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1

Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Maui Area (DOE GTP)...

2

Active metasomatism in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system, Baja California, Mexico: a telescoped low pressure/temperature metamorphic facies series  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, carbonate-cemented, quartzofeldspathic sediments of the Colorado River delta are being actively metasomatized into calc-silicate metamorphic rocks by reaction with alkali chloride brines between 200/sup 0/ and 370/sup 0/C, low fluid and lithostatic pressures, and low oxygen fugacities. Petrologic investigations of drill cores and cutting from over 50 wells in this field identified a prograde series of calc-silicate mineral zones which include as index minerals: wairakite, epidote, prehnite, and clinopyroxene. Associated divariant mineral assemblages are indicative of a very low pressure/temperature metamorphic facies series which encompasses the clay-carbonate, zeolite, greenschist, and amphibolite facies. This hydrothermal metamorphic facies series, which is becoming increasingly recognized in other active geothermal systems, is characterized by temperature-telescoped dehydration and decarbonation mineral equilibria. Its equivalent should now be sought in fossil hydrothermal systems.

Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.; Bird, D.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Pressure Temperature Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Pressure Temperature Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Pressure Temperature Log Details Activities (13) Areas (13) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Perturbations in temperature or pressure can be indicative of faults or other structural features Hydrological: fluid cirulation, over-pressured zones, and under-pressured zones. Thermal: Temperature profile with depth Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 0.6060 centUSD 6.0e-4 kUSD

4

PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

Michael A. Romano

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Pressure Temperature Log At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Flint Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown...

6

Pressure Temperature Log At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

7

Pressure Temperature Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

8

Pressure Temperature Log At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Alum Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

9

Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

10

Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

11

REALIZING PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND LENGTH ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The basic concept behind the proposed apparatus is illustrated in ... at room temperature, requiring realization of thermodynamic temperature near 23 ...

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

12

Carbon Nanotubes Make Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure ...  

ORNL 2010-G00384/jcn UT-B ID 200702020 Carbon Nanotubes Make Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure Sensors Possible Technology Summary Carbon nanotubes ...

13

Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Hydrogen at high pressure and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures is challenging scientifically and has many real and potential applications. Minimum metallic conductivity of fluid hydrogen is observed at 140 GPa and 2600 K, based on electrical conductivity measurements to 180 GPa (1.8 Mbar), tenfold compression, and 3000 K obtained dynamically with a two-stage light-gas gun. Conditions up to 300 GPa, sixfold compression, and 30,000 K have been achieved in laser-driven Hugoniot experiments. Implications of these results for the interior of Jupiter, inertial confinement fusion, and possible uses of metastable solid hydrogen, if the metallic fluid could be quenched from high pressure, are discussed.

Nellis, W J

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

Precision pressure/temperature logging tool  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References (1 January 2011) GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Pressure_Temperature_Log_At_Silver_Peak_Area_(DOE_GTP)&oldid=511053" Categories: Exploration Activities

17

Dynamic Response of CTD Pressure Sensors to Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure sensors used in CTDs (conductivity temperature depth) respond to transients in temperature. It is often assumed that these transients have a negligible effect on pressure. However, in a Sea-Bird CTD used in Hawaiian waters, these ...

S. M. Chiswell

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Mccoy Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References (1 January 2011) GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Pressure_Temperature_Log_At_Mccoy_Geothermal_Area_(DOE_GTP)&oldid=511052" Categories: Exploration Activities DOE Funded Activities ARRA Funded Activities What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

19

High temperature vapor pressure and the critical point of potassium  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure of potassium was experimentally determined from 2100 deg F up to-its critical temperature. An empirical equation of the form ln P = A + B/T + C ln T + DT/sup 1.5/ was found to best fit the data. A critical pressure of 2378.2 plus or minus 4.0 psia (161.79 plus or minus 0.27 ata) was measured. The corresponding critical temperature, extrapolated from the pressure-- temperature curve, is 4105.4 plus or minus 5 deg R (2280.8 plus or minus 3 deg K). The technique employed was tae pressure tube method developed earlier in this laboratory and used for determining the vapor pressure of rubidium and cesium. This method measures tae critical pressure directly, as well as the vapor pressure st lower temperatures. (4 tables, 6 figures, 26 references) (auth)

Jerez, W.R.; Bhise, V.S.; Das Gupta, S.; Bonilla, C.F.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Corrections to Bottom Pressure Records for Dynamic Temperature Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Factory calibration of Digiquartz transducers allows for static temperature corrections, assuming that the temperature changes slowly enough during deployment that the gauge is always in thermal equilibrium. Deep ocean bottom pressure recorders ...

Edward F. Boss; Frank I. Gonzlez

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Absolute permeability as a function of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature  

SciTech Connect

This work is an investigation of the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand and consolidated sandstone cores to distilled water as a function of the temperature of the system, confining pressure on the core and the pore pressure of the flowing liquid. The results of this study indicate that temperatures is not an important variable that needs to be reproduced in the laboratory. Confining pressure and pore pressure affect permeability in a predictable manner. This allows measurements at a lower pressure level to be extrapolated to higher pressure conditions. 21 refs.

Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Temperature impacts on the set pressure of soft seated pressure relief valves  

SciTech Connect

From a safety standpoint, regardless of plant or facility type, the most important pieces of equipment are the pressure relief devices. The most critical characteristics of a pressure relief device are its set pressure and the related relieving capacity. The Set Pressure of a pressure relief device is defined as that value of increasing inlet static pressure at which the discharge becomes continuous (ASME PTC 25-1994, Performance Test Codes). To preclude an unsafe overpressure situation, the set pressure of the pressure relief device must not exceed the maximum allowable working pressure of the equipment or system being protected. Because of testing facility limitations, size or pressure, pressure relief valves intended for elevated temperature service are often set using ambient temperature air. Adjustments are made to the ambient valve opening pressures to compensate for the temperature differences. The extent of the adjustments to the pressure relief valve set pressure is important to ensure the valve will provide the required overpressure protection at the elevated in-service temperature.

Engel, J.J.; Zirps, G.T.; Gleason, R.B. [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure in a class of crystalline materials having anisotropic thermal coefficients and having a coefficient of linear compression along the crystalline c-axis substantially the same as those perpendicular thereto. Temperature is determined by monitoring the fluorescence half life of a probe of such crystalline material, e.g., ruby. Pressure is determined by monitoring at least one other fluorescent property of the probe that depends on pressure and/or temperature, e.g., absolute fluorescent intensity or frequency shifts of fluorescent emission lines.

Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Haugen, Gilbert R. (Pleasanton, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

High pressure-high temperature effect on the HTSC ceramics structure and properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: high pressures-high temperatures, high temperature superconductors, mechanical properties, structure, superconductive

T. A. Prikhna

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Realistic Uncertainties in Pressure and Temperature Calibration Reference Values  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field instruments require calibration against standards that introduce-insignificant errors of their own in the process. This paper discusses a pressure and temperature calibration facility, analyzes the error levels attained in its routine use ...

Julian M. Pike

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

28

LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

29

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Zonal Isolation Project Description For Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation tools capable of withstanding the downhole environment are needed. In these wells the packers must withstand differential pressures of 5,000 psi at more than 300°C, as well as pressures up to 20,000 psi at 200°C to 250°C. Furthermore, when deployed these packers and zonal isolation tools must form a reliable seal that eliminates fluid loss and mitigates short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers. At this time, general purpose open-hole packers do not exist for use in geothermal environments, with the primary technical limitation being the poor stability of existing elastomeric seals at high temperatures.

30

Dual pressure-dual temperature isotope exchange process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid and a gas stream, each containing a desired isotope, flow countercurrently through two liquid-gas contacting towers maintained at different temperatures and pressures. The liquid is enriched in the isotope in one tower while the gas is enriched within the other and a portion of at least one of the enriched streams is withdrawn from the system for use or further enrichment. The tower operated at the lower temperature is also maintained at the lower pressure to prevent formation of solid solvates. Gas flow between the towers passes through an expander-compressor apparatas to recover work from the expansion of gas to the lower pressure and thereby compress the gas returning to the tower of higher pressure. (Official Gazette)

Babcock, D.F.

1974-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

31

Pressure Temperature Log At Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location Vale Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Numerous temperature logs were taken with Sandia's platinum-resistance-thermometer (PRT) tool which along with a Sandia logging truck remained on-site for the entire project. Static temperature logs (no flow in hole) were done with this tool when coring operations were suspended for bit trips, rig maintenance, or other time intervals that would permit the hole to warm up near its static temperature K580gradient.

32

Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

Ritsche, MT

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

33

Pressure Temperature Log At Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location Steamboat Springs Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Downhole data during production and injection tests were acquired using pressure/temperature/spinner (PTS) tools from two dtierent service companies. Although details differed, all the commercial downhole instruments were designed to take data and to transmit that data uphole in real time, using a singleconductor wireline. All the instruments (each company used more than one) employed a dewar, or thermal flasIq to protect

34

THE USE OF MODERATELY HIGH PRESSURES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

The application of moderately high pressures to work at low temperatures is described. The problems involved in the merging of these two disciplines are discussed as they relate to laboratory research as well as to large scale nuclear rocket testing facility usage. The equipment used to determine some physical properties of liquid cryogens up to 50000 lb/in./sup 2/ are also described. The methods of obtaining and applying the low temperature to the high pressure volume will be mentioned. The use of a reciprocating piston pump to pump cryogenic liquids to high pressures is described. Consideration is also given to the problems of cryogenic seals for large size vacuum jacketed cryogenic piping. Safety requirements are also mentioned. (P.C.H.)

Edeskuty, F.J.; Mills, R.L.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

1. Introduction The equilibrium temperature and pressure of a gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a storage tank of known, and essentially fixed, volume can be used to calculate consumption. Equations1. Introduction The equilibrium temperature and pressure of a gas before and after usage within of state for calculating the thermodynamic properties generally provide the pres- sure as a function

Magee, Joseph W.

36

Mesoscale Surface Pressure and Temperature Features Associated with Bow Echoes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines observed mesoscale surface pressure, temperature, and wind features of bow echoes. Bow-echo events in the area of the Oklahoma Mesonet are selected for study to take advantage of high-resolution surface data. Thirty-six cases ...

Rebecca D. Adams-Selin; Richard H. Johnson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

NUCLEAR RESONANT SCATTERING AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUCLEAR RESONANT SCATTERING AT HIGH PRESSURE AND HIGH TEMPERATURE JIYONG ZHAOa,? , WOLFGANG, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA We introduce the combination of nuclear resonant inelastic X the thermal radiation spectra fitted to the Planck radiation function up to 1700 K. Nuclear resonant

Shen, Guoyin

38

Absolute permeability as a function of confining pressure, pore pressure, and temperature  

SciTech Connect

This is an investigation of the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand and consolidated sandstone cores to distilled water as a function of the temperature of the system, confining pressure on the core, and the pore pressure of the flowing fluid. The effects of flow rate and throughput are also discussed. In contrast to some previous investigations, no effect of temperature on permeability was found beyond experimental errors and effects caused by volumetric throughput. The probable causes of differing results in previous studies are also presented.

Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425[degrees]C and a cold-side temperature of 25[degrees]C could be varied between 17.6 W/m[sup 2] and 7,000 W/m[sup 2]. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50[degrees]C to 250[degrees]C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425{degrees}C and a cold-side temperature of 25{degrees}C could be varied between 17.6 W/m{sup 2} and 7,000 W/m{sup 2}. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Pressure testing of a high temperature naturally fractured reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted a number of pumping and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. These tests consisted of injecting fresh water at controlled rates up to 12 BPM (32 l/s) and surface pressures up to 7000 psi (48 MPa) into the HDR formation at depths from 10,000 to 13,180 feet (3050 to 4000 m). The formation is a naturally fractured granite at temperatures of about 250/sup 0/C. The matrix porosity is <1% and permeability is on the order of 1 nD. Hence most of the injected fluid is believed to move through fractures. There has been no evidence of fracture breakdown phenomena, and hence it is believed that preexisting joints in the formation are opened by fluid injection. Water losses during pumping are significant, most likely resulting from flow into secondary fractures intersecting the main fluid conducting paths. The pressure-time response observed in these tests can be interpreted in terms of non-isothermal, fracture-dominated flow. As the fluid pressure increases from small values to those comparable to fracturing pressures, the formation response changes from linear fracture flow to the highly nonlinear situation where fracture lift-off occurs. A numerical heat and mass flow model was used to match the observed pressure response. Good matches were obtained for pressure buildup and shut-in data by assigning pressure dependent fracture and leak-off permeabilities. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Kelkar, S.M.; Zyvoloski, G.A.; Dash, Z.V.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Finkenthal, D.F. [Palomar Coll. (United States); Naumenko, N. [Inst. for Atomic and Molecular Physics (Japan); Tugarinov, S. [TRINITI (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

The dissociation of liquid silica at high pressure and temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid silica at high pressure and temperature is shown to undergo significant structural modifications and profound changes in its electronic properties. Temperature measurements on shock waves in silica at 70-1000 GPa indicate that the specific heat of liquid SiO{sub 2} rises well above the Dulong-Petit limit, exhibiting a broad peak with temperature that is attributable to the growing structural disorder caused by bond-breaking in the melt. The simultaneous sharp rise in optical reflectivity of liquid SiO{sub 2} indicates that dissociation causes the electrical and therefore thermal conductivities of silica to attain metallic-like values of 1-5 x 10{sup 5} S/m and 24-600 W/m.K respectively.

Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Eggert, J; Miller, J; Celliers, P; Collins, G

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

44

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas viscosity is one of the gas properties that is vital to petroleum engineering. Its role in the oil and gas production and transportation is indicated by its contribution in the resistance to the flow of a fluid both in porous media and pipes. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly, very few investigations were performed on viscosity of naturally occurring gases, especially gas condensates at low-intermediate pressure and temperature, even fewer lab data were published. No gas viscosity data at high pressures and high temperatures (HPHT) is available. Therefore this gap in the oil industry still needs to be filled. Gas viscosity at HPHT becomes crucial to modern oil industry as exploration and production move to deep formation or deep water where HPHT is not uncommon. Therefore, any hydrocarbon encountered there is more gas than oil due to the chemical reaction causing oil to transfer to gas as temperature increases. We need gas viscosity to optimize production rate for production system, estimate reserves, model gas injection, design drilling fluid, and monitor gas movement in well control. Current gas viscosity correlations are derived using measured data at low-moderate pressures and temperatures, and then extrapolated to HPHT. No measured gas viscosities at HPHT are available so far. The validities of these correlations for gas viscosity at HPHT are doubted due to lack of experimental data. In this study, four types of viscometers are evaluated and their advantages and disadvantages are listed. The falling body viscometer is used to measure gas viscosity at a pressure range of 3000 to 25000 psi and a temperature range of 100 to 415 oF. Nitrogen viscosity is measured to take into account of the fact that the concentration of nonhydrocarbons increase drastically in HPHT reservoir. More nitrogen is found as we move to HPHT reservoirs. High concentration nitrogen in natural gas affects not only the heat value of natural gas, but also gas viscosity which is critical to petroleum engineering. Nitrogen is also one of common inject gases in gas injection projects, thus an accurate estimation of its viscosity is vital to analyze reservoir performance. Then methane viscosity is measured to honor that hydrocarbon in HPHT which is almost pure methane. From our experiments, we found that while the Lee-Gonzalez-Eakin correlation estimates gas viscosity at a low-moderate pressure and temperature accurately, it cannot give good match of gas viscosity at HPHT. Apparently, current correlations need to be modified to predict gas viscosity at HPHT. New correlations constructed for HPHT conditions based on our experiment data give more confidence on gas viscosity.

Ling, Kegang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE DIFFUSION BONDING OF TUNGSTEN TO TUNGSTEN UNDER PRESSURE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid-state diffusion bonding of tungsten to tungsten was investigated at temperatures ranging from 1700 to 2600 nif- C, under surface contact pressures up to 3000 psi, while under high vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere. Various interface coatings were employed to promote diffusion, including graphite, oxide, metal slurries, electroplates, direct surface oxidation, and Mo - -W deposits from carbonyl decompositions. Thorough metallurgical bonding was achieved, particularly with the latter two surface coatings, after 2 hours at 2350 nif- C in H/sub 2/ under 1400 psi. Corresponding tensile strengths of 30,000 psi were obtained. Powder-compacted tungsten sheet containing 50 vo1% UO/sub 2/, spray-coated with an outer layer of tungsten, was effectively bonded to itself and to tungsten metal under 2 hour diffusion treatments at 2000 nif- C and moderate pressures of the order of 1000 psi. (auth)

Batista, R.I.; Hanks, G.S.; Murphy, D.J.

1962-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions  

SciTech Connect

We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions or pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

Ogletree, D. Frank; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore B.; Salmeron, Miquel

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

47

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE DIFFUSION BONDING OF TUNGSTEN TO TUNGSTEN UNDER PRESSURE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid state diffusion bonding of tungsten to tungsten was investigated at temperatures ranging from 1700 to 2600 nif- C, under surface contact pressures up to 3000 psi, while under high vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere. Various interface coatings were employed to promote diffusion, including graphite, oxide, and metai slurries, electro-plates, direct surface oxidation, and Mo-W deposits from carbonyl decompositions. Thorough metallurgical bonding was achieved, particularly with the latter two surface coatings, after 2 hours at 2350 nif- C in H/sub 2/ under 1400 psi. Corresponding tensile strengths of 30000 psi were obtained. (auth)

Batista, R.I.; Hanks, G.S.; Murphy, D.J.

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Influence of a Tropical Island Mountain on Solar Radiation, Air Temperature and Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measured solar radiation, air temperature, and water vapor pressure at 17 stations on the northwest flank of Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are compared with modeled clear day solar radiation and free atmosphere air temperature and water vapor pressure. ...

Dennis Nullet

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

NETL: Combined Pressure, Temperature Contrast, and Surface-Enhanced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Combined Pressure, Temperature Contrast, and Surface-Enhanced Separation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007531 Rice University is investigating CO2-capture cost-reduction opportunities by developing a novel gas absorption process. Specific project research topics include the following: Combining the absorber and stripper columns into a single, integrated unit. The use of vacuum stripping in combination with waste heatfor regeneration of carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbent. The use of a very high surface area ceramic foam gas-liquid contactor for enhanced mass transfer. Preparing surfaces of the ceramic foam gas-liquid contactor with basic and acidic functional groups to enhance mass transfer during gas absorption and stripping, respectively.

51

Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400oC has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

N. Jerred; L. Zirker; I. Charit; J. Cole; M. Frary; D. Butt; M. Meyer; K. L. Murty

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Dual shell reactor vessel: A pressure-balanced system for high pressure and temperature reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate the Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) as a safe and economical reactor for the hydrothermal water oxidation of hazardous wastes. Experimental tests proved that the pressure balancing piston and the leak detection concept designed for this project will work. The DSPBV was sized to process 10 gal/hr of hazardous waste at up to 399{degree}C (750{degree}F) and 5000 psia (34.5 MPa) with a residence time of 10 min. The first prototype reactor is a certified ASME pressure vessel. It was purchased by Innotek Corporation (licensee) and shipped to Pacific Northwest Laboratory for testing. Supporting equipment and instrumentation were, to a large extent, transported here from Battelle Columbus Division. A special air feed system and liquid pump were purchased to complete the package. The entire integrated demonstration system was assembled at PNL. During the activities conducted for this report, the leak detector design was tested on bench top equipment. Response to low levels of water in oil was considered adequate to ensure safety of the pressure vessel. Shakedown tests with water only were completed to prove the system could operate at 350{degree}C at pressures up to 3300 psia. Two demonstration tests with industrial waste streams were conducted, which showed that the DSPBV could be used for hydrothermal oxidation. In the first test with a metal plating waste, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and cyanide concentrations were reduced over 90%. In the second test with a munitions waste, the organics were reduced over 90% using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant.

Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.; Deverman, G.S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Extreme Environment Silicon Carbide Hybrid Temperature & Pressure Optical Sensors  

SciTech Connect

This final report contains the main results from a 3-year program to further investigate the merits of SiC-based hybrid sensor designs for extreme environment measurements in gas turbines. The study is divided in three parts. Part 1 studies the material properties of SiC such as temporal response, refractive index change with temperature, and material thermal response reversibility. Sensor data from a combustion rig-test using this SiC sensor technology is analyzed and a robust distributed sensor network design is proposed. Part 2 of the study focuses on introducing redundancy in the sensor signal processing to provide improved temperature measurement robustness. In this regard, two distinct measurement methods emerge. A first method uses laser wavelength sensitivity of the SiC refractive index behavior and a second method that engages the Black-Body (BB) radiation of the SiC package. Part 3 of the program investigates a new way to measure pressure via a distance measurement technique that applies to hot objects including corrosive fluids.

Nabeel Riza

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Pressure-activated well perforating apparatus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A well perforating technique utilizes a predetermined pressure difference developed at different points in the borehole to actuate the firing mechanism of a tubing conveyed perforating gun. A first embodiment incorporated as part of a well test string includes a packer for isolating a wellbore interval and a perforating gun connected in the string below the packer which is fired in response to development of a greater pressure in the annulus above the packer than in the isolated interval, thereby causing perforation at ''underbalanced'' conditions. A modified ''full-bore'' embodiment has an annular configuration firing mechanism as part of a tubing string and fires the perforating gun in response to development of a predetermined difference between the pressures at a point in the annulus and a point in the central bore of the tubing string.

Upchurch, J. M.

1985-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

55

Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 High-Temperature Downhole Tools Project Description Draka has engaged top academic, national laboratory and industry research scientists to develop the myriad of technical advances required - from glass chemistry to encapsulation metallurgy. Draka will develop the required advances in buffer tubing, cladding, wire insulation materials and cable packaging as well as coordinate activities of other participants. Draka Communications will develop the required advances in glass chemistry, fiber coatings and fiber drawing technologies. AltaRock Energy, Inc., a renewable energy company focused on research & development, will provide well field services and EGS wells for long-term testing and validation of the cable at Geysers, California. Tetramer has been engaged for the required advances in candidate materials for fiber coating and encapsulation technologies. Sandia will provide laboratory testing and validation of Draka's fiber solutions at elevated temperatures, pressures and hydrogen levels. Permatools (a Sandia EGS spin-off) will provide EGS tools to validate the finished cable design and will also coordinate in-well testing. Permatools (a Sandia EGS spin-off) will provide EGS tools to validate the finished cable design and will also coordinate in-well testing.

56

High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results  

SciTech Connect

A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Direct Calculation of Thermodynamic Wet-Bulb Temperature as a Function of Pressure and Elevation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple analytical method was developed for directly calculating the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature from air temperature and the vapor pressure (or relative humidity) at elevations up to 4500 m above MSL was developed. This methodology was ...

Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Douglas R. Cobos; Henry W. Loescher; Colin S. Campbell

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Direct Calculation of Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature as a Function of Pressure and Elevation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple analytical method was developed for directly calculating the thermodynamic wet bulb temperature from air temperature and the vapor pressure (or relative humidity) at any desired elevation. This methodology was based on the fact that the ...

Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Douglas R. Cobos; Henry W. Loescher; Colin S. Campbell

59

A Possible Pressure-Induced High-Temperature-Superconducting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Materials Forensics, Three-dimensional Modeling and Fractal Characterization Vortex Physics in Oxide and Pnictide High Temperature Superconductors.

60

A high pressure, high temperature study of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene  

SciTech Connect

We report a synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the novel high explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene at high pressures and high temperatures. Pressure was generated using a Paris-Edinburgh cell to employ larger sample volumes. High temperatures were created using a resistive graphite cylinder surrounding the sample. The PT phase diagram was explored in the 3.3 GPa pressure range and in the {approx} 400 C temperature range. We believe that the sample commenced in the {alpha}-phase and then ended up in an amorphous phase when the temperature increased beyond 280 C near 2 GPa, which we believe to be the {gamma}-phase. Further pressure and temperature cycling suggests that the sample transformed reversibly into and out of the amorphous phase near the phase line.

Pravica, Michael; Galley, Martin; Park, Changyong; Ruiz, Harrison; Wojno, Jennifer (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established an Extreme Drilling Lab to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 feet. This paper details the challenges of ultra-deep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETLs Research and Development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Their physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480 F around a single drill cutter. This simulator will not yet be operational by the planned conference dates; therefore, the results will be limited to identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETLs test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Labs studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

NETL Extreme Drilling Laboratory Studies High Pressure High Temperature Drilling Phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established the Extreme Drilling Laboratory to engineer effective and efficient drilling technologies viable at depths greater than 20,000 ft. This paper details the challenges of ultradeep drilling, documents reports of decreased drilling rates as a result of increasing fluid pressure and temperature, and describes NETL's research and development activities. NETL is invested in laboratory-scale physical simulation. Its physical simulator will have capability of circulating drilling fluids at 30,000 psi and 480F around a single drill cutter. This simulator is not yet operational; therefore, the results will be limited to the identification of leading hypotheses of drilling phenomena and NETL's test plans to validate or refute such theories. Of particular interest to the Extreme Drilling Laboratory's studies are the combinatorial effects of drilling fluid pressure, drilling fluid properties, rock properties, pore pressure, and drilling parameters, such as cutter rotational speed, weight on bit, and hydraulics associated with drilling fluid introduction to the rock-cutter interface. A detailed discussion of how each variable is controlled in a laboratory setting will be part of the conference paper and presentation.

Lyons, K.D.; Honeygan, S.; Moroz, T.H.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

High-Temperature Experiments using a Resistively-Heated High-Pressure Membrane Diamond Anvil Cell  

SciTech Connect

A reliable high-performance heating method using resistive heaters and a membrane driven diamond anvil cell (mDAC) is presented. Two micro-heaters are mounted in a mDAC and use electrical power of less than 150 W to achieve sample temperatures up to 1200 K. For temperature measurement we use two K-type thermocouples mounted near the sample. The approach can be used for in-situ Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction at high pressures and temperatures. A W-Re alloy gasket material permits stable operation of mDAC at high temperature. Using this method, we made an isothermal compression at 900 K to pressures in excess of 100 GPa and isobaric heating at 95 GPa to temperatures in excess of 1000 K. As an example, we present high temperature Raman spectroscopy measurements of nitrogen at high pressures.

Jenei, Z; Visbeck, K; Cynn, H; Yoo, C; Evans, W

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fiber-Optic Sensor with Simultaneous Temperature, Pressure, and Chemical Sensing Capabilities  

SciTech Connect

This project aimed to develop a multifunctional sensor suitable for process control application in chemical and petrochemical industries. Specifically, the objective was to demonstrate a fiber optic sensing system capable of simultaneous temperature, pressure, and chemical composition determinations based on a single strand of sapphire optical fiber. These capabilities were to be achieved through the incorporation of a phosphor and a Bragg grating into the fiber, as well as the exploitation of the evanescent field interaction of the optical radiation inside the fiber with the surrounding chemical medium. The integration of the three functions into a single probe, compared to having three separate probes, would not only substantially reduce the cost of the combined system, but would also minimize the intrusion into the reactor. Such a device can potentially increase the energy efficiency in the manufacture of chemical and petrochemical products, as well as reduce waste and lead to improved quality. In accordance with the proposed research plan, the individual temperature, pressure and chemical sensors where fabricated and characterized first. Then towards the end of the program, an integrated system was implemented. The sapphire fibers were grown on a laser heated pedestal growth system. The temperature sensor was based on the fluorescence decay principle, which exploits the temperature dependence of the fluorescence decay rate of the selected phosphor. For this project, Cr3+ was chosen as the phosphor, and it was incorporated into the sapphire fiber by coating a short length of the source rod with a thin layer of Cr2O3. After the viability of the technique was established and the growth parameters optimized, the temperature sensor was characterized up to 300 ?C and its long term stability was verified. The chemical sensor determined the concentration of chemicals through evanescent field absorption. Techniques to increase the sensitivity of the evanescent field interaction such as tapering and coiling the fiber were successfully demonstrated. It was shown that the sensor is capable of quantitative measurements in both the mid-infrared and the near infrared regions of the spectrum. For the pressure sensor, a novel concept involving a pressure amplifier was investigated. While the basic idea was found to work, technical difficulties prevented the demonstration of a sensor capable of quantitative pressure measurements. As a result, the final combined probe contained only a temperature sensor and a chemical sensor. Under this program not only was the technical feasibility of a dual temperature/chemical sensor demonstrated, so were those of two ancillary devices. The first is a scan-and-dwell fiber optic mid-IR spectrometer specifically designed for process control applications. Also, a versatile high-brightness fiber optic light source with interchangeable emitting elements to cover different spectral regions has been demonstrated. The commercial potentials of the complete system as well as the individual components are being actively explored now.

Kennedy, Jermaine L

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

The Southern Oscillation. Part I: Global Associations with Pressure and Temperature in Northern Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the global correlations between a measure of the Southern Oscillation and sea level pressure and surface air temperature in the northern winter. The stability of these correlations were tested on the Northern Hemisphere for an 80-year ...

Harry van Loon; Roland A. Madden

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Multi-temperature method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Surface Water Vapor Pressure and Temperature Trends in North America during 19482010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over one-quarter billion hourly values of temperature and relative humidity observed at 309 stations located across North America during 19482010 were studied. The water vapor pressure was determined and seasonal averages were computed. Data were ...

V. Isaac; W. A. van Wijngaarden

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

High temperature solid oxide fuel development activities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC development activities and current program status. Goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 h. Test results are presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 40,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Two 25-kW SOFC customer tests units were delivered in 1992; a 20-kW SOFC system is bein manufactured and will be operated by Southern California Edison in 1995. Megawatt class generators are being developed.

Ray, E.R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Mechanical and transport properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Task III. Mechanical properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Final report, 1 March 1980-29 February 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the research performed to gain a fundamental understanding of the mechanical and transport properties of rocks under confining pressure and elevated temperature. There have been many contributions to our understanding of the mechanical behavior or rocks at high temperatures and pressures, but perhaps the three most outstanding contributions are the data which: (a) have helped to demonstrate the scientific feasibility of energy extraction from buried magma by assessing the likelihood of the rock mass to support stable boreholes at the pressures, temperatures (to partial melting), and aqueous conditions apt to occur in crystalline rocks above buried magma chambers; (b) have demonstrated that crystalline rocks deform primarily by brittle fracture when deformed at effective confining pressures to 200 MPa and temperatures to partial melting (to >1000/sup 0/C), water-saturated or room-dry, and in constant strain rate tests (e dot = 10/sup -4/-10/sup -7//sec) or in creep tests; and (c) have shown that under these same conditions the time-dependent behavior of the rocks in the quasi-steady state regime is well described by the flow law: e dot = Asigma/sup n/exp(-Q/RT) - a formulation previously thought to be applicable to rocks deforming primarily by crystal plasticity. This result suggests that fracture is also a time-dependent, thermally-activated process.

Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Bauer, S.J.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Interpreting Horizontal Well Flow Profiles and Optimizing Well Performance by Downhole Temperature and Pressure Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal well temperature and pressure distributions can be measured by production logging or downhole permanent sensors, such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensors (DTS). Correct interpretation of temperature and pressure data can be used to obtain downhole flow conditions, which is key information to control and optimize horizontal well production. However, the fluid flow in the reservoir is often multiphase and complex, which makes temperature and pressure interpretation very difficult. In addition, the continuous measurement provides transient temperature behavior which increases the complexity of the problem. To interpret these measured data correctly, a comprehensive model is required. In this study, an interpretation model is developed to predict flow profile of a horizontal well from downhole temperature and pressure measurement. The model consists of a wellbore model and a reservoir model. The reservoir model can handle transient, multiphase flow and it includes a flow model and a thermal model. The calculation of the reservoir flow model is based on the streamline simulation and the calculation of reservoir thermal model is based on the finite difference method. The reservoir thermal model includes thermal expansion and viscous dissipation heating which can reflect small temperature changes caused by pressure difference. We combine the reservoir model with a horizontal well flow and temperature model as the forward model. Based on this forward model, by making the forward calculated temperature and pressure match the observed data, we can inverse temperature and pressure data to downhole flow rate profiles. Two commonly used inversion methods, Levenberg- Marquardt method and Marcov chain Monte Carlo method, are discussed in the study. Field applications illustrate the feasibility of using this model to interpret the field measured data and assist production optimization. The reservoir model also reveals the relationship between temperature behavior and reservoir permeability characteristic. The measured temperature information can help us to characterize a reservoir when the reservoir modeling is done only with limited information. The transient temperature information can be used in horizontal well optimization by controlling the flow rate until favorite temperature distribution is achieved. With temperature feedback and inflow control valves (ICVs), we developed a procedure of using DTS data to optimize horizontal well performance. The synthetic examples show that this method is useful at a certain level of temperature resolution and data noise.

Li, Zhuoyi

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Downhole pressure, temperature and flowrate measurements in steam wells at the Geysers field  

SciTech Connect

Recently developed pressure-temperature-spinner (PTS) tools are used to collect reliable downhole measurements in geothermal systems, such as at The Geysers. PTS surveys in several flowing Geysers steam wells were used to quantify steam entry location and magnitude, wellbore heat loss, pressure drop due to friction, thermodynamic properties of the steam, and maximum rock temperature. Interwell cross flow/interference was identified in one well. Finally, a single-phase saturated steam wellbore model used to compare calculated to measured downhole values, was found to adequately predict the flowing pressure versus depth curves in vapor filled holes.

Enedy, Kathleen L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Design strategies for optically-accessible, high-temperature, high-pressure reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Design Strategies for Optically-Accessible, High-Temperature, High-Pressure Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Feasibility study of measuring the temperature and pressure of warm dense matter.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the feasibility of making accurate measurements of the temperature and pressure of solid-density samples rapidly heated by the Z-Petawatt laser to warm dense matter (WDM) conditions, with temperatures approaching 100eV. The study focused specifically on the heating caused by laser generated proton beams. Based on an extensive literature search and numerical investigations, a WDM experiment is proposed which will accurately measure temperature and pressure based on optical emission from the surface and sample expansion velocity.

Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Temperature and pore pressure distribution in a concrete slab during the microwave decontamination process  

SciTech Connect

As an application of microwave engineering, the new technology of concrete decontamination and decommissioning using microwave energy has been recently developed. The temperature and pore pressure within the concrete are studied theoretically in this paper. The heat and mass transfer within the porous concrete, coupled with temperature dependent dielectric property are investigated. The effects of microwave frequency (f), microwave power intensity (Q{sub 0,ave}), concrete porosity ({phi}) on the temperature and pore pressure distributions and their variations are fully discussed. The effects of the variation of complex dielectric permittivity ({epsilon}) and presentation of different steel reinforcements are also illustrated.

Li, W.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; White, T.L.; Grubb, R.G.; Foster, D. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

77

Anisotropic yielding of rocks at high temperatures and pressures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results to date are: All of the starting materials for the three year project have been collected. Included in our collection are relatively fine-grained, fresh, oriented blocks of schist, gneiss, and micaceous quartzite with well-defined foliations and lineations as well as granite blocks oriented with respect to the principal quarrying orientations, the rift, grain, and hardway. A suite of samples has also been collected from an exposed granite stock and surrounding country rocks in order to evaluate the strengths and distribution of fabrics which may be encountered while drilling. These fabrics appear to be directly related to the forceful emplacement of the pluton. The literature on the mechanics of intrusion has been reviewed with regard to strain gradients and foliation development associated with diapiric flow. This information will be used to evaluate flow of varying fabrics on yield criteria within and surrounding magma chambers. Twenty-three successful experiments have been performed on samples of gneiss cored along six different orientations at temperatures ranging from 25{degrees} to 700{degrees}C. These experiments include extension tests, unconfined compression tests, and compression tests performed at P{sub c} = 100 MPa. Theoretical yield conditions for anisotropic materials have been reviewed and the assumptions upon which they are based probed. These yield conditions will ultimately be used to fit our data on gneiss, and the other foliated rocks under investigation. Two abstracts have been published and oral presentations made at the 1987 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, based upon our previous DOE-sponsored work on tensile fracturing of quartzite and related work on semi-brittle deformation of granitic rocks. 21 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Kronenberg, A.K.; Russell, J.E.; Handin, J.; Gottschalk, R.R.; Shea, W.T.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Ultrasonic liquid-level detector for varying temperature and pressure environments  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use in varying temperature and pressure environments, such as a pressurized water nuclear reactor vessel, is provided. The detector employs ultrasonic extensional and torsional waves launched in a multiplexed alternating sequence into a common sensor. The sensor is a rectangular cross section stainless steel rod which extends into the liquid medium whose level is to be detected. The sensor temperature derived from the extensional wave velocity measurements is used to compensate for the temperature dependence of the torsional wave velocity measurements which are also level dependent. The torsional wave velocity measurements of a multiple reflection sensor then provide a measurement of liquid level over a range of several meters with a small uncertainty over a temperature range of 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressures up to 15 MPa.

Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

1981-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

79

Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X.

Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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81

Pressure-temperature phase diagram for a tin modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structural phase transformations between ferroelectric (FE), antiferroelectric (AFE), and paraelectric (FE) phases are frequently observed in the zirconia-rich phase region on the lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) phase diagram. Since the free energy difference among these phases is small, phase transformation can be easily induced by temperature, pressure and electric field. These induced transformation characteristics have been used for many practical applications. This study focuses on a hydrostatic pressure induced FE-to-AFE phase transformation in a tin modified PZT ceramic (PSZT). The relative phase stability between FE and AFE phases is determined by the dielectric permittivity measurement as a function of temperature from -60 C to 125 C. A pressure-temperature phase diagram for the PSZT system will be presented.

Grubbs, Robert K.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Roesler, Alexander William; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Moore, Roger Howard

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

83

Device For Determining Therophysical Properties Of A Multi-Component Gas At Arbitrary Temperature And Pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A computer product for determining thermodynamic properties of a natural gas hydrocarbon, when the speed of sound in the gas is known at an arbitrary temperature and pressure. Thus, the known parameters are the sound speed, temperature, pressure, and concentrations of any dilute components of the gas. The method uses a set of reference gases and their calculated density and speed of sound values to estimate the density of the subject gas. Additional calculations can be made to estimate the molecular weight of the subject gas, which can then be used as the basis for mass flow calculations, to determine the speed of sound at standard pressure and temperature, and to determine various thermophysical characteristics of the gas.

Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Gilbert, AZ)

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

85

The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data  

SciTech Connect

Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the best'' data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

Vose, R.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Schmoyer, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R. (National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States)); Eischeid, J.K. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data  

SciTech Connect

Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the ``best`` data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

Vose, R.S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schmoyer, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R. [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States); Eischeid, J.K. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A hybrid capacitive pressure and temperature sensor fabricated by adhesive bonding technique for harsh environment of kraft pulp digesters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a compensated capacitive pressure and temperature sensor for kraft pulp digesters (pH 13.5, temperatures 25175C reaching a local maximum of 180C and pressures up to 2MPa). The gauge capacitive pressure ...

Abdolreza R. Mohammadi; Chad P. J. Bennington; Mu Chiao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

89

Experimental permeability studies at elevated temperature and pressure of granitic rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Permeability of quartz monzonite from the Los Alamos hot-dry-rock geothermal well GT-2 was experimentally measured as a function of pressure and temperature. Permeability of the GT-2 rocks from depths of 8580 ft and 9522 ft behaves like Westerly granite for changes in effective confining pressure. However, permeability of these rocks behaves much differently with increasing temperature. As temperature is increased, the permeability of Westerly granite passes through a slight minimum and then increases exponentially above 100/sup 0/C. Upon cooling the permeability shows a permanent increase of up to four times its original value. The permeability of GT-2-9522', on the other hand, drops off exponentially with increasing temperature, reaching a minimum near 140/sup 0/C; above 150/sup 0/C, permeability rises slowly. These changes in permeability with temperature are postulated to be caused by differential thermal expansion (DTE), a phenomena related to the anisotropic and inhomogeneous coefficients of thermal expansion of the mineral grains in the rock. Scanning electron photomicrographs of unheated and heated samples of Westerly and GT-2 rocks support the DTE hypothesis. Differences in the behavior of these rocks with temperature are believed to be due to the respective temperature and pressure environments in which they became equilibrated, since both GT-2 rocks had existed at moderately high temperatures and pressures for some time. Temperature disequilibrium of the GT-2 rocks in their present in situ environments is believed to have caused the differences in the behavior between the two samples and may provide a method for determining the pre-intrusion geothermal gradient of the Jemez area. Flow channels were observed in GT-2 samples using radioactive tracer techniques. Several radioactive isotopes were tried in these experiments, including /sup 22/Na, /sup 63/Ni, and /sup 35/S.

Potter, J.M.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

The Influence of Cloud-Base Temperature and Pressure on Droplet Concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-base temperature is an important, but often neglected, parameter in the activation of cloud drops. Other factors being equal, clouds with colder bases will activate more condensation nuclei than clouds having warmer bases. In a typical case,...

David B. Johnson

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Nonlinear pressure and temperature waves propagation in fluid-saturated rocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical study for the simulation of rock deformation due to nonlinear temperature and pressure waves in fluid saturated porous rock is presented. The problem of an homogeneous, thermoelastic, and isotropic fluid-saturated matrix, lying over an aquifer ... Keywords: Fluid dynamics, Geothermics, Nonlinear model, Quasi-Newton solver

M. De' Michieli Vitturi; F. Beux

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

Christiansen, Caspar (Technical University of Denmark); Hermant, Laurent (IFP); Malbec, Louis-Marie (IFP); Bruneaux, Gilles (IFP); Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper (Technical University of Denmark)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Performance testing of hydrogen transport membranes at elevated temperatures and pressures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of hydrogen transport ceramic membranes offers increased opportunities for hydrogen gas separation and utilization. Commercial application of such membranes will most likely take place under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure, where industrial processes producing and or utilizing hydrogen occur, and where such membranes are theoretically expected to have the greatest permeability. Hydrogen separation membrane performance data at elevated temperature is quite limited, and data at elevated pressures is conspicuously lacking. This paper will describe the design, construction, and recent experimental results obtained from a membrane testing unit located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The membrane testing unit is capable of operating at temperatures up to 900 C and pressures up to 500 psi. Mixed-oxide ceramic ion-transport membranes, fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), were evaluated for hydrogen permeability and characterized for surface changes and structural integrity using scanning electron microscopy/X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), as a function of temperature, pressure, and hydrogen exposure.

Balachandran, U.; Cugini, A. V.; Dorris, S. E.; Fisher, E. P.; Graham, W. J.; Martello, D. V.; Poston, J. A.; Rothenberger, K. S.; Siriwardane, R. W.

1999-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

94

Pressure and Temperature Differences between Vaisala RS80 and RS92 Radiosonde Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In several twin flight campaigns, Vaisala RS80 radiosonde systems report lower temperatures than Vaisala RS92 systems in the daytime. Simultaneous differences increase from less than 0.1 K at pressure altitudes below 100 hPa to 0.7 K at 10 hPa. ...

Wolfgang Steinbrecht; Hans Claude; Fritz Schnenborn; Ulrich Leiterer; Horst Dier; Eckhard Lanzinger

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Ris Energy Report 3 Hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5.2 Risø Energy Report 3 Hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures, but it can be stored as a gas, a liquid or a solid. In the case of solid storage, the hydrogen exists as a chemical. Compared to fossil fuels such as gasoline, hydrogen has a very obvious shortfall in the amount of energy

96

Determination of the Electron Temperature in a Low Pressure Dusty Radiofrequency Methane Plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The particles are obtained by PECVD in radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) low pressure plasmas (90%CH4-10%Ar). During the particle growth, the particles trap electrons and modify the EEDF, and the electrical and optical characteristics of the plasma. The plasma is analyzed by Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The excitation temperature and the electron temperature are calculated from the H{sub {alpha}}, H{sub {beta}}, H{sub {gamma}} Balmer hydrogen line intensities and from Ar ones. The temporal evolutions of the temperatures during the particle formation are compared and discussed.

Massereau-Guilbaud, Veronique; Geraud-Grenier, Isabelle; Plain, Andre [GREMI, UMR6606, Universite d'Orleans/CNRS (France) and GREMI, Faculte des Sciences, Site de Bourges, rue G.Berger, BP 4043, 18028 BOURGES cedex (France); Mikikian, Maxime [GREMI, Polytech'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

97

Hydration kinetics modeling of Portland cement considering the effects of curing temperature and applied pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hydration kinetics model for Portland cement is formulated based on thermodynamics of multiphase porous media. The mechanism of cement hydration is discussed based on literature review. The model is then developed considering the effects of chemical composition and fineness of cement, water-cement ratio, curing temperature and applied pressure. The ultimate degree of hydration of Portland cement is also analyzed and a corresponding formula is established. The model is calibrated against the experimental data for eight different Portland cements. Simple relations between the model parameters and cement composition are obtained and used to predict hydration kinetics. The model is used to reproduce experimental results on hydration kinetics, adiabatic temperature rise, and chemical shrinkage of different cement pastes. The comparisons between the model reproductions and the different experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model, especially for cement hydration at elevated temperature and high pressure.

Lin Feng [Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: fl2040@columbia.edu; Meyer, Christian [Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Oxidation of Fuel Cladding Candidate Materials in Steam Environments at High Temperature and Pressure  

SciTech Connect

Under certain severe accident conditions, the fuel rods of nuclear power plants are exposed to high temperature/pressure steam environments in which the Zr alloy cladding is rapidly oxidized. As alternative claddings, the oxidation resistances of SiC-based materials and stainless steels with high Cr and/or Al additions have been examined from 800-1200 C in high-pressure steam environments. Very low reaction kinetics were observed with alumina-forming FeCrAl alloys at 1200 C while Fe-Cr alloys with only 15-20% Cr were rapidly attacked.

Cheng, Ting [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DEFLAGRATION RATE MEASUREMENTS OF LLM-105 AND TATB BASED EXPLOSIVES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105 and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. Two different formulations of LLM-105 and three formulations of TATB were studied and results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate and become erratic. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N; Koerner, J; Lorenz, K T; Maienschein, J L

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Densities, temperatures, pressures, and abundances derived from OII recombination lines in HII regions and their implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on high quality observations of multiplet V1 of OII and the NLTE atomic computations of OII we study the density and temperature of a sample of HII regions. We find that the signature for oxygen rich clumps of high density and low temperature is absent in all objects of our sample: one extragalactic and eight Galactic HII regions. The temperatures derived from: a) recombination lines of OII, and b) recombination lines of HI together with Balmer continua are lower than those derived from forbidden lines, while the densities derived from recombination lines of OII are similar or smaller than densities derived from forbidden lines. Electron pressures derived from collisionally excited lines are about two times larger than those derived from recombination lines. These results imply that the proper abundances are those derived from recombination lines and suggest that other processes in addition to direct photoionization, such as dissipation of turbulent energy in shocks, magnetic reconnection, and shadowed ...

Peimbert, Antonio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proper selection of drilling fluids plays a major role in determining the efficient completion of any drilling operation. With the increasing number of ultra-deep offshore wells being drilled and ever stringent environmental and safety regulations coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most of the existing literature, the testing procedure is simple - increase the temperature of the fluid in steps and record rheological properties at each step. A major drawback of this testing procedure is that it does not represent the continuous temperature change that occurs in a drilling fluid as it is circulated through the well bore. To have a better understanding of fluid behavior under such temperature variation, a continuous test procedure was devised in which the temperature of the drilling fluid was continuously increased to a pre-determined maximum value while monitoring one rheological parameter. The results of such tests may then be used to plan fluid treatment schedules. The experiments were conducted on a Chandler 7600 XHPHT viscometer and they seem to indicate specific temperature ranges above which the properties of the drilling fluid deteriorate. Different fluid compositions and drilling fluids in use in the field were tested and the results are discussed in detail.

Ravi, Ashwin

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

High-Throughput Thin Film Approach for Screening of Temperature-Pressure-Composition Phase Space  

SciTech Connect

Many solar energy technologies, for example CIGS and CdTe photovoltaics, utilize materials in thin film form. The equilibrium phase diagrams for these and other more novel solar energy materials are not known or are irrelevant because of the non-equilibrium character of the thin film growth processes. We demonstrate a high-throughput thin film approach for screening of temperature-pressure-composition phase diagrams and phase spaces. The examples in focus are novel solar absorbers Cu-N, Cu-O and p-type transparent conductors in the Cr2O3-MnO system. The composition axis of the Cr2O3-MnO phase diagram was screened using a composition spread method. The temperature axis of the Mn-O phase diagram was screened using a temperature spread method. The pressure axes of the Cu-N and Cu-O phase diagrams were screened using rate spread method with the aid of non-equilibrium growth phenomena. Overall these three methods constitute an approach to high-throughput screening of inorganic thin film phase diagrams. This research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy as a part of two NextGen Sunshot projects and an Energy Frontier Research Center.

Zakutayev, A.; Subramaniyan, A.; Caskey, C. M.; Ndione, P. F.; Richards, R. M.; O'Hayre, R.; Ginley, D. S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles  

SciTech Connect

Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

Quinby, Thomas C. (Kingston, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Impacts of Atmospheric Temperature Trends on Tropical Cyclone Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Impacts of tropical temperature changes in the upper troposphere (UT) and the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) on tropical cyclone (TC) activity are explored. UT and lower TTL cooling both lead to an overall increase in potential intensity (PI), ...

Gabriel A. Vecchi; Stephan Fueglistaler; Isaac M. Held; Thomas R. Knutson; Ming Zhao

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Strength and ductility of four dry igneous rocks at low pressures and temperatures to partial melting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy extraction from magma requires stable boreholes at relatively shallow depths (< 10 km) in rocks at temperatures of the order of 1000/sup 0/C. Accordingly, the failure strengths, strains at failure, and associated deformation mechanisms of room-dry andesite, besalt, granodiorite, and obsidian are determined at temperatures to partial melting (> 1050/sup 0/C), at confining pressures of 0 and 50 MPa, and strain rate of 10/sup -4//s. The strength reductions of the crystalline rocks are more or less linear until they steepen suddenly with approach to melting. When that occurs, strengths vanish and deformations become quasiviscous. The obsidian is stronger than the crystalline rocks to 600/sup 0/C where glass softening begins and strength goes to zero at 800/sup 0/C. All rocks are brittle throughout the entire temperature range until melting or softening occurs. Shortenings at failure are 3 percent or less. The crystalline rocks tend to deform primarily by precursive microscopic extension fracturing and its coalescence into macroscopic faults. The abundance of load-induced fractures remains about constant, but thermal cracking increases with increasing temperature. Results from tests at 25/sup 0/C on specimens that previously had been heated to 900-1000/sup 0/C clearly show that the weakening of unconfined specimens is due to the thermal cracking. Weakening of confined specimens, however, probably is due to an inherent temperature effect on the load-induced fracturing process. Comparisons of instantaneous failure-strengths with stresses likely ot occur at the walls of boreholes show that a hole as deep as 10 km in impermeable crystalline rock is not likely to fail under short-time loading even at 1000/sup 0/C, unless the maximum in-situ horizontal stress is greater than or equal to vetical stress and the hole is open (i.e., borehole pressure is zero). 27 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Higgs, N.G.; Lantz, J.R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

REACTOR FUEL WASTE DISPOSAL PROJECT PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON SALT CAVITIES AND SURVEY OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS STORAGE  

SciTech Connect

It is deemed feasible to store reactor fuel wastes in a salt dome cavity to a depth where the differential in pressure between the soil over-burden pressure and pressure of the fluid inside the cavity does not exceed 3000 psi, and the temperature is less than 400 deg F. Tests at pressure increments of 1000 psi were conducted on a 2" cylindrical cavity contained in a 6-in. long by 6-in. cylindrical salt core. Tests indicate that the cavity exhibited complete stability under pressures to 3000 psi and temperatures to 300 deg F. At temperatures of 100 to 400 deg F and pressures to 5000 psi continuous deformation of the cavity resulted. Initial movement of the salt was observed at all pressures. This was evidenced by vertical deformation and cavity size reduction. It was noted that a point of structural equilibrium was reached at lower temperatures when the pressure did not exceed 5000 psi. A literature study reveals that the most common type of cavity utilized in liquefied petroleum gas storage is either cylindrical or ellipsoidal. A few are pear or inverted cone shaped. There was no indication of leakage for cavities when pressure tested for as long as 72 hr. This indicates that the salt mass is not permeable under conditions of prevailing underground temperature and pressure. Salt specimens tested under atmospheric Pressure and temperature exhibited permeabilities of 0.1 to 0.2 millidarcys. The cost of completing underground storage cavities in salt masses is expected to be approximately 05 per barrel of storage space. (auth)

Brown, K.E.; Jessen, F.W.; Gloyna, E.F.

1959-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In efforts to render the safest, fastest, and most cost efficient drilling program for a high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) well the maximization of drilling operational efficiencies is key. Designing an adequate, HT/HP well specific, drilling fluid is of most importance and a technological challenge that can greatly affect the outcome of the overall operational efficiency. It is necessary to have a sound fundamental understanding of the behavior that water-based muds (WBM) exhibit when exposed to HT/HP conditions. Therefore, in order to adequately design and treat a WBM for a HT/HP well specific drilling program, it is essential that the mud be evaluated at HT/HP conditions. Currently, industry standard techniques used to evaluate WBM characteristics involve aging the fluid sample to a predetermined temperature, based on the anticipated bottom hole temperature (BHT), either statically or dynamically, for a predetermined length, then cooling and mixing the fluid and measuring its rheological properties at a significantly lower temperature. This, along with the fact that the fluid is not subjected to the anticipated bottom hole pressure (BHP) during or after the aging process, brings to question if the properties recorded are those that are truly experienced down-hole. Furthermore, these testing methods do not allow the user to effectively monitor the changes during the aging process. The research in this thesis is focused on evaluating a high performance WBM and the current test procedures used to evaluate their validity. Experimental static and dynamic aging tests were developed for comparative analysis as well to offer a more accurate and precise method to evaluate the effects experienced by WBM when subjected to HT/HP conditions. The experimental tests developed enable the user to monitor and evaluate, in real-time, the rheological changes that occur during the aging of a WBM while being subjected to true BHT and BHP. Detailed standard and experimental aging tests were conducted and suggest that the standard industry tests offer false rheological results with respect to true BHT and BHP. Furthermore, the experimental aging tests show that high pressure has a significant effect on the rheological properties of the WBM at elevated temperatures.

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Tool development and application: pressure, temperature, spectral gamma ray logging of the SB-15 well  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sandia`s involvement with downhole instrumentation dates from the mid 1970s when work was centered on the development of a high-temperature acoustic borehole televiewer, and the establishment of a list of high- temperature component parts such as resistors, integrated circuits, and sensors. This work evolved into the development of memory logging devices for the US Continental Scientific Drilling Program. These tools were of low cost and very easy to use. Their deployment resulted in scientific advancement in understanding geothermal formations, and a thrust of the current program is to move memory tools from the scientific realm to the commercial environment. The tools developed and utilized in the SB-15 well among other field tests are completely self- contained in that power is obtained from batteries and data are stored in an electronic memory system. Three memory tools form the backbone of the initial Sandia tool suite. Pressure/temperature measurements are necessary for the evaluation of geothermal reservoirs, and they are relatively simple to make. Thus, the initial Sandia program concentrated on such a tool, and it has been successfully used in SB-15. This tool will form the basis for future tools since many engineering principles were proven in its evolution. This pressure/temperature tool combination is very useful in characterizing the geothermal reservoir. Another tool in the Sandia suite measures the natural gamma rays from the formation. This spectral gamma ray tool is useful in defining lithology, paleoflows, and certain clays. SB-15 well logging history and a preliminary interpretation of the data is presented in this report.

Sattler, A.R.; Norman, R.; Henfling, J.A.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

joint Spatiotemporal Modes of Surface Temperature and Sea Level Pressure Variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the Last Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coherent spatiotemporal modes of climatic variability are isolated based on a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition (SVD) of nearly a century of monthly Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure (SLP) and surface temperature ...

Michael E. Mann; Jeffrey Park

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Development of modifications for Coflexip flexible drilling pipe for high-temperature and -pressure geothermal service. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Coflexip (France) flexible drilling pipe can provide economies in drilling geothermal wells. However, the current liner materials cannot take the high temperatures (approx.250C) and pressures (approx.69 MPa). Development was undertaken to replace the liner with higher temperature materials and, thus increase the temperature capability of the flexible pipe. DuPont Teflon PFA 350, L'Garde EPDM Y267 and L'Garde AFLAS 291 were considered but they all require backing by a closely woven stainless steel fabric to prevent extrusion. A graphite-reinforced EPDM elastomer was developed which has the potential of meeting the pressure-temperature requirements without the metal fabric reinforcement.

Friese, G.J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Proposed License Amendments "Revised Pressure/Temperature (P/T) Curves, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(FPL) requests that Appendix A of Facility Operating Licenses DPR-31 and DPR-41 for Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 be amended to extend the heatup, cooldown, and inservice test limitations for the Reactor Coolant System (RCS). The present pressure/temperature (P/T) limits specified in Technical Specification (TS) 3/4.4.9, and in TS Figures 3.4-2, 3.4-3 and 3.4-4 apply for operation up to 19 Effective Full Power Years (EFPY). The proposed amendments will extend the service period for the new P/T limits to a maximum of 32 EFPY. The proposed amendments also revise TS 3.4.9.3, Cold Overpressure Mitigation System (COMS) setpoints. COMS is the Westinghouse version of Low Temperature Overpressure Protection (LTOP). The maximum permissible Power Operated Relief Valve (PORV) setpoint for low temperature operation of the RCS is being changed from 415 + 15 psig to < 561 psig, which includes instrument uncertainty of 70 psig, as a result of the P/T limit changes. The enable temperature for the

In Accordance Cfr; Florida Power; Light Company

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy [Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Center for Physical and Power Electronics, University of Missouri--Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Shock Speed, Cosmic Ray Pressure, and Gas Temperature in the Cygnus Loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Upper limits on the shock speeds in supernova remnants can be combined with post-shock temperatures to obtain upper limits on the ratio of cosmic ray to gas pressure (P_CR / P_G) behind the shocks. We constrain shock speeds from proper motions and distance estimates, and we derive temperatures from X-ray spectra. The shock waves are observed as faint H-alpha filaments stretching around the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant in two epochs of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) separated by 39.1 years. We measured proper motions of 18 non-radiative filaments and derived shock velocity limits based on a limit to the Cygnus Loop distance of 576 +/- 61 pc given by Blair et al. for a background star. The PSPC instrument on-board ROSAT observed the X-ray emission of the post-shock gas along the perimeter of the Cygnus Loop, and we measure post-shock electron temperature from spectral fits. Proper motions range from 2.7 arcseconds to 5.4 arcseconds over the POSS epochs and post-shock temperatures range from kT ~ 100...

Salvesen, Greg; Edgar, Richard J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

The Northwest Geysers High-Temperature Reservoir- Evidence For Active  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geysers High-Temperature Reservoir- Evidence For Active Geysers High-Temperature Reservoir- Evidence For Active Magmatic Degassing And Implications For The Origin Of The Geysers Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: The Northwest Geysers High-Temperature Reservoir- Evidence For Active Magmatic Degassing And Implications For The Origin Of The Geysers Geothermal Field Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Noble gas isotope abundances in steam from the Coldwater Creek field of the Northwest Geysers, California, show mixing between a nearly pure mid-ocean ridge (MOR) type magmatic gas with high 3He/4He and low radiogenic 40*Ar (R/Ra > 8.3 and 40*Ar/4He < 0.07), and a magmatic gas diluted with crustal gas (R/Ra 0.25). The

119

An Experimental Evaluation of HVAC-Grade Carbon-Dioxide Sensors: Part 3, Humidity, Temperature, and Pressure Sensitivity Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the third paper in a four-part series reporting on the test and evaluation of typical carbon-dioxide sensors used in building HVAC applications. Fifteen models of NDIR HVAC-grade CO2 sensors were tested and evaluated to determine the humidity, temperature, and pressure sensitivity of the sensors. This paper reports the performance of the sensors at various relative humidity, temperature, and pressure levels common to building HVAC applications and provides a comparison with manufacturer specifications. Among the 15 models tested, eight models have a single-lamp, single-wavelength configuration, four models have a dual-lamp, single-wavelength configuration, and three models have a single-lamp, dual-wavelength configuration. The sensors were tested in a chamber specifically fabricated for this research. A description of the apparatus and the method of test are described in Part 1 (Shrestha and Maxwell 2009). The test result showed a wide variation in humidity, temperature, and pressure sensitivity of CO2 sensors among manufacturers. In some cases, significant variations in sensor performance exist between sensors of the same model. Even the natural variation in relative humidity could significantly vary readings of some CO2 sensor readings. The effects of temperature and pressure variation on NDIR CO2 sensors are unavoidable without an algorithm to compensate for the changes. For the range of temperature and pressure variation in an air-conditioned space, the effect of pressure variation is more significant compared to the effect of temperature variation.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Maxwell, Dr. Gregory [Iowa State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Temperature induced immiscibility in the NaCl?H[subscript 2]O system at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

High-pressure polymorphs of H{sub 2}O are a major component in many outer planets, extra solar bodies, and icy satellites. This study sought to examine the influence of ionic impurities on the phase stability, thermal expansion, and melting curve of ice VII. Powder diffraction patterns of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solutions were taken at room temperature up to 11.1 {+-} 0.3 and 26.6 {+-} 0.4 GPa, respectively. Thermal expansions, {alpha}, of all ice VII samples were recorded and modeled up to the melting point of the samples. Ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution at pressures greater than 2.2 GPa and less than 500 K can be indexed by ice VII only, whereas at temperatures greater than 500 K, diffraction lines indicative of halite (NaCl) are observed and become more intense with increasing temperature and only disappear at the melting point of the high-pressure ice. This phenomenon was observed in all NaCl-bearing ice samples that were heated to greater than 500 K. The melting curves of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and a 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution suggest that the presence of Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} in the ice VII structure results in a depression of the melting curve by approximately 40 K. The exsolution of halite from the NaCl-doped ice VII and the depression of the ice VII melting curve suggest that the presence of ionic impurities in ice VII may promote the formation of a self-segregating zone deep within ice-rich bodies. This zone could initiate the formation of solute-rich melt pockets that may ascend toward the surface and result in surface manifestations such as solute-bearing aqueous vents, unexplained domes/diapirism, and/or salt-rich regions.

Frank, M.R.; Scott, H.P.; Maglio, S.J.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Shen, G. (NIU); (CIW); (UC); (Indiana)

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

Timothy F. Price

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Study of the MWPC gas gain behaviour as a function of the gas pressure and temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Muon System of the LHCb experiment is composed of five detection stations (M1-M5) equipped with 1368 Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) and 24 Triple-GEM detectors. The Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) performances (detection efficiency, time resolution, pad-cluster size and ageing properties) are heavily dependent on the gas gain. The chamber gain depends on the gas density and therefore on the gas temperature and pressure. The impact of the environmental parameters on the MWPC gain has been studied in detail. The results, togheter with a simple method proposed to account for the gain variations, are reported in this note. The absolute gas gain at the testing voltage of 2750 V was also measured to be (1.2 +- 0.1)*10^5.

Pinci, D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Analyses and applications of pressure, flowrate, and temperature measurements during a perforating run  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perforating technology has undergone significant advances during the last decade. Tubing conveyed perforating (TCP), underbalanced perforating, high shot density guns, better shaped charges, and improved gun systems are some of the developments that have contributed to safer operations and improved productivity of the perforated completions. A recent development, described in this paper, is a perforating tool that makes real-time downhole measurements during a perforating run and has the capability of selectively firing a number of guns at different depths or times. These measurements include pressure, flow rate, temperature, GR, CCL, and cable tension. The simultaneous downhole measurements, in addition to providing better control of the perforating process, can in a single trip provide a production log, conventional well tests before and after perforating, and a fill-up or slug test soon after perforating for underbalanced conditions.

Tariq, S.M.; Ayestaran, L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Standard Test Method for Saltwater Pressure Immersion and Temperature Testing of Photovoltaic Modules for Marine Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand repeated immersion or splash exposure by seawater as might be encountered when installed in a marine environment, such as a floating aid-to-navigation. A combined environmental cycling exposure with modules repeatedly submerged in simulated saltwater at varying temperatures and under repetitive pressurization provides an accelerated basis for evaluation of aging effects of a marine environment on module materials and construction. 1.2 This test method defines photovoltaic module test specimens and requirements for positioning modules for test, references suitable methods for determining changes in electrical performance and characteristics, and specifies parameters which must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Anisotropic yielding of rocks at high temperatures and pressures; Annual Progress Report, 1988-1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The experimental results we have obtained on Four-Mile gneiss have demonstrated that the yield behavior of quartzo-feldspathic rocks containing only a small percentage (10%) of mica can be markedly anisotropic, provided the mica minerals exhibit a strong crystallographic preferred orientation. Samples of gneiss oriented such that resolved shear stresses on the foliation plane are large are considerably weaker than granites of similar grain size and composition, and this weakness is attributed to enhanced nucleation of microcracks in quartz and feldspar adjacent to mica grains that are suitably oriented for slip. We expect the yield behavior of rocks containing a higher proportion of phyllosilicates to be influenced by the strongly anisotropic nature of these minerals as well, although the strengths, temperature and pressure dependencies, and flow-controlling mechanisms in such rocks may be significantly different.

Kronenberg, A.K.; Russell, J.E.; Carter, N.L.

1989-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

126

Electrical resistivity studies on graphite at high pressure and low temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High pressure is shown to give a valuable insight into the intrinsic c-axis resistivity of Highly Oriented Pyrolitic Graphite (HOPG). For the purpose of improving the understanding of the fundamental behavior of this technologically important material, additional forms of graphitic material such as Grafoil, Single Crystal Graphite (SCG) and polycrystalline natural graphite were explored for a comparative analysis. A novel technique utilizing a gasketed diamond-anvil cell is described that permits four probe resistivity measurements at pressures of up to 40 kbar and temperatures extending down to 2 K while maintaining the integrity of samples as fragile as graphite. The four-lead arrangement is designed to avoid contact and lead-wire resistances which might otherwise obscure the comparatively small resistance changes of interest typical of highly conductive materials. The data on HOPG can be fitted well to a model describing conduction along the c-axis as composed of two components acting in parallel: an ordinary metallic one and a tunnelling conduction between crystallites. The total conductivity was found to be a superposition of both conductivities, and their respective weights depend on the quality of the graphite material.

Hockey, R.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

128

Effect of Temperature on Biological Activated Carbon Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This experiment investigated the removal of CODMn, UV254, nitrate nitrogen and turbidity by the biological activated charcoal (BAC) reactor in the temperature of 4-18C and 19 to 26C. The result showed that the CODMn removal ability of BAC was limited ... Keywords: BAC, Nitrate nitrogen, turbidity, UV254

Yang Shidong; Liu Zhidong; Cui Fengguo; Zhang Lanhe

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep  

SciTech Connect

The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

Freed, A.D.; Raj, S.V.; Walker, K.P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

CO oxidation over ruthenium: identification of the catalytically active phases at near-atmospheric pressures  

SciTech Connect

CO oxidation was carried out over Ru(0001) and RuO2(110) thin film grown on Ru(0001) at various O2/CO ratios near atmospheric pressures. Reaction kinetics, coupled with in situ polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) and post-reaction Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements were used to identify the catalytically relevant phases at different reaction conditions. Under stoichiometric and reducing conditions at all reaction temperatures, as well as net-oxidizing reaction conditions below {approx}475 K, a reduced metallic phase with chemisorbed oxygen is the thermodynamically stable and catalytically active phase. On this surface CO oxidation occurs at surface defect sites, for example step edges. Only at net-oxidizing reaction conditions and above {approx}475 K is the RuO2 thin film grown on metallic Ru stable and active. However, RuO2 is not active itself without the existence of the metal substrate, suggesting the importance of a strong metal-substrate interaction (SMSI).

Gao, Feng; Goodman, Wayne D.

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

131

Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A System And Method To Determine Thermophysical Properties Of A Multi-Component Gas At Arbitrary Temperature And Pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to determine thermodynamic properties of a natural gas hydrocarbon, when the speed of sound in the gas is known at an arbitrary temperature and pressure. Thus, the known parameters are the sound speed, temperature, pressure, and concentrations of any dilute components of the gas. The method uses a set of reference gases and their calculated density and speed of sound values to estimate the density of the subject gas. Additional calculations can be made to estimate the molecular weight of the subject gas, which can then be used as the basis for mass flow calculations, to determine the speed of sound at standard pressure and temperature, and to determine various thermophysical characteristics of the gas.

Morrow, Thomas E. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Gilbert, AZ)

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

134

Stagnation pressure activated fuel release mechanism for hypersonic projectiles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A propulsion-assisted projectile has a body, a cowl forming a combustion section and a nozzle section. The body has a fuel reservoir within a central portion of the body, and a fuel activation system located along the central axis of the body and having a portion of the fuel activation system within the fuel reservoir. The fuel activation system has a fuel release piston with a forward sealing member where the fuel release piston is adapted to be moved when the forward sealing member is impacted with an air flow, and an air-flow channel adapted to conduct ambient air during flight to the fuel release piston.

Cartland, Harry E. (Menlo Park, CA); Hunter, John W. (San Diego, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Models for aqueous electrolyte mixtures for systems extending from dilute range to the fused salt: Evaluation of parameters to high temperatures and pressures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Models based on general equations for the excess Gibbs energy of the aqueous fluid provide thermodynamically consistent structures for evaluating and predicting aqueous electrolyte properties. These equations yield other quantities upon appropriate differentiation, including osmotic and activity coefficients, excess enthalpies, heat capacities, and volumes. For this reason a wide array of experimental data are available from which model parameters and their temperature or pressure dependence can be evaluated. For systems of moderate concentration, the most commonly used model at present is the ion-interaction approach and coworkers. For more concentrated solutions, including those extending to the fused salt, an alternate model based on a Margules-expansion and commonly used for nonelectrolytes was proposed. We discuss these two models and give examples of parameter evaluations for some geologically relevant systems to high temperatures and pressures; also we show applications of the models to calculations of solubility equilibria.

Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Development of a simultaneous Hugoniot and temperature measurement for preheated-metal shock experiments: Melting temperatures of Ta at pressures of 100 GPa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Equations of state of metals are important issues in earth science and planetary science. A major limitation of them is the lack of experimental data for determining pressure-volume and temperature of shocked metal simultaneously. By measuring them in a single experiment, a major source of systematic error is eliminated in determining from which shock pressure release pressure originates. Hence, a non-contact fast optical method was developed and demonstrated to simultaneously measure a Hugoniot pressure-volume (P{sub H}-V{sub H}) point and interfacial temperature T{sub R} on the release of Hugoniot pressure (P{sub R}) for preheated metals up to 1000 K. Experimental details in our investigation are (i) a Ni-Cr resistance coil field placed around the metal specimen to generate a controllable and stable heating source, (ii) a fiber-optic probe with an optical lens coupling system and optical pyrometer with ns time resolution to carry out non-contact fast optical measurements for determining P{sub H}-V{sub H} and T{sub R}. The shock response of preheated tantalum (Ta) at 773 K was investigated in our work. Measured data for shock velocity versus particle velocity at an initial state of room temperature was in agreement with previous shock compression results, while the measured shock data between 248 and 307 GPa initially heated to 773 K were below the Hugoniot evaluation from its off-Hugoniot states. Obtained interfacial temperatures on release of Hugoniot pressures (100-170 GPa) were in agreement with shock-melting points at initial ambient condition and ab initio calculations of melting curve. It indicates a good consistency for shock melting data of Ta at different initial temperatures. Our combined diagnostics for Hugoniot and temperature provides an important approach for studying EOS and the temperature effect of shocked metals. In particular, our measured melting temperatures of Ta address the current controversy about the difference by more than a factor of 2 between the melting temperatures measured under shock and those measured in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at {approx}100 GPa.

Li Jun; Zhou Xianming; Li Jiabo; Wu Qiang; Cai Lingcang; Dai Chengda [National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, Mianyang, 621900 (China)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated. 7 figs.

Khan, M.R.

1989-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

139

Development and Application of Insulated Drill Pipe for High Temperature, High Pressure Drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project aimed to extend the insulated drill pipe (IDP) technology already demonstrated for geothermal drilling to HTHP drilling in deep gas reservoirs where temperatures are high enough to pose a threat to downhole equipment such as motors and electronics. The major components of the project were: a preliminary design; a market survey to assess industry needs and performance criteria; mechanical testing to verify strength and durability of IDP; and development of an inspection plan that would quantify the ability of various inspection techniques to detect flaws in assembled IDP. This report is a detailed description of those activities.

Tom Champness; Tony Worthen; John Finger

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Numerical Modeling of Cased-hole Instability in High Pressure and High Temperature Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Down-hole damages such as borehole collapse, circulation loss and rock tensile/compressive cracking in the open-hole system are well understood at drilling and well completion stages. However, less effort has been made to understand the instability of cemented sections in High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) wells. The existing analysis shows that, in the perforation zones, casing/cement is subject to instability, particularly in the presence of cavities. This dissertation focuses on the instability mechanism of casing/cement in the non-perforated zones. We investigate the transient thermal behavior in the casing-cement-formation system resulting from the movement of wellbore fluid using finite element method. The critical value of down-hole stresses is identified in both wellbore heating and cooling effects. Differently with the heating effect, the strong cooling effect in a cased hole can produce significant tension inside casing/cement. The confining formation has an obvious influence on the stability of casing/cement. The proposed results reveal that the casing/cement system in the non-homogeneous formation behaves differently from that in homogeneous formation. With this in mind, a three-dimensional layered finite element model is developed to illustrate the casing/cement mechanical behavior in the non-homogeneous formation. The radial stress of cement sheath is found to be highly variable and affected by the contrast in Youngs moduli in the different formation layers. The maximum stress is predicted to concentrate in the casing-cement system confined by the sandstone. Casing wear in the cased-hole system causes significant casing strength reduction, possibly resulting in the casing-cement tangential collapse. In this study, an approach for calculating the stress concentration in the worn casing with considering temperature change is developed, based on boundary superposition. The numerical results indicate that the casing-cement system after casing wear will suffer from severe tangential instability due to the elevated compressive hoop stress. Gas migration during the cementing process results from the fluid cements inability to balance formation pore pressure. Past experience emphasized the application of chemical additives to reduce or control gas migration during the cementing process. This report presents the thermal and mechanical behaviors in a cased hole caused by created gas channels after gas migration. In conclusion, the size and the number of gas channels are two important factors in determining mechanical instability in a casing-cement system.

Shen, Zheng 1983-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Rate of change of pressure temperature protection system for a turbine  

SciTech Connect

In a steam turbine being driven from a source of the steam, a control system is described for protecting the turbine from undesirable steam pressure variation comprising: a. means for establishing an acceptable range of variation of actual steam pressure, b. means coupled to the acceptable pressure range establishing means for generating a first alarm signal only if the actual steam pressure is outside the acceptable range, c. means for generating a second signal representing an acceptable rate of change of the actual pressure, and d. means coupled to the first alarm signal generating means and the second signal generating means for generating a second alarm signal only if the actual rate of change of steam pressure exceeds the acceptable rate of change and the actual steam pressure is outside of the acceptable range of steam pressure variation.

Vecchio, R.J.; Gram, J.A.

1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

142

Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Survey of processes for high temperature-high pressure gas purification. [52 references  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the optimum operating efficiency of a combined-cycle electric power generating system, it is necessary to provide gas treatment processes capable of operating at high temperatures (> 1000/sup 0/F) and high pressures (> 10 atm (absolute)). These systems will be required to condition the inlet stream to the gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) to be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. A survey of the available and developmental processes for the removal of these various contaminant materials has been conducted. Based on the data obtained from a variety of sources, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of potential cleanup processes in view of the overall system needs. The results indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup systems (for the removal of H/sub 2/S, particulate matter, alkali, and nitrogen compounds) capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for turbine use will not be available for some time.

Meyer, J.P.; Edwards, M.S.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: high-temperature, high-pressure gas purification  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure optimum operating efficiencies for combined-cycle electric generating systems, it is necessary to provide gas treatment equipment capable of operating at high temperatures (>1000/sup 0/F) and high pressure (>10 atmospheres absolute). This equipment, when assembled in a process train, will be required to condition the inlet stream to a gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) so that it will be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. In this work, a survey of the available and developmental equipment for the removal of particulate matter and sulfur compounds has been conducted. In addition, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of alternative process configurations in light of overall system needs. Results from this study indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup equipment capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for high-temperatue turbine operation will not be available for some time.

Meyer, J. P.; Edwards, M. S.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Evaluation of ceramic filters for high-temperature/high-pressure fine particulate control. Final report Dec 75-Jun 76  

SciTech Connect

High temperature gas turbines used to generate electric power require gas streams virtually free of particulate matter. Gas streams from high temperature, high pressure coal processes, such as low Btu gasification and pressurized fluidized bed combustion, require considerable particulate removal. In order to maintain high thermal efficiency the particulate clean-up must be done at the high temperatures of the process. Many new concepts for fine particulate control at elevated temperatures are presently being proposed. One such concept utilizes ceramic membrane filters. The report gives results of a study to analyze and evaluate ceramic membrane filters as a new, fine particulate (<3 um) control concept for high-temperature (approx. 900/sup 0/C), high-pressure processes. Several ceramic filters were identified as potential candidates for fine particulate removal. There does not seem to be any inherent material limitation to high-temperature operation; however, no evidence of high-temperature filter application was found. The filters typically are 2-6 mm thick, cylindrical, and available with various pore sizes, increasing upward from 0.5 um. These elements may be suitable for fine particulate control in hot gas streams. The most promising, although undeveloped, idea for a ceramic filter is to use ceramic honeycomb monoliths similar to those available for catalyst supports and heat exchangers. The walls of the monoliths are about 0.2-0.4 mm thick and of varying pore size and porosity. Geometric configurations are available which would force the gas to flow through the membrane walls. Pressure losses would be very small relative to those of standard ceramic filter elements. The application of ceramic monoliths to high-temperature fine particulate control appears very promising. It is strongly recommended that this concept be investigated further.

Poe, G.G.; Evans, R.M.; Bonnett, W.S.; Waterland, L.R.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Fluid transport properties of rock fractures at high pressure and temperature. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Initial stages of a study on the fluid transport properties of rock at high pressure and temperature are reported. Emphasis is placed on the mechanical hydraulic interactions, in an attempt to clarify the process of fracture closure and its influence on fracture permeability. To determine the fluid transport properties of a fracture, the effect of surface roughness, geometry, and filling on fracture permeability was investigated. Permeability of these fractures was measured at various effective normal stresses at room temperature. The law of effective stress appears valid for fractures without filling but permeability of filled fractures is more sensitive to confining pressure than pore pressure. Permeability of smooth surfaces varied 5 to 0.5 darcys over a range of effective stresses from 0 to 3000 bars. Filled fractures were an order of magnitude more permeable.

Engelder, T.; Scholz, C.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Development of Advanced Flow-Through External Pressure-Balanced Reference Electrode for Temperatures up to 400 degrees C.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of an advanced flow-through external pressure-balanced reference electrode opens the door for more accurate measurements of corrosion potential, redox potential, and pH in power plant waters at temperatures up to 400 degrees C. Such measurements allow a more accurate assessment of an environment's corrosivity and promote more effective corrosion control.

1998-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

148

Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect

With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Externally controlled pressure and temperature microreactor for in situ x-ray diffraction, visual and spectroscopic reaction investigations under supercritical and subcritial conditions  

SciTech Connect

A microreactor has been developed for in situ, spectroscopic investigations of materials and reaction processes with full external pressure and temperature control from ambient conditions to 400 C and 310 bar. The sample chamber is in direct contact with an external manifold, whereby gases, liquids or fluids can be injected and their activities controlled prior to and under investigation conditions. The microreactor employs high strength, single crystal moissanite windows which allow direct probe beam interaction with a sample to investigate in situ reaction processes and other materials properties. The relatively large volume of the cell, along with full optical accessibility and external temperature and pressure control, make this reaction cell well suited for experimental investigations involving any combination of gas, fluid, and solid interactions. The microreactor's capabilities are demonstrated through an in situ x-ray diffraction study of the conversion of a meta-serpentine sample to magnesite under high pressure and temperature. Serpentine is one of the mineral candidates for the implementation of mineral carbonation, an intriguing carbon sequestration candidate technology.

Diefenbacher, J.; McKelvy, M.; Chizemeshya, A.V.; Wolf, G.H. (ASU)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

150

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Process for CO.sub.2 capture using zeolites from high pressure and moderate temperature gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating CO.sub.2 from a gas stream comprised of CO.sub.2 and other gaseous constituents using a zeolite sorbent in a swing-adsorption process, producing a high temperature CO.sub.2 stream at a higher CO.sub.2 pressure than the input gas stream. The method utilizes CO.sub.2 desorption in a CO.sub.2 atmosphere and effectively integrates heat transfers for optimizes overall efficiency. H.sub.2O adsorption does not preclude effective operation of the sorbent. The cycle may be incorporated in an IGCC for efficient pre-combustion CO.sub.2 capture. A particular application operates on shifted syngas at a temperature exceeding 200.degree. C. and produces a dry CO.sub.2 stream at low temperature and high CO.sub.2 pressure, greatly reducing any compression energy requirements which may be subsequently required.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV); Stevens, Robert W. (Morgantown, WV)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

152

Quantifying Differences between 2-m Temperature Observations and Reanalysis Pressure-Level Temperatures in Northwestern North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In northwestern North America, which is a large area with complex physiography, Climatic Research Unit (CRU) Time Series, version 2.1, (TS 2.1) gridded monthly mean 2-m temperatures are systematically lower than interpolated monthly averaged North ...

Christian Reuten; R. Dan Moore; Garry K. C. Clarke

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Mechanical and transport properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Task II. Fracture permeability of crystalline rocks as a function of temperature, pressure, and hydrothermal alteration. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pore-fluid chemical interactions on both short and long time scales can significantly change the permeability of a rock. Measurement of the permeability variations requires adaption and modification on standard measurement systems, with special attention given to pore-fluid flow rates and metal corrosion of system components. In this report, system requirements and capabilities are reviewed, analyzed, and recommendations made. Special attention is given to the choice of corrosion resistant metals, fluid-flow systems, back-pressure systems, jacketing materials, and flow-rate measurement. On the basis of this study, an economical, highly flexible, permeability system was designed and built. The system allows measurement of permeability over the darcy to nanodarcy range, using geologically meaningful, chemically reactive, pore fluids under constant volume flow rates as small as 0.2 ml/day at temperatures in excess of 300C, fluid pressures to 20 MPa, and confining pressures to 100 MPa. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Johnson, B.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

A diamond anvil cell with resistive heating for high pressure and high temperature x-ray diffraction and absorption studies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe a prototype of a diamond anvil cell (DAC) for high pressure/high temperature studies. This DAC combines the use of a resistive oven of 250 W power in a very small volume, associated with special conical seats for Boehler-type diamond anvils in order to have a large angular acceptance. To protect the diamond anvils from burning and to avoid the oven oxidation, the heated DAC is enclosed in a vacuum chamber. The assemblage was used to study the melting curve of germanium at high pressure (up to 20 GPa) and high temperature (up to 1200 K) using x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Pasternak, Sebastien; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Pascarelli, Sakura; Zhang Lin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Poloni, Roberta [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble, Cedex (France); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona Spain (Spain); Canny, Bernard [IMPMC-CNRS UMR, 7590 Universite Paris VI, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Coulet, Marie-Vanessa [IM2NP-UMR CNRS, 6242 Universite Paul Cezanne Campus de St Jerome, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

OH time-histories during oxidation of n-heptane and methylcyclohexane at high pressures and temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OH concentration time-histories during n-heptane and methylcyclohexane (MCH) oxidation were measured behind reflected shock waves in a heated, high-pressure shock tube. Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1121 to 1332 K, pressures near 15 atm, and initial fuel concentrations of 750 and 1000 ppm (by volume), and an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with O{sub 2} as the oxidizer and argon as the bath gas. OH concentrations were measured using narrow-linewidth ring-dye laser absorption near the R-branchhead of the OH A-X(0,0) system at 306.47 nm. These current measurements together with our recent results for n-dodecane oxidation [S.S. Vasu, D.F. Davidson, Z. Hong, V. Vasudevan, R.K. Hanson, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.05.006] provide critically needed validation targets for jet fuel surrogate kinetic mechanisms and further improve understanding of high-pressure, high-temperature oxidation chemistry. Detailed comparisons of these OH time-histories with the predictions of various kinetic mechanisms were made. Sensitivity and pathway analyses for these reference fuel components were performed, leading to reaction rate recommendations with improved model performance. Current results are the first quantitative measurements of OH time-histories during high-pressure oxidation of these fuels, and hence are a critical step toward development of accurate reaction models for jet fuel surrogates. (author)

Vasu, Subith S.; Davidson, David F.; Hanson, Ronald K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Low pressure storage of methane on interlayered clays for potential vehicular applications. [Comparison with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Inexpensive, high surface area sorbents were prepared by treating naturally occurring hectorite and bentonite clays with aluminum chlorohydroxide, zirconium chlorohydroxide, or silica-sol solutions. Data were obtained comparing these interlayered clays with activated carbons and zeolites as sorbents for the low pressure storage of methane onboard natural gas powered vehicles. Methane sorption at pressures up to 7 MPa (1000 psig) resembled a Langmuir-type curve with a saturation sorption equal to about six micromoles of methane per square meter of surface area. Even at low pressures, methane sorption capacity was largely determined by surface area. At 2.2 MPa (300 psig), the best interlayered clay sorbed less than one-third the methane sorbed by an equal volume of Witco grade 9JXC activated carbon. Both the activated carbons and interlayered clays exhibited excellent release-on-demand capability. Driving ranges were calculated for a 2500-lb automobile equipped with three, 35-liter fuel tanks filled with sorbent and pressurized to 3.6 MPa (500 psig) with methane. Enough methane was stored with the best interlayered clay to travel 41 km (25 mi). With 9JXC carbon, one could travel 82 km (51 mi). The same vehicle equipped with high pressure (2400 psig) fuel tanks having the same volume but containing no sorbent would have a 190 km (118 mi) range.

Innes, R.A.; Lutinski, F.E.; Occelli, M.L.; Kennedy, J.V.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Phase Behavior of H[subscript 2] + H[subscript 2]O at High Pressures and Low Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Whereas several clathrate-like structures are known to exist from mixtures of H{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O under pressure, the combined high-pressure and low-temperature region of the phase diagram remains largely unexplored. Here we report a combined Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on the low-temperature region of the phase diagram. Below 120 K, the H{sub 2} vibron originating from the clathrate 2 (C{sub 2}) phase splits into two distinct components, yet X-ray diffraction measurements reveal no structural change between room temperature and 11 K. We suggest that the two vibrons of the C{sub 2} phase at low temperature originate from vibrational transitions of hydrogen molecules in the ground and first excited rotational energy levels. At 1 GPa we observe the clathrate 1 (C{sub 1}) phase to persist to the lowest temperature measured (80 K). Upon decompression from the C{sub 2} phase we observed the appearance of cubic ice (I{sub c}), which converted to a new phase before transforming to the C{sub 1} phase. The structure of the new phase is consistent with a water framework similar to {alpha}-quartz; the structure could also be related to the tetragonal clathrate phase reported previously for nitrogen and argon guests.

Strobel, Timothy A.; Somayazulu, Maddury; Hemley, Russell J. (CIW)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

158

Phase Diagram and Physical Properties of H[subscript 2]O at High Pressures and temperatures: Applications to Planetary Interiors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Here we discuss the phase diagram and physical properties of H{sub 2}O under pressure-temperature conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Recent studies show that the melting curve of H{sub 2}O increases rapidly above a recently discovered triple point at approximately 35 to 47 GPa and 1000 K, indicating a large increase in {Delta}V/{Delta}S (volume versus entropy change) and associated changes in the physical properties of H{sub 2}O at high pressures and temperatures. Existence of the triple point is thought to be associated with the formation of a superionic phase, dynamically-disordered ice VII, or extension of the ice VII-ice X phase boundary; although the precise pressure and temperature of the triple point, curvature of the melting line, and nature of the solid-solid transition below the triple point all remain to be further explored. The steep increase in the melting curve of H{sub 2}O at high pressures and temperatures has important implications on our understanding of planetary interiors. Depending on its curvature, the melting line of H{sub 2}O may intersect the isentropes of Neptune and Uranus as well as the geotherm of Earth's lower mantle. Furthermore, if the triple point is due to the occurrence of the theoretically predicted superionic phase, besides leading to significant ionic conductivity, fast proton diffusion would cause enhanced chemical reactivity and formation of complex compounds in these planets. For example, reaction of H{sub 2}O with iron and other metals to form metal hydrides such as FeH{sub x} could provide a mechanism for incorporation of hydrogen as a light element into Earth's core. The equation of state of water is also presented as it pertains to the properties of hydrous fluid and melt phases in the mantle.

Lin, Jung-Fu; Schwegler, Eric; Yoo, Choong-Shik (LLNL)

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

159

Deflagration Behavior of PBXN-109 and Composition B at High Pressures and Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report deflagration rate measurements on PBXN-109 (RDWAVHTPB) and Composition B (RXDTTNThrvax) at pressures from 1,500-100,000 psi (10-700 MPa). This was done with the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner, in which embedded wires are used to record the time-of-arrival of the burn front in the cylindrical sample as a function of pressure. The propellant samples are 6.4 mm in diameter and 6.4 mm long, with burn wires inserted between samples. Burning on the cylindrical surface is inhibited with an epoxy or polyurethane layer. With this direct measurement we do not have to account for product gas equation of state or heat losses in the system, and the burn wires allow detection of irregular burning. We report deflagration results for PBXN-109 as received, and also after it has been damaged by heating. The burn behavior of pristine PBXN-109 is very regular, and exhibits a reduction in pressure exponent from 1.32 to 0.85 at pressures above 20,000 psi (135 MPa). When PBXN-109 is thermally damaged by heating to 170-180 C, the deflagration rate is increased by more than a factor of 10. This appears to be a physical effect, as the faster burning may be explained by an increase in surface area. Our results with Composition B show an apparent 2nd order pressure dependence for initial deflagration, followed by deconsolidation and onset of very rapid and erratic burning. The deconsolidation may be the result of the TNT melting as heat flows into the sample.

Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F

2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

160

Hydrogen Selective Inorganic membranes for Gas Separations under High Pressure Intermediate Temperature Hydrocarbonic Envrionment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this project, we have successfully developed a full scale commercially ready carbon molecular sieve (CMS) based membrane for applications in H{sub 2} recovery from refinery waste and other aggressive gas streams. Field tests at a refinery pilot plant and a coal gasification facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to recovery hydrogen from hydrotreating and raw syngas respectively. High purity H{sub 2} and excellent stability of the membrane permeance and selectivity were obtained in testing conducted over >500 hours at each site. The results from these field tests as well as laboratory testing conclude that the membranes can be operated at high pressures (up to 1,000 psig) and temperatures (up to 300 C) in presence of aggressive contaminants, such as sulfur and nitrogen containing species (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, etc), condensable hydrocarbons, tar-like species, heavy metals, etc. with no observable effect on membrane performance. By comparison, similar operating conditions and/or environments would rapidly destroy competing membranes, such as polymeric, palladium, zeolitic, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved through recovering H{sub 2} from refinery waste gas using this newly developed CMS membrane. Annual savings of $2 to 4MM/year (per 20,000 scfd of waste gas) can be realized by recovering the H{sub 2} for reuse (versus fuel). Projecting these values over the entire US market, potential H{sub 2} savings from refinery waste gases on the order of 750 to 1,000MM scfd and $750 to $1,000MM per year are possible. In addition to the cost savings, potential energy savings are projected to be ca. 150 to 220 tBTU/yr and CO{sub 2} gas emission reductions are projected to be ca. 5,000 to 6,500MMtons/year. The full scale membrane bundle developed as part of this project, i.e., 85 x 30 inch ceramic membrane tubes packaged into a full ceramic potting, is an important accomplishment. No comparable commercial scale product exists in the inorganic membrane field. Further, this newly developed full scale bundle concept can be extended to other thin film inorganic membrane technology (Pd, zeolite, etc), providing a potential commercialization pathway for these membrane materials that demonstrate high potential in a variety of separation applications yet remain a laboratory 'novelty' for lack of a full scale support. Overall, the project has been highly successful and all of the project objectives have been met. We have developed the first of its kind commercial scale carbon molecular sieve membrane and demonstrated its performance in field testing under aggressive operating conditions and in the presence of chemical contaminants that would rapidly destroy alternative organic and inorganic membranes. This innovative membrane permits H{sub 2} recovery from gas streams that up until now have not been successfully treated with membrane or conventional technology. Our end user participant is currently pursuing the field demonstration of this membrane for hydrogen recovery at its refinery site.

Rich Ciora; Paul KT Liu

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies of adsorbates on Pt(111): Studies of CO at high pressures and temperatures, coadsorbed with olefins and its role as a poison in ethylene hydrogenation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High pressure high temperature CO adsorption and coadsorption with ethylene and propylene on Pt(111) was monitored in situ with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG). At high pressures and high temperatures, CO dissociates on a Pt(111) surface to form carbon. At 400 torr CO pressure and 673K, CO modifies the Pt(111) surface through a carbonyl intermediate, and dissociates to leave carbon on the surface. SFG was used to follow the CO peak evolution from monolayer adsorption in ultra high vacuum (UHV) to 400 torr CO pressure. At this high pressure, a temperature dependence study from room temperature to 823K was carried out. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to identify carbon on the surface CO coadsorption with ethylene and CO coadsorption with propylene studies were carried out with 2-IR 1-visible SFG. With this setup, two spectral ranges covering the C-H stretch range and the CO stretch range can be monitored simultaneously. The coadsorption study with ethylene reveals that after 5L ethylene exposure on a Pt(111) surface to form ethylidyne , CO at high pressures cannot completely displace the ethylidyne from the surface. Instead, CO first adsorbs on defect sites at low pressures and then competes with ethylidyne for terrace sites at high pressures. Propylene coadsorption with CO at similar conditions shows that propylidyne undergoes conformation changes with increased CO pressure and at 1 torr, is absent from the Pt(111) surface. Experiments on CO poisoning of ethylene hydrogenation was carried by 2-IR 1-visible SFG. At 1 torr CO,10 torr ethylene and 100 torr hydrogen, CO was found to block active sites necessary for ethylene hydrogenation, Above 425K, CO desorbs from the surface to allow ethylene hydrogenation to occur. The gas phase species were monitored by gas chromatography.

Kung, Kyle Yi

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the use of highly dispersed catalysts for the pretreatment of coal by mild hydrogenation, (2) to identify the active forms of the catalysts under reaction conditions and (3) to clarify the mechanisms of catalysis. The ultimate objective is to ascertain if mild catalytic hydrogenation resulting in very limited or no coal solubilization is an advantageous pretreatment for the transformation of coal into transportable fuels. The experimental program will focus upon the development of effective methods of impregnating coal with catalysts, evaluating the conditions under which the catalysts are most active and establishing the relative impact of improved impregnation on conversion and product distributions obtained from coal hydrogenation. Liquefaction experiments of solvent-treated and untreated Blind Canyon (DECS-6) and Texas lignite (DECS-1) have been performed using ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) and bis (dicarbonylcyclopentadienyl) iron (CPI) as catalyst precursors using temperature-staged conditions (275{degrees}C, 30 min; 425{degrees}C, 30 min). Solid state {sup 13}C NMR analysis was carried out for each coal and for selected residues. 12 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Representative Air Temperature of Thermally Heterogeneous Urban Areas Using the Measured Pressure Gradient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to measure an area-averaged ground air temperature based on the hydrostatic equation is shown. The method was devised to overcome the problem of finding the most representative surface air temperature over a wide region, a problem that ...

Hirofumi Sugawara; Ken-ichi Narita; Takehiko Mikami

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Research on Active Power Factor Correction of the Electronic Ballast for High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Based on L6563  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the design of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballast. Two measures are proposed to improve the power factor of high-pressure sodium lamp electronic ballasts from the definition of harmonic ... Keywords: high-pressure sodium lamps, electronic ballast, active power factor correction, L6563

Sun Jing

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

High-temperature treatment of In-doped CZT crystals grown by the high-pressure Bridgman method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated the effect of high-temperature treatment of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te:In single crystals using Hall-effect measurements, medium- and high-temperature annealing under various deviations from stoichiometry, and infra-red (IR) transmission microscopy Annealing at ~730 K sharply increased the electrical conductivity (by ~1-2 orders-of-magnitude). Plots of the temperature- and cadmium-pressure dependences of the electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility were obtained. Treating previously annealed Cd-samples under a Te overpressure at 1070 K allowed us to restore their resistance to its initial high values. The main difference in comparing this material with CdTe was its lowered electron density. We explained our results within the framework of Krgers theory of quasi-chemical reactions between point defects in solids.

Bolotnikov A.; Fochuk, P.; Nakonechnyi, I.; Kopach, O.; Verzhak, Ye.; Panchuk, O.; Komar, V.; Terzin, I.; Kutnij, V.; Rybka, A.; Nykoniuk, Ye.; Camarda, G.C.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.H.; Yang, G.; James, R.B.

2012-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

166

Measurement of density, temperature, and electrical conductivity of a shock-compressed nonideal nitrogen plasma in the megabar pressure range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kinematic and thermodynamic parameters of shock-compressed liquid nitrogen are measured behind the front of a plane shock wave using plane wave and hemispherical shock wave generators. In these experiments, high values of compression parameters (shock-compressed hydrogen density {approx} 3.25 g/cm{sup 3} and temperature T{approx} 56000 K at a pressure of P {approx} 265 GPa) are attained. The density, pressure, temperature, and electrical conductivity of the nonideal plasma of shock-compressed liquid nitrogen are measured. A nearly isochoric behavior of the nitrogen shock adiabat is observed in the pressure range P = 100-300 GPa. The thermodynamics of shock-compressed nitrogen is an alyzed using the model of the equation of state in the quasi-chemical representation (SAHA code) as well as the semiempirical wide-range equation of state developed at the Institute of Experimental Physics. Experimental results are interpreted on the basis of calculations as the fixation of the boundary of transition of shock-compressed nitrogen from the polymer phase to the state of a strongly nonideal plasma at P {approx} 100 GPa, {approx} 3.4 g/cm{sup 3}.

Mochalov, M. A.; Zhernokletov, M. V.; Il'kaev, R. I.; Mikhailov, A. L. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN), Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, V. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Iosilevskiy, I. L., E-mail: ilios@orc.r [Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN), Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Mezhevov, A. B.; Kovalev, A. E.; Kirshanov, S. I.; Grigor'eva, Yu. A.; Novikov, M. G.; Shuikin, A. N. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Russian Federation)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Thermoelastic properties of ReB[subscript 2] at high pressures and temperatures and comparison with Pt, Os, and Re  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have measured the phase stability and thermoelastic equation of state of ultrahard rhenium diboride at pressures up to 30 GPa and temperatures up to 2500 K using a laser heated diamond anvil cell in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray diffraction. ReB{sub 2} is shown to be stable throughout this pressure and temperature region. The ratio of the c-axis to the a-axis provides a monitor of the annealing of plastic stresses during compression. We show that ReB{sub 2} has a small thermal anisotropy but a large mechanical anisotropy. Combining this new data set with previously existing results from a large volume press yields a thermoelastic equation of state with a Grueneisen parameter of 2.4 (0.08) and a q of 2.7. A comparison of ReB{sub 2} with other high electron density incompressible metals - Os, Re, and Pt - shows that ReB{sub 2} has the lowest thermal pressure and the highest bulk modulus.

Kavner, Abby; Armentrout, Matthew M.; Rainey, Emma S.G.; Xie, Miao; Weaver, Beth E.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Kaner, Richard B. (UCLA)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

168

Temperature Dependence of Evaporation Coefficient for Water Measured in Droplets in Nitrogen under Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaporation and the thermal accommodation coefficients for water in nitrogen were investigated by means of the analysis of evaporation of pure water droplet as a function of temperature. The droplet was levitated in an electrodynamic trap ...

D. Jakubczyk; M. Zientara; K. Kolwas; M. Kolwas

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

X-ray scattering intensities of water at extreme pressure and temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have calculated the coherent x-ray scattering intensity of several phases of water at 1500 and 2000 K under high pressure, using ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT). Our calculations span the molecular liquid, ice VII, and superionic solid phases, including the recently predicted symmetrically hydrogen bonded region of the superionic phase. We show that wide angle x-ray scattering intensity could be used to determine phase boundaries between these high pressure phases, and we compare the results for ice VII and superionic water. We compute simulated spectra and provide new atomic scattering form factors for water at extreme conditions, which take into account frequently neglected changes in ionic charge and electron delocalization. We show that our modifed atomic form factors allow for a nearly exact comaprison to the total x-ray scattering intensities calculated from DFT. Finally, we analyze the effect our new form factors have on determination of the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

170

Mechanical properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the final year of the grant, we have investigated (1) why the strengths of rocks decrease with increasing temperature and in the presence of water through study of the fracture process in Westerly granite and Sioux quartzite specimens deformed in extension (some in true tension), (2) frictional strengths of rocks at high temperatures, (3) the stability of boreholes in fractured rock, and (4) slip in biotite single crystals (in that biotite is probably the weakest and most ductile of the common constituents of crystalline rocks.

Friedman, M.; Bauer, S.J.; Chester, F.M.; Handin, J.; Hopkins, T.W.; Johnson, B.; Kronenberg, A.K.; Mardon, D.; Russell, J.E.

1987-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

171

Mechanical and transport properties of rocks at high temperatures and pressures. Task I. The physical nature of fracturing at depth. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The deformational behavior of granitic rocks is important to a wide variety of national and academic concerns. Both transient and steady state behavior at elevated temperature and pressure, in the presence and absence of excess H2O, have been investigated recently in solid pressure medium equipment and deformation mechanisms and empirical steady state flow laws have been determined. Efforts in the more precise gas and fluid pressure media apparatus have generally been concentrated on low pressure transient creep in order to evaluate effects of stress, temperature, pore pressure and, most recently, strain rate on failure times and static fatigue processes. Additional research is required and the stage is now set for a thorough physical understanding of the evolution from elastic-brittle, through transient (work-hardening)-semibrittle to steady-state-semibrittle to ductile flow of granitic rocks under both dry and wet (saline fluid pore pressure) conditions. 31 refs., 9 figs.

Carter, N.L.

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

172

Materials Reliability Program: Loading Effects on the Low-Temperature Crack Propagation Phenomenon in 182 Weld Metal in a Pressurize d Water Reactor Environment (MRP-285)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes results of a study of loading effects on the low-temperature crack propagation (LTCP) phenomenon in 182 weld metal in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

First principles simulation of a superionic phase of hydrogen fluoride (HF) at high pressures and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors have conducted Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen fluoride (HF) at pressures of 5-66 GPa along the 900 K isotherm. They predict a superionic phase at 33 GPa, where the fluorine atoms are fixed in a bcc lattice while the hydrogen atoms diffuse rapidly with a diffusion constant of between 2 x 10{sup -5} and 5 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s. They find that a transformation from asymmetric to symmetric hydrogen bonding occurs in HF at 66 GPa and 900 K. With superionic HF they have discovered a model system where symmetric hydrogen bonding occurs at experimentally achievable conditions. Given previous results on superionic H{sub 2}O[1,2,3] and NH{sub 3}[1], they conclude that high P,T superionic phases of electronegative element hydrides could be common.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

174

Feasibility study of underground energy storage using high-pressure, high-temperature water. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical, operational and economic feasibility study on the storage of energy as heated high pressure water in underground cavities that utilize the rock overburden for containment is presented. Handling peak load requirements of electric utility power networks is examined in some detail. The cavity is charged by heating water with surplus steaming capacity during periods of low power requirement. Later this hot water supplies steam to peaking turbines when high load demands must be met. This system can be applied to either new or existing power plants of nuclear or fossil fuel type. The round trip efficiency (into storage and back) is higher than any other system - over 90%. Capital costs are competitive and the environmental impact is quite benign. Detailed installation and design problems are studied and costs are estimated. The continental United States is examined for the most applicable geology. Formations favorable for these large cavities exist in widespread areas.

Dooley, J.L.; Frost, G.P.; Gore, L.A.; Hammond, R.P.; Rawson, D.L.; Ridgway, S.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

High Temperature and Pressure Steam-H2 Interaction with Candidate Advanced LWR Fuel Claddings  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work completed to evaluate cladding materials that could serve as improvements to Zircaloy in terms of accident tolerance. This testing involved oxidation resistance to steam or H{sub 2}-50% steam environments at 800-1350 C at 1-20 bar for short times. A selection of conventional alloys, SiC-based ceramics and model alloys were used to explore a wide range of materials options and provide guidance for future materials development work. Typically, the SiC-based ceramic materials, alumina-forming alloys and Fe-Cr alloys with {ge}25% Cr showed the best potential for oxidation resistance at {ge}1200 C. At 1350 C, FeCrAl alloys and SiC remained oxidation resistant in steam. Conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only {approx}18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application and high Cr contents raise concern about {alpha}{prime} formation. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H{sub 2} additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed in a H{sub 2}-50%H{sub 2}O environment at 10.3 bar. As some of the results regarding low-alloyed FeCrAl and Fe-Cr alloys were unexpected, further work is needed to fundamentally understand the minimum Cr and Al alloy contents needed for protective behavior in these environments in order to assist in alloy selection and guide alloy development.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Subsurface monitoring of reservoir pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and water content at the CAES Field Experiment, Pittsfield, Illinois: system design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This subsurface-instrumentation design has been developed for the first Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) field experiment to be performed in porous media. Energy storage will be accomplished by alternating the injection and withdrawal of compressed air in a confined sandstone aquifer near Pittsfield, Illinois. The overall experiment objective is to characterize the reservoir's geochemical and thermohydraulic response to imposed CAES conditions. Specific experiment objectives require monitoring: air-bubble development; thermal development; cyclic pressure response; reservoir dehydration; and water coning. Supporting these objectives, four parameters will be continuously monitored at depth in the reservoir. They are: temperature; pressure; pore-air relative humidity; and pore-water content. Reservoir temperatures and pressures will range to maximum values approaching 200/sup 0/C and 300 psi, respectively. Both pore-air relative humidity and pore-water content will range from approx. 0 to 100%. This report discusses: instrumentation design; sensor and sensor system calibration; field installation and testing; and instrument-system operation. No comprehensive off-the-shelf instrument package exists to adequately monitor CAES reservoir parameters at depth. The best available sensors were selected and adapted for use under expected ranges of reservoir conditions. The instrumentation design criteria required: suitable sensor accuracy; continuous monitoring capability; redundancy; maximum sensor integrity; contingency planning; and minimum cost-information ratio. Three wells will be instrumented: the injection/withdrawal (I/W) well and the two instrument wells. Sensors will be deployed by wireline suspension in both open and backfilled (with sand) wellbores. The sensors deployed in the I/W well will be retrievable; the instrument-well sensors will not.

Hostetler, D.D.; Childs, S.W.; Phillips, S.J.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

High pressure/high temperature hydrogen permeability in candidate Stirling engine alloys  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen permeation tests of eight high-temperature alloys were conducted in 20.7 MPa hydrogen at 923 to 1088 K for assessing suitability in Stirling engine application for heater head and heater head tubing. The iron-nickel-base alloys investigated included N-155, Incoloy 800 (IN 800), A-286, and 19-9DL, and cast alloys CRM-6D, SAF-11, and XF-818. Low carbon alloys Stellite 6B (6BLC), a cobalt-base wrought alloy, was also investigated. 15 refs.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Vesely, E.J. Jr.; Hill, V.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Equation of State and Material Property Measurements of Hydrogen Isotopes at the High-Pressure, High-Temperature, Insulator-Metal Transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-intensity laser was used to shock compress liquid deuterium to pressures between 0.22 and 3.4 megabars (Mbar). Shock density, pressure, and temperature were determined using a variety of experimental techniques and diagnostics. This pressure regime spans the transformation of deuterium from an insulating molecular fluid to an atomic metallic fluid. Data reveal a significant increase in compressibility and a temperature inflection near 1 Mbar, both indicative of such a transition. Single-wavelength reflectivity measurements of the shock front demonstrated that deuterium shocked above {approx}0.5 Mbar is indeed metallic. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

Cauble, R.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Silva, L. B. da; Gold, D. M.; Foord, M. E.; Budil, K. S.; Wallace, R. J.; Ng, A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Photo-Activated Low Temperature, Micro Fuel Cell Power Source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Key objective of this program is to identify electrodes that will make it possible to significantly reduce the operating temperature of micro-SOFC and thin film-based SOFCs. Towards this end, efforts are directed towards: (a) identifying the key rate limiting steps which limit presently utilized electrodes from performing at reduced temperatures, as well as, (b) investigating the use of optical, as opposed to thermal energy, as a means for photocatalyzing electrode reactions and enabling reduced operating temperatures. During Phase I, the following objectives were achieved: (a) assembly and testing of our unique Microprobe Thin Film Characterization System; (b) fabrication of the model cathode materials system in thin film form by both PLD and ink jet printing; and (c) the successful configuration and testing of the model materials as cathodes in electrochemical cells. A further key objective (d) to test the potential of illumination in enhancing electrode performance was also achieved.

Harry L. Tuller

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

High temperature post-irradiation performance of spent pressurized-water-reactor fuel rods under dry-storage conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-irradiation studies on failure mechanisms of well characterized PWR rods were conducted for up to a year at 482, 510 and 571/sup 0/C in unlimited air and inert gas atmospheres. No cladding breaches occurred even though the tests operated many orders of magnitude longer in time than the lifetime predicted by Blackburn's analyses. The extended lifetime is due to significant creep strain of the Zircaloy cladding which decreases the internal rod pressures. The cladding creep also contributes to radial cracks, through the external oxide and internal FCCI layers, which propagated into and arrested in an oxygen stabilized ..cap alpha..-Zircaloy layer. There were no signs of either additional cladding hydriding, stress-corrosion cracking or fuel pellet degradation. Using the Larson-Miller formulization, a conservative maximum storage temperature of 400/sup 0/C is recommended to ensure a 1000-year cladding lifetime. This accounts for crack propagation and assumes annealing of the irradiation-hardened cladding.

Einziger, R.E.; Atkin, S.D.; Stellrecht, D.E.; Pasupathi, V.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Analyses and applications of pressure, flow rate, and temperature measurements during a perforating run. [Measurement while perforating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perforating technology has undergone significant advances during the last decade. Tubing-conveyed perforating, underbalanced perforating, high-shot-density guns, better shaped charges, and improved gun systems have contributed to safer operations and improved productivity of the perforated completions. A recent development described in this paper is a perforating tool that makes real-time downhole measurements (including pressure, flow rate, temperature, gamma ray, casing-collar locator (CCL), and cable tension) during a perforating run and can selectively fire a number of guns at different depths or times. In addition to providing better control of the perforating process, the simultaneous downhole measurements can provide in a single trip a production log, conventional well tests before and after perforating, and a fill-up or slug test soon after perforating for underbalanced conditions. Thus, the completion can be evaluated in real time and any needed remedial reperforating can be performed while the gun is still in the hole. Other applications include limited-entry perforating, monitoring of bottomhole pressure (BHP) during minifracture jobs, better depth control with a gamma ray detector, fluid-level monitoring, and underbalance control. The applications of these measurements, with field data obtained with the Measurement While Perforating (MWP{sup SM}) tool, are the subject of this paper. Examples show the capabilities and the versatility of the MWP tool.

Tariq, S.M. (Schlumberger Perforating and Testing Center (US)); Ayestaran, L.C. (Schlumberger Well Services (US))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

20th Century Reanalysis Project Ensemble Gateway: 56 Estimates of World Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, and Wind, 1871-2010  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

This site provides data from the 20th Century Reanalysis Project, offering temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind predictions in 200 km sections all around the earth from 1871 to 2010, every 6 hours, based on historical data. The ensemble mean and standard deviation for each value were calculated over a set of 56 simulations. Data for each of the 56 ensemble members are included here. The dataset consists of files in netCDF 4 format that are available for download from the National Energy Research. The goal of the 20th Century Reanalysis Project is to use a Kalman filter-based technique to produce a global trophospheric circulation dataset at four-times-daily resolution back to 1871. The only dataset available for the early 20th century consists of error-ridden hand-drawn analyses of the mean sea level pressure field over the Northern Hemisphere. Modern data assimilation systems have the potential to improve upon these maps, but prior to 1948, few digitized upper-air sounding observations are available for such a reanalysis. The global tropospheric circulation dataset will provide an important validation check on the climate models used to make 21st century climate projections....[copied from http://portal.nersc.gov/project/20C_Reanalysis/

185

Thermal shock modeling of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under active cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal shock resistance is one of the most important parameters in Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) since it determines their performance in various applications. In this paper, due to the fact that the material parameters of UHTCs are very sensitive ... Keywords: Active cooling, Target temperature, Thermal protection system, Thermal shock resistance, Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics

Weiguo Li; Fan Yang; Daining Fang

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

TEMperature Pressure ESTimation of a homogeneous boiling fuel-steel mixture in an LMFBR core. [TEMPEST code  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes TEMPEST, a simple computer program for the temperature and pressure estimation of a boiling fuel-steel pool in an LMFBR core. The time scale of interest of this program is large, of the order of ten seconds. Further, the vigorous boiling in the pool will generate a large contact, and hence a large heat transfer between fuel and steel. The pool is assumed to be a uniform mixture of fuel and steel, and consequently vapor production is also assumed to be uniform throughout the pool. The pool is allowed to expand in volume if there is steel melting at the walls. In this program, the total mass of liquid and vapor fuel is always kept constant, but the total steel mass in the pool may change by steel wall melting. Because of a lack of clear understanding of the physical phenomena associated with the progression of a fuel-steel mixture at high temperature, various input options have been built-in to enable one to perform parametric studies. For example, the heat transfer from the pool to the surrounding steel structure may be controlled by input values for the heat transfer coefficients, or, the heat transfer may be calculated by a correlation obtained from the literature. Similarly, condensation of vapor on the top wall can be specified by input values of the condensation coefficient; the program can otherwise calculate condensation according to the non-equilibrium model predictions. Meltthrough rates of the surrounding steel walls can be specified by a fixed melt-rate or can be determined by a fraction of the heat loss that goes to steel-melting. The melted steel is raised to the pool temperature before it is joined with the pool material. Several applications of this program to various fuel-steel pools in the FFTF and the CRBR cores are discussed.

Pyun, J.J.; Majumdar, D.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Strength and ductility of room-dry and water-saturated igneous rocks at low pressures and temperatures to partial melting. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rock types that are likely candidates for drilling were tested. Reported herein are the short-time ultimate strengths and ductilities determined at temperatures of 25/sup 0/ to 1050/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/ of (a) room-dry Mt. Hood Andesite, Cuerbio Basalt, and Charcoal (St. Cloud Gray) Granodiorite at confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa, (b) water-saturated specimens of the same three rocks at zero effective pressure (both pore and confining pressures of 50 MPa), and (c) room-dry Newberry Rhyolite Obsidian at 0 and 50 MPa. These strengths are then compared with the stresses developed at the wall of a borehole in an elastic medium at the appropriate temperatures and mean pressures to assess the problem of borehole stability. (MHR)

Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Higgs, N.G.; Lantz, J.R.; Bauer, S.J.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

THE RELATION BETWEEN POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE, COSMIC-RAY PRESSURE, AND COSMIC-RAY ESCAPE FOR NON-RELATIVISTIC SHOCKS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) are thought to be the dominant source of Galactic cosmic rays. This requires that at least 5% of the available energy is transferred to cosmic rays, implying a high cosmic-ray pressure downstream of SNR shocks. Recently, it has been shown that the downstream temperature in some remnants is low compared to the measured shock velocities, implying that additional pressure supported by accelerated particles is present. Here we use a two-fluid thermodynamic approach to derive the relation between post-shock fractional cosmic-ray pressure and post-shock temperature, assuming no additional heating beyond adiabatic heating in the shock precursor and with all non-adiabatic heating occurring at the subshock. The derived relations show that a high fractional cosmic-ray pressure is only possible if a substantial fraction of the incoming energy flux escapes from the system. Recently, a shock velocity and a downstream proton temperature were measured for a shock in the SNR RCW 86. We apply the two-fluid solutions to these measurements and find that the downstream fractional cosmic-ray pressure is at least 50% with a cosmic-ray energy flux escape of at least 20%. In general, in order to have 5% of the supernova energy to go into accelerating cosmic rays, on average the post-shock cosmic-ray pressure needs to be 30% for an effective cosmic-ray adiabatic index of {gamma}{sub cr} = 4/3.

Vink, Jacco; Helder, Eveline A.; Schure, K. M. [Astronomical Institute, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Yamazaki, Ryo, E-mail: j.vink@astro-uu.n [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

189

Prediction of formation of cubic boron nitride by construction of temperature-pressure phase diagram at the nanoscale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The size-dependent phase diagram of BN was developed on the basis of the nanothermodynamic theory. Our studied results suggest that cubic BN (c-BN) is more stable than hexagonal BN (h-BN) in the deep nanometer scale and the triple point of c-BN, h-BN and liquid shifts toward the lower temperature and pressure with decreasing the crystal size. Moreover, surface stress, which is determined by the experimental conditions, is the main reason to influence the formation of c-BN nuclei. The developed phase diagram of BN could help us to exploit new techniques for the fabrication of c-BN nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: The size-dependent phase diagram of BN was developed on the basis of nanothermodynamic theory and it can be used to predict whether cubic BN (c-BN) can be formed at a given condition. Highlights: > Size-dependent phase diagram of BN is constructed. > Cubic BN is more stable than hexagonal BN in the deep nanometer scale. > Formation of nanosized cubic BN depends on surface stress.

Hu Shengliang, E-mail: hsliang@yeah.net [Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Yang Jinlong; Liu Wei; Dong Yingge; Cao Shirui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Liu Jun [Science and Technology on Electronic Test and Measurement Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Corrosion of U sub x Zr sub 1-x C sub 1-y nuclear fuel materials in hydrogen gas at high pressures and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the thermodynamics and kinetics of the corrosion of U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub 1-y} in hydrogen gas. It describes how corrosion rates are influenced by variables such as pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate. A model is developed which agrees with experimental steady state corrosion rates at 1 atm between 2670 and 3100 K. Under these conditions the corrosion flux is rate limited by the vapor phase transport of Zr(g) away from the solid surface to the bulk gas stream where the partial pressure of Zr(g) is determined by the congruently vaporizing surface composition. Extrapolation of the model to higher pressures indicates that Zr(g) transport should also be rate limiting at higher pressures but the corrosion rate should decrease with increased total pressure due to reduced gaseous diffusion rates. The model predicts that the corrosion rate will increase as the square root of gas velocity for a given temperature and pressure. Calculations demonstrating the effects of gas velocity are in agreement with experimental studies. The addition of hydrocarbons to the hydrogen gas stream is predicted to decrease the corrosion rates significantly.

Butt, D.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Corrosion of U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub 1-y} nuclear fuel materials in hydrogen gas at high pressures and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the thermodynamics and kinetics of the corrosion of U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub 1-y} in hydrogen gas. It describes how corrosion rates are influenced by variables such as pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate. A model is developed which agrees with experimental steady state corrosion rates at 1 atm between 2670 and 3100 K. Under these conditions the corrosion flux is rate limited by the vapor phase transport of Zr(g) away from the solid surface to the bulk gas stream where the partial pressure of Zr(g) is determined by the congruently vaporizing surface composition. Extrapolation of the model to higher pressures indicates that Zr(g) transport should also be rate limiting at higher pressures but the corrosion rate should decrease with increased total pressure due to reduced gaseous diffusion rates. The model predicts that the corrosion rate will increase as the square root of gas velocity for a given temperature and pressure. Calculations demonstrating the effects of gas velocity are in agreement with experimental studies. The addition of hydrocarbons to the hydrogen gas stream is predicted to decrease the corrosion rates significantly.

Butt, D.P.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Urbanization impact on temperature change in China with emphasis on land cover change and human activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of urbanization on temperature trends in China was investigated with emphasis on two aspects of urbanization, land cover change and human activity. A new station classification scheme was developed to incorporate these two aspects by ...

Yan Li; Lijuan Zhu; Xinyi Zhao; Shuangcheng Li; Yan Yan

193

Ice Cloud Particle Size Distributions and Pressure-Dependent Terminal Velocities from In Situ Observations at Temperatures from 0 to ?86 C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this study is to derive ice particle terminal velocities from micron to cm sizes and for atmospheric pressures covering the range 2001000 hPa from data spanning a wide range of locations, temperatures, and altitudes and to ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield; Carl Schmitt; Aaron Bansemer

194

The correlation of 27 day period solar activity and daily maximum temperature in continental Australia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the first observation of a 27 day period component in daily maximum temperature recorded at widely spaced locations in Australia. The 27 day component, extracted by band pass filtering, is correlated with the variation of daily solar radio flux during years close to solar minimum. We demonstrate that the correlation is related to the emergence of regions of solar activity on the Sun separated, temporally, from the emergence of other active regions. In this situation, which occurs only near solar minimum, the observed 27 day variation of temperature can be in phase or out of phase with the 27 day variation of solar activity. During solar maximum correlation of temperature and solar activity is much less defined. The amplitude of the 27 day temperature response to solar activity is large, at times as high as 6 degrees C, and much larger than the well documented temperature response to the 11 year cycle of solar activity. We demonstrate that the 27 day temperature response is localised to the Australia...

Edmonds, Ian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Statistical relationships between the surface air temperature anomalies and the solar and geomagnetic activity indices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical analysis of the data series from 1856 to 2000 for the annual global and hemispheric surface air temperature anomalies is completed. Statistically significant correlations are found between global and hemispheric temperature anomalies and solar and geomagnetic indices. The temperature anomalies in the Northern and Southern hemispheres show similar statistical relations with the solar and geomagnetic indices. The cross-correlation analysis shows no statistically significant global temperature lag behind the sunspots as well as behind aa-indices. The correlation between the temperature anomalies and the geomagnetic indices is about two times higher than the correlation between the temperature anomalies and the solar indices. These results support the suggestion that the geomagnetic forcing predominates over the solar activity forcing on the global and hemispheric surface air temperatures.

Valev, Dimitar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospecting For  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospecting For New Faults Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospecting For New Faults Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Our previous studies found spatial associations between seismically active faults and high-temperature geothermal resources in the western Basin and Range, suggesting that recency of fault movement may be a useful criterion for resource exploration. We have developed a simple conceptual model in which recently active (Holocene) faults are preferred conduits for migration of thermal water from deep crustal depths, and we

197

Synthesis of super-dense phase of aluminum under extreme pressure and temperature conditions created by femtosecond laser pulses in sapphire  

SciTech Connect

We describe synthesis of a new super-dense phase of aluminum under extreme pressure and temperature conditions created by laser-induced microexplosions in sapphire. Micro explosions in sub-micrometer sized regions of sapphire were induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses with a temporal length of {approx} 100 fs and an energy of {approx} 100 nJ. Fast, explosive expansion of photogenerated high-density plasma created strong heating and pressure transients with peak temperature and pressure of {approx} 105 K and 10 TPa, respectively. Partial decomposition of sapphire in the shock-compressed sapphire led to formation of nanocrystalline bcc-Al phase, which is different from ambient fcc-Al phase, and was permanently preserved by fast quenching. The existence of super-dense bcc-Al phase was confirmed using X-ray diffraction technique. This is the first observation of bcc-Al phase, which so far has been only predicted theoretically, and a demonstration that laser-induced micro explosions technique enables simple, safe and cost-efficient access to extreme pressures and temperatures without the tediousness typical to traditional techniques that use diamond anvil cells, gas guns, explosives, or megajoule-class lasers.

Mizeikis, Vygantas; Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V.; Juodkazis, Saulius (Swinburne); (Shizuoka); (Stanford); (CIW); (ANU)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

198

The relation between post-shock temperature, cosmic-ray pressure and cosmic-ray escape for non-relativistic shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supernova remnants are thought to be the dominant source of Galactic cosmic rays. This requires that at least 5% of the available energy is transferred to cosmic rays, implying a high cosmic-ray pressure downstream of supernova remnant shocks. Recently, it has been shown that the downstream temperature in some remnants is low compared to the measured shock velocities, implying that additional pressure support by accelerated particles is present. Here we use a two-fluid thermodynamic approach to derive the relation between post-shock fractional cosmic-ray pressure and post-shock temperature, assuming no additional heating beyond adiabatic heating in the shock precursor and with all non-adiabatic heating occurring at the subshock. The derived relations show that a high fractional cosmic-ray pressure is only possible, if a substantial fraction of the incoming energy flux escapes from the system. Recently a shock velocity and a downstream proton temperature was measured for a shock in the supernova remnant RCW 86...

Vink, Jacco; Helder, E A; Schure, K M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Temperature and pressure dependence of the Fe-specific phonon density of states in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The {sup 57}Fe-specific phonon density of states (DOS) of Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals (x=0.0, 0.08) was measured at cryogenic temperatures and at high pressures with nuclear-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. Measurements were conducted for two different orientations of the single crystals, yielding the orientation projected {sup 57}Fe-phonon density of states for phonon polarizations in-plane and out-of-plane with respect to the basal plane of the crystal structure. In the tetragonal phase at 300 K, a clear stiffening was observed upon doping with Co. Increasing pressure to 4 GPa caused a marked increase of phonon frequencies, with the doped material still stiffer than the parent compound. Upon cooling, both the doped and undoped samples showed a stiffening and the parent compound exhibited a discontinuity across the magnetic and structural phase transitions. These findings are generally compatible with the changes in volume of the system upon doping, increasing pressure, or increasing temperature, but an extra softening of high-energy modes occurs with increasing temperature. First-principles computations of the phonon DOS were performed and showed an overall agreement with the experimental results, but underestimate the Grueneisen parameter. This discrepancy is explained in terms of a magnetic Grueneisen parameter, causing an extra phonon stiffening as magnetism is suppressed under pressure.

Delaire, O [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lucas, M S [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Dos santos, A M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Subedi, Alaska P [ORNL; Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Mauger, L [W. M. Keck Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Munoz, J A [W. M. Keck Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Tulk, Christopher A [ORNL; Xiao, Y [HPCAT Geophysical Lab, Argonne, IL; Somayazulu, M [Geophysical Lab, Washington, D. C.; Zhao, J. Y. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Sturhahn, W [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Alp, E. E. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Singh, David J [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Mandrus, David [ORNL; Egami, Takeshi [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The analysis and specification of large high-pressure, high-temperature valves for combustion turbine protection in second-generation PFB power plants: Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to provide a specification for the high-pressure/high-temperature valves for turbine overspeed protection in a commercial-scale second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. In the event of a loss of external (generator) load, the gas turbine rapidly accelerates from its normal operating speed. Protection from excessive overspeed can be maintained by actuation of fuel isolation and air bypass valves. A design specification for these valves was developed by analyses of the turbine/compressor interaction during a loss of load and analyses of pressure and flow transients during operation of the overspeed protection valves. The basis for these analyses was the Phase 1 plant conceptual design prepared in 1987.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Process for CO2 Capture Using Zeolites from High Pressure and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Process for CO 2 Capture Using Zeolites from High Pressure and Moderate Temperature Gas...

202

Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during JanuaryAugust 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

James O'Brien

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Influence of solar magnetic activity on the North American temperature record  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of solar magnetic activity on the yearly mean average temperature is extracted from the historical record for much of North America. The level of solar activity is derived from the international sunspot number by the renormalized continuous wavelet transform using the Morlet basis to provide a running estimate of the power associated with the magnetic cycle. The solar activity gives the abscissa for a scatter plot of temperature for each station, from which the solar dependence and mean temperature are extracted. These parameters are then plotted against the latitude, longitude, and elevation for each station, revealing a dependence of their values on geophysical location. A mechanism to explain the latitudinal variation of the solar dependence is suggested.

Johnson, Robert W

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Microfracturing in Westerly granite experimentally extended wet and dry at temperatures to 800/degree/C and pressures to 200 MPa  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microfracturing in Westerly granite specimens, extended wet and dry, at temperatures to 800/degree/C and confining pressures to 200 MPa, is analyzed with a view toward understanding why, in the brittle field, rock strengths decrease with increasing temperature. Intragranular (IGC) and grain-boundary cracks (GBC) are mapped in two dimensions on either side of the tensile macrofracture, using optical microscopy, to determine, quantitatively, crack lengths and densities and, qualitatively, crack widths and orientations are visually examined to aid in interpretation. Temperature and confining pressure tend to favor the development of different microfracture fabrics. Thermal stresses produce a random orientation of cracks while stresses resulting from the external differential loading of a specimen produce a preferred orientation of cracks parallel to the direction of sigma/sub 1/. In dry experiments, between 600/degree/ and 800/degree/C, both GBC and IGC densities increase with increasing temperature. The increase in crack abundance is responsible for the thermal weakening of the rock. With increasing temperature, GBC play a greater role in the deformational history leading to rock failure. 27 refs., 24 figs.

Hopkins, T.W.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

206

Using Laser-driven Shocks to Study the Phase Diagrams Of Low-Z Materials at Mbar Pressures and eV Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate phase diagrams for simple molecular fluids and solids (H2, He, H2O, SiO2, and C) and their constituent elements at eV temperatures and pressures up to tens of Mbar are integral to planetary models of the gas giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune), and the rocky planets. Laboratory experiments at high pressure have, until recently, been limited to around 1 Mbar. These pressures are usually achieved dynamically with explosives and two-stage light-gas guns, or statically with diamond anvil cells. Current and future high energy laser and pulsed power facilities will be able to produce tens of Mbar pressures in these light element materials. This presentation will describe the capabilities available at current high energy laser facilities to achieve these extreme conditions, and focus on several examples including water, silica, diamond-phase-carbon, helium and hydrogen. Under strong shock compression all of these materials become electronic conductors, and are transformed eventually to dense plasmas. The experiments reveal some details of the nature of this transition. To obtain high pressure data closer to planetary isentropes advanced compression techniques are required. We are developing a promising technique to achieve higher density states: precompression of samples in a static diamond anvil cell followed by laser driven shock compression. This technique and results from the first experiments with it will be described. Details about this topic can be found in some of our previous publications.

Celliers, P. M.; Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W. [Larence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Boehly, T. R.; Miller, J. E. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Brygoo, S. [Larence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Departement de Physique Theorique et Applications, CEA, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Loubeyre, P. [Departement de Physique Theorique et Applications, CEA, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); McWilliams, R. S.; Jeanloz, R. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

207

PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 17671774 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.e. an activation energy is required for chemi- cal adsorption to occur and once that energy is supplied and gas-phase regeneration experiments were [1] Cal MP, Strickler BW, Lizzio AA. High temperature hydro, PA: US Department of Energy/Federal removal requirement set at one of the DOE's IGCC plants. Energy

Cal, Mark P.

208

Enhancements of a Combustion Vessel to Determine Laminar Flame Speeds of Hydrocarbon Blends with Helium Dilution at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel flexibility in gas turbines is of particular importance because of the main fuel source, natural gas. Blends of methane, ethane, and propane are big constituents in natural gas and consequently are of particular interest. With this level of importance comes the need for baseline data such as laminar flame speed of said fuels. While flame speeds at standard temperature and pressure have been extensively studied in the literature, experimental data at turbine-like conditions are still lacking currently. This thesis discusses the theory behind laminar flames; new data acquisition techniques; temperature and pressure capability improvements; measured flame speeds; and a discussion of the results including stability analysis. The measured flame speeds were those of methane, ethane, and propane fuel blends, as well as pure methane, at an elevated pressure of 5 atm and temperatures of 298 and 473 K, using a constant-volume, cylindrical combustion vessel. The current Aramco mechanism developed in conjunction with National University of Ireland Galway compared favorably with the data, while the literature data showed discrepancies at stoichiometric to rich conditions. An in-depth flame speed uncertainty analysis yielded a wide range of values from 0.5 cm/s to 21.5 cm/s. It is well known that high-pressure experiments develop flame instabilities when air is used as the oxidizer. In this study, the hydrodynamic instabilities were restrained by using a high diluent-to-oxygen ratio. The thermal-diffusive instabilities were inhibited by using helium as the diluent. To characterize this flame stability, the Markstein length and Lewis number were calculated for the presented conditions. The resultant positive Markstein lengths showed a low propensity of flame speed to flame stretch, while the larger-than-unity Lewis numbers showed the relatively higher diffusivity of helium to that of nitrogen.

Plichta, Drew

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

A new experimental setup for high-pressure catalytic activity measurements on surface deposited mass-selected Pt clusters  

SciTech Connect

A new experimental setup to study catalytic and electronic properties of size-selected clusters on metal oxide substrates from the viewpoint of cluster-support interaction and to formulate a method for the development of heterogeneous catalysts such as automotive exhaust catalysts has been developed. The apparatus consists of a size-selected cluster source, a photoemission spectrometer, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and a high-pressure reaction cell. The high-pressure reaction cell measurements provided information on catalytic properties in conditions close to practical use. The authors investigated size-selected platinum clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface using a reaction cell and STM. Catalytic activity measurements showed that the catalytic activities have a cluster-size dependency.

Watanabe, Yoshihide; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R and D Labs. Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193, Japan and Toyota Central R and D Labs. Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Raman Investigation of The Uranium Compounds U3O8, UF4, UH3 and UO3 under Pressure at Room Temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our current state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction experiments are primarily sensitive to the position of the uranium atom. While the uranium - low-Z element bond (such as U-H or U-F) changes under pressure and temperature the X-ray diffraction investigations do not reveal information about the bonding or the stoichiometry. Questions that can be answered by Raman spectroscopy are (i) whether the bonding strength changes under pressure, as observed by either blue- or red-shifted peaks of the Raman active bands in the spectrum and (ii) whether the low-Z element will eventually be liberated and leave the host lattice, i.e. do the fluorine, oxygen, or hydrogen atoms form dimers after breaking the bond to the uranium atom. Therefore Raman spectra were also collected in the range where those decomposition products would appear. Raman is particularly well suited to these types of investigations due to its sensitivity to trace amounts of materials. One challenge for Raman investigations of the uranium compounds is that they are opaque to visible light. They absorb the incoming radiation and quickly heat up to the point of decomposition. This has been dealt with in the past by keeping the incoming laser power to very low levels on the tens of milliWatt range consequently affecting signal to noise. Recent modern investigations also used very small laser spot sizes (micrometer range) but ran again into the problem of heating and chemical sensitivity to the environment. In the studies presented here (in contrast to all other studies that were performed at ambient conditions only) we employ micro-Raman spectroscopy of samples situated in a diamond anvil cell. This increases the trustworthiness of the obtained data in several key-aspects: (a) We surrounded the samples in the DAC with neon as a pressure transmitting medium, a noble gas that is absolutely chemically inert. (b) Through the medium the sample is thermally heat sunk to the diamond anvils, diamond of course possessing the very best heat conductivity of any material. Therefore local heating and decomposition are avoided, a big challenge with other approaches casting doubts on their results. (c) This in turn benefits the signal/noise ratio tremendously since the Raman features of uranium-compounds are very small. The placement of the samples in DACs allows for higher laser powers to impinge on the sample spot while keeping the spot-size larger than in previous studies and keep the samples from heating up. Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive non-invasive technique and we will show that it is even possible to distinguish the materials by their origin / manufacturer as we have studied samples from Cameco (Canada) and IBI-Labs (US-Florida) and can compare with ambient literature data for samples from Strem (US-MA) and Areva (Pierrelatte, France).

Lipp, M J; Jenei, Z; Park-Klepeis, J; Evans, W J

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Temperature activated absorption during laser-induced damage: The evolution of laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts  

SciTech Connect

Previously we have shown that the size of laser induced damage sites in both KDP and SiO{sub 2} is largely governed by the duration of the laser pulse which creates them. Here we present a model based on experiment and simulation that accounts for this behavior. Specifically, we show that solid-state laser-supported absorption fronts are generated during a damage event and that these fronts propagate at constant velocities for laser intensities up to 4 GW/cm{sup 2}. It is the constant absorption front velocity that leads to the dependence of laser damage site size on pulse duration. We show that these absorption fronts are driven principally by the temperature-activated deep sub band-gap optical absorptivity, free electron transport, and thermal diffusion in defect-free silica for temperatures up to 15,000K and pressures < 15GPa. In addition to the practical application of selecting an optimal laser for pre-initiation of large aperture optics, this work serves as a platform for understanding general laser-matter interactions in dielectrics under a variety of conditions.

Carr, C W; Bude, J D; Shen, N; Demange, P

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

212

High-pressure/high-temperature gas-solubility study in hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems using static and chromatographic techniques  

SciTech Connect

The design and discovery of sources for alternative energy such as coal liquefaction has become of major importance over the past two decades. One of the major problems in such design in the lack of available data, particularly, for gas solubility in polycyclic aromatics at high temperature and pressure. Static and gas-liquid partition chromatographic methods were used for the study of hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems. The static data for these two binaries were taken along 398.2, 423.2, 448.2, and 473.2 K isotherms up to 25.23 MPa. Gas-liquid partition chromatography was used to study the infinite dilution behavior of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the hydrogen-phenanthrene system as well as hydrogen, ethane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the methane-phenanthrene binary. The principle objective was to examine the role of the elution gas. Temperatures were along the same isotherms as the static data and up to 20.77 MPa. With the exception of carbon dioxide, Henry's constants were calculated for all systems. Expressions for the heat of solution as a function of pressure were derived for both binary and chromatographic data. Estimates of delta H/sub i/sup sol/ at high pressure were presented.

Malone, P.V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Oil-Well Cement and C3S Hydration Under High Pressure as Seen by In Situ X-Ray Diffraction, Temperatures ;= 80 degrees C with No Additives  

SciTech Connect

The hydration kinetics of a white cement and batches of both Class G and H oil-well cements were examined between 0 and 60 MPa, at {le}80 C, using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. This gives a continuous measure of the C{sub 3}S (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}), CH (Ca(OH){sub 2}), C{sub 4}AF (Ca{sub 2}FeAlO{sub 5}), ettringite, and other phases in the hydrating slurries. Slurries prepared from single-phase C{sub 3}S; synthetic C{sub 4}AF, and gypsum; and white cement, synthetic C{sub 4}AF and gypsum were also examined. An increasing pressure enhanced the rate of hydration for all slurries. Analysis of the data, using a kinetic model, provided rate constants that were used to obtain activation volumes for C{sub 3}S hydration. For all the cement and C{sub 3}S slurries studied, similar activation volumes were obtained (average {Delta}V{double_dagger}{sup -}-35 cm{sup 3}/mol), indicating that the presence of cement phases other than C{sub 3}S has a modest influence on the pressure dependence of C{sub 3}S hydration. An alternative analysis, using the time at which 90% of the initial C{sub 3}S remained, gave similar activation volumes. Pressure accelerated the formation of ettringite from synthetic C{sub 4}AF in the presence of gypsum. However, in slurries containing cement, the pressure dependence of C{sub 3}S hydration plays a major role in determining the pressure dependence of ettringite formation.

Jupe, Andrew C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Funkhouser, Garry P. (Halliburton); (GIT)

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

214

Investigation on the effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designing a fit-for-purpose drilling fluid for high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) operations is one of the greatest technological challenges facing the oil and gas industry today. Typically, a drilling fluid is subjected to increasing temperature and pressure with depth. While higher temperature decreases the drilling fluids viscosity due to thermal expansion, increased pressure increases its viscosity by compression. Under these extreme conditions, well control issues become more complicated and can easily be masked by methane and hydrogen sulfide solubility in oil-base fluids frequently used in HP/HT operations. Also current logging tools are at best not reliable since the anticipated bottom-hole temperature is often well above their operating limit. The Literature shows limited experimental data on drilling fluid properties beyond 350F and 20,000 psig. The practice of extrapolation of fluid properties at some moderate level to extreme-HP/HT (XHP/HT) conditions is obsolete and could result in significant inaccuracies in hydraulics models. This research is focused on developing a methodology for testing drilling fluids at XHP/HT conditions using an automated viscometer. This state-of-the-art viscometer is capable of accurately measuring drilling fluids properties up to 600F and 40,000 psig. A series of factorial experiments were performed on typical XHP/HT oil-based drilling fluids to investigate their change in rheology at these extreme conditions (200 to 600F and 15,000 to 40,000 psig). Detailed statistical analyses involving: analysis of variance, hypothesis testing, evaluation of residuals and multiple linear regression are implemented using data from the laboratory experiments. I have developed the FluidStats program as an effective statistical tool for characterizing drilling fluids at XHP/HT conditions using factorial experiments. Results from the experiments show that different drilling fluids disintegrate at different temperatures depending on their composition (i.e. weighting agent, additives, oil/water ratio etc). The combined pressure-temperature effect on viscosity is complex. At high thresholds, the temperature effect is observed to be more dominant while the pressure effect is more pronounced at low temperatures. This research is vital because statistics show that well control incident rates for non- HP/HT wells range between 4% to 5% whereas for HP/HT wells, it is as high as 100% to 200%. It is pertinent to note that over 50% of the worlds proven oil and gas reserves lie below 14,000 ft subsea according to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). Thus drilling in HP/HT environment is fast becoming a common place especially in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where HP/HT resistant drilling fluids are increasingly being used to ensure safe and successful operations.

Ibeh, Chijioke Stanley

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

CARS diagnostics of the burning of H{sub 2} - O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - O{sub 2} mixtures at high temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is used to determine the parameters of gaseous combustion products of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen at high temperatures and pressures. The methodical aspects of CARS thermometry, which are related to the optimal choice of molecules (diagnostic references) and specific features of their spectra, dependent on temperature and pressure, are analysed. Burning is modelled under the conditions similar to those of real spacecraft propulsion systems using a specially designed laboratory combustion chamber, operating in the pulse-periodic regime at high temperatures (to 3500 K) and pressures (to 20 MPa) of combustion products. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

Vereshchagin, K A; Smirnov, Valery V; Stel'makh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Effects of water-saturation on strength and ductility of three igneous rocks at effective pressures to 50 MPA and temperatures to partial melting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The short-term failure strengths and strains at failure of room-dry and water-saturated, cylindrical specimens (2 by 4 cm) of Charcoal Granodiorite (CG), Mt. Hood Andesite (MHA), and Cuerbio Basalt (CB) at a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/, at effective confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa and at temperatures to partial melting were investigated. Data from water-saturated specimens of the granodiorite and andesite, compared to room-dry counterparts, indicate (1) the pore pressures are essentially communicated throughout each test specimen so that they are fully effective; (2) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 50 MPa the granodiorite does not water-weaken; (3) at these same effective pressures the more porous and finer-grained andesite begins to exhibit water-weakening at about 600/sup 0/C; (4) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 870 to 900/sup 0/C the andesite's strength averages 20 MPa while the strength of dry specimens at the same P and T exhibit a strength of 100 MPa; (5) at P/sub e/ = 50 MPa compared to 160 MPa dry; (6) the basalt at P/sub e/ = 0, appears to be water-weakened at 800/sup 0/C; (7) water saturated specimens deformed at temperatures less than that of melting exhibit ultimate strengths at less than 2% shortening and then work-soften along faults; (8) again as do the dry counterparts, the wet specimens deform primarily by microscopic fracturing that coalesces into one or more macroscopic faults; and (9) the temperature for incipient melting of the andesite is decreased >150/sup 0/C in the water-saturated tests.

Bauer, S.J.; Friedman, M.; Handin, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 17571765 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

directly, as in a traditional H , 23.1% CO, 5.8% CO , 6.6% H O, 0.5% H S, and2 2 2 2 coal-fired power plant was activated using coal-fired power plants. With improved gas turbine tech- steam by replacing the N flow temperature was examined as a2 function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal

Cal, Mark P.

218

Adsorption near ambient temperatures of methane, carbon tetrafluoride, and sulfur hexafluoride on commercial activated carbons  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption isotherms for CH{sub 4}, CF{sub 4}, and SF{sub 6} are measured at three or four temperatures near ambient on three commercial activated carbons. The data are reduced using a virial-type equation of adsorption. Using this equation, isosteric heats of adsorption are calculated. It is shown that this fundamental thermodynamic quantity provides a basis for differentiating between the carbons` micropore structures.

Jagiello, J.; Bandosz, T.J.; Putyera, K.; Schwarz, J.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Force interaction of high pressure glow discharge with fluid flow for active separation control  

SciTech Connect

Radio frequency based discharges at atmospheric pressures are the focus of increased interest in aerodynamics because of the wide range of potential applications including, specifically, actuation in flows at moderate speeds. Recent literature describing promising experimental observations, especially on separation control, has spurred efforts in the development of parallel theoretical modeling to lift limitations in the current understanding of the actuation mechanism. The present effort demonstrates higher fidelity first-principle models in a multidimensional finite-element framework to predict surface discharge-induced momentum exchange. The complete problem of a dielectric barrier discharge at high pressure with axially displaced electrodes is simulated in a self-consistent manner. Model predictions for charge densities, the electric field, and gas velocity distributions are shown to mimic trends reported in the experimental literature. Results show that a residual of electrons remains deposited on the dielectric surface downstream of the exposed powered electrode for the entire duration of the cycle and causes a net electric force in the direction from the electrode to the downstream surface. For the first time, results document the mitigation process of a separation bubble formed due to flow past a flat plate inclined at 12 degree sign angle of attack. This effort sets the basis for extending the formulation further to include polyphase power input in multidimensional settings, and to apply the simulation method to flows past common aerodynamic configurations.

Roy, Subrata; Gaitonde, Datta V. [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States); Computational Sciences Branch, Air Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

New Way To Realize Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ever since then, civilization has used the toxic liquid metal to measure pressure. ... The pressure and temperature of a gas are directly related to its ...

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Effects of water-saturation on strength and ductility of three igneous rocks at effective pressures to 50 MPa and temperatures to partial melting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Instantaneous-failure strengths and ductilities of water-saturated cylindrical specimens of Charcoal Granodiorite, Mount Hood Andesite, and Cuerbio Basalt are determined at a strain rate of 10{sup -4}s{sup -1} and at effective confining pressures (Pe) of 0 and 50 MPa and at temperatures to partial melting. The data indicate: (1) at Pe = 0 and 50 MPa (Pc and Pp of 50 MPa and of 100 and 50 MPa, respectively) the granodiorite does not water-weaken; (2) at these same Pe the more porous and finer-grained andesite begins to exhibit water-weakening at about 600/sup 0/C; (3) at Pe = 0 and 870-900{sup 0}C the andesite's wet strength averages 20 MPa compared to 100 MPa, dry; (4) at Pe = 50 MPa and 920{sup 0}C its wet strength is 45 MPa compared to 160 MPa dry; (5) at Pe = 0, the basalt appears to be water-weakened above 800{sup 0}C; (6) water-saturated specimens deformed at temperatures less than T{sub m} exhibit ultimate strengths at less than 2 percent shortening and then work-soften along faults; and (7) both dry and wet specimens deform primarily by brittle fracture. Extrapolations indicate: (1) crystalline rocks should be drillable because they remain brittle until partial melting occurs, and penetration rates should increase with temperature because there is a corresponding decrease in brittle fracture strength; (2) boreholes in ''water-filled'' holes will be stable to >10 km at temperatures temperatures are kept to less than or equal to 700{sup 0}C, even open boreholes in granodiorite are apt to be stable to >10 km; and (4) open boreholes in the andesite are apt to be much less stable, and at similar temperatures would fail at 2 to 5-km depth.

Bauer, S.J.; Friedman, M.; Handin, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

An Active Gain-control System for Avalanche Photo-Diodes under Moderate Temperature Variations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are promising light sensor for various fields of experimental physics. It has been argued, however, that variation of APD gain with temperature could be a serious problem preventing APDs from replacing traditional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in some applications. Here we develop an active gain-control system to keep the APD gain stable under moderate temperature variations. As a performance demonstration of the proposed system, we have tested the response of a scintillation photon detector consisting of a 5x5 mm^2 reverse-type APD optically coupled with a CsI(Tl) crystal. We show that the APD gain was successfully controlled under a temperature variation of DT = 20deg, within a time-cycle of 6000 sec. The best FWHM energy resolution of 6.1+-0.2 % was obtained for 662 keV gamma-rays, and the energy threshold was as low as 6.5 keV, by integrating data from +20deg - 0deg cycles. The corresponding values for -20deg - 0deg cycles were 6.9+-0.2 % and 5.2 keV, respectively. These results are comparable, or only slightly worse than that obtained at a fixed temperature. Our results suggest new potential uses for APDs in various space researches and nuclear physics. As examples, we briefly introduce the NeXT and Cute-1.7 satellite missions that will carry the APDs as scientific instruments for the first time.

J. Kataoka; R. Sato; T. Ikagawa; J. Kotoku; Y. Kuramoto; Y. Tsubuku; T. Saito; Y. Yatsu; N. Kawai; Y. Ishikawa; N. Kawabata

2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

223

Development of Designer Diamond Anvils for High Pressure-High-Temperature Experiments in Support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) is to develop the next generation of designer diamond anvils that can perform simultaneous joule heating and temperature profile measurements in a diamond anvil cell. A series of tungsten-rhenium thermocouples will be fabricated onto to the anvil and encapsulated by a chemical vapor deposited diamond layer to allow for a complete temperature profile measurement across the anvil. The tip of the diamond anvil will be engineered to reduce the thermal conductivity so that the tungsten-heating coils can be deposited on top of this layer. Several different approaches will be investigated to engineer the tip of the diamond anvil for reduction in thermal conductivity (a) isotopic mixture of 12C and 13C in the diamond layer, (b) doping of diamond with impurities (nitrogen and/or boron), and (c) growing diamond in a higher concentration of methane in hydrogen plasma. Under this academic alliance with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), PI and his graduate students will use the lithographic and diamond polishing facility at LLNL. This proposed next generation of designer diamond anvils will allow multi-tasking capability with the ability to measure electrical, magnetic, structural and thermal data on actinide materials with unparallel sensitivity in support of the stockpile stewardship program.

Yogesh K. Vohra

2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

224

Pu-ZR Alloy high-temperature activation-measurement foil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron flux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

McCuaig, Franklin D. (Westmont, IL)

1977-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

225

US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

Dennis, R.A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Development of a New Flame Speed Vessel to Measure the Effect of Steam Dilution on Laminar Flame Speeds of Syngas Fuel Blends at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic gas, syngas, is a popular alternative fuel for the gas turbine industry, but the composition of syngas can contain different types and amounts of contaminants, such as carbon dioxide, methane, moisture, and nitrogen, depending on the industrial process involved in its manufacturing. The presence of steam in syngas blends is of particular interest from a thermo-chemical perspective as there is limited information available in the literature. This study investigates the effect of moisture content (0 ? 15% by volume), temperature (323 ? 423 K), and pressure (1 ? 10 atm) on syngas mixtures by measuring the laminar flame speed in a newly developed constant-volume, heated experimental facility. This heated vessel also broadens the experimental field of study in the authors? laboratory to low vapor pressure fuels and other vaporized liquids. The new facility is capable of performing flame speed experiments at an initial pressure as high as 30 atm and an initial temperature up to 600 K. Several validation experiments were performed to demonstrate the complete functionality of the flame speed facility. Additionally, a design-of-experiments methodology was used to study the mentioned syngas conditions that are relevant to the gas turbine industry. The design-of-experiments methodology provided the capability to identify the most influential factor on the laminar flame speed of the conditions studied. The experimental flame speed data are compared to the most up-to-date C4 mechanism developed through collaboration between Texas A&M and the National University of Ireland Galway. Along with good model agreement shown with all presented data, a rigorous uncertainty analysis of the flame speed has been performed showing an extensive range of values from 4.0 cm/s to 16.7 cm/s. The amount of carbon monoxide dilution in the fuel was shown to be the most influential factor on the laminar flame speed from fuel lean to fuel rich. This is verified by comparing the laminar flame speed of the atmospheric mixtures. Also, the measured Markstein lengths of the atmospheric mixtures are compared and do not demonstrate a strong impact from any one factor but the ratio of hydrogen and carbon monoxide plays a key role. Mixtures with high levels of CO appear to stabilize the flame structure of thermal-diffusive instability. The increase of steam dilution has only a small effect on the laminar flame speed of high-CO mixtures, while more hydrogen-dominated mixtures demonstrate a much larger and negative effect of increasing water content on the laminar flame speed.

Krejci, Michael

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

The Relationship of Lightning Activity with Microwave Brightness Temperatures and Spaceborne Radar Reflectivity Profiles in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the relationship of lightning activity in the central and eastern Mediterranean with the 85-GHz polarization-corrected temperature (PCT) and radar reflectivity provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite is ...

D. K. Katsanos; K. Lagouvardos; V. Kotroni; A. A. Argiriou

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Anisotropic yielding of rocks at high temperatures and pressures: Technical progress report No. 2, 16 December 1987--15 December 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress has been made towards the quantitative determination of anisotropic yield criteria for several foliated and lineated rocks, towards developing models for their mechanical properties based upon interactions between deformation mechanisms and preexisting fabric elements, and towards the characterization of fabrics resulting from diapiric emplacement of magma bodies within shallow portion of the earth's crust. The suite of extension and compression experiments on Four-mile gneiss is nearly complete. Samples cored along six different orientations have been tested at temperatures ranging from 25/degree/ to 800/degree/C and confining pressures of 0 to 400 MPa at a strain rate of 10/sup /minus/5//s, and we are currently investigating the influence of strain rate on yield strength over the range 10/sup /minus/4/less than or equal to/dot /var epsilon//less than or equal to10/sup /minus/6//s. We have examined deformation microstructures of deformed gneiss samples and identified those processes at the grain scale which are associated with its inelastic response. The orthorhombic anisotropy of fracture strength exhibited by the gneiss may be explained by a simple model involving localized slip within micas and microcracking within the stronger, surrounding framework silicates. Micas appear to interact in much the same way as do Mode II shear cracks, and their density, distribution, and preferred orientation affect the nucleation of microcracks which ultimately lead to failure. Ten material parameters of a generalized anisotropic yield function for Four-mile gneiss at room temperature have been determined using nonlinear fitting methods applied to the completed room temperature data. 45 refs.

Kronenberg, A.K.; Russell, J.E.; Carter, N.L.; Handin, C.J.; Gottschalk, R.R.; Shea, W.T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Reversible Hydrogen Storage using CO2 and a Proton-Switchable Iridium Catalyst in Aqueous Media under Mild Temperatures and Pressures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green plants convert CO{sub 2} to sugar for energy storage via photosynthesis. We report a novel catalyst that uses CO{sub 2} and hydrogen to store energy in formic acid. Using a homogeneous iridium catalyst with a proton-responsive ligand, we show the first reversible and recyclable hydrogen storage system that operates under mild conditions using CO{sub 2}, formate and formic acid. This system is energy-efficient and green because it operates near ambient conditions, uses water as a solvent, produces high-pressure CO-free hydrogen, and uses pH to control hydrogen production or consumption. The extraordinary and switchable catalytic activity is attributed to the multifunctional ligand, which acts as a proton-relay and strong {pi}-donor, and is rationalized by theoretical and experimental studies.

Hull J. F.; Himeda, Y.; Wang, W.-H.; Hashiguchi, B.; Szalda, D.J.; Muckerman, J.T.; Fujita, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Effect of pressure on arsenic diffusion in germanium  

SciTech Connect

We report preliminary results of a study of the activation volume for diffusion of arsenic in germanium. High-temperature high-pressure anneals were performed in a liquid argon pressure medium in a diamond anvil cell capable of reaching 5 GPa and 750 C,l which is externally heated for uniform and repeatable temperature profiles. Broadening of an ion-implanted arsenic profile was measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Hydrostatic pressure retards the diffusivity at 575 C, characterized by an activation volume that is +15% of the atomic volume of Ge. Implications for diffusion mechanisms are discussed.

Mitha, S.; Theiss, S.D.; Aziz, M.J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Schiferl, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Poker, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Materials Reliability Program: Risk Assessment of ASME Section XI Appendix G Pressure-Temperature (P-T) Limit Curve Methodologies (M RP-368)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of an assessment of the conditional probability of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) when normal RPV heatup and cooldown occur along operational constraint boundaries. These boundaries are defined by the maximum allowable pressures determined from regulatory requirements, the evaluation procedures in Appendix G to Section XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Appendix G), ...

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermally activated low temperature creep and primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A phenomenological SCC-CGR model is developed based on an apriori assumption that the SCC-CGR is controlled by low temperature creep (LTC). This mode of low temperature time dependent deformation occurs at stress levels above the athermal flow stress by a dislocation glide mechanism that is thermally activated and may be environmentally assisted. The SCC-CGR model equations developed contain thermal activation parameters descriptive of the dislocation creep mechanism. Thermal activation parameters are obtained by fitting the CGR model to SCC-CGR data obtained on Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750. These SCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to LTC activation parameters obtained from stress relaxation tests. When the high concentration of hydrogen at the tip of an SCC crack is considered, the SCC-CGR activation energies and rate sensitivities are shown to be quantitatively consistent with hydrogen reducing the activation energy and increasing the strain rate sensitivity in LTC stress relaxation tests. Stress dependence of SCC-CGR activation energy consistent with that found for the LTC activation energy. Comparisons between temperature dependence of the SCC-CGR stress sensitivity and LTC stress sensitivity provide a basis for speculation on effects of hydrogen and solute carbon on SCC crack growth rates.

Hall, M.M. Jr.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Development of an Experimental Data Base and Theories for Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes of Geochemical Significance at Supercritical Temperatures and Pressures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to combine new experimental measurements on heat capacities, volumes, and association constants of key compounds with theoretical equations of state and with first principles quantum mechanical calculations to generate predictions of thermodynamic data. The resulting thermodynamic data allow quantitative models of geochemical processes at high temperatures and pressures. Research funded by a DOE grant to Prof. Robert Wood at the University of Delaware involved the development of new theoretical equations of state for aqueous solutions of electrolytes and non-electrolytes, methods to estimate thermodynamic data not available from experiments, collection of data on model compounds through experiments and predictions of properties using ab initio quantum mechanics. During the last three and a half years, with support from our DOE grant, 16 papers have been accepted or published, and 3 more are in preparation. Results of this research have been reported in numerous invited and contributed presentations at national and international meetings. For this report, we will briefly comment on the highlights of the last 3 and a half years and give a complete list of papers published, accepted, or submitted during these years.

Wood, Robert H.

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

235

Linking high and low temperature plasticity in bulk metallic glasses: thermal activation, extreme value statistics and kinetic freezing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At temperatures well below their glass transition, the deformation properties of bulk metallic glasses are characterised by a sharp transition from elasticity to plasticity, a reproducible yield stress, and an approximately linear decrease of this stress with increasing temperature. In the present work it shown that when the well known properties of the under-cooled liquid regime, in terms of the underlying potential energy landscape, are assumed to be also valid at low temperature, a simple thermal activation model is able to reproduce the observed onset of macro-scopic yield. At these temperatures, the thermal accessibility of the complex potential energy landscape is drastically reduced, and the statistics of extreme value and the phenomenon of kinetic freezing become important, affecting the spatial heterogeneity of the irreversible structural transitions mediating the elastic-to-plastic transition. As the temperature increases and approaches the glass transition temperature, the theory is able to smoothly transit to the high temperature deformation regime where plasticity is known to be well described by thermally activated viscoplastic models.

P. M. Derlet; R. Maa

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

236

Active devices for high temperature microcircuitry. [Silicon and gallium arsenide devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of a program to develop high temperature electronics for geothermal well instrumentation, a number of solid state diode and transistor types were characterized from room temperature to 300/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence and aging stability of transport and leakage properties were measured. Included in the study were silicon diodes, bipolar transistors, JFETs, MOSFETs, and GaAs MESFETs and JFETs. In summary the results are: diodes and bipolar transistors became extremely leaky at high temperature and are therefore of limited use; silicon MOSFETs and GaAs devices showed unacceptable aging instabilities at high temperatures; silicon JFETs from certain manufacturers were sufficiently stable and had suitable temperature dependent characteristics so that operational circuits could be made. Comparisons were made of experimental device characteristics and those predicted by theory. The theoretical calculations were done using standard equations revised to include appropriate temperature dependent parameters. Close agreement between theory and experiment was found, indicating that unexpected high temperature effects were insignificant. In order to facilitate the use of devices in high temperature hybrids, it was necessary to develop bonding and prescreening techniques. A large variance of JFET 300/sup 0/C operating parameters was found even within a single production lot. Consequently, high temperature prescreening allowed each circuit to be specifically ''pretuned.'' Standard solder, epoxy, and chip and wire attachment technologies were not functional at 300/sup 0/C. Gold-germanium solder, aluminum wire to DuPont 9910 gold film, and diffusion barrier pads were developed to allow high temperature attachment.

Palmer, D.W.; Draper, B.L.; McBrayer, J.D.; White, K.R.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Lead Research and Development Activity for DOEs High Temperature...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Membrane and MEA durability (C) Performance: High MEA performance at low relative humidity (RH) and high temperature Technical Targets FSEC plays a supporting role to the six...

238

I6: Low-temperature Active-screen Plasma Nitriding of 17-4 PH ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I5: Giant Magnetoresistance of CoNi/Cu Multilayered Nanowires Electrodeposited into Anodized Aluminum Oxide Nanochannels I6: Low- temperature...

239

3D Temperature distribution and numerical modeling of heat transfers in an active fault zone: Eugene Island 330, Offshore Louisiana.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature distributions by using some of the most commonly recorded data in modern oil field exploration sensitive to the movement of strong seismic events such as oil/water and gas/oil contacts on the scale for the dynamics of active oil fields. Here, Plio- Pleistocene sandstone reservoirs are supplied with mature

Guerin, Gilles

240

Pressure-temperature phase diagram, inverse isotope effect, and superconductivity in excess of 13 K in. kappa. -(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 Cu(N(CN) sub 2 )Cl, where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene  

SciTech Connect

The pressure-temperature phase diagram of the highest-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} organic superconductor, {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(N(CN){sub 2})Cl is determined, where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene. Semiconducting, insulating, metallic, and superconducting regimes are seen at pressures below 1 kbar. Superconductivity at 12.5 K and 0.3 kbar {ital increases} by 0.5--1.5 K upon deuteration of BEDT-TTF, in striking contrast to the normal isotope effect determined previously for {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(N(CN){sub 2})Br.

Schirber, J.E.; Overmyer, D.L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA)); Carlson, K.D.; Williams, J.M.; Kini, A.M.; Wang, H.H.; Charlier, H.A.; Love, B.J.; Watkins, D.M.; Yaconi, G.A. (Chemistry and Materials Science Divisions, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (USA))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Ruby, metals, and MgO as alternative pressure scales: A semiempirical description of shock-wave, ultrasonic, x-ray, and thermochemical data at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was determined from the room-temperature isotherms of Cu and Ag reduced by Carter et al.10 from shock-wave data and the data from the Shock Wave Database SWDB Ref. 30 . Comparison of our calculated room-temperature.e., measurements at 1 atm and shock-wave data . It starts with some reasonable guesses for V0, K0, K , and 0. Low-temperature

Oganov, Artem R.

242

Electrocatalytic activities of supported Pt nanoparticles for low-temperature fuel cell applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-temperature fuel cells (FCs) are highly efficient and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices that have been in the spotlight of many energy research efforts in the past few decades. However, FC commercialization ...

Sheng, Wenchao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Effect of temperature and iron-oxide nano-particle inclusions on the ultrasound vaporization pressure of perfluorocarbon droplets for disease detection and therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature and Iron-Oxide Nano-particle inclusions on the22 1.9.1 Why Iron-Oxide NanoTemperature and Iron-Oxide Nano-particle inclusions on the

Amirriazi, Seyed Saleh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Comparison of Year-Average Latitude, Longitude and Pressure of the Four Centers of Action with Air and Sea Temperature, 18991978  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The average latitude, longitude and central pressure of the four centers of action (Icelandic low, Aleutian low, Azores high, Pacific high) have been estimated for each of the 80 years of the Northern Hemisphere Historical Weather Map Series (...

J. K. Angell; J. Korshover

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Performance of Commercial Radiometers in Very Low Temperature and Pressure Environments Typical of Polar Regions and of the Stratosphere: A Laboratory Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterizing the performance of ground-based commercial radiometers in cold and/or low-pressure environments is critical for developing accurate flux measurements in the polar regions and in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Commercially ...

Wenying Su; Ellsworth Dutton; Thomas P. Charlock; Warren Wiscombe

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Neutron formation temperature gauge and neutron activation analysis brine flow meter. Final report, October 1, 1976--March 31, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Feasibility studies of nuclear techniques applicable to the determination of geothermal formation temperature and two-phase brine flow downhole have been performed. The formation temperature gauging technique involves injection of fast neutrons into the formation and analysis of the moderated slow neutron energy distribution by appropriately filtered neutron detectors. The scientific feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by analytical computational and experimental evaluation of the system response. A data analysis method has been developed to determine unambiguously the temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power of an arbitrary medium. The initial phase of a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of the technique has been performed. A sonde mockup was fabricated and measurements have been performed in a test stand designed to simulate a geothermal well. The results indicate that the formation temperature determined by this method is independent of differences between the temperature in the borehole fluid and the formation, borehole fluid density, and borehole fluid salinity. Estimates of performance specifications for a formation temperature sonde have been made on the basis of information obtained in this study and a conceptual design of a logging system has been developed. The technique for the determination of fluid flow in a well is based on neutron activation analysis of elements present in the brine. An analytical evaluation of the method has been performed. The results warrant further, experimental evaluation.

Vagelatos, N.; Steinman, D.K.; John, J.

1978-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Pressure reducing regulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

248

A new ambient-pressure organic superconductor,. kappa. -(ET) sub 2 Cu(N(CN) sub 2 )Br, with the highest transition temperature yet observed (inductive onset T sub c = 11. 6 K, resistive onset = 12. 5 K)  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of a new ambient-pressure organic superconductor, {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(N(CN){sub 2})Br (BEDT-TTF or ET = bis(ethylenedithio)tetrafulvalene) is reported. This compounds exhibits the highest inductive onset temperature, T{sub c} = 11.6K (resistive onset = 12.5K) yet reported. The crystallographic and bond electron structure, ESR characteristics, and its superconductivity transition have all been measured, and the results are reported. 28 refs., 3 figs.

Kini, A.M.; Geiser, U.; Wang, H.H.; Carlson, K.D.; Williams, J.M.; Kwok, W.K.; Vandervoort, K.G.; Thompson, J.E.; Stupka, D.L. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA)); Jung, D.; Whangbo, Myunghwan (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

1990-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

249

Vapor--liquid equilibria of nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane binary mixtures at LNG temperatures from total pressure measurements. [For use in design of equipment for storage and handling of LNG  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data have been measured on four binary mixtures relative to the calculation of phase equilibria at temperatures of liquid natural gas. Measurements at -260/sup 0/F were made by a total pressure method for mixtures of nitrogen-methane, nitrogen-ethane, methane-ethane, and methane-propane. Interaction coefficients were derived for the P-V-T, Inc. Mark V computer program. Good agreement is found with literature data where comparisons can be made.

Wilson, G.M.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Modeling the heat and mass transfers in temperature-swing adsorption of volatile organic compounds onto activated carbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical model was built to simulate the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto activated carbons in a fixed bed. This model was validated on a set of experimental data obtained for the adsorption of acetone, ethyl formate, and dichloromethane onto five commercial activated carbons. The influence of operating conditions was modeled with various VOC contents at the inlet of the adsorber and superficial velocities of the gas-phase from 0.14 to 0.28 m.s{sup -1}. Breakthrough times and maximum temperature rises were computed with a coefficient of determination of 0.988 and 0.901, respectively. The simulation was then extended to the adsorption of mixtures of VOCs. From the comparison of simulation and experimental results, the advantage of accounting for dispersions of heat and mass is shown and the importance in taking into account the temperature effect on the equilibrium data is demonstrated. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Sylvain Giraudet; Pascaline Pre; Pierre Le Cloirec [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Life of Plant Activity Estimates for a Nominal 1000 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decommissioning nuclear power plant and disposal site managers must understand the radioactive source term of a nuclear power plant to effectively manage disposition of these materials. This study estimates the radioactive source term from nominal 1000 MWe pressurized water and boiling water reactors to support decisions related to radioactive waste storage, processing, and disposal through decommissioning.BackgroundThis study examines the radionuclide ...

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

252

High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile fatty acids of 20 and 9 g/l, respectively. Acetic and propionic acids were the main compounds found in the acids mixture. Because of the improved digestion efficiency, organic nitrogen and phosphorus were solubilised in the bulk. Their concentration, however, did not increase as expected because of the formation of salts of hydroxyapatite and struvite inside the reactor.

Bolzonella, David, E-mail: david.bolzonella@univr.it [University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie, 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Cavinato, Cristina, E-mail: cavinato@unive.it [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Computer Science and Statistics, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Fatone, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.fatone@univr.it [University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie, 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Pavan, Paolo, E-mail: pavan@unive.it [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Computer Science and Statistics, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Cecchi, Franco, E-mail: franco.cecchi@univr.it [University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie, 15, 37134 Verona (Italy)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Development of Simulation System for Hot Gas Filtration by Ceramic Candle Filters on High Temperature and/or High Pressure Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Hot gas filtration from industrial processes offers various advantages in terms of improvement of process efficiencies, heat recovery and protection of plant installation. Especially hot gas filtration is an essential technology for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC).

Park, S.J.; Lim, J.H.; Kim, S.D.; Choi, H.K.; Park, H,S.; Park, Y.O.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

254

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Berry Berry Salvador M. Aceves Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (925) 422-0864 saceves@LLNL.GOV DOE Delivery Tech Team Presentation Chicago, Illinois February 8, 2005 Inexpensive delivery of compressed hydrogen with ambient temperature or cryogenic compatible vessels * Pressure vessel research at LLNL Conformable (continuous fiber and replicants) Cryo-compressed * Overview of delivery options * The thermodynamics of compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage * Proposed analysis activities * Conclusions Outline We are investigating two techniques for reduced bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize bending stresses Spherical and cylindrical tanks

256

Relationship between Lightning Activity over Peninsular India and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of spatiotemporal variation of lightning activity over Peninsular India (822N, 7288E) by using monthly satellite-based lightning flash grid (1 1) data for a period of 10 yr (19982007). The data are examined ...

M. I. R. Tinmaker; Kaushar Ali; G. Beig

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Reaction of Vinyl Radical with Alkenes III: Measured Rates and Predicted Product Distributions for Vinyl + Butene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work reports experimental and theoretical first-order rate constants for the reaction of vinyl radical with C4H8 alkenes: 1-butene, 2-butene, and iso-butene. The experiments are performed over a temperature range of ...

Ismail, Huzeifa

258

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the use of highly dispersed catalysts for the pretreatment of coal by mild hydrogenation, (2) to identify the active forms of the catalysts under reaction conditions and (3) to clarify the mechanisms of catalysis. The ultimate objective is to ascertain if mild catalytic hydrogenation resulting in very limited or no coal solubilization is an advantageous pretreatment for the transformation of coal into transportable fuels. The experimental program will focus upon the development of effective methods of impregnating coal with catalysts, evaluating the conditions under which the catalysts are most active and establishing the relative impact of improved impregnation on conversion and product distributions obtained from coal hydrogenation.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welding Evaluation Activities on a Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy for Nuclear Waste Packages  

SciTech Connect

The current waste package design for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada, USA, employs gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in fabricating the waste packages. While GTAW is widely used in industry for many applications, it requires multiple weld passes. By comparison, single-pass welding methods inherently use lower heat input than multi-pass welding methods which results in lower levels of weld distortion and also narrower regions of residual stresses at the weld TWI Ltd. has developed a Reduced Pressure Electron Beam (RPEB) welding process which allows EB welding in a reduced pressure environment ({le} 1 mbar). As it is a single-pass welding technique, use of RPEB welding could (1) achieve a comparable or better materials performance and (2) lead to potential cost savings in the waste package manufacturing as compared to GTAW. Results will be presented on the initial evaluation of the RPEB welding on a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (a candidate alloy for the Yucca Mountain waste packages) in the areas of (a) design and manufacturing simplifications, (b) material performance and (c) weld reliability.

Wong, F; Punshon, C; Dorsch, T; Fielding, P; Richard, D; Yang, N; Hill, M; DeWald, A; Rebak, R; Day, S; Wong, L; Torres, S; McGregor, M; Hackel, L; Chen, H-L; Rankin, J

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

260

Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energys High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

OBSERVATION AND MECHANISM OF HYDRIDE IN ZIRCALOY-4 AND LOCAL HYDRIDE RE-ORIENTATION INDUCED BY HIGH PRESSURE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

Hydrided Zircaloy-4 samples were produced by a gas charging method to desired amounts of hydrogen. For low hydrogen content samples, the hydrided platelets appear elongated and needle-like, orientated in the circumferential direction. Mechanical testing was carried out by the ring compression method at various temperatures. Samples with higher hydrogen concentration resulted in lower strain before fracture and reduced maximum load. The trend between temperature and ductility was also very clear: increasing temperatures resulted in increased ductility of the hydrided cladding. A single through-wall crack was observed for a hydrided sample having very high hydrogen concentration under ring compression testing. For samples having lower hydrogen concentrations, the fracture surfaces traversed both circumferential and radial directions, and for which voids were observed near the hydrides. Mechanical tests to study hydride reorientation in these samples are under way, and the results will be reported in the near future.

Yan, Yong [ORNL; Blackwell, Andrew S [ORNL; Plummer, Lee K [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Electro-catalytically Active, High Surface Area Cathodes for Low Temperature SOFCs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on developing low polarization (area specific resistance, ASR) cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In order to accomplish this we focused on two aspects of cathode development: (1) development of novel materials; and (2) developing the relationships between microstructure and electrochemical performance. The materials investigated ranged from Ag-bismuth oxide composites (which had the lowest reported ASR at the beginning of this contract) to a series of pyrochlore structured ruthenates (Bi{sub 2-x}M{sub x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where M = Sr, Ca, Ag; Pb{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 6.5}; and Y{sub 2-2x}Pr{sub 2x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}), to composites of the pyrochlore ruthenates with bismuth oxide. To understand the role of microstructure on electrochemical performance, we optimized the Ag-bismuth oxide and the ruthenate-bismuth oxide composites in terms of both two-phase composition and particle size/microstructure. We further investigated the role of thickness and current collector on ASR. Finally, we investigated issues of stability and found the materials investigated did not form deleterious phases at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Further, we established the ability through particle size modification to limit microstructural decay, thus, enhancing stability. The resulting Ag-Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} and Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7{sup -}}Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} composite cathodes had ASRs of 1.0 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and 0.73 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.048 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and 0.053 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 650 C, respectively. These ASRs are truly impressive and makes them among the lowest IT-SOFC ASRs reported to date.

Eric D. Wachsman

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

263

Pressure Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Specifications for carbon and alloy steel pressure tubes (ASTM)...medium-strength carbon-molybdenum alloy

264

Dynamic Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The higher pressure range will cover the important application of gas turbine engine testing. Gas turbines are used for propulsion on aircraft and ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Vapor pressure measurements on non-aqueous electrolyte solutions. Part 2. Tetraalkylammonium salts in methanol. Activity coefficients of various 1-1 electrolytes at high concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Precise vapor pressure data for solutions of Et/sub 4/NBr, Bu/sub 4/NBr, Bu/sub 4/Nl, Bu/sub 4/NClO/sub 4/, and Am/sub 4/NBr in methanol at 25/sup 0/C in the concentration range 0.04 < m(mol-(kg of solvent)/sup -1/) < 1.6 are communicated and discussed. Polynomials in molalities are given which may be used for calculating precise vapor pressure depressions of these solutions. Osmotic coefficients are calculated by taking into account the second virial coefficient of methanol vapor. Discussion of the data at low concentrations is based on the chemical model of electrolyte solutions taking into account non-coulombic interactions; ion-pair association constants are compared to those of conductance measurements. Pitzer equations are used to reproduce osmotic and activity coefficient at high concentrations; the set of Pitzer parameters b = 3.2, ..cap alpha../sub 1/ = 2.0 and ..cap alpha../sub 2/ = 20.0 is proposed for methanol solutions.

Barthel, J.; Lauermann, G.; Neueder, R.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

Baker, Tod H. (O' Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

PRESSURE TRANSDUCER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

Sander, H.H.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Investigation and Design Studies of SOFC Electrode Performance at Elevated Pressure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental program was set forth to study fuel cell performance at pressure and under various compositions. Improvement in cathode electrode performance is on the order of 33-40% at pressures of 6.4 Bara compared to atmospheric pressure. Key cathode operational parameters are the concentration and partial pressure of O2, and temperature. The effect of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) decreases the activation polarization, although there appears to be a secondary effect of absolute pressure as well. The concentration of oxygen impacts the diffusion component of the polarization, which is largely insensitive to absolute pressure. The effect of pressure was found to reduce the total polarization resistance of full fuel-cells beyond the reduction determined for the cathode alone. The total reduction in ASR was on the order of 0.10 ohm-cm2 for a pressure increase from 1 to 6.5 Bara, with about 70% of the improvement being realized from 1 to 4 Bara. An important finding was that there is an effect of steam on the cathode that is highly temperature dependent. The loss of performance at temperatures below 850 C was very large for the standard LSM + YSZ cathodes.

Ted Ohrn; Shung Ik Lee

2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Vapor Pressure Measurement of Supercooled Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new dewpoint hygrometer was developed for subfreezing temperature application. Vapor pressure of supercooled water was determined by measuring temperatures at the dew-forming surface and the vapor source ice under the flux density balance, and ...

N. Fukuta; C. M. Gramada

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

275

Low temperature, low pressure hydrogen gettering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to the gettering of hydrogen and its isotopes, the gettering materials being painted or coated onto, or otherwise disposed in an area or volume from which hydrogen is to be removed.

Anderson, D. Richard (ALL OF, Albuquerque, NM); Courtney, Robert L. (all of, Albuquerque, NM); Harrah, Larry A. (all of, Albuquerque, NM)

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Air flow and pressure inside a pressure-swirl spray and their effects on spray development  

SciTech Connect

Air flow and pressure inside a pressure-swirl spray for direct injection (DI) gasoline engines and their effects on spray development have been analyzed at different injector operating conditions. A simulation tool was utilized and the static air pressure at the centerline of the spray was measured to investigate the static pressure and flow structure inside the swirl spray. To investigate the effect of static air pressure on swirl spray development, a liquid film model was applied and the Mie-scattered images were captured. The simulation and experiment showed that recirculation vortex and air pressure drop inside the swirl spray were observable and the air pressure drop was greater at high injection pressure. At high fuel temperature, the air pressure at the nozzle exit showed higher value compared to the atmospheric pressure and then continuously decreased up to few millimeters distance from the nozzle exit. The pressure drop at high fuel temperatures was more than that of atmospheric temperature. This reduced air pressure was recovered to the atmospheric pressure at further downstream. The results from the liquid film model and macroscopic spray images showed that the air pressure started to affect the liquid film trajectory about 3 mm from the nozzle exit and this effect was sustained until the air pressure recovered to the atmospheric pressure. However, the entrained air motion and droplet size have more significant influence on the spray development after the most of the liquid sheet is broken-up and the spray loses its initial momentum. (author)

Moon, Seoksu; Bae, Choongsik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea); Abo-Serie, Essam [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Design, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Temperature, Humidity, and Pressure Response of Radiosondes at Low Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of radiosondes to an instantaneous change of environment was studied by taking the instruments from a warm building into the cold environment at South Pole Station. After being initialized inside, the radiosondes were carried outside ...

Stephen R. Hudson; Michael S. Town; Von P. Walden; Stephen G. Warren

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

4-Diamond Formation from Amorphouse Carbon and Graphite in the Presence of COH Fluids : An InSitu High-Pressure and -Temperature Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cell Experimental Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microdiamonds from orogenic belts contain nanometer-size fluid inclusions suggesting diamond formation from supercritical carbon - oxygen - hydrogen (COH) fluids. Here we report experimental results of diamond nucleation from amorphous carbon and polycrystalline graphite in the presence of COH fluids in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Our results show that: (i) diamonds can nucleate from graphite or amorphous carbon at pressures of 9-11 GPa and temperatures of 1200-1400 K in the presence of COH fluids; (ii) it is easier to nucleate diamond from amorphous carbon than from graphite with or without the COH fluids; and (iii) the fluid from decomposition of glucose is more efficient in promoting the graphite-to-diamond transformation than the fluid from decomposition of oxalic acid dihydrate. Carbon crystallinity has strong effects on the kinetics of diamond nucleation and growth. The experimental results demonstrated the critical role of presence and composition of supercritical COH fluids for promoting the graphite-to-diamond transformation.

Zhang, J.; Prakapenka, V.; Kubo, A.; Kavner, A.; Green, H.W.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L. (China University of Geosciences)

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

279

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

280

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

SciTech Connect

A high precision pressure transducer system for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum florescent display.

Piper, Thomas C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marchant, Norman J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bolton, Steven M. (Pocatello, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Linear electron-hole-electron pair model of high-temperature superconductivity in La sub 2-x M sub x CuO sub 4 and YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-y : 2, Dependence of the superconducting transition temperatures on pressure and on hole concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On the basis of the linear electron-hole-electron (e-h-e) pair model, we discuss how the number of holes (i.e., formal Cu{sup 3+} sites), and an applied pressure, affect the superconducting transition temperatures {Tc} of La{sub 2-x}M{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and LBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y}(L = Y, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb). We also examine the origin of the plateaus in the {Tc} vs oxygen content pilot of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} within the framework of the linear e-h-e pair model. 17 refs.

Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Evain, M.; Canadell, E.; Williams, J.M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Chimie Theorique; Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Simulated Relationships between Sea Surface Temperatures and Tropical Convection in Climate Models and Their Implications for Tropical Cyclone Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentrations on tropical convection and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the global tropics is assessed using five fully coupled atmosphericoceanic general circulation models (AOGCMs). Relationships ...

Jenni L. Evans; Jeffrey J. Waters

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Certification Testing and Demonstration of Insulated Pressure Vessels for Vehicular Hydrogen and Natural Gas Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We are working on developing an alternative technology for storage of hydrogen or natural gas on light-duty vehicles. This technology has been titled insulated pressure vessels. Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can accept either liquid fuel or ambient-temperature compressed fuel. Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of cryogenic liquid fuel tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (fuel flexibility, lower energy requirement for fuel liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). The work described in this paper is directed at verifying that commercially available pressure vessels can be safely used to store liquid hydrogen or LNG. The use of commercially available pressure vessels significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the insulated pressure vessel development effort. This paper describes a series of tests that have been done with aluminum-lined, fiber-wrapped vessels to evaluate the damage caused by low temperature operation. All analysis and experiments to date indicate that no significant damage has resulted. Future activities include a demonstration project in which the insulated pressure vessels will be installed and tested on two vehicles. A draft standard will also be generated for obtaining insulated pressure vessel certification.

Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Schaffer, R; Clapper, W

2002-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

285

Melting of Ice under Pressure  

SciTech Connect

The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

NETL: Pressure Swing Absorption Device  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the combustion turbine of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. The overall goal of the proposed work is to develop an advanced PSAB device and cyclic process for use in a coal-fired IGCC plant to produce purified hydrogen at high pressure and a highly purified CO2 stream suitable for use or sequestration.

287

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

288

Facile xenon capture and release at room temperature using a metal-organic framework: a comparison with activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Two well known Metal organic frameworks (MOF-5, NiDOBDC) were synthesized and studied for facile xenon capture and separation. Our results indicate the NiDOBDC adsorbs significantly more xenon than MOF-5, releases it more readily than activated carbon, and is more selective for Xe over Kr than activated carbon.

Thallapally, Praveen K.; Grate, Jay W.; Motkuri, Radha K.

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

289

How Well Does Water Activity Determine Homogeneous Ice Nucleation Temperature in Aqueous Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate Droplets?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Frozen fraction measurements made using a droplet free-fall freezing tube apparatus are presented and used, along with other recent laboratory measurements, to evaluate how well both the water activity idea and the translated melting-point curve ...

Brian D. Swanson

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Deformation of Olivine at Mantle Pressure using D-DIA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of the rheological properties of mantle materials is critical in modeling the dynamics of the Earth. The high-temperature flow law of olivine defined at mantle conditions is especially important since the pressure dependence of rheology may affect our estimation of the strength of olivine in the Earth's interior. In this study, steady-state high-temperature (up to 1473 K) deformation experiments of polycrystalline olivine (average grain size ? 10 ?m) at pressure up to 9.6 GPa, were conducted using a Deformation-DIA (D-DIA) high-pressure apparatus and synchrotron X-ray radiation. The oxygen fugacity (fo2) during the runs was in-between the iron-wustite and the Ni/NiO buffers' fo2. The water content of the polycrystalline samples was generally about 150 to 200 wt. ppm but was as low as 35 wt ppm. Typically, 30 % strain was generated during the uniaxial compression. Sample lengths during the deformation process as well as the differential stresses were monitored in situ by X-ray radiography and diffraction, respectively. The strain rate was derived with an accuracy of 10?6 s?1. Differential stress was measured at constant strain rate (?10?5 s?1) using a multi-element solid-state detector combined with a conical slit. Recovered specimens were investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM shows that dislocation glide was the dominant deformation mechanism throughout the experiment. Evidence of dislocation climb and cross-slip as active mechanisms are also reported. Deformation data show little or no dependence of the dislocation creep flow with pressure, yielding to an activation volume V* of 0 {+-} 5 cm3/mol. These new data are consistent with the high-temperature rheological laws at lower pressures, as reported previously.

Li,L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume IV. Field activities. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume describes those activities which took place at the Sperry DOE Gravity Head plant site at the East Mesa Geothermal Reservoir near Holtville, California between February 1980, when site preparation was begun, and November 1982, when production well 87-6 was permanently abandoned. Construction activities were terminated in July 1981 following the liner collapse in well 87-6. Large amounts of program time manpower, materials, and funds had been diverted in a nine-month struggle to salvage the production well. Once these efforts proved futile, there was no rationale for continuing with the site work unless and until sufficient funding to duplicate well 87-6 was obtained. Activities reported here include: plant construction and pre-operational calibration and testing, drilling and completion of well 87-6, final repair effort on well 87-6, abandonment of well 87-6, and performance evaluation of well 87.6. (MHR)

Harvey, C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

High-temperature ceramic receivers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An advanced ceramic dome cavity receiver is discussed which heats pressurized gas to temperatures above 1800/sup 0/F (1000/sup 0/C) for use in solar Brayton power systems of the dispersed receiver/dish or central receiver type. Optical, heat transfer, structural, and ceramic material design aspects of the receiver are reported and the development and experimental demonstration of a high-temperature seal between the pressurized gas and the high-temperature silicon carbide dome material is described.

Jarvinen, P. O.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description This raw data reflects readings from instruments mounted on or near a 82 meter meteorological tower located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), approximately 5 miles south of Boulder, CO (specifically: 39.9107 N, 105.2348 W, datum WGS84). The base elevation at the site is 1,855 meters AMSL. Source NREL Date Released Unknown Date Updated March 10th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords DOE humidity irrandiance NREL NWTC pressure temperature turbulence wind wind direction wind speed Data text/plain icon Raw data (8/24/2001 - 3/10/2011) (txt, 681 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Field IDs for above .txt file (xls, 69.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Scientists and Technicians are notified real-time via email of instruments outside the above min/max or delta comparisons (http://www.nrel.gov/midc/nwtc_m2/) Data have not been reviewed for accuracy or completeness; disclaimer available (http://www.nrel.gov/disclaimer.html).

294

Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Pressurized SOFC Test Program is an integral part of the Cooperative Agreement between Westinghouse and DOE and was put into place to evaluate the effects of pressurization on SOFC performance. The goals of the SOFC pressurized test program are to obtain cell voltage versus current (VI) performance data as a function of pressure; to evaluate the effects of operating parameters such as temperature, air stoichiometry, and fuel utilization on cell performance, and to demonstrate long term stability of the SOFC materials at elevated pressures.

Ray, E.R.; Basel, R.A.; Pierre, J.F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

PRESERVATION OF H2 PRODUCTION ACTIVITY IN NANOPOROUS LATEX COATINGS OF RHODOPSEUDOMONAS PALUSTRIS CGA009 DURING DRY STORAGE AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

To assess the applicability of latex cell coatings as an "off-the-shelf' biocatalyst, the effect of osmoprotectants, temperature, humidity and O{sub 2} on preservation of H{sub 2} production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coatings was evaluated. Immediately following latex coating coalescence (24 h) and for up to 2 weeks of dry storage, rehydrated coatings containing different osmoprotectants displayed similar rates of H{sub 2} production. Beyond 2 weeks of storage, sorbitol- treated coatings lost all H{sub 2} production activity, whereas considerable H{sub 2} production was still detected in sucrose- and trehalose-stabilized coatings. The relative humidity level at which the coatings were stored had a significant impact on the recovery and subsequent rates of H{sub 2} production. After 4 weeks storage under air at 60% humidity, coatings produced only trace amounts of H{sub 2} (0-0.1% headspace accumulation), whereas those stored at <5% humidity retained 27-53% of their H{sub 2} production activity after 8 weeks of storage. When stored in argon at <5% humidity and room temperature, R. palustris coatings retained full H{sub 2} production activity for 3 months, implicating oxidative damage as a key factor limiting coating storage. Overall, the results demonstrate that biocatalytic latex coatings are an attractive cell immobilization platform for preservation of bioactivity in the dry state.

Milliken, C.; Piskorska, M.; Soule, T.; Gosse, J.; Flickinger, M.; Smith, G.; Yeager, C.

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

296

Spectral Analysis of Station Pressure as an Indicator of Climatological Variations in Synoptic-Scale Activity in the Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A substantial decline in North American cyclone and anticyclone activity has been documented by several recent studies based on counts of disturbance tracks. An independent method of assessing long-term trends in synoptic-scale activity based on ...

David A. Barber; Jerry M. Davis; Allen J. Riordan

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

P Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is an electro-chemical energy conversion technology that runs on natural gas and employs a molten salt electrolyte. In order to keep the electrolyte in this state, the cell must be kept at a temperature above 500 ? C, eliminating the need for precious metals as the catalyst. There has been only a limited amount of research on modelling the transport processes inside this device, mainly due to its restricted applicability for mobile applications. In this work, three one-dimensional models of a MCFC cathode are presented based on different types of diffusion and convection. Comparisons between models are performed so as to assess their validity. Regarding ion transport, it is shown that there exists a limiting case for ion migration across the cathode that depends on the conductivity for the liquid potential. Finally, an optimization of the diffusivity across the cathode is carried out in an attempt to increase the cell performance and its longevity.

Peter Berg; Justin Findlay; T Temperature

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

Michael A. Pope

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Effects of Synoptic-scale Wind under the Typical Summer Pressure Pattern on the Mesoscale High-Temperature Events in the Osaka and Kyoto Urban Areas in Japan by the WRF model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The actual conditions of the mesoscale summer high temperatures (HT) recorded in Osaka-Kyoto urban area in Japan were investigated by using our observation network. The daytime temperatures observed on ten HT events in this area were the highest ...

Yuya Takane; Yukitaka Ohashi; Hiroyuki Kusaka; Yoshinori Shigeta; Yukihiro Kikegawa

300

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the use of highly dispersed catalysts for the pretreatment of coal by mild hydrogenation, (2) to identify the active forms of the catalysts under reaction conditions and (3) to clarify the mechanisms of catalysis. The ultimate objective is to ascertain if mild catalytic hydrogenation resulting in very limited or no coal solubilization is an advantageous pretreatment for the transformation of coal into transportable fuels. The experimental program will focus upon the development of effective methods of impregnating coal with catalysts, evaluating the conditions under which the catalysts are most active and establishing the relative impact of improved impregnation on conversion and product distributions obtained from coal hydrogenation.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

On Computing the Horizontal Pressure Gradient Force in Sigma Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corby et al. present a finite-difference expression for the horizontal pressure gradient force in sigma coordinates that, in a barotropic atmosphere where the temperature varies linearly with logarithm of pressure, has the same net truncation ...

Maurice Danard; Qing Zhang; John Kozlowski

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Time and Space Variability of Spectral Estimates of Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the temporal and spatial behavior of atmospheric pressure spectra. The literature shows many examples of pressure, wind and temperature spectra whose shapes display a remarkable degree of universality. ...

Flavio G. Canavero; Franco Einaudi

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Free and Rigid Boundary Quasigeostrophic Models in Pressure Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Starting from the hydrostatic primitive equations in pressure coordinates, a quasigeostrophic (QG) model is derived with temperature and ground surface pressure (GSP) as the governing prognostic fields. In this model two different tendency ...

R. Rm

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

305

Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Practical Conversion of Pressure to Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conversion formula between pressure and depth is obtained employing the recently adopted equation of state for seawater (Millero et al., 1980). Assuming the ocean of uniform salinity 35 NSU and temperature 0C the following equation is proposed,...

Peter M. Saunders

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Correlations describing the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversions of six Eastern oil shales  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A set of correlations has been developed to describe the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversion of six Eastern oil shales. Laboratory scale fluidized bed and thermogravimetric data were used to relate hydroretorting conditions and organic carbon conversions to oil, gas, and residue. Conversions have been found to depend on temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time over the ranges studied of 750 to 865 K, 0 to 7 MPa H{sub 2}, and 0 to 30 minutes, respectively. Gas yield increases with increasing temperature but is independent of changes in hydrogen pressure. Oil yield increases with increasing hydrogen pressure and has different relationships to temperature for the various shales. A single mechanism has been used to describe the carbon conversions of Alabama and Tennessee Chattanooga, Indiana and Kentucky, New Albany, Michigan Antrim, and Ohio Cleveland shales under PFH conditions. The mechanism includes the simultaneous conversion of carbon to gas, oil, and an active carbon species which can form oil or remain as residue carbon. Yields are predicted over the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time ranges used to PFH processing.

Rue, D.M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Correlations describing the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversions of six Eastern oil shales  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A set of correlations has been developed to describe the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversion of six Eastern oil shales. Laboratory scale fluidized bed and thermogravimetric data were used to relate hydroretorting conditions and organic carbon conversions to oil, gas, and residue. Conversions have been found to depend on temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time over the ranges studied of 750 to 865 K, 0 to 7 MPa H{sub 2}, and 0 to 30 minutes, respectively. Gas yield increases with increasing temperature but is independent of changes in hydrogen pressure. Oil yield increases with increasing hydrogen pressure and has different relationships to temperature for the various shales. A single mechanism has been used to describe the carbon conversions of Alabama and Tennessee Chattanooga, Indiana and Kentucky, New Albany, Michigan Antrim, and Ohio Cleveland shales under PFH conditions. The mechanism includes the simultaneous conversion of carbon to gas, oil, and an active carbon species which can form oil or remain as residue carbon. Yields are predicted over the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time ranges used to PFH processing.

Rue, D.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200.degree. C and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100.degree. C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Havens, John (San Diego, CA); Jones, Phil (Marlborough, GB)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200 C and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100 C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired. 12 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Havens, J.H.; Jones, P.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

312

Variable pressure power cycle and control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

313

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction. Technical progress report, January--March 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two coals, a Texas subbituminous C and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation on liquefaction conversion behavior in temperature staged reactions for 30 minutes each at 275{degree} and 425{degree}C in H{sub 2} and 95:5 H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S atmospheres. Methanol, pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide were used as swelling agents. Molybdenum-based catalyst precursors were ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, molybdenum trisulfide, molybdenum hexacarbonyl, and bis(tricarbonylcyclopentadienyl-molybdenum). Ferrous sulfate and bis(dicarbonylcyclo-pentadienyliron) served as iron-based catalyst precursors. In addition, ion exchange was used for loading iron onto the subbituminous coal. For most experiments, liquefaction in H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S was superior to that in H{sub 2}, regardless of the catalyst precursor. The benefit of the H{sub 2}S was greater for the subbituminous, presumably because of its higher iron content relative to the hvab coal. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide was the only swelling agent to enhance conversion of the hvab coal significantly; it also caused a remarkable increase in conversion of the subbituminous coal. The combined application of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation also improves liquefaction, mainly through increased oil yields from the hvab coal and increased asphaltenes from the subbituminous. A remarkable effect from use of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate as a catalyst precursor is substantial increase in pristane and phytane yields. Our findings suggest that these compounds are, at least in part, bound to the coal matrix.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive EnvironmentsSignificant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with ...  

Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Electricity Transmission Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure ...

316

Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved Martensitic Steel Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications Opportunity Research is active on the patented technology, titled "Heat-Treated 9 Cr-1 Mo Steel for High Temperature Application." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview The operating efficiency of coal-fired power plants is directly related to combustion system temperature and pressure. Incorporation of ultra- supercritical (USC) steam conditions into new or existing power plants can achieve increased efficiency and reduce coal consumption, while reducing carbon dioxide emissions as well as other pollutants. Traditionally used materials do not possess the optimal characteristics for operation

317

Compliant high temperature seals for dissimilar materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, gas-tight seal is formed by utilizing one or more compliant metallic toroidal ring sealing elements, where the applied pressure serves to activate the seal, thus improving the quality of the seal. The compliant nature of the sealing element compensates for differences in thermal expansion between the materials to be sealed, and is particularly useful in sealing a metallic member and a ceramic tube art elevated temperatures. The performance of the seal may be improved by coating the sealing element with a soft or flowable coating such as silver or gold and/or by backing the sealing element with a bed of fine powder. The material of the sealing element is chosen such that the element responds to stress elastically, even at elevated temperatures, permitting the seal to operate through multiple thermal cycles.

Rynders, Steven Walton (Fogelsville, PA); Minford, Eric (Laurys Station, PA); Tressler, Richard Ernest (Boalsburg, PA); Taylor, Dale M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Influence of Powder Particle Size Distribution and Pressure on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

during HIP were determined as a function of applied pressure, temperature and initial powder particle size distribution for the nickel base superalloy. RENE 95.

319

PRESERVATION OF H2 PRODUCTION ACTIVITY IN NANOPOROUS LATEX COATINGS OF RHODOPSEUDOMONAS PALUSTRIS CGA009 DURING DRY STORAGE AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assess the applicability of latex cell coatings as an "off-the-shelf' biocatalyst, the effect of osmoprotectants, temperature, humidity and O{sub 2} on preservation of H{sub 2} production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coatings was evaluated. Immediately following latex coating coalescence (24 h) and for up to 2 weeks of dry storage, rehydrated coatings containing different osmoprotectants displayed similar rates of H{sub 2} production. Beyond 2 weeks of storage, sorbitol- treated coatings lost all H{sub 2} production activity, whereas considerable H{sub 2} production was still detected in sucrose- and trehalose-stabilized coatings. The relative humidity level at which the coatings were stored had a significant impact on the recovery and subsequent rates of H{sub 2} production. After 4 weeks storage under air at 60% humidity, coatings produced only trace amounts of H{sub 2} (0-0.1% headspace accumulation), whereas those stored at production activity after 8 weeks of storage. When stored in argon at production activity for 3 months, implicating oxidative damage as a key factor limiting coating storage. Overall, the results demonstrate that biocatalytic latex coatings are an attractive cell immobilization platform for preservation of bioactivity in the dry state.

Milliken, C.; Piskorska, M.; Soule, T.; Gosse, J.; Flickinger, M.; Smith, G.; Yeager, C.

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

pressure_measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... piston gauges, ball gages, pressure transducers, pressure gauges, non-mercurial barometers, and manometers in both gas and oil media using ...

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Gas pressure reduction circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note describes passive pressure reduction devices for use with sensitive instruments. Two gas circuits are developed which not only provide a pressure reduction under flow demand

D. W. Guillaume; D. DeVries

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

The deterioration in heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure and high heat fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At slightly supercritical pressure and in the neighborhood of the pseudo-critical temperature (defined as the temperature corresponding to the peak in specific heat at the operating pressure), the heat transfer coefficient ...

Shiralkar, B. S.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

A Universal Scale of Apparent Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the total thermal resistance required by a human model to effect equilibrium, a scale is prepared showing apparent temperature for any combination of dry-bulb temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed and extra radiation likely to be ...

Robert G. Steadman

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Materials Reliability Program: Evaluation of Potential for Low Temperature Crack Propagation in Reactor Pressure Vessel Outlet Nozzl e Dissimilar Metal Butt Welds by Stress and Fracture Mechanics Analyses (MRP-247)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low Temperature Crack Propagation is a form of hydrogen embrittlement that can cause, under specific environmental conditions in laboratory tests, severe degradation of the fracture resistance of nickel-base alloys X-750 and 690, and weld metals 82/182 and 52/152. While no operating plant has exhibited evidence of LTCP, the hydrogen levels and temperature conditions necessary for LTCP to occur are present during some PWR shutdowns. This report evaluates the potential for the thermal stresses generated du...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

325

Numerical Tests of the Weak Pressure Gradient Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-resolving simulations of convection over a surface temperature hot spot are used to evaluate the weak pressure gradient (WPG) and weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximations. The premise of the relaxed form of WTGthat vertical velocity ...

David M. Romps

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

327

Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer.

Chen, Nan (Downers Grove, IL); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (La Grange Park, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ambient pressure superconductor CePt3Si  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We studied the evolution of superconductivity (sc) and antiferromagnetism (afm) in the heavy fermion compound CePt3Si with hydrostatic pressure. We present a pressure-temperature phase diagram established by electrical transport measurements. Pressure shifts the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, to lower temperatures. Antiferromagnetism is suppressed at a critical pressure Pc ? 0.5 GPa. Key words: CePt3Si, superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, hydrostatic pressure Superconductivity (sc) is one of the most striking effects in solid state physics. In a conventional superconductor Cooper pairing is mediated by phonons. In general, magnetism destroys superconductivity. In heavy fermion systems, however, sc exists in close proximity to magnetism, promoting the suspicion that the sc is mediated by magnetic excitations. Since the discovery of sc in the heavy fermion compound CeCu2Si2 at atmospheric pressure [1], only a few Ce-based systems were found which also exhibit sc at atmospheric pressure, like CeMIn5 (M=Co, Ir) [4]. Most superconducting pure Ce-based systems show sc only under applied pressure sufficient to suppress long range magnetic order, like CeIn3 [2] or CeRh2Si2 [3]. CeIn3 displays a typical temperature-pressure phase diagram for these compounds; antiferromagnetism (afm) is suppressed to zero temperature with pressure and sc develops right in the vicinity where afm disappears [2]. Very recently another material, namely CePt3Si, was found showing magnetic order and sc at atmospheric pressure [5]. In contrast to the systems mentioned before, the crystal

M. Nicklas A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Low Pressure Storage of Natural Gas for Vehicular Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural gas is an attractive fuel for vehicles because it is a relatively clean-burning fuel compared with gasoline. Moreover, methane can be stored in the physically adsorbed state [at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi)] at energy densities comparable to methane compressed at 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Here we report the development of natural gas storage monoliths [1]. The monolith manufacture and activation methods are reported along with pore structure characterization data. The storage capacities of these monoliths are measured gravimetrically at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi) and ambient temperature, and storage capacities of >150 V/V have been demonstrated and are reported.

Tim Burchell; Mike Rogers

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

330

CLOSEOUT REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR PRESSURIZED BUTTON CELL TEST FACILITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is the Close-Out Report for design and partial fabrication of the Pressurized Button Cell Test Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This facility was planned to help develop the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) that is a key component of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for generating hydrogen. The purpose of this report is to provide as much information as possible in case the decision is made to resume research. This report satisfies DOE Milestone M3GSR10VH030107.0. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by watersplitting. The HyS Cycle utilizes the high temperature (>800 C) thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both high thermodynamic efficiency and low hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. Sulfur dioxide from the decomposer is cycled back to electrolyzers. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. Anode and cathode are formed by spraying a catalyst, typically platinized carbon, on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). SRNL has been testing SDEs for several years including an atmospheric pressure Button Cell electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2} active area) and an elevated temperature/pressure Single Cell electrolyzer (54.8 cm{sup 2} active area). SRNL tested 37 MEAs in the Single Cell electrolyzer facility from June 2005 until June 2009, when funding was discontinued. An important result of the final months of testing was the development of a method that prevents the formation of a sulfur layer previously observed in MEAs used in the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle electrolyzer. This result is very important because the sulfur layer increased cell voltage and eventually destroyed the MEA that is the heart of the cell. Steimke and Steeper [2005, 2006, 2007, 2008] reported on testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility in several periodic reports. Steimke et. al [2010] issued a final facility close-out report summarizing all the testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility. During early tests, significant deterioration of the membrane occurred in 10 hours or less; the latest tests ran for at least 200 hours with no sign of deterioration. Ironically, the success with the Single Cell electrolyzer meant that it became dedicated to long runs and not available for quick membrane evaluations. Early in this research period, the ambient pressure Button Cell Electrolyzer test facility was constructed to quickly evaluate membrane materials. Its small size allowed testing of newly developed membranes that typically were not available in sizes large enough to test in the Single Cell electrolyzer. The most promising membranes were tested in the Single Cell Electrolyzer as soon as sufficient large membranes could be obtained. However, since the concentration of SO{sub 2} gas in sulfuric acid decreases rapidly with increasing temperature, the ambient pressure Button Cell was no longer able to achieve the operating conditions needed to evaluate the newer improved high temperature membranes. Significantly higher pressure operation was required to force SO{sub 2} into the sulfuric acid to obtain meaningful concentrations at increased temperatures. A high pressure (200 psig), high temperature (120 C) Button Cell was designed and partially fabricated just before funding was discontinued in June 2009. SRNL completed the majority of the design of the test facility, including preparation of a process and instrument drawing (P&ID) and preliminary designs for the major components. SRNL intended to complete the designs and procu

Steeper, T.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Wet-Bulb Temperature from Relative Humidity and Air Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An equation is presented for wet-bulb temperature as a function of air temperature and relative humidity at standard sea level pressure. It was found as an empirical fit using gene-expression programming. This equation is valid for relative ...

Roland Stull

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Combustor oscillation pressure stabilizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with the objective of the present invention, the active control of unsteady combustion induced oscillations in a combustion chamber fired by a suitable fuel and oxidizer mixture, such as a hydrocarbon fuel and air mixture, is provided by restructuring and moving the position of the main flame front and thereby increasing the transport time and displacing the pressure wave further away from the in-phase relationship with the periodic heat release. The restructuring and repositioning of the main flame are achieved by utilizing a pilot flame which is pulsed at a predetermined frequency corresponding to less than about one-half the frequency of the combustion oscillation frequency with the duration of each pulse being sufficient to produce adequate secondary thermal energy to restructure the main flame and thereby decouple the heat release from the acoustic coupling so as to lead to a reduction in the dynamic pressure amplitude. The pulsating pilot flame produces a relatively small and intermittently existing flame front in the combustion zone that is separate from the oscillating main flame front but which provides the thermal energy necessary to effectively reposition the location of the oscillating main flame front out of the region in the combustion zone where the acoustic coupling can occur with the main flame and thereby effectively altering the oscillation-causing phase relationship with the heat of combustion.

Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

High Temperature ESP Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

334

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

335

Static Temperature Survey At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Static Temperature Survey At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) Static Temperature Survey At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Static Temperature Survey At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Chena Area Exploration Technique Static Temperature Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Once a hole is drilled the natural-state pressure distribution with depth is essentially unrecoverable (Grant et al., 1982). One of the best ways to mitigate this effect is to use multi-stage drilling (White et al., 1975; Grant et al., 1982). This type of drilling was applied at Chena and its usefulness in understanding the natural flow regimes is demonstrated. Here, we illustrate how high-quality equilibrium temperature logs can often be

336

High Temperature Capacitor Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

John Kosek

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

337

Pressurization of whole element canister during staging  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analytical model was developed to estimate the buildup of gas pressure for a single outer element in a hot cell test container for a post cold vacuum drying staging/storage test. This model considers various sources of gas generation and gas consumption as a function of time. In a canister containing spent nuclear fuel, hydrogen is generated from the reactions of uranium with free water or hydrated water, hydride decomposition, and radiolysis. The canister pressurization model predicts a stable pressure and a peak temperature during staging, with an assumption that a fuel element contains 40 gm of corrosion products and a decay heat of 2.07 or 1.06 Watts. Calculations were also performed on constant temperature tests for fuel elements containing varied amounts of sludge tested at 150, 125, 105, and 85 C. The pressurization model will be used to evaluate test results obtained from post-drying testing on whole fuel elements.

Huang, F.F.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

338

Analysis of hydrogen vehicles with cryogenic high pressure storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LIQ) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH2). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

Aceves, S. M.; Berry, G. D.

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

339

activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detecting Things We Cannot See: Learning the Concepts of Control and Detecting Things We Cannot See: Learning the Concepts of Control and Variable in an Experiment Submitted by Anita Brook-Dupree, 1996 TRAC teacher at Fermilab, Teacher, Alternative Middle Years School, Philadelphia, PA. Particle physicists at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois are faced with the problem of detecting the presence of sub-atomic particles they cannot see. During my summer as a TRAC teacher at Fermilab, I tried to think of ways to teach middle school students about things we cannot see. I want to thank my nine-year-old daughter Gia for the idea for the following activity. I was lamenting that I could not come up with ideas of how to relate the work of Fermilab scientists to anything that my students would understand. Then I was reminded by my daughter, that when I brought her to school on the

340

PRESSURE WELDING--BIBLIOGRAPHY  

SciTech Connect

A bibliography containing 117 references from the years 1944 to 1961 on pressure welding is presented. (N.W.R.)

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Complete Urban Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An observation program using ground and airborne thermal infrared radiometers is used to estimate the surface temperature of urban areas, taking into account the total active surface area. The authors call this the complete urban surface ...

J. A. Voogt; T. R. Oke

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Active Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Active Seismic Techniques Active Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Active Seismic Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Seismic Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. Stratigraphic/Structural: Structural geology- faults, folds, grabens, horst blocks, sedimentary layering, discontinuities, etc. Hydrological: Combining compressional and shear wave results can indicate the presence of fluid saturation in the formation. Thermal: High temperatures and pressure impact the compressional and shear wave velocities.

343

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

344

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

Mosher, D.M.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

345

Experimental investigation of the permeability of Kayenta and St. Peter sandstones to hypersaline brine in the temperature interval 70 to 90/sup 0/C at 10. 3-MPa confining pressure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Permeabilities of 10.2 cm in length, 2.5 cm in diameter Kayenta (porosity, 20.7, +- 1.66%) and St. Peter (porosity, 13.6, +- 0.13%) sandstones to Magmamax No. 1 brine containing suspended solids were determined from 70 to 90/sup 0/C at 10.3-MPa confining pressure. Measurements were performed without filters, with one 10-..mu..m filter, and with two 10-..mu..m filters inserted upstream of the core sample. In all cases, there was a dramatic decrease in permeability within the first hour of flow or few hundred pore volumes of flow through the core. Experiments conducted without filters or with one filter yield permeabilities that represent both the rock and the 2- to 3-mm amorphous silica-iron layer on the top face of the core. The experimental results show that if the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) were composed of porous, sedimentary formations similar to Kayenta sandstone, long-term injection of unmodified Magmamax brine would not be feasible. In the case of acidified brine, most of the permeability decline may result from the mobilization of calcite.

Piwinskii, A.J.; Netherton, R.

1977-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

346

Method of gettering hydrogen under conditions of low pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary intermetallic compound having the formula Zr(V.sub.1-x Cr.sub.x).sub.2 where x is in the range of 0.01 to 0.90 is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200.degree. C., at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Isopiestic Kinetics of Pd/C/DPB Composite: Temperature Dependence  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 2007, a continuation of experiments studying the uptake kinetics of a DPB getter material was conducted. In these experiments, a powder formed from ground pellets of DPB getter as currently deployed was subject to multiple hydrogenations in an isopiestic hydrogen reactor. The objective was to observe the reaction kinetics of the powdered material as a function of ambient hydrogen pressure at room temperature, with the intention of resolving key issues of the DPB reaction mechanism that could relate to its aging and capacity characteristics. The results indicated, in agreement with work performed in 2006 as part of the same project, that the likely mechanism of DPB/Hydrogen reaction occurs via the diffusion of unreacted DPB toward the catalyst surface. They also demonstrated that at a sufficiently high pressure (on the order of a few torr) of hydrogen, the reaction was vigorous enough to release sufficient heat to vaporize both the DPB getter and its hydrogenate away from the surface of the Pd catalyst at which the reaction takes place. The consequence was a premature slowing of the reaction kinetics and a drop in overall capacity. In the present work, the isopiestic reaction scheme is expanded to study the dependence of the reaction rate of this material on both hydrogen pressure and temperature. The dependence of the reaction rate on both temperature and pressure can provide both valuable clues about the reaction mechanism, as well as the activation energy of the principal reaction. The activation energy is an especially important term for purposes of doing lifetime predictions for getters under conditions of varying temperature.

Dinh, L N; Meulenberg, R; Saab, A P

2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

348

Temperature-programmed decomposition desorption of mercury species over activated carbon sorbents for mercury removal from coal-derived fuel gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mercury (Hg{sup 0}) removal process for coal-derived fuel gas in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process will be one of the important issues for the development of a clean and highly efficient coal power generation system. Recently, iron-based sorbents, such as iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), supported iron oxides on TiO{sub 2}, and iron sulfides, were proposed as active mercury sorbents. The H{sub 2}S is one of the main impurity compounds in coal-derived fuel gas; therefore, H{sub 2}S injection is not necessary in this system. HCl is also another impurity in coal-derived fuel gas. In this study, the contribution of HCl to the mercury removal from coal-derived fuel gas by a commercial activated carbon (AC) was studied using a temperature-programmed decomposition desorption (TPDD) technique. The TPDD technique was applied to understand the decomposition characteristics of the mercury species on the sorbents. The Hg{sup 0}-removal experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor at 80-300{sup o}C using simulated fuel gas and a commercial AC, and the TPDD experiments were carried out in a U-tube reactor in an inert carrier gas (He or N{sub 2}) after mercury removal. The following results were obtained from this study: (1) HCl contributed to the mercury removal from the coal-derived fuel gas by the AC. (2) The mercury species captured on the AC in the HCl{sup -} and H{sub 2}S-presence system was more stable than that of the H{sub 2}S-presence system. (3) The stability of the mercury surface species formed on the AC in the H{sub 2}S-absence and HCl-presence system was similar to that of mercury chloride (HgClx) species. 25 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

M. Azhar Uddin; Masaki Ozaki; Eiji Sasaoka; Shengji Wu [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Underhill, D.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Radiance Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Temperature using Detectors Calibrated for Absolute Spectral Power Response, HW ... A Third Generation Water Bath Based Blackbody Source, JB ...

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

352

Electrical conductivity of hydrogen shocked to megabar pressures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The properties of ultra-high pressure hydrogen have been the subject of much experimental and theoretical study. Of particular interest is the pressure-induced insulator-to-metal transition of hydrogen which, according to recent theoretical calculations, is predicted to occur by band-overlap in the pressure range of 1.5-3.0 Mbars on the zero temperature isotherm. Extremely high pressures are required for metallization since the low-pressure band gap is about 15 eV. Recent static-pressure diamond anvil cell experiments have searched for evidence of an insulator-to-metal transition, but no conclusive evidence for such a transition has yet been supplied. Providing conclusive evidence for hydrogen metallization is difficult because no technique has yet been developed for performing static high-pressure electrical conductivity experiments at megabar pressures. The authors report here on electrical conductivity experiments performed on H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} multi-shocked to megabar pressures. Electrical conductivities of dense fluid hydrogen at these pressures and temperatures reached are needed for calculations of the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn, the magnetic fields being generated by convective dynamos of hot, dense, semiconducting fluid hydrogen. Also, since electrical conduction at the pressure-temperature conditions being studied is due to the thermal excitation of charge carriers across the electronic band gap, these experiments yield valuable information on the width of the band gap at high densities.

Weir, S.T.; Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Evaluation of the leakage behavior of pressure-unseating equipment hatches and drywell heads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a recent research program to investigate the leakage behavior of pressure unseating equipment hatches. A total of thirteen tests have been conducted under various conditions to determine the pressure and temperature at which leakage through unseating equipment hatches would occur. A simple analytical model is presented that provides a good estimate of the leakage onset pressure for these tests. Because of the similarity in the sealing mechanism between unseating equipment hatches and drywell heads, the results of this program also provide insight into the leakage behavior of drywell heads. The research activities described herein are a part of the Containment Integrity Programs, which are managed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 16 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Parks, M.B.; Walther, H.P.; Lambert, L.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

Linker, Kevin L

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

355

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

356

Pressure dependence of the c-axis resistivity of graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The c-axis resistivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite has been measured from 2 to 300 K under hydrostatic pressures of up to 40 kbar. A resistivity peak near 40 K, typical for this type of graphite at ambient pressure, rapidly diminishes with increasing pressure but does not shift its position with respect to temperature. This observation suggests that the origin of the resistivity peak is not in a strong electron-phonon interaction but is associated with a particular structural matrix of these artificially produced graphites. A model is proposed, based on tunneling between microcrystallites, which accounts for the peculiar temperature and pressure dependence of the resistivity.

Uher, C.; Hockey, R.L.; Ben-Jacob, E.

1987-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Synchrotron x-ray spectroscopy of Eu/HNO{sub 3} aqueous solutions at high temperatures and pressures and Nb-bearing silicate melt phases coexisting with hydrothermal fluids using a modified hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and rail assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) rail assembly has been constructed for making synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, and x-ray mapping measurements on fluids or solid phases in contact with hydrothermal fluids up to {approx}900 deg. C and 700 MPa. The diamond anvils of the HDAC are modified by laser milling grooves or holes, for the reduction of attenuation of incident and fluorescent x rays and sample cavities. The modified HDAC rail assembly has flexibility in design for measurement of light elements at low concentrations or heavy elements at trace levels in the sample and the capability to probe minute individual phases of a multiphase fluid-based system using focused x-ray microbeam. The supporting rail allows for uniform translation of the HDAC, rotation and tilt stages, and a focusing mirror, which is used to illuminate the sample for visual observation using a microscope, relative to the direction of the incident x-ray beam. A structure study of Eu(III) aqua ion behavior in high-temperature aqueous solutions and a study of Nb partitioning and coordination in a silicate melt in contact with a hydrothermal fluid are described as applications utilizing the modified HDAC rail assembly.

Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I-Ming [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States); Department of Earth Sciences, St. Francis Xavier University, P.O. Box 5000, Antigonish, Nova Scotia B2G 2W5 (Canada); Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); MS 954, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia 20192 (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

Isaksson, J.

1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

360

CC Pressure Test  

SciTech Connect

The inner vessel heads including bypass and beam tubes had just been welded into place and dye penetrant checked. The vacuum heads were not on at this time but the vacuum shell was on covering the piping penetrating into the inner vessel. Signal boxes with all feed through boards, the instrumentation box, and high voltage boxes were all installed with their pump outs capped. All 1/4-inch instrumentation lines were terminated at their respective shutoff valves. All vacuum piping used for pumping down the inner vessel was isolated using o-ring sealed blind flanges. PV215A (VAT Series 12), the 4-inch VRC gate valve isolating the cyropump, and the rupture disk had to be removed and replaced with blind flanges before pressurizing due to their pressure limitations. Stresses in plates used as blind flanges were checked using Code calcualtions. Before the CC test, vacuum style blanks and clamps were hydrostatically pressure tested to 150% of the maximum test pressure, 60 psig. The Code inspector and Research Division Safety had all given their approval to the test pressure and procedure prior to filling the vessel with argon. The test was a major success. Based on the lack of any distinguishable pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages, the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 3 hrs.). A major leak in the instrumentation tubing was discovered at half of the maximum test pressure and was quickly isolated by crimping and capping with a compression fitting. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The 44 psig relief valve located just outside the cleanroom had to be capped until the pressure in the vessel indicated 38 psi. This was to allow higher supply pressures and hence, higher flows through the pressurizing line. Also, in order to get pressure readings at the cryostat without exposing any personnel to the potentially dangerous stored energy near the maximum test pressure, a camera was installed at the top of the vessel to view the indicator mounted there. The monitor was viewed at the ante room adjacent to the cleanroom. The holding pressure of 32 psig (4/5 of the maximum test pressure) was only maintained for about 20 minutes instead of the half hour recommendation in the procedure. We felt that this was sufficient time to Snoop test and perform the pressure drop test. After the test was completed, the inspector for CBI Na-Con and the Research Divison Safety Officer signed all of required documentation.

Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1990-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Hydrostatic Pressure Retainment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There is a great deal of attention being concentrated on reducing the weight of pressure vessels and fuel/oxidizer tanks (tankage) by 10% to 20%. Most (more)

Setlock, Robert J., Jr.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

363

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

High pressure xenon ionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

Markey, J.K.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

366

An Analysis of Near-Surface Winds, Air Temperature, and Cyclone Activity in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, from 1993 to 2009  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In September 2009, the first unmanned aerial vehicles were flown over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, to collect information regarding airsea interactions. Prior to the field season, wind and temperature data from a local automatic weather station (...

Shelley L. Knuth; John J. Cassano

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Miniaturized pressurization system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to pressurization systems and liquid rocket propulsion systems, and particularly to those used to attitude control or maneuvering of small space vehicles or airborne vehicles where the requirement for thrust is intermittent rather than continuous, and must be available rapidly upon demand. This invention also relates to increasing performance of such propulsion systems, by way of eliminating inert mass from the propulsion system. The invention uses a fluid stored at a low pressure and provides the fluid at a high pressure. The invention allows the low pressure fluid to flow to a fluid bore of a differential pump and from the pump to a fluid pressure regulator. After flowing through the regulator the fluid is converted to a gas which is directed to a gas bore of the differential pump. By controlling the flow of gas entering and being exhausted from the gas bore, the invention provides pressure to the fluid. By setting the regulator, the high pressure fluid can be set at predetermined values. Because the invention only needs a low pressure fluid, the inventive apparatus has a low mass, and therefore would be useful in rocket propulsion systems.

Whitehead, J.C.; Swink, D.G.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, D.W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

Carver, D.W.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

371

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

The Detection and Significance of Diurnal Pressure and Potential Vorticity Anomalies East of the Rockies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Harmonic analysis of pressure, temperature, and precipitation data from 1000 Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) stations reveals a mix of stationary and eastwest moving disturbances east of the Rockies. Optimization of the pressure data ...

Yanping Li; Ronald B. Smith

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Operating high temperature (1000/sup 0/C) electrolysis demonstration unit  

SciTech Connect

Phase I of the BNL Fusion Synfuel Demonstration Program has been the successful construction and demonstration of a 100-W electrically-heated, high-temperature electrolysis unit operating at a temperature of 1000/sup 0/C. The high-temperature electrolyzer demonstration unit consists of 34 yttria-stabilized zirconia tubes contained in a 15-cm (od), 30-cm long INCONEL pressure vessel. The tubes are 25-cm long (active length), 0.64-cm (od), and coated on the inside with platinum to form the oxygen electrode and coated on the outside with nickel to form the hydrogen electrode. The 1000/sup 0/C steam is raised by electrically heating water. The system is designed to produce approx. 6 cc/s of hydrogen.

Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

High Temperature Stainless Steel Alloy with Low Cost Manganese  

High Temperature Stainless Steel Alloy with Low Cost Manganese ... Power industry components such as boiler tubing and piping, pressure vessels, chemical

376

Water Volume as Function of Temperature (Cold)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Volume as Function of Temperature (Cold) Name: Hank Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MA Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: At normal atmospheric pressure, and...

377

Sea Level Pressure Minimum along the Kuroshio and Its Extension  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric effects of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts along the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension (K-KE) are investigated by examining spatial characteristics of the climatological sea level pressure (SLP), surface winds and surface heat flux (...

Youichi Tanimoto; Tomohisa Kanenari; Hiroki Tokinaga; Shang-Ping Xie

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Wind Tunnel Evaluation of PAM II Pressure Ports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Portable Automated Mesonet II (PAM II) is a network of automated remote weather stations developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for measuring wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, and ...

Fikri Adnan Akyz; Henry Liu; Tom Horst

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Improved Magnus Form Approximation of Saturation Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Algorithms, based on Magnus's form equations, are described that minimize the difference between several relationships between temperature and water vapor pressure at saturation that are commonly used in archiving data. The work was initiated in ...

Oleg A. Alduchov; Robert E. Eskridge

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Pressure Acid Leaching Vanadium from Stone coal - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vanadium extraction from stone-coal was investigated by pressure acid ... The results show that with the leaching time for 3~4h, temperature at 150?, sulfuric acid consumption of 25%~30%, ... Calcium Reductants A historical review.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Weak Pressure Gradient Approximation and Its Analytical Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A weak pressure gradient (WPG) approximation is introduced for parameterizing supradomain-scale (SDS) dynamics, and this method is compared to the relaxed form of the weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation in the context of 3D, linearized, ...

David M. Romps

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

New Equations for Computing Vapor Pressure and Enhancement Factor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Equations are presented which relate saturation vapor pressure to temperature for moist air. The equations are designed to be easily implemented on a calculator or computer and can be used to convert in either direction. They are more accurate ...

Arden L. Buck

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Pressure Effects on Two Superconducting Iron-based Families  

SciTech Connect

Insight into the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity can be gained by pressure-dependent studies of structural, thermodynamics and transport data. The role of pressure may be complicated by the level of hydrostaticity. High-pressure studies on two iron-based families of RFeAsO (R = rare-earth metals) and AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (A = alkaline-earth metals) are reviewed here.

Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Determination of the Vapor Pressure of Lanthanum Fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary experiments have been made to determine the vapor pressure of lanthanum fluoride between 0.001 and 0.1 millimeter of mercury by means of the Knudsen effusion method. A tantalum cell for this purpose is described. Only preliminary results were obtained and they were all in a relatively high pressure region. However, a plot of the vapor pressure against the reciprocal of absolute temperature approximates a straight line such as would be predicted from theoretical considerations.

Stone, B. D.

1954-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

385

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

386

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

THE ACTIVE ASTEROIDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some asteroids eject dust, unexpectedly producing transient, comet-like comae and tails. First ascribed to the sublimation of near-surface water ice, mass-losing asteroids (also called 'main-belt comets') can in fact be driven by a surprising diversity of mechanisms. In this paper, we consider 11 dynamical asteroids losing mass, in nine of which the ejected material is spatially resolved. We address mechanisms for producing mass loss including rotational instability, impact ejection, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure sweeping, dehydration stresses, and thermal fracture, in addition to the sublimation of ice. In two objects (133P and 238P) the repetitive nature of the observed activity leaves ice sublimation as the only reasonable explanation, while in a third ((596) Scheila), a recent impact is the cause. Another impact may account for activity in P/2010 A2, but this tiny object can also be explained as having shed mass after reaching rotational instability. Mass loss from (3200) Phaethon is probably due to cracking or dehydration at extreme ({approx}1000 K) perihelion temperatures, perhaps aided by radiation pressure sweeping. For the other bodies, the mass-loss mechanisms remain unidentified, pending the acquisition of more and better data. While the active asteroid sample size remains small, the evidence for an astonishing diversity of mass-loss processes in these bodies is clear.

Jewitt, David, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

PRESSURIZER ANALYSIS AND THE PRE DIGITAL PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is given which was programmed for the Philco 2000 (TRANSAC) Computer in order to provide a means for making pressurizer design and performance calculations. The analysis and digital program provide the exibility for studying the effects of various assumptions such as the type of steam compression process (i.e., isentropic or saturation), spray efficiency, wall condensation, and mixing of the pressurizer water and of the insurge. Also included in the program are data on pressure controlled steam and water relief,valves (total of four), pressure controlled heaters (total of five), pressure controlled spray valve, and various input formats allowing the use of either total surge, surge rate or bulk average temperature for the surge, spray fraction or spray rate for the spray and either temperatures or enthalpies for the surge and spray energies. The program uses steam and water properties in the form of empirical equations where the empirical constants in these equations may be changed depending upon the range of interest of the problem. (auth)

Findlay, J.A.

1961-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

389

Effects of Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Typical elevated temperatures in engineering applications...825??975 0.45??0.50 Pressure vessels and piping in nuclear reactors 316 stainless steel 650??750 0.35??0.40 Reactor skirts in nuclear reactors 316 stainless steel 850??950 0.45??0.55 Gas turbine blades Nickel-base superalloys 775??925 0.45??0.60 Burner cans for gas turbine engines Oxide dispersion-strengthened...

390

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

391

Giraffe blood pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thing that happens to you when you raise or lower your head. The arteries serving your heart (carotids) constrict when you lower your head, and that lowers the blood pressure...

392

Capacitance pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Critical CRBR core pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conditions are detailed under which gas pressure will cause or initiate failure in the structural containment of the fuel core. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant is the prototype structure. Two general classes of problems have been studied, representing two entirely distinct configurations of containment failure. The first model determines the minimum pressure to lift a portion or the entire core from its containment. The second model estimates the critical pressure above which the fuel rods interior to the hexagonal fuel can warp, leading to blockage of the gas passages. Such blockage might cause further buildup of the gas pressure to a level causing the failure of the fuel rod containment in the hexagonal fuel container.

Ju, F.D.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Pressure multiplying dispenser  

SciTech Connect

A pressure multiplying dispenser for delivering fluid, preferably as a spray to the atmosphere, from a source of fluid, preferably a spray bottle, is described. The dispenser includes in combination a hollow cylindrical member, a nozzle delivery tube within the cylindrical member and a hollow actuator piston slideable within the cylindrical member which acts to multiply the pressure of a squeeze applied to the spray bottle.

DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

ECN Pressure Test  

SciTech Connect

This note describes: the rationale for the test pressure of the inner ECN cryostat vessel, the equipment to be used in this test, the test procedure, the status of the vessel prior to the test, the actual test results, and a schematic diagram of the testing set up and the pressure testing permit. The test, performed in the evening of July 17, 1991, was a major success. Based on a neglible pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages (1/4 psi), the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 1.5 hrs.). No pressure increases were observed on the indicators looking at the beam tube bellows volumes. There was no indication of bubbles form the soap test on the welds and most of the fittings that were checked. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The UO filter was removed after the vessel had bled down to about 18 psig in order to speed up that aspect of the test. The rationale was that the higher velocity gas had already passed through at the higher pressures and there was no visible traces of the black uo particles. The rate of 4 psi/10 minutes seemed incredibly slow and often that time was reduced to just over half that rate. The testing personnel was allowed to stay in the pit throughout the duration of the test; this was a slight relaxation of the rules.

Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1991-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

396

Single pressure steam bottoming cycle for gas turbines combined cycle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for recapturing waste heat from the exhaust of a gas turbine to drive a high pressure-high temperature steam turbine and a low pressure steam turbine. It comprises: delivering the exhaust of the gas turbine to the hot side of an economizer-reheater apparatus; delivering a heated stream of feedwater and recycled condensate through the cold side of the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus to elevate the temperature below the pinch point of the boiler; delivering the discharge from the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine through the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus; driving the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine with the discharge stream of feedwater and recycled condensate which is heated to a temperature below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus; and driving the low pressure steam turbine with the discharged stream of the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine reheated below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus.

Zervos, N.

1990-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Field test of a downhole-activated centralizer to reduce casing drag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A good cementation is based on an adequate centralization. Conventional bow-type centralizers create a drag force, which is not acceptable under certain conditions. The downhole-activated centralizer (DAC{trademark}) was developed for use in highly inclined wells and whenever restrictions in the wellbore like close tolerance wellheads have to be passed. It can be released by external hydraulic pressure, by temperature or by a chemical reaction. The first downhole-activated centralizers with pressure released locking mechanism were field tested in two wells offshore Italy. These field tests proved the function and the effectiveness of the downhole-activated centralizers under operational conditions.

Kinzel, H. [Weatherford Oil Tool GmbH, Langenhagen (Germany); Calderoni, A. [Agip SpA, Milan (Italy)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Dynamic surge/swab pressure predictions  

SciTech Connect

It is generally accepted that the pulling and running of pipe causes pressure surges. The prediction of pressure surges is of economic importance in wells where the pressure must be examined within narrow limits to prevent lost circulation and formation-fluid influx. For these wells, the drilling engineer needs the best possible method of calculating surge pressures to drill wells with a minimum of trouble. This paper presents a dynamic surge/swab model that extends existing technology with the following features: (1) pipe and annulus pressures are coupled through the pipe elasticity; (2) longitudinal pipe elasticity and fluid viscous forces determine pipe displacement; (3) fluid properties vary as a function of temperature and pressure; and (4) formation elasticity; pipe elasticity, and cement elasticity are all used to determine the composite elastic response of the wellbore. Comparisons between the model and field data demonstrate good agreement. Data matches have been made for both water- and oil-based muds in both shallow and deep wells. Furthermore, the model matches data that had not been previously matched by other models.

Mitchell, R.F. (Enertech Engineering and Research (US))

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Materials to Support High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) Drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... HPHT drilling and the drill pipe materials currently available on the market. ... Computational Phase Studies in the (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg)O3-d System for IT-SOFC...

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401

Effect of Deposition Temperature and Oxygen Pressure on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of Indonesia Rare Earth Minerals and their Potential Processing Techniques Characterization of Rare Earth Minerals with Field Emission...

402

Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials  

SciTech Connect

Engineers from the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have demonstrated an innovative method for seal or pinch welding stainless steel tubing. Sometimes a tube has fuel or contamination that must be contained, or the tube needs to be shortened or cut for handling, and the tube needs to have a guaranteed sealed weld that is both quick and easy. This technique was demonstrated in a laboratory using a resistance welding system with specially designed electrodes to ensure a tube end is seal welded or if a long tube is to be shortened, the severed ends are seal welded. The unique electrodes design is integral to achieving the sealed ends. This process could readily be adapted for robotic--remote handling or for contact handling in a glovebox or hood.

Larry Zirker; Craig Tyler

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Harnessing Bulk Nano-Materials for High Pressure High Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, International Symposium on Advances in Nanostructured Materials and...

404

Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research is supported by the Office of Nuclear Energy, US Department of Energy. ... Overview of Joining Challenges in the Oil and Gas Industry in Support of ... Production of Supersaturated Aluminum-Magnesium Deposits through the...

405

A Databank of Antarctic Surface Temperature and Pressure Data...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(ndp032.txt) FORTRAN and SAS Data Retrieval Programs (.for and .sas files) Station Inventory File (stationinvent.txt) Station Data Files References List of Figures Locations of...

406

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Paul E. Fabian, Composite Technology Development, Inc. Targets Milestones In this program, CTD and its collaborators will work together to develop and demonstrate...

407

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

409

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O' Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O' Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

411

Passive blast pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

412

TRENDS: TEMPERATURE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Graphics Digital Data J.R. Petit, D. Raynaud, and C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciogie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, CNRS, Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France J. Jouzel and G. Delaygue Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA/CNRS, L'Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France N.I. Barkov Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringa Street 38, 199397 St. Petersburg, Russia V.M. Kotlyakov Institute of Geography, Staromonetny, per 29, Moscow 109017, Russia DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.006 Period of Record 420,000 years BP-present Methods Because isotopic fractions of the heavier oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) in snowfall are temperature-dependent and a strong spatial correlation

413

Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

Isaksson, Juhani M. (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

Isaksson, J.M.

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

415

PRESSURE SENSING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This device is primarily useful as a switch which is selectively operable to actuate in response to either absolute or differential predetermined pressures. The device generally comprises a pressure-tight housing divided by a movable impermeable diaphragm into two chambers, a reference pressure chamber and a bulb chamber containing the switching means and otherwise filled with an incompressible non-conducting fluid. The switch means comprises a normally collapsed bulb having an electrically conductive outer surface and a vent tube leading to the housing exterior. The normally collapsed bulb is disposed such that upon its inflation, respensive to air inflow from the vent, two contacts fixed within the bulb chamber are adapted to be electrically shorted by the conducting outer surface of the bulb.

Pope, K.E.

1959-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Pressure suppression containment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Einstein's Gravity Under Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mysterious `dark energy' needed to explain the current observations, poses a serious confrontation between fundamental physics and cosmology. The present crisis may be an outcome of the (so far untested) prediction of the general theory of relativity that the pressure of the matter source also gravitates. In this view, a theoretical analysis reveals some surprising inconsistencies and paradoxes faced by the energy-stress tensor (in the presence of pressure) which is used to model the matter content of the universe, including dark energy.

Ram Gopal Vishwakarma

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z