'$ colors of type-1 and type-2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are presented. After combining our observations with photometric data at similar wavelengths taken from the literature, we find that the excess of $L - M'$ colors of type-2 AGNs (37 sources, 50 data points) relative to type-1 AGNs (27 sources, 36 data points), due to dust extinction, is statistically detectable, but very small. We next investigate the $L - M'$ colors of type-2 AGNs by separating less dust-obscured type-2 AGNs and highly dust-obscured type-2 AGNs. In both cases, the $L - M'$ colors are similar to the intrinsic $L - M'$ color of unobscured AGNs, and the $L - M'$ color excess of the latter highly dust-obscured type-2 AGNs due to dust extinction is much smaller than that expected from the Galactic dust extinction curve. Contamination from starbursts and the time lag of flux variation are unlikely to explain this small $L - M'$ color excess, which is best explained if the dust extinction curve in the close vicinity of AGNs is fairly flat at 3--5 $\\mu$m as a result of a size increase of the absorbing dust grains through coagulation.

  10. Elastically Cooperative Activated Barrier Hopping Theory of Relaxation in Viscous Fluids. II. Thermal Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Mirigian; Kenneth S. Schweizer

    2014-02-20

    Building on the elastically collective nonlinear Langevin equation theory developed for hard spheres in the preceding paper I, we propose and implement a quasi-universal theory for the alpha relaxation of thermal liquids based on mapping them to an effective hard sphere fluid via the dimensionless compressibility. The result is a zero adjustable parameter theory that can quantitatively address in a unified manner the alpha relaxation time over 14 or more decades. The theory has no singularities above zero Kelvin, and relaxation in the equilibrium low temperature limit is predicted to be of a roughly Arrhenius form. The two-barrier (local cage and long range collective elastic) description results in a rich dynamic behavior including apparent Arrhenius, narrow crossover and deeply supercooled regimes, and multiple characteristic or crossover times and temperatures of clear physical meaning. Application of the theory to nonpolar molecules, alcohols, rare gases and liquids metals is carried out. Overall, the agreement with experiment is quite good for the temperature dependence of the alpha time, plateau shear modulus and Boson-like peak frequency for van der Waals liquids, though less so for hydrogen-bonding molecules. The theory predicts multiple growing length scales upon cooling, which reflect distinct aspects of the coupled local hopping and cooperative elastic physics. Calculations of an activation volume that grows with cooling, which is correlated with a measure of dynamic cooperativity, agree quantitatively with experiment. Comparisons with elastic, entropy crisis, dynamic facilitation and other approaches are performed, and a fundamental basis for empirically-extracted crossover temperatures is established. The present work sets the stage for addressing distinctive glassy phenomena in polymer melts, and diverse liquids under strong confinement.

  11. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  12. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  13. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  14. Thermal instability in X-ray photoionized media in Active Galactic Nuclei: Influence on the gas structure and spectral features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Goncalves; S. Collin; A. -M. Dumont; L. Chevallier

    2006-12-01

    A photoionized gas in thermal equilibrium can display a thermal instability, with 3 or more solutions in the multi-branch region of the S-shape curve giving the temperature versus the radiation-to-gas-pressure ratio. Many studies have been devoted to this curve and to its dependence on different parameters, always in the optically thin case. The purpose of our study is the thermal instability in optically thick, stratified media, in total pressure equilibrium. We have developped a new algorithm to select the hot/cold stable solution, and thereof to compute a fully consistent photoionization model. We have implemented it in the TITAN code and computed a set of models encompassing the range of conditions valid for the Warm Absorber in Active Galactic Nuclei. We have demonstrated that the thermal instability problem is quite different in thin or thick media. In thick media the spectral distribution changes as the radiation progresses inside the ionized gas. This has observational implications in the emitted/absorbed spectra, ionization states, and variability. However impossible to know what solution the plasma will adopt when attaining the multi-solutions regime, we expect the emitted/absorbed spectrum to be intermediate between those resulting from pure cold and hot models. Large spectral fluctuations corresponding to the onset of a cold/hot solution could be observed in timescales of the order of the dynamical time. A strong turbulence implying supersonic velocities should permanently exist in the multi-branch region of thick, stratified, pressure equilibrium media.

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries Christina M Comfort Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large will unavoidably affect pelagic fish... ­ Noise and water pollution ­ FAD effects ­ Entrainment and Impingement

  16. Linking high and low temperature plasticity in bulk metallic glasses: thermal activation, extreme value statistics and kinetic freezing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Derlet; R. Maaß

    2013-11-15

    At temperatures well below their glass transition, the deformation properties of bulk metallic glasses are characterised by a sharp transition from elasticity to plasticity, a reproducible yield stress, and an approximately linear decrease of this stress with increasing temperature. In the present work it shown that when the well known properties of the under-cooled liquid regime, in terms of the underlying potential energy landscape, are assumed to be also valid at low temperature, a simple thermal activation model is able to reproduce the observed onset of macro-scopic yield. At these temperatures, the thermal accessibility of the complex potential energy landscape is drastically reduced, and the statistics of extreme value and the phenomenon of kinetic freezing become important, affecting the spatial heterogeneity of the irreversible structural transitions mediating the elastic-to-plastic transition. As the temperature increases and approaches the glass transition temperature, the theory is able to smoothly transit to the high temperature deformation regime where plasticity is known to be well described by thermally activated viscoplastic models.

  17. Thermal evolution and activity of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 and simulation of a deep impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Sarid; D. Prialnik; K. J. Meech; J. Pittichova; T. L. Farnham

    2005-07-01

    We use a quasi 3-D thermal evolution model for a spherical comet nucleus, which takes into account the diurnal and latitudinal variation of the solar flux, but neglects lateral heat conduction. We model the thermal evolution and activity of Comet 9P/Tempel 1, in anticipation of the Deep Impact mission encounter with the comet. We also investigate the possible outcome of a projectile impact, assuming that all the energy is absorbed as thermal energy. An interesting result of this investigation, is that the estimated amount of dust ejected due to the impact is equivalent to 2--2.6 days of activity, during "quiet" conditions, at perihelion. We show that production rates of volatiles that are released in the interior of the nucleus depend strongly on the porous structure, in particular on the surface to volume ratio of the pores. We develop a more accurate model for calculating this parameter, based on a distribution of pore sizes, rather than a single, average pore size.

  18. Thermally-activated non-local amplification in quantum energy transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno Leggio; Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

    2015-11-18

    We study energy-transport efficiency in light-harvesting planar and 3D complexes of two-level atomic quantum systems, embedded in a common thermal blackbody radiation. We show that the collective non-local dissipation induced by the thermal bath plays a fundamental role in energy transport. It gives rise to a dramatic enhancement of the energy-transport efficiency, which may largely overcome $100\\%$. This effect, which improves the understanding of transport phenomena in experimentally relevant complexes, suggests a particularly promising mechanism for quantum energy management.

  19. Thermally-activated non-local amplification in quantum energy transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno Leggio; Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

    2015-05-13

    We study energy-transport efficiency in light-harvesting planar and 3D complexes of two-level atomic quantum systems, embedded in a common thermal blackbody radiation. We show that the collective non-local dissipation induced by the thermal bath plays a fundamental role in energy transport. It gives rise to a dramatic enhancement of the energy-transport efficiency, which may largely overcome $100\\%$. This effect, which improves the understanding of transport phenomena in experimentally relevant complexes, suggests a particularly promising mechanism for quantum energy management.

  20. Motivation Smoothing Projected gradient Proximal Gradient Non-Smooth Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marlin, Benjamin

    Motivation Smoothing Projected gradient Proximal Gradient Non-Smooth Optimization Jason Hartford (with slides from Mark Schmidt) October 2015 #12;Motivation Smoothing Projected gradient Proximal-dimensional problems Nesterov-style and Newton-like methods allow better performance. #12;Motivation Smoothing

  1. Thermal Imaging of Single Living Cells Using Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jui-Ming

    2009-01-01

    A novel method of thermal activation and temperatureS. Ishiwata, "Imaging of thermal activation of actomyosinbeen used to image thermal activation of single actomyosin

  2. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2014-01-01

    NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard

  3. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-01-01

    NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard

  4. Thermal diffusion shock waves Sorasak Danworaphong1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Walter

    Thermal diffusion shock waves Sorasak Danworaphong1 , Walter Craig3 , Vitalyi Gusev4 , and Gerald J and are concentrated by a thermal gradient imposed on a salt solution, the separation of the components of a mixture in a thermal field, known as "thermal diffusion", or the Ludwig-Soret effect has been found not only in liquids

  5. Thermally Activated, Inverted Interfacial Electron Transfer Kinetics: High Driving Force Reactions between Tin Oxide Nanoparticles and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activation limit as: where In the equations, G* is the activation free energy, Hab is the coupling constant to the interest in these systems for solar energy conversion.10-12 In such systems, the two important interfacial behavior can also be observed via pH-induced manipulation of the conduction band-edge energy and, therefore

  6. Optical gradient force nano-imaging and -spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Honghua U

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale forces play an important role in different scanning probe microscopies, most notably atomic force microscopy (AFM). In contrast, in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) a light-induced coupled local optical polarization between tip and sample is typically detected by scattering to the far field. Measurements of the optical gradient force associated with that optical near-field excitation would offer a novel optical scanning probe modality. Here we provide a generalized theory of optical gradient force nano-imaging and -spectroscopy. We quantify magnitude and distance dependence of the optical gradient force and its spectral response. We show that the optical gradient force is dispersive for single particle electronic and vibrational resonances, distinct from recent claims of its experimental observation. In contrast, the force can be absorptive for collective resonances. We provide a guidance for its measurements and distinction from competing processes such as thermal expansion.

  7. MAGNETIC FIELD TOPOLOGY AND THE THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE CORONA OVER SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; DeRosa, Marc L.; Title, Alan M., E-mail: schryver@lmsal.co [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of quiescent active-region coronae are characterized by ensembles of bright 1-2 MK loops that fan out from select locations. We investigate the conditions associated with the formation of these persistent, relatively cool, loop fans within and surrounding the otherwise 3-5 MK coronal environment by combining EUV observations of active regions made with TRACE with global source-surface potential-field models based on the full-sphere photospheric field from the assimilation of magnetograms that are obtained by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on SOHO. We find that in the selected active regions with largely potential-field configurations these fans are associated with (quasi-)separatrix layers (QSLs) within the strong-field regions of magnetic plage. Based on the empirical evidence, we argue that persistent active-region cool-loop fans are primarily related to the pronounced change in connectivity across a QSL to widely separated clusters of magnetic flux, and confirm earlier work that suggested that neither a change in loop length nor in base field strengths across such topological features are of prime importance to the formation of the cool-loop fans. We discuss the hypothesis that a change in the distribution of coronal heating with height may be involved in the phenomenon of relatively cool coronal loop fans in quiescent active regions.

  8. Odne Stokke Burheim Thermal Signature and Thermal Conductivities of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Odne Stokke Burheim Thermal Signature and Thermal Conductivities of PEM Fuel Cells Thesis-Holst for believing in me and for giving me the opportunity to join the work on the "Thermal Effects in Fuel cell The work presented here gives estimates on thermal gradients within the PEM fuel cell, an experimental

  9. NON-THERMAL RESPONSE OF THE CORONA TO THE MAGNETIC FLUX DISPERSAL IN THE PHOTOSPHERE OF A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harra, L. K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Abramenko, V. I. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We analyzed Solar Dynamics Observatory line-of-sight magnetograms for a decaying NOAA active region (AR) 11451 along with co-temporal Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data from the Hinode spacecraft. The photosphere was studied via time variations of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity coefficient, {eta}(t), and the magnetic power spectrum index, {alpha}, through analysis of magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). These measure the intensity of the random motions of magnetic elements and the state of turbulence of the magnetic field, respectively. The time changes of the non-thermal energy release in the corona was explored via histogram analysis of the non-thermal velocity, v {sub nt}, in order to highlight the largest values at each time, which may indicate an increase in energy release in the corona. We used the 10% upper range of the histogram of v {sub nt} (which we called V {sup upp} {sub nt}) of the coronal spectral line of Fe XII 195 A. A 2 day time interval was analyzed from HMI data, along with the EIS data for the same field of view. Our main findings are the following. (1) The magnetic turbulent diffusion coefficient, {eta}(t), precedes the upper range of the v {sub nt} with the time lag of approximately 2 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.76. (2) The power-law index, {alpha}, of the magnetic power spectrum precedes V {sup upp} {sub nt} with a time lag of approximately 3 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.5. The data show that the magnetic flux dispersal in the photosphere is relevant to non-thermal energy release dynamics in the above corona. The results are consistent with the nanoflare mechanism of the coronal heating, due to the time lags being consistent with the process of heating and cooling the loops heated by nanoflares.

  10. The geology and remarkable thermal activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.E.; Keith, T.E.C. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Hutchinson, R.A. (US National Park Service (US))

    1988-01-01

    Norris Geyser Basin is adjacent to the north rim of the Yellowstone Caldera, one of the largest volcanic features of its type in the world. Hydrothermal activity may have been continuous for {gt}100,000 years B.P. Norris Basin includes the highest erupting geyser of recent water types, colors of organisms and inorganic precipitates, frequent changes in activity and chemistry, and very high subsurface temperatures ({gt}240{degrees}C). Norris Basin is only a part of the Norris-Mammoth Corridor that strikes north from the caldera rim to Mammoth Hot Springs. Norris Basin has a heat flow roughly 10 percent of that of the Yellowstone Caldera and requires an estimated 0.01 km{sup 3} of rhyolitic magma per year-a quantity far greater than the corridor's rate of eruption.

  11. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  12. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  13. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nation, John A. (Ithaca, NY); Greenwald, Shlomo (Haifa, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  14. Gradient characterization in magnetic resonance imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Joseph Yitan

    2007-01-01

    Special magnetic resonance (MR) scans, such as spiral imaging and echo-planar imaging, require speed and gradient accuracy while putting high demands on the MR gradient system that may cause gradient distortion. Additionally, ...

  15. Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    and high temperature cooling_REHVA Guidebook, Federation ofEvaluation of cooling performance of thermally activatedsystem with evaporative cooling source for typical United

  16. Design, prototyping, and testing of an apparatus for establishing a linear temperature gradient in experimental fish tanks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadri, Romi Sinclair

    2014-01-01

    Immunology researchers require a new type of fish tank that provides a linear thermal gradient for experimental zebrafish in order to improve the accuracy and validity of their research. Zebrafish require the ability to ...

  17. Towards comfortable and walkable cities : spatially resolved outdoor thermal comfort analysis linked to travel survey-based human activity schedules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakha, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort can influence human powered mobility choices, namely walking and biking. As more people are living in cities than ever before in human history, the urban environments we erect and populate are ...

  18. Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M. Inherent unsaturation. Partial pressure vacancy. Most divers with an interest in decompression diving have affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

  19. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank &

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008) ||

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Ingebritsen, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008) ||Al., 1993) | Open

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lachenbruch,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)| OpenEt Al., 1976)

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or drilling of production wells. Some deep wells, several seismic lines, limited gravity surveys, and geochemical and geological studies have suggested that the geothermal...

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the area References J. Held, F. Henderson (2012) New developments in Colorado geothermal energy projects Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Arnold...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arnold, Anderson, Donaldson, Foster, Gutjahr, Hatton, Hill, Martinez (1978) New Mexico's Energy Resources '77: Office of the State Geologist Additional References Retrieved from...

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Purtymun...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valles caldera in order to locate an of high heat flow that would serve as a favorable test site for the HDR concept. Notes Data from these wells are report in Reiter et al....

  8. THERMAL GRADIENT MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yagnik, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT Suresh K. Yagnik February 1982 TOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by Suresh K. Yagnik Materialsb u i l t in future. The salt deposits, however, are known

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References S. H. Ward, W. T. Parry, W. P. Nash, W. R. Sill, K. L. Cook, R. B. Smith, D. S. Chapman, F. H. Brown, J. A. Whelan, J. R. Bowman (1978) A Summary of the...

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regime of Long Valley Caldera. Journal of Geophysical Research. 81(5):763-768. J.L. Smith,R.W. Rex. 1977. Drilling results from eastern Long Valley Caldera. () : American...

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    studies, and seem to prove useful in most cases (Flexser, 1991; Goff et al., 1991; Smith and Suemnicht, 1991). Results from these studies are also summarized in Sorey et al....

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    holes drilled References R.A. Cunniff, R.L. Bowers (2003) Final Report: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology Phase II: Animas Valley, New Mexico Additional References...

  13. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublic Utility District No 2Pumped Hydro Jump

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy Information 1968-1971) JumpAlum2004)

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1974) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy Information 1968-1971)Open

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1976) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy Information

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen Energy Information2005)

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Zacharakis,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpenInformation Silver Peak1981) |

  19. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    .M. Yin", G. H. Paulino", W.G. Buttlar", and L.Z. Sun'' '^Department of Civil and Environmental the effective thermal conductivity distribution in functionally graded materials (FGMs) considering the Kapitza is developed to derive the averaged heat flux field of the particle phase. Then the temperature gradient can

  20. Latest Results of ILC High-Gradient R&D 9-cell Cavities at JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rongli Geng

    2008-02-11

    It has been over a year since JLAB started processing and testing ILC 9-cell cavities in the frame work of ILC high-gradient cavity R&D, aiming at the goal of a 35 MV/m gradient at a Q #4; of 1E10 with a yield of 90%. The necessary cavity processing steps include field flatness tuning, electropolishing (EP), hydrogen out-gassing under vacuum, high-pressure water rinsing, clean room assembly, and low temperature bake. These are followed by RF test at 2 Kelvin. Ultrasonic cleaning with Micro-90, an effective post-EP rinsing recipe discovered at JLAB, is routinely used. Seven industry manufactured 9-cell TESLAshape cavities are processed and tested repeatedly. So far, 33 EP cycles are accumulated, corresponding to more than 65 hours of active EP time. An emphasis put on RF testing is to discern cavity quench characteristics, including its nature and its location. Often times, the cavity performance is limited by thermal-magnetic quench instead of field emission. The quench field in some cavities is lower than 20 MV/m and remains unchanged despite repeated EP, implying material and/or fabrication defects. The quench field in some other cavities is high but changes unpredictably after repeated EP, suggesting processing induced defects. Based on our experience and results, several areas are identified where improvement is needed to improve cavity performance as well as yield.

  1. An Introduction to the Conjugate Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the convergence of the Jacobi Method, Steepest Descent, and Conjugate Gradients. Other topics includeAn Introduction to the Conjugate Gradient Method Without the Agonizing Pain Jonathan Richard 15213 Abstract The Conjugate Gradient Method is the most prominent iterative method for solving sparse

  2. Seasonal Changes in Bacterial and Archaeal Gene Expression Patterns across Salinity Gradients in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    their metabolic activities, microbial populations mediate the impact of high gradient regions on ecologicalSeasonal Changes in Bacterial and Archaeal Gene Expression Patterns across Salinity Gradients in nitrogen and carbon metabolism in the CRCM. Initial experiments with the environmental microarrays were

  3. Flows and Non-thermal Velocities in Solar Active Regions Observed with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode: A Tracer of Active Region Sources of Heliospheric Magnetic Fields?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. A. Doschek; H. P. Warren; J. T. Mariska; K. Muglach; J. L. Culhane; H. Hara; T Watanabe

    2008-07-17

    From Doppler velocity maps of active regions constructed from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft we observe large areas of outflow (20-50 km/s) that can persist for at least a day. These outflows occur in areas of active regions that are faint in coronal spectral lines formed at typical quiet Sun and active region temperatures. The outflows are positively correlated with non-thermal velocities in coronal plasmas. The bulk mass motions and non-thermal velocities are derived from spectral line centroids and line widths, mostly from a strong line of Fe XII at 195.12 Angstroms. The electron temperature of the outflow regions estimated from an Fe XIII to Fe XII line intensity ratio is about 1.2-1.4 MK. The electron density of the outflow regions derived from a density sensitive intensity ratio of Fe XII lines is rather low for an active region. Most regions average around 7E10+8 cm(-3), but there are variations on pixel spatial scales of about a factor of 4. We discuss results in detail for two active regions observed by EIS. Images of active regions in line intensity, line width, and line centroid are obtained by rastering the regions. We also discuss data from the active regions obtained from other orbiting spacecraft that support the conclusions obtained from analysis of the EIS spectra. The locations of the flows in the active regions with respect to the longitudinal photospheric magnetic fields suggest that these regions might be tracers of long loops and/or open magnetic fields that extend into the heliosphere, and thus the flows could possibly contribute significantly to the solar wind.

  4. Aging study of Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ thermally activated batteries. [Results of accelerated aging at 130/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, J. Q.; Neiswander, P. A.

    1980-05-01

    A technique for accelerating the aging process of thermally activated batteries that use iron disulfide was developed. In this approach, storage at 130/sup 0/C for one week was assumed equivalent to a shelf life of five years. Some of the batteries stored at 130/sup 0/C were discharged to test for functionality changes, and others were disassembled and carefully analyzed for evidence of deleterious reactions. Some functionality anomalies were observed. The only deleterious reaction observed was that of Li(Si) reacting with water vapor. 3 figures, 6 tables.

  5. The Influence of High Pressure Thermal Behavior on Friction-induced material transfer During Dry Machining of Titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Aal, H. A.; El Mansori, M.

    2011-05-04

    In this paper we study failure of coated carbide tools due to thermal loading. The study emphasizes the role assumed by the thermo-physical properties of the tool material in enhancing or preventing mass attrition of the cutting elements within the tool. It is shown that within a comprehensive view of the nature of conduction in the tool zone, thermal conduction is not solely affected by temperature. Rather it is a function of the so called thermodynamic forces. These are the stress, the strain, strain rate, rate of temperature rise, and the temperature gradient. Although that within such consideration description of thermal conduction is non-linear, it is beneficial to employ such a form because it facilitates a full mechanistic understanding of thermal activation of tool wear.

  6. Temperature-Aware MPSoC Scheduling for Reducing Hot Spots and Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coskun, Ayse

    to manufacture reliable systems while meeting energy and performance constraints. In this work, we solve the task, San Diego Abstract-- Thermal hot spots and temperature gradients on the die need to be minimized is optimal. We compare our technique against optimal scheduling methods for energy minimization, energy

  7. Time changes in gradient and observed winds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ronald Dale

    1972-01-01

    OF FIGURES. 1. INXRODUCTION. 2. BACKGROUND AND STATEI'U':NT OF THE PROBLEM. . a. Previous studies. b. Statement of the problem. c. Objectives. 3. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. a. Gradient wind equation. b. Time rate-of-change of the gradient wind. . 4... for curvature of the height contours on the upper-level synoptic charts. Of the forces and accelerations contained in the complete horizontal equations of motion, those which do not appear in the gradient wind approximation are the frictional force...

  8. Optimization of synchronization in gradient clustered networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xingang Wang; Liang Huang; Ying-Cheng Lai; Choy Heng Lai

    2007-11-23

    We consider complex clustered networks with a gradient structure, where sizes of the clusters are distributed unevenly. Such networks describe more closely actual networks in biophysical systems and in technological applications than previous models. Theoretical analysis predicts that the network synchronizability can be optimized by the strength of the gradient field but only when the gradient field points from large to small clusters. A remarkable finding is that, if the gradient field is sufficiently strong, synchronizability of the network is mainly determined by the properties of the subnetworks in the two largest clusters. These results are verified by numerical eigenvalue analysis and by direct simulation of synchronization dynamics on coupled-oscillator networks.

  9. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence from {sup 3}n?* to {sup 1}n?* up-conversion and its application to organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Qisheng; Nomura, Hiroko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Functional Materials Laboratory, Nippon Steel and Sumikin Chemical Co., Ltd, 46–80 Nakabaru, Sakinohama, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804–8503 (Japan); Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    Intense n?* fluorescence from a nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compound, 2,5,8-tris(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)-1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene (HAP-3MF), is demonstrated. The overlap-forbidden nature of the n?* transition and the higher energy of the {sup 3}??* state than the {sup 3}n?* one lead to a small energy difference between the lowest singlet (S{sub 1}) and triplet (T{sub 1}) excited states of HAP-3MF. Green-emitting HAP-3MF has a moderate photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.26 in both toluene and doped film. However, an organic light-emitting diode containing HAP-3MF achieved a high external quantum efficiency of 6.0%, indicating that HAP-3MF harvests singlet excitons through a thermally activated T{sub 1} ? S{sub 1} pathway in the electroluminescent process.

  10. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  11. Thermal creep assisted dust lifting on Mars: Wind tunnel experiments for the entrainment threshold velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Küpper, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present laboratory measurements on the reduction of the threshold friction velocity necessary for lifting dust if the dust bed is illuminated. Insolation of a porous soil establishes a temperature gradient. At low ambient pressure this gradient leads to thermal creep gas flow within the soil. This flow leads to a sub-surface overpressure which supports lift imposed by wind. The wind tunnel was run with Mojave Mars Simulant and air at 3, 6 and 9 mbar, to cover most of the pressure range at martian surface levels. Our first measurements imply that the insolation of the martian surface can reduce the entrainment threshold velocity between 4 % and 19 % for the conditions sampled with our experiments. An insolation activated soil might therefore provide additional support for aeolian particle transport at low wind speeds.

  12. Summary of geothermal exploration activity in the State of Washington from 1978 to 1983. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korosec, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Project activity is summarized with references to the publications produced. Project findings are reported as they relate to specific geothermal resource target areas. Some major projects of the goethermal exploration program are: thermal and mineral spring chemistry, heat flow drilling, temperature gradient measurements, Cascade Range regional gravity, geohydrology study of the Yakima area, low temperature geothermal resources, geology, geochemistry of Cascade Mountains volcanic rocks, and soil mercury studies. (MHR)

  13. Thermal desorption for passive dosimeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen-Chen

    1981-01-01

    recovery of styrene and improved precision when compared with thermal desorption. In addition, thermal desorption tended to breakdown sty- rene, which is vulnerable to heat. The breakdown product may interfere with the analysis results if thermal desorp... of the activation processes. (12, 1&) The first step in the production of activated carbon is carbonization, which is the formation of a char from a source material. The source materials may be coconut shells, peach pits, sawdust, wood char, etc ~ Carbonization...

  14. Z .Mechanics of Materials 27 1998 91110 Effects of thermal gradient and residual stresses on thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Toshio

    Engineering, State UniÕersity of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA b Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State UniÕersity of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA Received 5 May 1997; received in revised of that of Zbulk zirconia Herman and Shankar, 1987; McPher- .son, 1989; Bengtsson and Johannesson, 1995 . 0167

  15. An Enhanced Nonlinear Critical Gradient for Electron Turbulent Transport due to Reversed Magnetic Shear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J. L.; Hammet, G. W.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Yuh, H. Y.; Candy, J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.

    2011-05-11

    The first nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment show that reversed magnetic shear can suppress thermal transport by increasing the nonlinear critical gradient for electron-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence to three times its linear critical value. An interesting feature of this turbulence is non- linearly driven off-midplane radial streamers. This work reinforces the experimental observation that magnetic shear is likely an effective way of triggering and sustaining e-ITBs in magnetic fusion devices.

  16. Measurement of thermodynamics using gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki

    2014-12-15

    We analyze bulk thermodynamics and correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory using the energy-momentum tensor defined by the gradient flow and small flow time expansion. Our results on thermodynamic observables are consistent with those obtained by the conventional integral method. The analysis of the correlation function of total energy supports the energy conservation. It is also addressed that these analyses with gradient flow require less statistics compared with the previous methods. All these results suggest that the energy-momentum tensor can be successfully defined and observed on the lattice with moderate numerical costs with the gradient flow.

  17. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  18. The gradient flow in simple field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monahan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The gradient flow is a valuable tool for the lattice community, with applications from scale-setting to implementing chiral fermions. Here I focus on the gradient flow as a means to suppress power-divergent mixing. Power-divergent mixing stems from the hypercubic symmetry of the lattice regulator and is a particular difficulty for calculations of, for example, high moments of parton distribution functions. The gradient flow removes power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the flow time is kept fixed in physical units, at the expense of introducing a new physical scale in the continuum. One approach to dealing with this new scale is the smeared operator product expansion, a formalism that systematically connects nonperturbative calculations of flowed operators to continuum physics. I study the role of the gradient flow in suppressing power-divergent mixing and present the first nonperturbative study in scalar field theory.

  19. The gradient flow in simple field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Monahan

    2015-12-01

    The gradient flow is a valuable tool for the lattice community, with applications from scale-setting to implementing chiral fermions. Here I focus on the gradient flow as a means to suppress power-divergent mixing. Power-divergent mixing stems from the hypercubic symmetry of the lattice regulator and is a particular difficulty for calculations of, for example, high moments of parton distribution functions. The gradient flow removes power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the flow time is kept fixed in physical units, at the expense of introducing a new physical scale in the continuum. One approach to dealing with this new scale is the smeared operator product expansion, a formalism that systematically connects nonperturbative calculations of flowed operators to continuum physics. I study the role of the gradient flow in suppressing power-divergent mixing and present the first nonperturbative study in scalar field theory.

  20. 1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP OXYGEN DEFECT FORMATION AND HYDROGEN EFFUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States BACKGROUND THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP was partially supported by a DOE grant through United Solar Ovonics, Inc., under the Solar America Initiative

  1. Scale-up characteristics of salinity gradient power technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Benjamin Jacob

    2014-01-01

    gradient power,” Energy and Environmental Science, 4 (2011)gradient power,” Energy and Environmental Science, 4 (2011)to reverse osmosis, Energy & Environmental Science, 3 (2010)

  2. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near...

  3. Feedback Mechanism for Microtubule Length Regulation by Stathmin Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria Zeitz; Jan Kierfeld

    2014-12-09

    We formulate and analyze a theoretical model for the regulation of microtubule (MT) polymerization dynamics by the signaling proteins Rac1 and stathmin. In cells, the MT growth rate is inhibited by cytosolic stathmin, which, in turn, is inactivated by Rac1. Growing MTs activate Rac1 at the cell edge, which closes a positive feedback loop. We investigate both tubulin sequestering and catastrophe promotion as mechanisms for MT growth inhibition by stathmin. For a homogeneous stathmin concentration in the absence of Rac1, we find a switch-like regulation of the MT mean length by stathmin. For constitutively active Rac1 at the cell edge, stathmin is deactivated locally, which establishes a spatial gradient of active stathmin. In this gradient, we find a stationary bimodal MT length distributions for both mechanisms of MT growth inhibition by stathmin. One subpopulation of the bimodal length distribution can be identified with fast growing and long pioneering MTs in the region near the cell edge, which have been observed experimentally. The feedback loop is closed through Rac1 activation by MTs. For tubulin sequestering by stathmin, this establishes a bistable switch with two stable states: one stable state corresponds to upregulated MT mean length and bimodal MT length distributions, i.e., pioneering MTs; the other stable state corresponds to an interrupted feedback with short MTs. Stochastic effects as well as external perturbations can trigger switching events. For catastrophe promoting stathmin we do not find bistability.

  4. Upper critical fields and thermally-activated transport of Nd(0.7Fe0.3) FeAs single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakirev, Fedor F; Jaroszynski, J; Hunte, F; Balicas, L; Jo, Youn - Jung; Raicevic, I; Gurevich, A; Larbalestier, D C; Fang, L; Cheng, P; Jia, Y; Wen, H H

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of the resistivity and the upper critical field H{sub c2} of Nd(O{sub 0.7}F{sub 0.3})FeAs single crystals in strong DC and pulsed magnetic fields up to 45 T and 60 T, respectively. We found that the field scale of H{sub c2} is comparable to {approx}100 T of high T{sub c} cuprates. H{sub c2}(T) parallel to the c-axis exhibits a pronounced upward curvature similar to what was extracted from earlier measurements on polycrystalline samples. Thus this behavior is indeed an intrinsic feature of oxypnictides, rather than manifestation of vortex lattice melting or granularity. The orientational dependence of H{sub c2} shows deviations from the one-band Ginzburg-Landau scaling. The mass anisotropy decreases as T decreases, from 9.2 at 44K to 5 at 34K. Spin dependent magnetoresistance and nonlinearities in the Hall coefficient suggest contribution to the conductivity from electron-electron interactions modified by disorder reminiscent that of diluted magnetic semiconductors. The Ohmic resistivity measured below T{sub c} but above the irreversibility field exhibits a clear Arrhenius thermally activated behavior over 4--5 decades. The activation energy has very different field dependencies for H{parallel}ab and H{perpendicular}ab. We discuss to what extent different pairing scenarios can manifest themselves in the observed behavior of H{sub c2}, using the two-band model of superconductivity. The results indicate the importance of paramagnetic effects on H{sub c2}(T), which may significantly reduce H{sub c2}(0) as compared to H{sub c2}(0) {approx}200--300 T based on extrapolations of H{sub c2}(T) near T{sub c} down to low temperatures.

  5. Active site mapping of iterative polyketide synthases and the detection of polyketide intermediates using high- resolution Fourier Transform mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meehan, Michael Joseph

    2009-01-01

    be ejected during thermal activation methods and that thisPEA is accomplished using thermal activation methods.are a large number of thermal activation methods that could

  6. Critical gradient formula for toroidal electron temperature gradient modes F. Jenko, W. Dorland,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Greg

    Critical gradient formula for toroidal electron temperature gradient modes F. Jenko, W. Dorland and edge plasmas are presented. An algebraic formula for the threshold of the linear instability is derived formula. We discuss the results with respect to previous analytical results and to experimental

  7. Turbulent electron transport in edge pedestal by electron temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R.; Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 ; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.; CMTFO and CASS, University of California, San Diego 92093-0424, California

    2013-11-15

    We present a model for turbulent electron thermal transport at the edge pedestal in high (H)-mode plasmas based on electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence. A quasi-linear analysis of electrostatic toroidal ETG modes shows that both turbulent electron thermal diffusivity and hyper-resistivity exhibits the Ohkawa scaling in which the radial correlation length of turbulence becomes the order of electron skin depth. Combination of the Ohkawa scales and the plasma current dependence results in a novel confinement scaling inside the pedestal region. It is also shown that ETG turbulence induces a thermoelectric pinch, which may accelerate the density pedestal formation.

  8. Ti(III) Doped Titanium Dioxide: an Effective Strategy to Improve the Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Fan

    2012-01-01

    achieve the detrapping electrons are thermal activation andnon-thermal activation such as sub-bandgap light excitation.

  9. High pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA); Sakaji, Richard H. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A gradient mixer which effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum "band-broadening".

  10. High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

    1982-09-08

    A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

  11. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temkin, Richard J.; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  12. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  13. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  14. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal models power density cost lifetime Advanced Thermal Interface Materials Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies Air Cooling Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  15. The latitudinal gradient of the NO peak density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesen, C.G.; Rusch, D.W. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Gerard, J.C. (Univ. de Liege (Belgium))

    1990-11-01

    The latitudinal gradients of the maximum nitric oxide densities near 110 km are presented for solstice and equinox periods from 1982 through 1985 as observed by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite. The data indicate that the response of the maximum NO densities to the declining level of solar activity is latitudinally and seasonally dependent: the polar regions exhibit little sensitivity to solar activity, while the low latitude NO responds strongly. The data also reveal marked asymmetries in the latitudinal structure of the two hemispheres for each season. During June solstice periods, the latitudinal distribution is fairly flat, unlike December solstice periods which tend to show a definite minimum near 30{degree}N. Similarly, March data show very little latitudinal variation in the NO peak density between about {plus minus} 40{degree}, while the September data show marked gradients for the later years. The SME data further indicate that the nitric oxide densities vary considerably from day to day, even during very quiet geomagnetic periods, suggesting that the concept of an average distribution is of limited usefulness in understanding nitric oxide. A two-dimensional model is used to simualte the June solar cycle minimum data. The latitudinally averaged magnitudes of the observed NO peak densities are reproduced reasonably well by the model, but the shape of the latitudinal variation is not.

  16. Universal Microfluidic Gradient Generator Daniel Irimia1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geba, Dan-Andrei

    Universal Microfluidic Gradient Generator Daniel Irimia1 , Dan A Geba2 , Mehmet Toner1 1 Bio, Building 114, 16th St, Charlestown, MA 02129. Email: mtoner@hms.harvard.edu Keywords: microfluidics cells in vitro. While microfluidic devices have shown unmatched capability in generating linear stable

  17. Ant Colony Optimization and Stochastic Gradient Descent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libre de Bruxelles, Université

    process is biased toward the generation of approximate solutions of improving quality. The historic rst (ACO) for an important logistic problem [R. Palm, personal communication]. As a consequence, the ACO show that some ACO algorithms approximate gradient descent of the expected value of the solution p

  18. Multi-gradient drilling method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maurer, William C. (Houston, TX); Medley, Jr., George H. (Spring, TX); McDonald, William J. (Houston, TX)

    2003-01-01

    A multi-gradient system for drilling a well bore from a surface location into a seabed includes an injector for injecting buoyant substantially incompressible articles into a column of drilling fluid associated with the well bore. Preferably, the substantially incompressible articles comprises hollow substantially spherical bodies.

  19. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  20. Ocean thermal energy conversion plants : experimental and analytical study of mixing and recirculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirka, Gerhard H.

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a method of generating power using the vertical temperature gradient of the tropical ocean as an energy source. Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to determine ...

  1. Heat flux measurement from thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones: Example of the Ty fault (La Soufrire de Guadeloupe)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beauducel, François

    the geothermal flux of a dormant volcano is necessary both for hazard assessment and for studying hydrothermal for the thermal infrared method, and 275 ± 50 W/m2 for the vertical temperature gradient method), if surface through connected porosity and fissures of rocks in which the thermal vertical gradient is nil. Near

  2. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntz, Floyd; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-12-16

    A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to linac applications; for instance, it could be employed to both accelerate the beam and to stabilize the superbunch mode of operation in circular track machines.

  3. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS operating at 30 GHz. It was shown that the ratio of maximum surface electric field to accelerating field at the metal wall is only 0.35-0.4 for DLA, much smaller than the value 2.2 for HDS; and the ratio of surface magnetic field to accelerating field is 3.0 mA/V for DLA, compared with 3.45 mA/V for HDS. These values bode well for DLA in helping to avoid breakdown and to reducing pulsed surface heating and fatigue. The shunt impedance is found to be 160-175 M{Omega}/m for DLA, as compared to 99 M{Omega}/m for HDS. Conclusions are reached from this project that CVD diamond appears promising as a dielectric with a high threshold for RF breakdown, and that rectangular accelerator structures can be devised using planar CVD diamond elements that could be operated at higher acceleration gradients with low probability of RF breakdown, as compared with corresponding all-metallic structures.

  4. The thermal conductivity of sediments as a function of porosity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, James W

    1979-01-01

    as thermal barriers to heat and tend to insulate the surrounding material. Fig, 1 shows how the temperature gradient changes when a high pressured zone is encountered. Assuming the flow of heat through any zone obeys Fourier's law, the following equation... = thermal con- aT ductivity of the material, and z is the depth below the mudline. It can be seen from Equation 1 that if the heat flux, q, is constant and the temperature gradient, ~, is increased as is the case for a high z pressured zone...

  5. Gradient Sensitivity to Within-Category Variation in Words and Syllables Bob McMurray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makous, Walter

    that during online spoken word recognition, lexical competitors are activated in proportion to their continuous distance from a category boundary. This gradient processing may allow listeners to anticipate a continuous and contextually varying signal into discrete and contextually invariant units such as phonemes

  6. Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

    1992-04-01

    The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

  7. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  8. High gradient accelerators for linear light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, W.A.

    1988-09-26

    Ultra-high gradient radio frequency linacs powered by relativistic klystrons appear to be able to provide compact sources of radiation at XUV and soft x-ray wavelengths with a duration of 1 picosecond or less. This paper provides a tutorial review of the physics applicable to scaling the present experience of the accelerator community to the regime applicable to compact linear light sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Steep Gradient Flume | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren) Jumpand MaintenanceStationary PowerformStecaSteep Gradient

  10. Results of geothermal gradient core hole TCB-1, Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, A.I.; Chipera, S.; Counce, D.; Gardner, J.; Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Laughlin, A.W.; Musgrave, J.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Aycinena, S.; Martinelli, L. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O.; Revolorio, M.; Roldan, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion); D

    1992-02-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site in Guatemala indicated that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, hydrothermal alteration, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro volcano Complex, 300 km south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2,910 years. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 250--300{degrees}C. The temperature versus depth curve from TCB-1 does not show isothermal conditions and the calculated thermal gradients from 500--800 m is 230{degrees}C/km. Bottom hole temperature is 238{degrees}C. Calculated heat flow values are nearly 9 heat flow units (HFU). The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for containing a commercial geothermal resource.

  11. Spatially resolved thermal desorption/ionization coupled with mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for sub-micron analysis of a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The method includes providing a specimen for evaluation and a thermal desorption probe, thermally desorbing an analyte from a target site of said specimen using the thermally active tip to form a gaseous analyte, ionizing the gaseous analyte to form an ionized analyte, and analyzing a chemical composition of the ionized analyte. The thermally desorbing step can include heating said thermally active tip to above 200.degree. C., and positioning the target site and the thermally active tip such that the heating step forms the gaseous analyte. The thermal desorption probe can include a thermally active tip extending from a cantilever body and an apex of the thermally active tip can have a radius of 250 nm or less.

  12. Scalar gradient behaviour in MILD combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minamoto, Y.; Swaminathan, N.

    2013-10-22

    must be improved constantly to achieve high efficiency and reduced emission simultaneously to meet the ever stringent emission legisla- tion and environmental requirements. A number of approaches are being explored to meet these requirements. Although... the heat in the exhaust stream. The preheating results in higher flame temperature which can cause the thermal NOx to increase if there is substantial level of oxygen in the reactant stream. The thermal NOx formation can also be reduced by using the exhaust...

  13. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  14. The effect of density gradient on the growth rate of relativistic Weibel instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdavi, M.; Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate is investigated. The density perturbations in the near corona fuel, where temperature anisotropy, ?, is larger than the critical temperature anisotropy, ?{sub c}, (??>??{sub c}), enhances the growth rate of Weibel instability due to the sidebands coupled with the electron oscillatory velocity. But for ??thermal spread of the energetic electrons reduces the growth rate. Also, the growth rate can be reduced if the relativistic parameter (Lorentz factor) is sufficiently large, ??>?2. The analysis shows that relativistic effects and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability. The growth rate can be reduced by 88% by reducing ? by a factor of 100 and increasing relativistic parameter by a factor of 3.

  15. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  16. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    varying solar energy inputs and thermal or power demands. Itusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  17. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solaraided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsobesides MVC require thermal energy as their primary energy

  18. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    15] O. A. Hamed, "THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MULTISTAGE FLASHdesa4.aspx. [18] Encon, "Thermal Evaporators," June 2013. [http://www.evaporator.com/thermal-evaporator. [19] Y. Tian

  19. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    of such an aquifer thermal storage system were studied andusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  20. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    This requires no thermal storage tanks, but can have athe need for large thermal storage equipment, the evaporatorinclude analysis of thermal storage. A way of keeping the

  1. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  2. Polyakov loop renormalization with gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Petreczky; Hans-Peter Schadler

    2015-11-14

    We propose to use the gradient flow for the renormalization of Polyakov loops in various representations. We study Polyakov loops in 2+1 flavor QCD using the HISQ action and lattices with temporal extents $N_\\tau$=6, 8, 10 and 12 in various representations, including fundamental, sextet, adjoint, decuplet, 15-plet and 27-plet. This alternative renormalization procedure allows for the renormalization over a large temperature range from $T$=100 MeV - 800 MeV, with small errors not only for the fundamental, but also for the higher representations of the Polyakov loop. We discuss the results of this procedure and Casimir scaling of the Polyakov loop.

  3. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell (Knoxville, TN); Morris, David G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  4. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

    1996-11-12

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials. 7 figs.

  5. Functionally gradient material for membrane reactors to convert methane gas into value-added products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Lombard, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Napersville, IL); Kobylinski, Thadeus P. (Lisle, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials.

  6. Gas flow driven by thermal creep in dusty plasma T. M. Flanagan and J. Goree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goree, John

    Gas flow driven by thermal creep in dusty plasma T. M. Flanagan and J. Goree Department of Physics 2009 Thermal creep flow TCF is a flow of gas driven by a temperature gradient along a solid boundary to the bulk gas, causing the bulk gas to flow, thereby stirring the suspension of dust particles. This result

  7. Thermal Transport in Nanoporous Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Conductivity Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal ConductivityThermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal

  8. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz, Et Al., 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or...

  9. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near...

  10. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or...

  11. Sources of stress gradients in electrodeposited Ni MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hearne, Sean Joseph; Floro, Jerrold Anthony; Dyck, Christopher William

    2004-06-01

    The ability of future integrated metal-semiconductor micro-systems such as RF MEMS to perform highly complex functions will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity and reflectivity over polysilicon structures. For example, metal-based RF MEMS technology could replace the bulky RF system presently used in communications, navigation, and avionics systems. However, stress gradients that induce warpage of active components have prevented the implementation of this technology. Figure 1, is an interference micrograph image of a series of cantilever beams fabricated from electrodeposited Ni. The curvature in the beams was the result of stress gradients intrinsic to the electrodeposition process. To study the sources of the stress in electrodeposition of Ni we have incorporated a wafer curvature based stress sensor, the multibeam optical stress sensor, into an electrodeposition cell. We have determined that there are two regions of stress induced by electrodepositing Ni from a sulfamate-based bath (Fig 2). The stress evolution during the first region, 0-1000{angstrom}, was determined to be dependent only on the substrate material (Au vs. Cu), whereas the stress evolution during the second region, >1000{angstrom}, was highly dependent on the deposition conditions. In this region, the stress varied from +0.5 GPa to -0.5GPa, depending solely on the deposition rate. We examined four likely sources for the compressive intrinsic stress, i.e. reduction in tensile stress, and determined that only the adatom diffusion into grain boundaries model of Sheldon, et al. could account for the observed compressive stress. In the presentation, we shall discuss the compressive stress generation mechanisms considered and the ramifications of these results on fabrication of electrodeposited Ni for MEMS applications.

  12. Thermoacoustic mixture separation with an axial temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, Drew W; Swift, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    The theory of thermoacoustic mixture separation is extended to include the effect of a nonzero axial temperature gradient. The analysis yields a new term in the second-order mole flux that is proportional to the temperature gradient and to the square of the volumetric velocity and is independent of the phasing of the wave. Because of this new term, thermoacoustic separation stops at a critical temperature gradient and changes direction above that gradient. For a traveling wave, this gradient is somewhat higher than that predicted by a simple four-step model. An experiment tests the theory for temperature gradients from 0 to 416 K/m in 50-50 He-Ar mixtures.

  13. Method for determining thermal conductivity and thermal capacity per unit volume of earth in situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (LaJolla, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method for determining the thermal conductivity of the earth in situ is based upon a cylindrical probe (10) having a thermopile (16) for measuring the temperature gradient between sets of thermocouple junctions (18 and 20) of the probe after it has been positioned in a borehole and has reached thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, and having means (14) for heating one set of thermocouple junctions (20) of the probe at a constant rate while the temperature gradient of the probe is recorded as a rise in temperature over several hours (more than about 3 hours). A fluid annulus thermally couples the probe to the surrounding earth. The recorded temperature curves are related to the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and to the thermal capacity per unit volume, (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin., by comparison with calculated curves using estimates of k.sub..infin. and (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin. in an equation which relates these parameters to a rise in the earth's temperature for a known and constant heating rate.

  14. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

    1999-07-27

    A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.

  15. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  16. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa

    2014-07-15

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.

  17. Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K. [Multilayer insulation (MLI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

    1992-04-01

    The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

  18. Gradient induced liquid motion on laser structured black Si surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paradisanos, I; Anastasiadis, S H; Stratakis, E

    2015-01-01

    This letter reports on the femtosecond laser fabrication of gradient-wettability micro/nano- patterns on Si surfaces. The dynamics of directional droplet spreading on the surface tension gradients developed is systematically investigated and discussed. It is shown that microdroplets on the patterned surfaces spread at a maximum speed of 505 mm/sec, that is the highest velocity demonstrated so far for liquid spreading on a surface tension gradient in ambient conditions. The application of the proposed laser patterning technique for the precise fabrication of surface tension gradients for open microfluidic systems, liquid management in fuel cells and drug delivery is envisaged.

  19. Generalized Defect Energy in a Gradient Plasticity Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayerschen, E

    2015-01-01

    A gradient plasticity model is presented that includes a generalized, power-law type defect energy depending on the gradient of an equivalent plastic strain. Numerical regularization for the case of vanishing gradients is employed in the finite element discretization of the theory. Three exemplary choices of the defect energy exponent are compared in finite element simulations of elastic-plastic tricrystals under tensile loading. The influence of the power-law exponent is discussed related to the distribution of gradients and in regard to size effects. In addition, an analytical solution is presented for the single slip case and allows to interpret the numerical findings.

  20. Geology and Temperature Gradient Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geology and Temperature Gradient Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal Discovery, Humboldt County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  1. Permafrost and organic layer interactions over a climate gradient...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in permafrost occurrence (PF) and organic layer thickness (OLT) in more than 3000 soil pedons across a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient. Cause and effect relationships...

  2. A Nonmonotone Approach without Differentiability Test for Gradient ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias S. Helou

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... A Nonmonotone Approach without Differentiability Test for Gradient Sampling Methods. Elias S. Helou(elias ***at*** icmc.usp.br) Sandra A.

  3. Engineering chemoattractant gradients using controlled release polysaccharide microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yana, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Chemoattractant gradients play important roles in the normal function of immune system, from lymphocyte homeostasis to mounting efficient immune responses against infection. Improved fundamental knowledge about the role ...

  4. Coronal Heating Driven by Magnetic-gradient Pumping Mechanism in Solar Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    The solar coronal heating is a longstanding mystery in astrophysics. Considering that the solar magnetic field is spatially inhomogeneous with considerable magnetic gradient from solar surface to the corona, this work proposes a magnetic gradient pumping (MGP) mechanism and try to explain the formation of hot plasma upflows, such as the hot type II spicules and hot plasma ejections, etc. In MGP mechanism, the magnetic gradients drive the energetic particles to move upwards from the underlying solar atmosphere and form hot upflows. These upflow energetic particles deposit in corona and make it becoming very hot. Roughly estimations indicate that the solar corona can be heated to above 1 million degrees, and the upflow velocity is about 40 km/s in chromosphere and about 130 km/s in the corona. The solar magnetic flux tubes act as pumpers to extract energetic particles from the underlying thermal photosphere, convey them and deposit in the corona. The deposition of energetic particles will make the corona become...

  5. Coronal heating driven by a magnetic gradient pumping mechanism in solar plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Baolin

    2014-11-10

    The heating of the solar corona is a longstanding mystery in astrophysics. Considering that the solar magnetic field is spatially inhomogeneous with a considerable magnetic gradient from the solar surface to the corona, this work proposes a magnetic gradient pumping (MGP) mechanism to try to explain the formation of hot plasma upflows, such as hot type II spicules and hot plasma ejections. In the MGP mechanism, the magnetic gradient may drive the energetic particles to move upward from the underlying solar atmosphere and form hot upflows. These upflow energetic particles are deposited in the corona, causing it to become very hot. Rough estimations indicate that the solar corona can be heated to above 1 million degrees, and the upflow velocity is about 40 km s{sup –1} in the chromosphere and about 130 km s{sup –1} in the corona. The solar magnetic flux tubes act as pumpers to extract energetic particles from the underlying thermal photosphere, convey them, and deposit them in the corona. The deposit of these energetic particles causes the corona to become hot, and the escape of such particles from the photosphere leaves it a bit cold. This mechanism can present a natural explanation to the mystery of solar coronal heating.

  6. Critical gradients and plasma flows in the edge plasma of Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBombard, B.; Hughes, J. W.; Smick, N.; Marr, K.; McDermott, R.; Reinke, M.; Greenwald, M.; Lipschultz, B.; Terry, J. L.; Whyte, D. G.; Graf, A.; Zweben, S. J.

    2008-05-15

    Recent experiments have led to a fundamental shift in our view of edge transport physics; transport near the last-closed flux surface may be more appropriately described in terms of a critical gradient phenomenon rather than a diffusive and/or convective paradigm. Edge pressure gradients, normalized by the square of the poloidal magnetic field strength, appear invariant in plasmas with the same normalized collisionality, despite vastly different currents and magnetic fields--a behavior that connects with first-principles electromagnetic plasma turbulence simulations. Near-sonic scrape-off layer (SOL) flows impose a cocurrent rotation boundary condition on the confined plasma when Bx{nabla}B points toward the active x-point, suggesting a link to the concomitant reduction in input power needed to attain high-confinement modes. Indeed, low-confinement mode plasmas are found to attain higher edge pressure gradients in this configuration, independent of the direction of B, evidence that SOL flows may affect transport and 'critical gradient' values in the edge plasma.

  7. On The Thermal Consolidation Of Boom Clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    When a mass of saturated clay is heated, as in the case of host soils surrounding nuclear waste disposals at great depth, the thermal expansion of the constituents generates excess pore pressures. The mass of clay is submitted to gradients of pore pressure and temperature, to hydraulic and thermal flows, and to changes in its mechanical properties. In this work, some of these aspects were experimentally studied in the case of Boom clay, so as to help predicting the response of the soil, in relation with investigations made in the Belgian underground laboratory at Mol. Results of slow heating tests with careful volume change measurements showed that a reasonable prediction of the thermal expansion of the clay-water system was obtained by using the thermal properties of free water. In spite of the density of Boom clay, no significant effect of water adsorption was observed. The thermal consolidation of Boom clay was studied through fast heating tests. A simple analysis shows that the hydraulic and thermal trans...

  8. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  9. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  10. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  11. Hebbian Learning and Gradient Descent Learning Neural Computation : Lecture 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullinaria, John

    Hebbian Learning and Gradient Descent Learning Neural Computation : Lecture 5 © John A. Bullinaria, 2014 1. Hebbian Learning 2. Learning by Error Minimisation 3. Gradient Descent Learning 4. Deriving or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place on one or both cells

  12. Dynamics of the Dorsal morphogen gradient Jitendra S. Kanodiaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shvartsman, Stanislav "Stas"

    Dynamics of the Dorsal morphogen gradient Jitendra S. Kanodiaa , Richa Rikhyb , Yoosik Kima Road, Princeton, NJ 08544; bCell Biology and Metabolism Branch, NIH, Building 32, 18 Library Drive localization gradient of Dorsal (Dl), a protein related to the mammalian NF- B transcription factors. Current

  13. Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1 Philippe Tassin,2,* Costas M demonstrate how the optical gradient force between two waveguides can be enhanced using transformation optics perceived by light, resulting in a more than tenfold enhancement of the optical force. This process

  14. Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

    2009-05-15

    .............................................. 5 2.3 Methods of Achieving Dual Gradient Drilling ...................... 9 2.3.1 Subsea Mudlift Drilling............................................... 10 2.3.2 Hollow Glass Spheres... ................................................... 9 2.5 Schematic diagram of a modified subsea mudlift system .......................... 11 2.6 Hollow glass-spheres dual gradient drilling system................................... 13 2.7 A typical offshore drilling rig modified...

  15. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  16. Hydrodynamic Collective Effects of Active Protein Machines in Solution and Lipid Bilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Mikhailov; Raymond Kapral

    2015-03-09

    The cytoplasm and biomembranes in biological cells contain large numbers of proteins that cyclically change their shapes. They are molecular machines that can function as molecular motors or carry out many other tasks in the cell. We analyze the effects that hydrodynamic flows induced by active proteins have on other passive molecules in solution or membranes. We show that the diffusion constants of passive particles are enhanced substantially. Furthermore, when gradients of active proteins are present, a chemotaxis-like drift of passive particles takes place. In lipid bilayers, the effects are strongly nonlocal, so that active inclusions in the membrane contribute to diffusion enhancement and the drift. The results indicate that the transport properties of passive particles in systems containing active proteins machines operating under nonequilibrium conditions differ from their counterparts in systems at thermal equilibrium.

  17. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  18. Generalized Hooke's law for isotropic second gradient materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. dell'Isola; G. Sciarra; S. Vidoli

    2010-08-17

    In the spirit of Germain the most general objective stored elastic energy for a second gradient material is deduced using a literature result of Fortun\\'e & Vall\\'ee. Linear isotropic constitutive relations for stress and hyperstress in terms of strain and strain-gradient are then obtained proving that these materials are characterized by seven elastic moduli and generalizing previous studies by Toupin, Mindlin and Sokolowski. Using a suitable decomposition of the strain-gradient, it is found a necessary and sufficient condition, to be verified by the elastic moduli, assuring positive definiteness of the stored elastic energy. The problem of warping in linear torsion of a prismatic second gradient cylinder is formulated, thus obtaining a possible measurement procedure for one of the second gradient elastic moduli.

  19. Gradient Flow Analysis on MILC HISQ Ensembles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bazavov; C. Bernard; N. Brown; C. DeTar; J. Foley; Steven Gottlieb; U. M. Heller; J. E. Hetrick; J. Komijani; J. Laiho; L. Levkova; M. Oktay; R. L. Sugar; D. Toussaint; R. S. Van de Water; R. Zhou

    2014-11-14

    We report on a preliminary scale determination with gradient-flow techniques on the $N_f = 2 + 1 + 1$ HISQ ensembles generated by the MILC collaboration. The ensembles include four lattice spacings, ranging from 0.15 to 0.06 fm, and both physical and unphysical values of the quark masses. The scales $\\sqrt{t_0}/a$ and $w_0/a$ are computed using Symanzik flow and the cloverleaf definition of $\\langle E \\rangle$ on each ensemble. Then both scales and the meson masses $aM_\\pi$ and $aM_K$ are adjusted for mistunings in the charm mass. Using a combination of continuum chiral perturbation theory and a Taylor series ansatz in the lattice spacing, the results are simultaneously extrapolated to the continuum and interpolated to physical quark masses. Our preliminary results are $\\sqrt{t_0} = 0.1422(7)$fm and $w_0 = 0.1732(10)$fm. We also find the continuum mass-dependence of $w_0$.

  20. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hiramatsu; Yuhei Miyamoto; Jun'ichi Yokoyama

    2014-12-25

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    storage in solar thermal applications," Applied Energy, pp.of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology," 2011. [26] R.C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energy

  2. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  3. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  4. Degradation of Structural Alloys Under Thermal Insulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntyre, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Wet thermal insulation may actively degrade steel and stainless steel structures by general corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking. Two different mechanisms of water ingress into insulation are discussed; flooding from external sources...

  5. Regulation of thermal conductivity in hot galaxy clusters by MHD turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven A. Balbus; Christopher S. Reynolds

    2008-06-05

    The role of thermal conduction in regulating the thermal behavior of cooling flows in galaxy clusters is reexamined. Recent investigations have shown that the anisotropic Coulomb heat flux caused by a magnetic field in a dilute plasma drives a dynamical instability. A long standing problem of cooling flow theory has been to understand how thermal conduction can offset radiative core losses without completely preventing them. In this Letter we propose that magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the heat flux instability regulates field-line insulation and drives a reverse convective thermal flux, both of which may mediate the stabilization of the cooling cores of hot clusters. This model suggests that turbulent mixing should accompany strong thermal gradients in cooling flows. This prediction seems to be supported by the spatial distribution of metals in the central galaxies of clusters, which shows a much stronger correlation with the ambient hot gas temperature gradient than with the parent stellar population.

  6. Efficient and robust gradient enhanced Kriging emulators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalbey, Keith R.

    2013-08-01

    %E2%80%9CNaive%E2%80%9D or straight-forward Kriging implementations can often perform poorly in practice. The relevant features of the robustly accurate and efficient Kriging and Gradient Enhanced Kriging (GEK) implementations in the DAKOTA software package are detailed herein. The principal contribution is a novel, effective, and efficient approach to handle ill-conditioning of GEK's %E2%80%9Ccorrelation%E2%80%9D matrix, RN%CC%83, based on a pivoted Cholesky factorization of Kriging's (not GEK's) correlation matrix, R, which is a small sub-matrix within GEK's RN%CC%83 matrix. The approach discards sample points/equations that contribute the least %E2%80%9Cnew%E2%80%9D information to RN%CC%83. Since these points contain the least new information, they are the ones which when discarded are both the easiest to predict and provide maximum improvement of RN%CC%83's conditioning. Prior to this work, handling ill-conditioned correlation matrices was a major, perhaps the principal, unsolved challenge necessary for robust and efficient GEK emulators. Numerical results demonstrate that GEK predictions can be significantly more accurate when GEK is allowed to discard points by the presented method. Numerical results also indicate that GEK can be used to break the curse of dimensionality by exploiting inexpensive derivatives (such as those provided by automatic differentiation or adjoint techniques), smoothness in the response being modeled, and adaptive sampling. Development of a suitable adaptive sampling algorithm was beyond the scope of this work; instead adaptive sampling was approximated by omitting the cost of samples discarded by the presented pivoted Cholesky approach.

  7. DNA Engine Thermal Cycler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raizada, Manish N.

    ® Peltier Thermal Cycler PTC-0200 DNA Engine Cycler Operations Manual Version 4.0 #12;ii Tech Support: 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi The DNA Engine® Peltier Thermal Cycler Introduction

  8. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  9. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    thermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solarsolar energy systems, aquifer energy storage provides a buffer between time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal

  10. Accuracy of direct gradient sensing by single cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert G. Endres; Ned S. Wingreen

    2009-06-15

    Many types of cells are able to accurately sense shallow gradients of chemicals across their diameters, allowing the cells to move towards or away from chemical sources. This chemotactic ability relies on the remarkable capacity of cells to infer gradients from particles randomly arriving at cell-surface receptors by diffusion. Whereas the physical limits of concentration sensing by cells have been explored, there is no theory for the physical limits of gradient sensing. Here, we derive such a theory, using as models a perfectly absorbing sphere and a perfectly monitoring sphere, which, respectively, infer gradients from the absorbed surface particle density or the positions of freely diffusing particles inside a spherical volume. We find that the perfectly absorbing sphere is superior to the perfectly monitoring sphere, both for concentration and gradient sensing, since previously observed particles are never remeasured. The superiority of the absorbing sphere helps explain the presence at the surfaces of cells of signal degrading enzymes, such as PDE for cAMP in Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty) and BAR1 for mating factor alpha in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast). Quantitatively, our theory compares favorably to recent measurements of Dicty moving up a cAMP gradient, suggesting these cells operate near the physical limits of gradient detection.

  11. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 184201 (2012) Electrical and thermal conductivity of Al liquid at high pressures and temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    perturbation theory to phase trajectories generated using first-principles molecular dynamics. Our results time-invariant electrical field and thermal gradient. First-principles calculations provide a directPHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 184201 (2012) Electrical and thermal conductivity of Al liquid at high

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (EERE, 2010) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008) ||Al., 1993) |

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Erkan, Et Al., 2007) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008) ||Al., 1993) |Open

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et Al., 2006) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008) ||Al., 1993)

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008) ||Al., 1993)Open

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008) ||Al.,

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hawthorne Area (Lazaro, Et Al., 2010) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008) ||Al.,Energy

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008) ||Al.,EnergyEnergy

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)| Open Energy

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)| Open EnergyOpen

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)| Open

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Sorey, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)| OpenEt Al.,

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Edmunds & W.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)| OpenEt Al.,1977) |

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Matlick & Jayne,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)| OpenEt Al.,1977)

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)| OpenEt

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Pilgrim Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)|

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Ward, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)|Al., 1978) | Open

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)|Al., 1978) |

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Page, Et Al., 2010) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)|Al., 1978) |Open

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)|Al., 1978)

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)|Al., 1978)2004) |

  12. strong poleward heat flux needed to produce the shallow thermal gradients that seem to have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 2818 (2008). C H E M I S T R Y A Fruitful Fuel Proposal Sustainable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels will need to recapitulate some of the prop- erties that make currently used fuels attractive

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy Information 1968-1971) JumpAlum Area

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank & Ross,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy Information 1968-1971) JumpAlum

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy Information 1968-1971)

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Chocolate Mountains Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy Information 1968-1971)Open Energy

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergy Information

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergy Information|

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergy Information||

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergy

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Purtymun, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergyAl., 1974) | Open

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergyAl., 1974) |

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergyAl., 1974)

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fort Bidwell Area (Lafleur, Et Al., 2010) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergyAl., 1974)Energy

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergyAl.,

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hawthorne Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergyAl.,Energy

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergyAl.,EnergyPot Area

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Area (Quane, Et Al., 2000) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergyAl.,EnergyPot

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy InformationEnergyAl.,EnergyPotEnergy

  11. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergy

  12. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen Energy Information Lightning

  13. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Arnold, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen Energy Information

  14. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff & Bowers,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen Energy Information2005) | Open

  15. Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Cunniff, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen Energy Information2005) |

  16. Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Sorey, Et

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen Energy Information2005)Al.,

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen Energy

  18. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen EnergyInformation Mcgee Mountain

  19. Thermal Gradient Holes At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Held &

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen EnergyInformation Mcgee

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (U.S. Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen EnergyInformation McgeeInc.,

  1. Thermal Gradient Holes At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen EnergyInformation

  2. Thermal Gradient Holes At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen EnergyInformationEnergy

  3. Thermal Gradient Holes At Obsidian Cliff Area (Hulen, Et Al., 2003) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen EnergyInformationEnergyEnergy

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen EnergyInformationEnergyEnergy|

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpen

  6. Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpenInformation Silver Peak Area (DOE

  7. Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpenInformation Silver Peak Area

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Tungsten Mountain Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpenInformation Silver Peak AreaOpen

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Tungsten Mountain Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpenInformation Silver Peak AreaOpen|

  10. Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/WindEnergyOpenInformation Silver Peak

  11. Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a new type of high efficiency thermal waste heat energy converter that can be used to actively cool electronic devices, concentrated...

  12. Cell Metabolism Fatty Acid Flippase Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, James

    Cell Metabolism Article Fatty Acid Flippase Activity of UCP2 Is Essential for Its Proton Transport and pathological cell growth and differentiation. Mitochondria stores energy as a pro- ton gradient across their inner membrane. Uncou- pling proteins (UCPs) can dissipate the gradient to produce heat or regulate

  13. Linear domain interactome and biological function of anterior gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Melanie Laura Alexandra

    2013-11-29

    The Anterior Gradient 2 (AGR2) protein has been implicated in a variety of biological systems linked to cancer and metastasis, tamoxifen-induced drug resistance, pro-inflammatory diseases like IBD and asthma, and limb ...

  14. Osteochondral Interface Tissue Engineering using Macroscopic Gradients of Physicochemical Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dormer, Nathan Henry

    2011-04-25

    . When used in a smaller defect site, such as the New Zealand White rabbit mandibular condyle, the bioactive scaffolds were beneficial in regenerating thicker layers of cartilage. Moreover, this thesis has bridged the gradient-based microsphere scaffold...

  15. Colour Gradients in the Optical and Near-IR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roelof S. de Jong

    1995-09-01

    For many years broadband colours have been used to obtain insight into the contents of galaxies, in particular to estimate stellar and dust content. Broadband colours are easy to obtain for large samples of objects, making them ideal for statistical studies. In this paper I use the radial distribution of the colours in galaxies, which gives more insight into the local processes driving the global colour differences than integrated colours. Almost all galaxies in my sample of 86 face-on galaxies become systematically bluer with increasing radius. The radial photometry is compared to new dust extinction models and stellar population synthesis models. This comparison shows that the colour gradients in face-on galaxies are best explained by age and metallicity gradients in the stellar populations and that dust reddening plays a minor role. The colour gradients imply $M/L$ gradients, making the `missing light' problem as derived from rotation curve fitting even worse.

  16. Modelling Flow through Porous Media under Large Pressure Gradients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Shriram

    2013-11-01

    The most interesting and technologically important problems in the study of flow through porous media involve very high pressures and pressure gradients in the flow do- main such as enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide ...

  17. Variational constitutive updates for strain gradient isotropic plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Lei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In the past decades, various strain gradient isotropic plasticity theories have been developed to describe the size-dependence plastic deformation mechanisms observed experimentally in micron-indentation, torsion, bending ...

  18. A Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Algorithm with An Optimal Property ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-06-15

    State Key Laboratory of Scientific and Engineering Computing, ..... To establish a basic property for the family of conjugate gradient methods (1.3), (2.11) and ...... of Engineering Economic Systems, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1972. 23

  19. Spatial gradient of protein phosphorylation underlies replicative bacterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y. Erin

    Spatial asymmetry is crucial to development. One mechanism for generating asymmetry involves the localized synthesis of a key regulatory protein that diffuses away from its source, forming a spatial gradient. Although ...

  20. A parametric study of thermomechanical behavior of functionally gradient materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Che-Doong

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic thermoelastic response of functionally gradient cylinders and plates is studied. Thermomechanical coupling is significant in these materials when they are used in high temperature applications, and hence, the coupling is included...

  1. Function of the anterior gradient protein family in cancer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fourtouna, Argyro

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic technologies verified Anterior Gradient 2, AGR-2, as a protein over-expressed in human cancers, including breast, prostate and oesophagus cancers, with the ability to inhibit the tumour suppressor protein p53. AGR-2 gene is a hormone...

  2. Field Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Field Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center (Mcagcc), Twenty-Nine Palms, Ca Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  3. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; et al

    2015-09-04

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  4. THERMAL OSCILLATIONS IN LIQUID HELIUM TARGETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.

    2001-07-16

    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  5. Thermal Regimes of Northeast Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Loading (USGS) Stormwater and Streams ­ Optimizing Stormwater Management to Protect the Thermal

  6. Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in AlcatorC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in AlcatorC-Mod Tokamak Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation...

  7. Identifying Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Adrian S

    2009-01-01

    Identification of active constraints in constrained optimization is of interest from both practical and theoretical viewpoints, as it holds the promise of reducing an inequality-constrained problem to an equality-constrained problem, in a neighborhood of a solution. We study this issue in the more general setting of composite nonsmooth minimization, in which the objective is a composition of a smooth vector function c with a lower semicontinuous function h, typically nonsmooth but structured. In this setting, the graph of the generalized gradient of h can often be decomposed into a union (nondisjoint) of simpler subsets. "Identification" amounts to deciding which subsets of the graph are "active" in the criticality conditions at a given solution. We give conditions under which any convergent sequence of approximate critical points finitely identifies the activity. Prominent among these properties is a condition akin to the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, which ensures boundedness of the set of...

  8. Abundance gradients in low surface brightness spirals: clues on the origin of common gradients in galactic discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bresolin, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We acquired spectra of 141 HII regions in ten late-type low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs). The analysis of the chemical abundances obtained from the nebular emission lines shows that metallicity gradients are a common feature of LSBGs, contrary to previous claims concerning the absence of such gradients in this class of galaxies. The average slope, when expressed in units of the isophotal radius, is found to be significantly shallower in comparison to galaxies of high surface brightness. This result can be attributed to the reduced surface brightness range measured across their discs, when combined with a universal surface mass density-metallicity relation. With a similar argument we explain the common abundance gradient observed in high surface brightness galaxy (HSBG) discs and its approximate dispersion. This conclusion is reinforced by our result that LSBGs share the same common abundance gradient with HSBGs, when the slope is expressed in terms of the exponential disc scale length.

  9. The Thermal Environment of the Fiber Glass Dome for the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Verdoni; C. Denker; J. R. Varsik; S. Shumko; J. Nenow; R. Coulter

    2007-08-04

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) is a 1.6-meter off-axis Gregory-type telescope with an equatorial mount and an open optical support structure. To mitigate the temperature fluctuations along the exposed optical path, the effects of local/dome-related seeing have to be minimized. To accomplish this, NST will be housed in a 5/8-sphere fiberglass dome that is outfitted with 14 active vents evenly spaced around its perimeter. The 14 vents house louvers that open and close independently of one another to regulate and direct the passage of air through the dome. In January 2006, 16 thermal probes were installed throughout the dome and the temperature distribution was measured. The measurements confirmed the existence of a strong thermal gradient on the order of 5 degree Celsius inside the dome. In December 2006, a second set of temperature measurements were made using different louver configurations. In this study, we present the results of these measurements along with their integration into the thermal control system (ThCS) and the overall telescope control system (TCS).

  10. Scaling of Macroscopic Properties of Porous Sediments Experiencing Compaction: Implications for Geothermal Gradient and Methane Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2011-01-01

    Porous sediments in geological systems experience stress by the above-laying mass and consequent compaction, which may be significantly nonuniform across the massif. We derive scaling laws for the compaction of sediments of similar geological origin. With these laws, we evaluate the dependence of the transport properties of a fluid-saturated porous medium (permeability, effective molecular diffusivity, hydrodynamic dispersion, and thermal conductivity) on its porosity. In particular, we demonstrate irrelevance of the assumption of a uniform geothermal gradient for systems with nonuniform compaction and importance of the derived scaling laws for mathematical modelling of methane hydrate deposits, which are believed to have potential for impact on global climate change and Glacial-Interglacial cycles.

  11. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  12. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  13. Environmental regulation of carbon isotope composition and crassulacean acid metabolism in three plant communities along a water availability gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    gradient Á Tissue acidity Á Yucatan Introduction Crassulacean acid metabolism (metabolism in three plant communities along a water availability gradient

  14. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    2011-01-01

    of thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4 Thermal transport in2.3.2 Thermal transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  15. Efficient Computation of Entropy Gradient for Semi-Supervised Conditional Random Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCallum, Andrew

    gradient that is significantly more efficient--having the same asymptotic time complexity as su- pervised

  16. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  17. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    phonon transmission and interface thermal conductance acrossF. Miao, et al. , "Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Advanced Materials for Thermal Management of Electronic

  18. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal or powerthermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solar

  19. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  20. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  1. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  2. Fabrication and evaluation of uniform and gradient density epoxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domeier, L.A.; Skala, D.M.; Goods, S.H. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Filled epoxy materials which vary in density in a designed manner have been fabricated and their mechanical properties evaluated. Density variations were produced by incorporating different volume fractions of either glass microballoons (GMB) or alumina. Several different sample types were evaluated including uniform density (0.8 g/cm{sup 3} < {rho} < 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}) samples and gradient density samples (GMB only, 0.8 g/cm{sup 3} < {rho} < 1.2 g/cm{sup 3}). The uniform density specimens were evaluated for the effects of filler type and concentration on modulus and toughness. Results indicated that addition of alumina filler significantly increased the resulting modulus while addition of GMB had little measurable effect. These differences could be understood in terms of the differing moduli of the additives relative to that of the epoxy matrix. In the former case the alumina particulates had a modulus much greater than that of the epoxy while in the latter case, the modulus of the GMB additive was only slightly greater than that of the matrix. Addition of either filler significantly degraded the toughness of the composite specimens and precluded the use of gradients to enhance toughness performance. Discontinuous {open_quotes}block{close_quotes} gradients used for testing were fabricated by simple sequential pours of formulations with different GMB loadings and were evaluated for modulus, strength and ductility. Continuous gradients were fabricated in process studies by programmed shifts in the peristaltic pumping/mixing ratio of epoxies filled with either alumina or GMB. None of the continuous gradient materials were mechanically tested. These results suggest that applications utilizing gradient materials containing alumina and similar high modulus fillers to provide designed stiffness rather than improved toughness are the most appropriate targets for future investigation.

  3. Design of Predictive Control Strategies for Active BITIES Systems Using Frequency Domain Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Athienitis, A. K.; Gala, K. E.

    2013-01-01

    Active building-integrated thermal energy storage (BITES) systems, such as ventilated concrete slabs, are able to effectively store and release abundant of thermal energy to assist space conditioning. Since active BITES systems are strongly thermal...

  4. Structural Evolution and Li Dynamics in Nanophase Li3PS4 by Solid-State and Pulsed Field Gradient NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobet, Mallory [Hunter College of the City University of New York] [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Greenbaum, Steve [Hunter College of the City University of New York] [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The ceramic lithium ion conductor -Li3PS4 has a disordered and nanoporous structure that leads to an enhancement in ionic conductivity by some three orders of magnitude compared to the crystalline phase. The phase is prepared by thermal treatment of an inorganic-organic complex based on Li3PS4 and THF. Multinuclear (1H, 6,7Li, 31P) solid state NMR spectroscopy is used to characterize the structural phase evolution of the starting material at various steps in the thermal treatment. The phase formed after high temperature treatment is recognized as spectroscopically distinct from the bulk -Li3PS4 compound. Also formed is an amorphous lithium thiophosphate phase that is metastable as verified by annealing over an extended period. Lithium ion self-diffusion coefficients are measurable by standard pulsed gradient NMR methods at 100oC and with values consistent with the high ionic conductivity previously reported for this material.

  5. The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Electric Program is managed by the Solar thermal and biomass Power division which is part of the Office of utility Technologies. The focus of the Program is to commercialize solar electric technologies. In this regard, three major projects are currently being pursued in trough, central receiver, and dish/Stirling electric power generation. This paper describes these three projects and the activities at the National laboratories that support them.

  6. The thermal performance of steel-framed walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, C.E. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Building Systems Div.; Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Bedford, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermal bridges are areas in constructions that have highly conductive materials, allowing higher heat transfer through less conductive areas. In a wall, thermal bridges can increase heat loss, cause dust to accumulate on the studs (ghosting) due to temperature distribution, and cause condensation to form in and on the walls. The effects of thermal bridges are often misunderstood by engineers, buildings, and manufacturers of construction products. This study attempts to provide a better understanding of the effects of thermal bridges in steel-framed walls, as well as information leading to improved methods of predicting R-value of walls containing thermal bridges. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them the freedom to correctly choose the optimum choice for construction. In order to arrive at an improved method, experimental data on the heat transfer characteristics of steel-framed walls were collected. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C976) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing, and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies of thermal bridging in steel-framed walls have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Also, detailed monitoring of temperature gradients in the test walls combined with numerical analysis provided new insights into heat transfer phenomena concerning thermal bridges.

  7. Digital Manufacturing of Gradient Meshed SOFC Sealing Composites with Self-Healing Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathy Lu; Christopher Story; W.T. Reynolds

    2007-12-21

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) hold great promise for clean power generation. However, high temperature stability and long term durability of the SOFC components have presented serious problems in SOFC technological advancement and commercialization. The seals of the fuel cells are the most challenging area to address. A high temperature gas seal is highly needed which is durable against cracking and gas leakage during thermal cycling and extended operation. This project investigates a novel composite seal by integrating 3D printed shape memory alloy (SMA) wires into a glass matrix. The SMA we use is TiNiHf and the glass matrix we use is SrO-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (SLABS). Dilatometry shows to be an extremely useful tool in providing the CTEs. It pinpoints regions of different CTEs under simulated SOFC thermal cycles for the same glass. For the studied SLABS glass system, the region with the greatest CTE mismatch between the glass seal and the adjacent components is 40-500 C, the typical heating and cooling regions for SOFCs. Even for low temperature SOFC development, this region is still present and needs to be addressed. We have demonstrated that the proposed SLABS glass has great potential in mitigating the thermal expansion mismatch issues that are limiting the operation life of SOFCs. TiNiHf alloy has been successfully synthesized with the desired particle size for the 3DP process. The TiNiHf SMA shape memory effect very desirably overlaps with the problematic low CTE region of the glass. This supports the design intent that the gradient structure transition, phase transformation toughening, and self-healing of the SMA can be utilized to mitigate/eliminate the seal problem. For the 3DP process, a new binder has been identified to match with the specific chemistry of the SMA particles. This enables us to directly print SMA particles. Neutron diffraction shows to be an extremely useful tool in providing information regarding the austenite to martensite phase transformation, SMA alloy lattice constant change, and the corresponding thermal stress from the glass matrix. It pinpoints regions of SMA phase transformation and the thermal stress effect under simulated SOFC thermal cycles. The bilayer test shows that there is still much work to be done for the proper integration of the seal components. Large scale production should lower the cost associated with the proposed approach, especially on the raw material cost and 3D printing.

  8. Gradient catastrophe and flutter in vortex filament dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Konopelchenko; G. Ortenzi

    2011-06-02

    Gradient catastrophe and flutter instability in the motion of vortex filament within the localized induction approximation are analyzed. It is shown that the origin if this phenomenon is in the gradient catastrophe for the dispersionless Da Rios system which describes motion of filament with slow varying curvature and torsion. Geometrically this catastrophe manifests as a rapid oscillation of a filament curve in a point that resembles the flutter of airfoils. Analytically it is the elliptic umbilic singularity in the terminology of the catastrophe theory. It is demonstrated that its double scaling regularization is governed by the Painlev\\'e-I equation.

  9. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

    1999-01-01

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  10. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  11. Bimetal-and-electret-based thermal energy harvesters - Application to a battery-free Wireless Sensor Node

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisseau, S; Monfray, S; Despesse, G; Puscasu, O; Arnaud, A; Skotnicki, T

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a thermal energy harvester turning thermal gradients into electricity by coupling a bimetallic strip to an electret-based converter: the bimetallic strip behaves as a thermal-to-mechanical power converter turning thermal gradients into mechanical oscillations that are finally converted into electricity with the electret. Output powers of 5.4uW were reached on a hot source at 70{\\deg}C, and, contrary to the previous proofs of concept, the new devices presented in this paper do not require forced convection to work, making them compatible with standard conditions of thermal energy harvesting and environments such as hot pipes, pumps and more generally industrial equipment. Finally, ten energy harvesters have been parallelized and combined to a self-starting power management circuit made of a flyback converter to supply a battery-free Wireless Temperature Sensor Node, sending information every 100 seconds after its startup state.

  12. Thermal Expansion Models of Viscous Fluids Based on Limits of Free Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Expansion Models of Viscous Fluids Based on Limits of Free Energy S.E. Bechtel Department applied directly on the free energy formulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes system. The method the reversible physical mechanisms governed by the gradient and Hessian of the free energy function take special

  13. Gradient-based Methods for Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    Gradient-based Methods for Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs Eka Suwartadi Doctoral Thesis at NTNU, 2012:104 Printed by NTNU-Trykk #12;To my wife and my parents 3 #12;4 #12;Summary Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis

  14. Oil displacement through a porous medium with a temperature gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, C L N; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a temperature gradient on oil recovery in a two-dimensional pore-network model. The oil viscosity depends on temperature as, $\\mu_o=exp(B/T)$, where $B$ is a physico-chemical parameter depending on the type of oil, and $T$ is the temperature. A temperature gradient is applied across the medium in the flow direction. Initially, the porous medium is saturated with oil and, then, another fluid is injected. We have considered two cases representing different injection strategies. In the first case, the invading fluid viscosity is constant (finite viscosity ratio) while in the second one, the invading fluid is inviscid (infinite viscosity ratio). Our results show that, for the case of finite viscosity ratio, recovery increases with $\\Delta T$ independently on strength or sign of the gradient. For an infinite viscosity ratio, a positive temperature gradient is necessary to enhance recovery. Moreover, we show that, for $\\Delta T>0$, the percentage of oil recovery generally decreases (inc...

  15. Scale Dependent Definitions of Gradient and Aspect and their Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    (isoaspects) can aid in digital terrain modelling. Other geomorphological features in terrains are critical. Using such measures and classifications, the goal is for example to derive drainage maps, specify areas numerical value for gradient, and the classification convex or concave for plan and profile curvature

  16. Topological charge using cooling and the gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constantia Alexandrou; Andreas Athenodorou; Karl Jansen

    2015-09-14

    The equivalence of cooling to the gradient flow when the cooling step $n_c$ and the continuous flow step of gradient flow $\\tau$ are matched is generalized to gauge actions that include rectangular terms. By expanding the link variables up to subleading terms in perturbation theory, we relate $n_c$ and $\\tau$ and show that the results for the topological charge become equivalent when rescaling $\\tau \\simeq n_c/({3-15 c_1})$ where $c_1$ is the Symanzik coefficient multiplying the rectangular term. We, subsequently, apply cooling and the gradient flow using the Wilson, the Symanzik tree-level improved and the Iwasaki gauge actions to configurations produced with $N_f=2+1+1$ twisted mass fermions. We compute the topological charge, its distribution and the correlators between cooling and gradient flow at three values of the lattice spacing demonstrating that the perturbative rescaling $\\tau \\simeq n_c/({3-15 c_1})$ leads to equivalent results.

  17. Balanced Flow Geostrophic, Inertial, Gradient, and Cyclostrophic Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    Balanced Flow Geostrophic, Inertial, Gradient, and Cyclostrophic Flow The types of atmospheric flows describe here have the following characteristics: 1) Steady state (meaning that the flows do surfaces) These are "idealized" flows, created by balances of horizontal forces. They provide a qualitative

  18. GRADIENT THEORY FOR PLASTICITY VIA HOMOGENIZATION OF DISCRETE DISLOCATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garroni, Adriana

    GRADIENT THEORY FOR PLASTICITY VIA HOMOGENIZATION OF DISCRETE DISLOCATIONS ADRIANA GARRONI theory for plasticity from a model of discrete dislocations. We restrict our analysis to the case of a cylindrical symmetry for the crystal in exam, so that the mathematical formulation will involve a two

  19. Topological charge using cooling and the gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Jansen, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The equivalence of cooling to the gradient flow when the cooling step $n_c$ and the continuous flow step of gradient flow $\\tau$ are matched is generalized to gauge actions that include rectangular terms. By expanding the link variables up to subleading terms in perturbation theory, we relate $n_c$ and $\\tau$ and show that the results for the topological charge become equivalent when rescaling $\\tau \\simeq n_c/({3-15 c_1})$ where $c_1$ is the Symanzik coefficient multiplying the rectangular term. We, subsequently, apply cooling and the gradient flow using the Wilson, the Symanzik tree-level improved and the Iwasaki gauge actions to configurations produced with $N_f=2+1+1$ twisted mass fermions. We compute the topological charge, its distribution and the correlators between cooling and gradient flow at three values of the lattice spacing demonstrating that the perturbative rescaling $\\tau \\simeq n_c/({3-15 c_1})$ leads to equivalent results.

  20. Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient drilling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

    2008-10-10

    In the past, the oil and gas industry has typically used the single gradient system to drill wells offshore. With this system the bottom hole pressure was controlled by a mud column extending from the drilling rig to the bottom of the wellbore...

  1. A latitudinal diversity gradient in planktonic marine bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, James H.

    A latitudinal diversity gradient in planktonic marine bacteria Jed A. Fuhrman* , Joshua A. Steele and attribute this to their high abundance and dispersal capabilities would suggest that bacteria, the smallest. Despite the high abundance and potentially high dispersal of bacteria, they exhibit geographic patterns

  2. Seasonal mass balance gradients in Norway L. A. Rasmussen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    16 Aug 05 Seasonal mass balance gradients in Norway L. A. Rasmussen1 and L. M. Andreassen2 1 Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) P. O. Box 5091 Majorstua, N-0301 Oslo, Norway in Norway exists in their profiles of both seasonal balances, winter bw(z) and summer bs(z). Unlike many

  3. University of Alberta Gradient Temporal-Difference Learning Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutton, Richard S.

    University of Alberta Gradient Temporal-Difference Learning Algorithms by Hamid Reza Maei A thesis, Alberta Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta

  4. Capillary forces and osmotic gradients in salt water -oil systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Capillary forces and osmotic gradients in salt water - oil systems Georg Ellila Chemical study. This is to my knowledge the first time the transport mechanisms in capillary oil-salt water and the Vista Program. 1 #12;Abstract This project looks at the capillary systems with salt water and oil

  5. University of Alberta Gradient Temporal-Difference Learning Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutton, Richard S.

    of convergence--in on-policy problems. #12;Acknowledgements This PhD thesis is developed through collaboration;Abstract We present a new family of gradient temporal-difference (TD) learning methods with func- tion- proximation. In particular, convergence cannot be guaranteed for these methods when they are used with off-policy

  6. Intermittency in Turbulent Diffusion Models with a Mean Gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majda, Andrew J.

    Intermittency in Turbulent Diffusion Models with a Mean Gradient Andrew J Majda and Xin T TongE30, 62G32 Submitted to: Nonlinearity 1. Introduction Turbulent diffusion is the transportation and diffusion. Its application ranges from the spread of hazardous plumes and mixing properties of turbulent

  7. Tubular precipitation and redox gradients on a bubbling template

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Tubular precipitation and redox gradients on a bubbling template David A. Stone* and Raymond E) Tubular structures created by precipitation abound in nature, from chimneys at hydrothermal vents to soda oxides precipitate on the surface of bubbles that linger at the tube rim and then detach, leaving behind

  8. Comparison of IUPAC k0 Values and Neutron Cross Sections to Determine a Self-consistent Set of Data for Neutron Activation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    S.K. , Gill, P.S. : Thermal neutron activation cross-sectionset of thermal neu- tron activation cross sections. Diss.Ryves, T.B. : Activation measurements of thermal neutron

  9. Thermal and compositional stratification of the inner core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labrosse, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The improvements on the knowledge of the seismic structure of the inner core and the complexities thereby revealed ask for a dynamical origin. Sub-solidus convection was one of the early suggestions to explain the seismic anisotropy but requires an unstable density gradient either from thermal or compositional origin, or both. Temperature and composition profiles in the inner core are computed using a unidimensional model of core evolution including diffusion in the inner core and fractional crystallization at the the inner core boundary (ICB). The thermal conductivity of the core has been recently revised upwardly and, moreover, found increasing with depth. Values of the heat flow across the core mantle boundary (CMB) sufficient to maintain convection in the whole outer core are not sufficient to make the temperature in the inner core super-isentropic and therefore prone to thermal instability. An unreasonably high CMB heat flow is necessary to this end. The compositional stratification results from a compet...

  10. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  11. Nonequilibrium thermal entanglement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiroga, Luis; Rodriguez, Ferney J.; Ramirez, Maria E.; Paris, Roberto

    2007-03-15

    Results on heat current, entropy production rate, and entanglement are reported for a quantum system coupled to two different temperature heat reservoirs. By applying a temperature gradient, different quantum states can be found with exactly the same amount of entanglement but different purity degrees and heat currents. Furthermore, a nonequilibrium enhancement-suppression transition behavior of the entanglement is identified.

  12. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  13. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  14. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    pp. 67-73, 2003. [17] "Energy Requirements of Desalinationof solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solarapplications," Applied Energy, pp. 538-553, 2013. [20] P. G.

  15. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  16. Overview of high gradient SRF R&D for ILC cavities at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Rongli [JLAB

    2009-11-01

    We report the progress on high gradient R&D of ILC cavities at Jefferson Lab (JLab) since the Beijing workshop. Routine 9-cell cavity electropolishing (EP) processing and RF testing has been enhanced with added surface mapping and T-mapping instrumentations. 12 new 9-cell cavities (10 of them are baseline fine-grain TESLA-shape cavities: 5 built by ACCEL/Research Instruments, 4 by AES and 1 by JLab; 2 of them are alternative cavities: 1 fine-grain ICHIRO-shape cavity built by KEK/Japan industry and 1 large-grain TESLA-shape cavity built by JLab) are EP processed and tested. 76 EP cycles are accumulated, corresponding to more than 200 hours of active EP time. Field emission (FE) and quench behaviors of electropolished 9-cell cavities are studied. EP process continues to be optimized, resulting in advanced procedures and hence improved cavity performance. Several 9-cell cavities reached 35 MV/m after the first light EP processing. FE-free performance has been demonstrated in 9-cell cavities in 35-40 MV/m range. 1-cell cavity studies explore new techniques for defect removal as well as advanced integrated cavity processing. Surface studies of niobium samples electropolished together with real cavities provide new insight into the nature of field emitters. Close cooperation with the US cavity fabrication industry has been undertaking with the successful achievement of 41 MV/m for the first time in a 9-cell ILC cavity built by AES. As the size of the data set grows, it is now possible to construct gradient yield curves, from which one can see that significant progress has been made in raising the high gradient yield.

  17. Thermal Maps of Gases in Heterogeneous Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarenwattananon, Nanette N; Otto, Trenton; Melkonian, Arek; Morris, William; Burt, Scott R; Yaghi, Omar M; Bouchard, Louis-S

    2015-01-01

    Over 85% of all chemical industry products are made using catalysts, with the overwhelming majority of these employing heterogeneous catalysts functioning at the gas-solid interface. Consequently, optimizing catalytic reactor design attracts much effort. Such optimization relies on heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling coupled to surface reaction kinetics. The complexity of these systems demands many approximations, which can only be tested with experimental observations of quantities such as temperature, pressure, concentrations, flow rates, etc. One essential measurement is a map of the spatial variation in temperature throughout the catalyst bed. We present here the first non-invasive maps of gas temperatures in catalyst-filled reactors, including high spatial resolution maps in microreactors enabled by parahydrogen. The thermal maps reveal energy flux patterns whose length scale correlates with the catalyst packing. By exploiting the motional averaging under a weak applied magnetic-field gradient, the...

  18. Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management Pu Liu, Zhenyu Qi, Hang temperature by dynamic thermal managements becomes necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach to the thermal analysis at chip architecture level for efficient dynamic thermal management. Our new approach

  19. Effect of electron-density gradients on propagation of radio waves in the mid-latitude trough. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Citrone, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Partial contents of this thesis include: (1) Radio-wave propagation and the mid-latitude trough; (2) Ionospheric measurements; (3) Modification of time-dependent ionospheric model output with latitudinal electron-density profiles from digisonde trough depictions; (4) Ray-tracing simulations to examine ground range; and (5) Effects of three-dimensional gradients in electron density on radio-wave propagation in the trough region. Data is tabulated for geophysical conditions, solar activity level, geomagnetic activity level, conditions for vertical ray refraction to surface, and ray-tracing fixed-input conditions.

  20. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  1. Gradient Plasticity Model and its Implementation into MARMOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Erin I.; Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Sun, Xin

    2013-08-01

    The influence of strain gradient on deformation behavior of nuclear structural materials, such as boby centered cubic (bcc) iron alloys has been investigated. We have developed and implemented a dislocation based strain gradient crystal plasticity material model. A mesoscale crystal plasticity model for inelastic deformation of metallic material, bcc steel, has been developed and implemented numerically. Continuum Dislocation Dynamics (CDD) with a novel constitutive law based on dislocation density evolution mechanisms was developed to investigate the deformation behaviors of single crystals, as well as polycrystalline materials by coupling CDD and crystal plasticity (CP). The dislocation density evolution law in this model is mechanism-based, with parameters measured from experiments or simulated with lower-length scale models, not an empirical law with parameters back-fitted from the flow curves.

  2. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  3. Radiography to measure the longitudinal density gradients of Pd compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, D.D.

    1992-05-14

    This study used radiography to detect and quantify density gradients in green compacts of Palladium powder. Ultrasonic velocity measurements had been tried previously, but they were affected by material properties, in addition to the density, so that an alternative was sought. The alternative technique used radiographic exposures of a series of standard compacts whose density is known and correlated with the radiographic film density. These correlations are used to predict the density in subsequent compacts.

  4. Gradient instabilities of electromagnetic waves in Hall thruster plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomilin, Dmitry

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents a linear analysis of gradient plasma instabilities in Hall thrusters. The study obtains and analyzes the dispersion equation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves based on the two-fluid model of a cold plasma. The regions of parameters corresponding to unstable high frequency modes are determined and the dependence of the increments and intrinsic frequencies on plasma parameters is obtained. The obtained results agree with those of previously published studies.

  5. Determination of dispersivities from a natural-gradient dispersion test 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Caroline Marie

    1985-01-01

    Model DESCRIPTION OF THE NATURAL-GRADIENT DISPERSION TEST. Site Geology. Methodology Summary of Results. APPLICATION OF METHODS. Ideal Pl ume Study. Characterization of the Iterative Diagrams. . . Sensitivity Analyses. Field Tracer Study... with contaminant hydrogeology. Cherry et al. (1975) defines contaminant hydrogeology as the application of hydrogeological and geochemical theory and practice to the protection of aquifers and surface waters from contamination, and to the design and monitoring...

  6. Preparation of Genomic DNA from Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes) Tissue by Cesium Chloride Gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruby, Edward G.

    by Cesium Chloride Gradient Centrifugation Patricia N. Lee1,2 , Margaret J. McFall-Ngai3 , Patrick Callaerts from adult bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) tissues by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient centrifugation

  7. Generating spatially and temporally controllable long-range concentration gradients in a microfluidic device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vidula, Mahesh K.

    Concentration gradients have important applications in chemical and biological studies. Here we have achieved rapid generation of spatially and temporally controllable concentration gradients of diffusible molecules (i.e. ...

  8. Creation of nonlinear density gradients for use in internal wave research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Victoria Siân

    2007-01-01

    A method was developed to create a nonlinear density gradient in a tank of water. Such gradients are useful for studying internal waves, an ocean phenomenon that plays an important role in climate and ocean circulation. ...

  9. An evaluation of subsea pump technologies that can be used to achieve dual gradient drilling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oluwadairo, Tolulope

    2009-05-15

    Dual Gradient Drilling is an exciting technology which promises to solve the current technical hurdles and economic risks of Deepwater Drilling. Several techniques for Dual Gradient Drilling have been proposed to the ...

  10. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  11. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  12. Thermal radiation Ron Zevenhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .00032, similarly for 2·T = 0.7·2500 = 1750 µmK4 this gives f0-2 = 0.03392. Thus for 0.4 - 0.7 µm, f1-2 = 0Thermal radiation revisited Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Process Engineering

  13. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    LASP's mechanical analysts also lead mechanical verification testing including: random vibration, forceMechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has

  14. Magnetic field gradients in solar wind plasma and geophysics periods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2006-11-16

    Using recent data obtained by Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) the pumping scale of the magnetic field gradients of the solar wind plasma has been calculated. This pumping scale is found to be equal to 24h $\\pm$ 2h. The ACE spacecraft orbits at the L1 libration point which is a point of Earth-Sun gravitational equilibrium about 1.5 million km from Earth. Since the Earth's magnetosphere extends into the vacuum of space from approximately 80 to 60,000 kilometers on the side toward the Sun the pumping scale cannot be a consequence of the 24h-period of the Earth's rotation. Vise versa, a speculation is suggested that for the very long time of the coexistence of Earth and of the solar wind the weak interaction between the solar wind and Earth could lead to stochastic synchronization between the Earth's rotation and the pumping scale of the solar wind magnetic field gradients. This synchronization could transform an original period of the Earth's rotation to the period close to the pumping scale of the solar wind magnetic field gradients.

  15. Atmospheric gradients and the stability of expanding jets. [Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardee, P.E.; Koupelis, T.; Norman, M.L.; Clarke, D.A. Illinois, University, Urbana )

    1991-05-01

    Numerical simulations of adiabatically expanding slab jets in initial static pressure balance with an external atmosphere have been performed and compared to predictions made by a linear analysis of the stability of expanding jets. It is found that jets are stabilized by jet expansion as predicted by the linear analysis. It is also found that an expanding jet can be destabilized by a positive temperature gradient or temperature jump in the surrounding medium which lowers the Mach number defined by the external sound speed. A temperature gradient or jump is more destabilizing than would be predicted by a linear stability analysis. The enhanced instability compared to an isothermal atmosphere with identical pressure gradient is a result of the reduced external Mach number and a result of a higher jet density relative to the density in the external medium and higher ram speed. Other differences between predictions made by the linear theory and the simulations can be understood qualitatively as a result of a change in wave speed as the wave amplitude increases. 12 refs.

  16. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  17. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  18. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. Transcriptomic profiling of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, across environmental gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konotchick, Talina Helen

    2012-01-01

    gradients can influence morphology indicating that the nitrate climate can affect change in the regulatory mechanisms and metabolism

  20. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  1. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  2. A fourth-order nonlinear PDE as gradient flow of the Fisher information in Wasserstein spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savaré, Giuseppe

    A fourth-order nonlinear PDE as gradient flow of the Fisher information in Wasserstein spaces://www.imati.cnr.it/savare A-HYKE2, april 2004 ­ p.1 #12;Plan 1. The fourth order equation and its structure 2. Gradient flows. The fourth order equation and its structure 2. Gradient flows and Wasserstein distance 3. Main results

  3. Eddy currents in a gradient coil, modelled as circular loops of strips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Eddy currents in a gradient coil, modelled as circular loops of strips J.M.B. Kroot, S.J.L. van. Due to induction eddy currents occur which lead to the so-called edge-effect. The edge- effect depends the gradient coils themselves. Eddy currents occur, causing perturbations on the expected gradient field

  4. Enhancement of charged macromolecule capture by nanopores in a salt gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Alex J.

    Enhancement of charged macromolecule capture by nanopores in a salt gradient Tom Choua Department. However, recent experiments have shown that salt concentration gradients applied across nanopores can also length, we obtain accurate analytic expressions showing how salt gradients control the local conductivity

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies of oxygen gradients in rat pial microvessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    no substantial impact on the transmural PO2 gradient. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2008) 28, 1597Experimental and theoretical studies of oxygen gradients in rat pial microvessels Maithili Sharan1 near cortical arterioles and transmural PO2 gradients in the pial arterioles of the rat. Under control

  6. On the Relation Between Steep Monoclinal Flexure Zones and Steep Hydraulic Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    On the Relation Between Steep Monoclinal Flexure Zones and Steep Hydraulic Gradients by Y. Yechieli1, U. Kafri2, S. Wollman2, V. Lyakhovsky2, and R. Weinberger2 Abstract Steep hydraulic gradients of the hydraulic conductivity, which is responsible for the steep gradients, has seldom been studied. We present

  7. General Method for Forming Micrometer-Scale Lateral Chemical Gradients in Polymer Brushes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    ABSTRACT: We report a general diffusion based method to form micrometer-scale lateral chemical gradientsGeneral Method for Forming Micrometer-Scale Lateral Chemical Gradients in Polymer Brushes Hyung chemical potential gradients with a diversity of shapes. INTRODUCTION Surfaces presenting chemical

  8. Validation of electron temperature gradient turbulence in the Columbia Linear Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhihong

    Validation of electron temperature gradient turbulence in the Columbia Linear Machine X. R. Fu,1 W hydrogen plasma of the Columbia Linear Machine. Electron temperature profiles with strong gradients; published online 6 March 2012) The electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode, which is a universal mechanism

  9. Semi-flexible bimetal-based thermal energy harvesters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisseau, S; Monfray, S; Puscasu, O; Skotnicki, T; 10.1088/0964-1726/22/2/025021

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new semi-flexible device able to turn thermal gradients into electricity by using a curved bimetal coupled to an electret-based converter. In fact, a two-steps conversion is carried out: (i) a curved bimetal turns the thermal gradient into a mechanical oscillation that is then (ii) converted into electricity thanks to an electrostatic converter using electrets in Teflon (r). The semi-flexible and low cost design of these new energy converters pave the way to mass production over large areas of thermal energy harvesters. Raw output powers up to 13.46uW per device were reached on a hot source at 60{\\deg}C and forced convection. Then, a DC-to-DC flyback converter has been sized to turn the energy harvesters' raw output powers into a viable supply source for an electronic circuit (DC-3V). At the end, 10uW of directly usable output power were reached with 3 devices, which is compatible with Wireless Sensor Networks powering applications. Please cite as : S Boisseau et al 2013 Smart Mater. S...

  10. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  11. Thermal Decomposition of Natural Fibers: Global Kinetic Modeling with Nonisothermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with consideration of fiber as one pseudocomponent. Ma´lek method with activation energy values previously obtainedThermal Decomposition of Natural Fibers: Global Kinetic Modeling with Nonisothermal.interscience.wiley.com). ABSTRACT: The modeling of thermal decomposition process of ten natural fibers commonly used in polymer

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling of Thermal-Assisted Dislocation Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling of Thermal-Assisted Dislocation Friction Y. Liao · L. D. Marks Received: 25 decades of research has shown that for bulk crys- talline materials the fundamental unit of plasticity of misfit dislocations to include the effect of thermally activated transitions across barriers. We obtain

  13. High Thermal Conductivity Cryogenic RF Feedthroughs for Higher Order Mode Couplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Reece; Edward Daly; Thomas Elliott; H. Phillips; Joseph Ozelis; Timothy Rothgeb; Katherine Wilson; Genfa Wu

    2005-05-01

    The use of higher-order-mode (HOM) pickup probes in the presence of significant fundamental RF fields can present a thermal challenge for CW or high average power SRF cavity applications. The electric field probes on the HOM-damping couplers on the JLab ''High Gradient'' (HG) and ''Low Loss'' (LL) seven-cell cavities for the CEBAF upgrade are exposed to approximately 10% of the peak magnetic field in the cavity. To avoid significant dissipative losses, these probes must remain superconducting during operation. Typical cryogenic rf feedthroughs provide a poor thermal conduction path for the probes and provide inadequate stabilization. We have developed solutions that meet the requirements, providing a direct thermal path from the niobium probe, thorough single-crystal sapphire, to bulk copper which can be thermally anchored. Designs, electromagnetic and thermal analyses, and performance data will be presented.

  14. Thermal Giant Gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A; Orselli, Marta; Pedersen, Andreas Vigand

    2012-01-01

    We study the giant graviton solution as the AdS_5 X S^5 background is heated up to finite temperature. The analysis employs the thermal brane probe technique based on the blackfold approach. We focus mainly on the thermal giant graviton corresponding to a thermal D3-brane probe wrapped on an S^3 moving on the S^5 of the background at finite temperature. We find several interesting new effects, including that the thermal giant graviton has a minimal possible value for the angular momentum and correspondingly also a minimal possible radius of the S^3. We compute the free energy of the thermal giant graviton in the low temperature regime, which potentially could be compared to that of a thermal state on the gauge theory side. Moreover, we analyze the space of solutions and stability of the thermal giant graviton and find that, in parallel with the extremal case, there are two available solutions for a given temperature and angular momentum, one stable and one unstable. In order to write down the equations of mot...

  15. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  16. A New Electrochemical Gradient Generator in Thylakoid Membranes of Green Fabrice Rappaport, Giovanni Finazzi, Yves Pierre,| and Pierre Bennoun*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A New Electrochemical Gradient Generator in Thylakoid Membranes of Green Algae Fabrice Rappaport generator present in the thylakoid membranes. We have studied the permanent electrochemical gradient (µ~)1

  17. Wavelength Invariant Bi/In Thermal Resist As A Si Anisotropic Etch Masking Layer And Direct Write Photomask Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    . Thermal modeling has confirmed the exposure time/optical energy requirements for Bi/In. Exposed these problems: an inorganic based resist activated by optically driven thermal processes, i.e. a thermal resistWavelength Invariant Bi/In Thermal Resist As A Si Anisotropic Etch Masking Layer And Direct Write

  18. The design, construction, and testing of a nuclear fuel rod thermal simulation system to study gallium/Zircaloy interactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Christopher Curtis

    1999-01-01

    The presence of gallium in weapons grade plutonium has raised many questions concerning its use in light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods. The biggest concern is that the gallium will migrate down the thermal gradient in the fuel rod and deposit...

  19. Scrape-off Layer Flows With Pressure Gradient Scale Length ~ {rho}{sub p}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2013-03-08

    A heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width balances magnetic drifts against parallel loss at c{sub s} /2, resulting in a SOL width ~ {rho}{sub p}. T{sub sep} is calculated from Spitzer–Härm parallel thermal conduction. This results in a prediction for the power scrape-off width in quantitative agreement both in magnitude and scaling with recent experimental data. To achieve the ~ c{sub s} /2 flow assumed in this model and measured experimentally sets requirements on the ratio of upstream to total SOL particle sources, relative to the square-root of the ratio of target to upstream temperature. The Pfisch-Schlüter model for equilibrium flows has been modified to allow near-sonic flows, appropriate for gradient scale lengths of order {rho}{sub p}, resulting in a new quadrupole radial flow pattern. The strong parallel flows and plasma charging implied by this model suggest a mechanism for H-mode transition, consistent with many observations

  20. Thermally Polymerized Rylene Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    Rylene dyes functionalized with varying numbers of phenyl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) moieties were subjected to a thermal emulsion polymerization to yield shape-persistent, water-soluble chromophore nanoparticles. Perylene ...

  1. Thermal Insulation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  2. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  3. Multi-Scale Gradient Expansion of the Turbulent Stress Tensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory L. Eyink

    2005-12-10

    We develop an expansion of the turbulent stress tensor into a double series of contributions from different scales of motion and different orders of space-derivatives of velocity, a Multi-Scale Gradient (MSG) expansion. The expansion is proved to converge to the exact stress, as a consequence of the locality of cascade both in scale and in space. Simple estimates show, however, that the convergence rate may be slow for the expansion in spatial gradients of very small scales. Therefore, we develop an approximate expansion, based upon an assumption that similar or `coherent' contributions to turbulent stress are obtained from disjoint subgrid regions. This Coherent-Subregions Approximation (CSA) yields an MSG expansion that can be proved to converge rapidly at all scales and is hopefully still reasonably accurate. As an application, we consider the cascades of energy and helicity in three-dimensional turbulence. To first order in velocity-gradients, the stress has three contributions: a tensile stress along principal directions of strain, a contractile stress along vortex lines, and a shear stress proportional to `skew-strain.' While vortex-stretching plays the major role in energy cascade, there is a second, less scale-local contribution from `skew-strain'. For helicity cascade the situation is reversed, and it arises scale-locally from `skew-strain' while the stress along vortex-lines gives a secondary, less scale-local contribution. These conclusions are illustrated with simple exact solutions of 3D Euler equations. In the first, energy cascade occurs by Taylor's mechanism of stretching and spin-up of small-scale vortices due to large-scale strain. In the second, helicity cascade occurs by `twisting' of small-scale vortex filaments due to a large-scale screw.

  4. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  5. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-Guo Dong

    2015-07-07

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at different resonance energy given by the WKB method is shown that indicates the thermal resonance fusion mode, especially combined with the tunnel effect, is possible and feasible. But the penetrating probability decreases very sharply when the input resonance energy decreases less than 3 keV, so for thermal resonance fusion, the key point is to increase the resonance peak or make the resonance sharp enough to the acceptable energy level by the suitable compound catalysts, and it is better to reach up more than 3 keV to make the penetrating probability larger than 10^{-10}.

  6. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

    2014-04-29

    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  7. Electron geodesic acoustic modes in electron temperature gradient mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Johan; Nordman, Hans [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Singh, Raghvendra; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, the first demonstration of an electron branch of the geodesic acoustic mode (el-GAM) driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes is presented. The work is based on a fluid description of the ETG mode retaining non-adiabatic ions and the dispersion relation for el-GAMs driven nonlinearly by ETG modes is derived. A new saturation mechanism for ETG turbulence through the interaction with el-GAMs is found, resulting in a significantly enhanced ETG turbulence saturation level compared to the mixing length estimate.

  8. Conjugate gradient solvers on Intel Xeon Phi and NVIDIA GPUs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Kaczmarek; C. Schmidt; P. Steinbrecher; M. Wagner

    2014-11-17

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics simulations typically spend most of the runtime in inversions of the Fermion Matrix. This part is therefore frequently optimized for various HPC architectures. Here we compare the performance of the Intel Xeon Phi to current Kepler-based NVIDIA Tesla GPUs running a conjugate gradient solver. By exposing more parallelism to the accelerator through inverting multiple vectors at the same time, we obtain a performance greater than 300 GFlop/s on both architectures. This more than doubles the performance of the inversions. We also give a short overview of the Knights Corner architecture, discuss some details of the implementation and the effort required to obtain the achieved performance.

  9. High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e/sup +//e/sup -/ super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%.

  10. Thermal metastabilities in the solar core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attila Grandpierre; Gabor Agoston

    2002-01-18

    Linear stability analysis indicates that solar core is thermally stable for infinitesimal internal perturbations. For the first time, thermal metastabilities are found in the solar core when outer perturbations with significant amplitude are present. The obtained results show that hot bubbles generated by outer perturbations may travel a significant distance in the body of the Sun. These deep-origin hot bubbles have mass, energy, and chemical composition that may be related to solar flares. The results obtained may have remarkable relations to activity cycles in planets like Jupiter and also in extrasolar planetary systems.

  11. LiH thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, M.; Morris, D.G.

    1994-06-28

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures. 5 figures.

  12. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at dif...

  13. Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress Anthony J. Bellantuono1 thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant) maintained

  14. gradient, df/dz, across the condensate. Such a gradient may be imprinted by a condensate velocity, because df=dz mv=h, where

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganichev, Sergey

    gradient, df/dz, across the condensate. Such a gradient may be imprinted by a condensate velocity,13 , which accounts for far fewer atoms than the number contained in the initial repulsive condensate. Apparently, most of the atoms from the collapsing condensate are lost, while only a small fraction remain

  15. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

  16. Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

  17. Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

  18. Low thermal distortion Extreme-UV lithography reticle and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

  19. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  20. A linear helicon plasma device with controllable magnetic field gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barada, Kshitish K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Saxena, Y. C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-06-15

    Current free double layers (CFDLs) are localized potential structures having spatial dimensions - Debye lengths and potential drops of more than local electron temperature across them. CFDLs do not need a current for them to be sustained and hence they differ from the current driven double layers. Helicon antenna produced plasmas in an expanded chamber along with an expanding magnetic field have shown the existence of CFDL near the expansion region. A helicon plasma device has been designed, fabricated, and installed in the Institute for Plasma Research, India to study the role of maximum magnetic field gradient as well as its location with respect to the geometrical expansion region of the chamber in CFDL formation. The special feature of this machine consisting of two chambers of different radii is its capability of producing different magnetic field gradients near the physical boundary between the two chambers either by changing current in one particular coil in the direction opposite to that in other coils and/or by varying the position of this particular coil. Although, the machine is primarily designed for CFDL experiments, it is also capable of carrying out many basic plasma physics experiments such as wave propagation, wave coupling, and plasma instabilities in a varying magnetic field topology. In this paper, we will present the details of the machine construction, its specialties, and some preliminary results about the production and characterization of helicon plasma in this machine.

  1. Convergence in gradient systems with branching of equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galaktionov, V A [University of Bath (United Kingdom); Pohozaev, Stanislav I [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Shishkov, A E [Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2007-06-30

    The basic model is a semilinear elliptic equation with coercive C{sup 1} non-linearity: {delta}{psi}+f({psi})=0 in {omega}, {psi}=0 on {partial_derivative}{omega}, where {omega} subset of R{sup N} is a bounded smooth domain. The main hypothesis (H{sub R}) about resonance branching is as follows: if a branching of equilibria occurs at a point {psi} with k-dimensional kernel of the linearized operator {delta}+f'({psi})I, then the branching subset S{sub k} at {psi} is a locally smooth k-dimensional manifold. For N=1 the first result on the stabilization to a single equilibrium is due to Zelenyak (1968). It is shown that Zelenyak's approach, which is based on the analysis of Lyapunov functions, can be extended to general gradient systems in Hilbert spaces with smooth resonance branching. The case of asymptotically small non-autonomous perturbations of such systems is also considered. The approach developed here represents an alternative to Hale's stabilization method (1992) and other similar techniques in the theory of gradient systems. Bibliography: 32 titles.

  2. Circumstellar Disks revealed by $H$/$K$ Flux Variation Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuñez, F Pozo; Chini, R; Ramolla, M; Hodapp, K -W

    2015-01-01

    The variability of young stellar objects (YSO) changes their brightness and color preventing a proper classification in traditional color-color and color magnitude diagrams. We have explored the feasibility of the flux variation gradient (FVG) method for YSOs, using $H$ and $K$ band monitoring data of the star forming region RCW\\,38 obtained at the University Observatory Bochum in Chile. Simultaneous multi-epoch flux measurements follow a linear relation $F_{H}=\\alpha + \\beta \\cdot F_{K}$ for almost all YSOs with large variability amplitude. The slope $\\beta$ gives the mean $HK$ color temperature $T_{var}$ of the varying component. Because $T_{var}$ is hotter than the dust sublimation temperature, we have tentatively assigned it to stellar variations. If the gradient does not meet the origin of the flux-flux diagram, an additional non- or less-varying component may be required. If the variability amplitude is larger at the shorter wavelength, e.g. $\\alpha 0$, the component is hotter like a scattering halo or...

  3. Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko Laboratory of Environmental Research, University of Nova-beam Instruments 5 3.3 Differential Thermal Lens Instruments 7 3.4 Multiwavelength and Tunable Thermal Lens Spectrometers 8 3.5 Circular Dichroism TLS Instruments 9 3.6 Miniaturization of Thermal Lens Instruments 9 4

  4. Skin Thermal Injury Prediction with Strain Energy Wensheng Shen y and Jun Zhang z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    Skin Thermal Injury Prediction with Strain Energy #3; Wensheng Shen y and Jun Zhang z Laboratory, in which the activation energy includes chemical reaction only, strain energy of tissue due to thermal-dimensional model is presented for the quantitative prediction of skin injury re- sulting from certain thermal

  5. APS/123-QED Self-Organisation of magnetoacoustic waves in a thermally unstable environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verwichte, Erwin

    APS/123-QED Self-Organisation of magnetoacoustic waves in a thermally unstable environment Robert and quadratic heating-cooling terms, which determine the thermal activity of the plasma. It is shown that self leads to a thermal instability [3]. This instability has been extensively studied in various contexts

  6. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  7. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  8. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  9. Compressed ion temperature gradient turbulence in diverted tokamak edgea...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhihong

    and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA 4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 the thermal transport and the temperature profile saturate quickly, the E B rotation shows a longer time

  10. Thermal noise driven computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laszlo B. Kish

    2006-10-28

    The possibility of a new type of computing, where thermal noise is the information carrier and the clock in a computer, is studied. The information channel capacity and the lower limit of energy requirement/dissipation are studied in a simple digital system with zero threshold voltage, for the case of error probability close to 0.5, when the thermal noise is equal to or greater than the digital signal. In a simple hypothetical realization of a thermal noise driven gate, the lower limit of energy needed to generate the digital signal is 1.1*kT/bit. The arrangement has potentially improved energy efficiency and it is free of leakage current, crosstalk and ground plane electromagnetic interference problems. Disadvantage is the large number of redundancy elements needed for low-error operation.

  11. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  12. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  13. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  14. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  15. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  16. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  17. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01

    VITA 36 37 40 40 40 40 44 45 47 48 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Unit cell for derivation of model Page Heat Conduction Solution 22 3 Fission Gas Release Model 26 4A Metal Matrix Thermal Conductivity 4B Ceramic Fuel Thermal Conductivity 5... is based on the simple heat conduction equation. It is assumed that there is a uniform distribution of fuel particles in a regular array. A unit cell consists of a cube of matrix material of side length L, containing a spherical fuel particle of radius, r...

  18. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  19. Improved gradient flow for step scaling function and scale setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Hasenfratz

    2015-01-30

    The gradient flow renormalized coupling offers a simple and relatively inexpensive way to calculate the step scaling function and the lattice scale, but both applications can be hindered by large lattice artifacts. Recently we introduced an empirical non-perturbative improvement that can reduce, even remove $\\mathcal{O}(a^2)$ lattice artifacts. The method is easy to implement and can be applied to any lattice gauge theory of interest both in step scaling studies and for scale setting. In this talk I will briefly review this improvement method and discuss its application for determining the discrete $\\beta$ function of the 8 and 12 flavor SU(3) systems and for improved scale setting in 2+1+1 flavor QCD

  20. Renormalization of the Polyakov loop with gradient flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Petreczky; H. -P. Schadler

    2015-11-24

    We use the gradient flow for the renormalization of the Polyakov loop in various representations. Using 2+1 flavor QCD with highly improved staggered quarks and lattices with temporal extents of $N_\\tau=6$, $8$, $10$ and $12$ we calculate the renormalized Polyakov loop in many representations including fundamental, sextet, adjoint, decuplet, 15-plet, 24-plet and 27-plet. This approach allows for the calculations of the renormalized Polyakov loops over a large temperature range from $T=116$ MeV up to $T=815$ MeV, with small errors not only for the Polyakov loop in fundamental representation, but also for the Polyakov loops in higher representations. We compare our results with standard renormalization schemes and discuss the Casimir scaling of the Polyakov loops.