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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

California at Santa Cruz, University of

2

The effect of temperature and homogenization pressure on enzymatic activity in cheese whey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HOMOGENIZATION PRESSURE ON ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN CHEESE WHEY A Thesis by MARIA YANINA DEL CAWvKN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1995 Major Subject; Food Science and Technology THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HOMOGENIZATION PRESSURE ON ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN CHEESE WHEY A Thesis by MARIA YANINA DEL CARMEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

Del Carmen, Maria Yanina

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

High temperature pressure gauge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Pressure Temperature Log At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pressure Temperature Log At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Glass Buttes...

5

Pressure Temperature Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Pressure Temperature Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Pressure Temperature Log Details Activities (13) Areas (13) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Perturbations in temperature or pressure can be indicative of faults or other structural features Hydrological: fluid cirulation, over-pressured zones, and under-pressured zones. Thermal: Temperature profile with depth Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 0.6060 centUSD 6.0e-4 kUSD

6

PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

Michael A. Romano

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Ambient Temperature Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx Using Atmospheric Pressure Nonthermal Plasma Activation of a Ag/Al2O3 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ambient Temperature Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx Using Atmospheric Pressure Nonthermal Plasma Activation of a Ag/Al2O3 Catalyst ... This low temperature activity provides the basis for applying nonthermal plasmas to activate emission control catalysts during cold start conditions, which remains an important issue for mobile and stationary applications. ... (14, 15) Therefore, the combination of heterogeneous catalysis with plasmas has attracted interest due to the combined possible advantages of having a fast and low-temperature reaction from atmospheric nonthermal plasma and high product selectivity from heterogeneous catalysis. ...

Cristina E. Stere; Wameedh Adress; Robbie Burch; Sarayute Chansai; Alexandre Goguet; William G. Graham; Fabio De Rosa; Vincenzo Palma; Christopher Hardacre

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

8

Pressure Temperature Log At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP)...

9

Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

10

Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

11

Air separation with temperature and pressure swing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References (1 January 2011) GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Pressure_Temperature_Log_At_Silver_Peak_Area_(DOE_GTP)&oldid=511053" Categories: Exploration Activities

13

H2O activity in concentrated KCl and KCl-NaCl solutions at high temperatures and pressures measured by the brucite-periclase equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

H2O activities in supercritical fluids in the system KCl-H2O-(MgO) were measured at pressures of 1, 2, 4, 7, 10 and 15? kbar by numerous reversals of vapor compositions in equilibrium with brucite and periclase....

L. Y. Aranovich; R. C. Newton

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Mccoy Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References (1 January 2011) GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Pressure_Temperature_Log_At_Mccoy_Geothermal_Area_(DOE_GTP)&oldid=511052" Categories: Exploration Activities DOE Funded Activities ARRA Funded Activities What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

15

Sandia National Laboratories: High-Pressure and High-Temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECClimateCarbon CaptureHigh-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron...

16

Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Temperature, Flow, Pressure, and Seismicity of EGS Reservoirs 300 C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010...

17

A temperature compensated pressure transducer for high temperature, high pressure applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will work only if the cliange in deflectiou due to tenrperature ivas constant for all pressures. which is uot the case. At 0 ksi, the rliaphragni deflection is constant (zerol for all possible temperatures. At 40 ksi. however, the deflection is much... temperature. 3, 3 Basic Dimensioning After selecting the basic configuration and material for the transclucer body a diaphragm cap, it ivas next necessary to determine the actual defle& tion of the diaphragni and any thermally induced affects. Prior to a...

Lippka, Sandra Margaret

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Comparing Wind, Temperature, Pressure, and Humidity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the higher the amount of energy in the air. Temperature is measured using a thermometer with units in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. See http:www.teachervision.com...

19

Novel, fiber optic, hybrid pressure and temperature sensor designed for high-temperature gen-IV reactor applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel, fiber optic, hybrid pressure-temperature sensor is presented. The sensor is designed for reliable operation up to 1050 C, and is based on the high-temperature fiber optic sensors already demonstrated during previous work. The novelty of the sensors presented here lies in the fact that pressure and temperature are measured simultaneously with a single fiber and a single transducer. This hybrid approach will enable highly accurate active temperature compensation and sensor self-diagnostics not possible with other platforms. Hybrid pressure and temperature sensors were calibrated by varying both pressure and temperature. Implementing active temperature compensation resulted in a ten-fold reduction in the temperature-dependence of the pressure measurement. Sensors were also tested for operability in a relatively high neutron radiation environment up to 6.9x10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}. In addition to harsh environment survivability, fiber optic sensors offer a number of intrinsic advantages for nuclear power applications including small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, self diagnostics / prognostics, and smart sensor capability. Deploying fiber optic sensors on future nuclear power plant designs would provide a substantial improvement in system health monitoring and safety instrumentation. Additional development is needed, however, before these advantages can be realized. This paper will highlight recent demonstrations of fiber optic sensors in environments relevant to emerging nuclear power plants. Successes and lessons learned will be highlighted. (authors)

Palmer, M. E.; Fielder, R. S.; Davis, M. A. [Luna Innovations, Incorporated, 2851 Commerce St., Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly...

Ling, Kegang

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

22

Computer program to analyze multipass pressure-temperature-spinner surveys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer program has been developed to analyze multipass pressure-temperature-spinner surveys and summarize the data in graphical form on two plots: (1) an overlay of spinner passes along with a fluid velocity profile calculated from the spinner and (2) an overlay of pressure, pressure gradient, and temperature profiles from each pass. The program has been written using SmartWare II Software. Fluid velocity is calculated for each data point using a cross-plot of tool speed and spinner counts to account for changing flow conditions in the wellbore. The program has been used successfully to analyze spinner surveys run in geothermal wells with two-phase flashing flow.

Spielman, Paul

1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

23

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Zonal Isolation Project Description For Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation tools capable of withstanding the downhole environment are needed. In these wells the packers must withstand differential pressures of 5,000 psi at more than 300°C, as well as pressures up to 20,000 psi at 200°C to 250°C. Furthermore, when deployed these packers and zonal isolation tools must form a reliable seal that eliminates fluid loss and mitigates short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers. At this time, general purpose open-hole packers do not exist for use in geothermal environments, with the primary technical limitation being the poor stability of existing elastomeric seals at high temperatures.

24

H2O activity in concentrated NaCl solutions at high pressures and temperatures measured by the brucite-periclase equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?H2O activities in concentrated NaCl solutions were measured in the ranges 600900?C and 215 kbar and at NaCl concentrations up to halite saturation by depression of the brucite (Mg(OH)2...) periclase (MgO) ...

L. Y. Aranovich; R. C. Newton

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Pressure Temperature Log At Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location Vale Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Numerous temperature logs were taken with Sandia's platinum-resistance-thermometer (PRT) tool which along with a Sandia logging truck remained on-site for the entire project. Static temperature logs (no flow in hole) were done with this tool when coring operations were suspended for bit trips, rig maintenance, or other time intervals that would permit the hole to warm up near its static temperature K580gradient.

26

Pressure Temperature Log At Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location Steamboat Springs Area Exploration Technique Pressure Temperature Log Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Downhole data during production and injection tests were acquired using pressure/temperature/spinner (PTS) tools from two dtierent service companies. Although details differed, all the commercial downhole instruments were designed to take data and to transmit that data uphole in real time, using a singleconductor wireline. All the instruments (each company used more than one) employed a dewar, or thermal flasIq to protect

27

Thermodynamics of high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We report on a thermodynamic analysis for water electrolysis from normal conditions (P=0.1MPa, T=298K) up to heretofore unaddressed temperatures of 1000K and pressures of 100MPa. Thermoneutral and reversible potentials are determined using equations-of-state published by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The need for using accurate property models at these elevated temperatures and pressures is exemplified by contrasting results with those obtained via ideal assumptions. The utility of our results is demonstrated by their application in an analysis comparing pressurized electrolysis versus mechanical gas compression. Within the limits of our analysis, pressurized electrolysis demonstrates lower energy requirements albeit with electrical work composing a greater proportion of the total energy input.

Devin Todd; Maximilian Schwager; Walter Mrida

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Pressure and temperature drawdown well testing: similarities and differences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperature and pressure are the most frequently observed physical parameters in boreholes. The same differential diffusivity equation describes the transient flow of incompressible fluid in porous media and heat conduction in solids. The similarities and differences in the techniques of pressure and temperature well testing are discussed. It is shown that the mathematical model of pressure well tests based on the presentation of the borehole as an infinitely long linear source with a constant fluid flow rate in an infinite-acting homogeneous reservoir cannot be used in temperature well testing. A new technique has been developed for the determination of the formation thermal conductivity, initial temperature, skin factor and contact thermal resistance. It is assumed that the volumetric heat capacity of formations is known and the instantaneous heater's wall temperature and time data are available for a cylindrical probe with a constant heat flow rate placed in a borehole. A semi-analytical equation is used to approximate the dimensionless wall temperature of the heater. A simulated example is presented to demonstrate the data processing procedure.

L V Eppelbaum; I M Kutasov

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pressure and varies the motor speed is often used...12.398 is from the quantum mechanical relationship...detectors could in the future reduce data collection...kind of studies in the future. Other more fundamental...addressed in the near future. Temperature gradients...

Yingwei Fei; Yanbin Wang

31

High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO{sub 3} have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kamenev, Konstantin V., E-mail: k.kamenev@ed.ac.uk [School of Engineering and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom)] [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom); Azuma, Masaki [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)] [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Attfield, J. Paul [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Iterative Boltzmann plot method for temperature and pressure determination in a xenon high pressure discharge lamp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Boltzmann plot method allows to calculate plasma temperatures and pressures if absolutely calibrated emission coefficients of spectral lines are available. However, xenon arcs are not very well suited to be analyzed this way, as there are only a limited number of lines with atomic data available. These lines have high excitation energies in a small interval between 9.8 and 11.5 eV. Uncertainties in the experimental method and in the atomic data further limit the accuracy of the evaluation procedure. This may result in implausible values of temperature and pressure with inadmissible uncertainty. To omit these shortcomings, an iterative scheme is proposed that is making use of additional information about the xenon fill pressure. This method is proved to be robust against noisy data and significantly reduces the uncertainties. Intentionally distorted synthetic data are used to illustrate the performance of the method, and measurements performed on a laboratory xenon high pressure discharge lamp are analyzed resulting in reasonable temperatures and pressures with significantly reduced uncertainties.

Zalach, J.; Franke, St. [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

33

Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Identification of an average temperature and a dynamical pressure in a multitemperature mixture of fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of an average temperature and a dynamical pressure in a multitemperature mixture pressure even if the fluids have a zero bulk viscosity. The nonequilib- rium dynamical pressure can

Boyer, Edmond

35

An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS 50 51 REFERENCES APPENDIX A EXPERIMENTAL DATA 52 54 VITA 105 vail LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Schematic of test facility 13 Fig. 2 Comparison of Texas A&M drying facility operating ranges to other drying processes... of number of drying passes for drying temperatures of 93, 149, and 204 'C (200, 300, and 400 'F), a contact pressure of 1. 4 MPa (200 psi), a basis weight of 25 g/m' (0. 005 lb/ft'), and contact times between 20 to 180 msec with same side drying...

Patel, Kamal Raoji

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

NETL: Combined Pressure, Temperature Contrast, and Surface-Enhanced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Combined Pressure, Temperature Contrast, and Surface-Enhanced Separation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007531 Rice University is investigating CO2-capture cost-reduction opportunities by developing a novel gas absorption process. Specific project research topics include the following: Combining the absorber and stripper columns into a single, integrated unit. The use of vacuum stripping in combination with waste heatfor regeneration of carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbent. The use of a very high surface area ceramic foam gas-liquid contactor for enhanced mass transfer. Preparing surfaces of the ceramic foam gas-liquid contactor with basic and acidic functional groups to enhance mass transfer during gas absorption and stripping, respectively.

37

Extreme Environment Silicon Carbide Hybrid Temperature & Pressure Optical Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report contains the main results from a 3-year program to further investigate the merits of SiC-based hybrid sensor designs for extreme environment measurements in gas turbines. The study is divided in three parts. Part 1 studies the material properties of SiC such as temporal response, refractive index change with temperature, and material thermal response reversibility. Sensor data from a combustion rig-test using this SiC sensor technology is analyzed and a robust distributed sensor network design is proposed. Part 2 of the study focuses on introducing redundancy in the sensor signal processing to provide improved temperature measurement robustness. In this regard, two distinct measurement methods emerge. A first method uses laser wavelength sensitivity of the SiC refractive index behavior and a second method that engages the Black-Body (BB) radiation of the SiC package. Part 3 of the program investigates a new way to measure pressure via a distance measurement technique that applies to hot objects including corrosive fluids.

Nabeel Riza

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 High-Temperature Downhole Tools Project Description Draka has engaged top academic, national laboratory and industry research scientists to develop the myriad of technical advances required - from glass chemistry to encapsulation metallurgy. Draka will develop the required advances in buffer tubing, cladding, wire insulation materials and cable packaging as well as coordinate activities of other participants. Draka Communications will develop the required advances in glass chemistry, fiber coatings and fiber drawing technologies. AltaRock Energy, Inc., a renewable energy company focused on research & development, will provide well field services and EGS wells for long-term testing and validation of the cable at Geysers, California. Tetramer has been engaged for the required advances in candidate materials for fiber coating and encapsulation technologies. Sandia will provide laboratory testing and validation of Draka's fiber solutions at elevated temperatures, pressures and hydrogen levels. Permatools (a Sandia EGS spin-off) will provide EGS tools to validate the finished cable design and will also coordinate in-well testing. Permatools (a Sandia EGS spin-off) will provide EGS tools to validate the finished cable design and will also coordinate in-well testing.

39

Rotational viscometer for high-pressure, high-temperature fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer include a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. Means are provided to generate an output indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms. The viscometer is comparatively simple, inexpensive, rugged, and does not require shaft seals.

Carr, K.R.

1983-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

40

Mechanical counter-pressure space suit design using active materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) space suits have the potential to greatly improve the mobility of astronauts as they conduct planetary exploration activities; however, the underlying technologies required to provide ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Temperature and High Pressure Conditions Copyright 2012 Brandon Scott Zigmond ! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted...

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

42

Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

Gautam, Siddharth, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Liu, Tingting, E-mail: gautam.25@osu.edu; Welch, Susan; Cole, David [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, 275 Mendenhall Laboratory, 125 S Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rother, Gernot [Geochemistry and Interfacial Science Group, Chemical Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jalarvo, Niina [Jlich Center for Neutron Sciences (JCNS-1), Forschungszentrum Jlich Outstation at Spallation Neutron Source(SNS), Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

43

Humidity, Pressure, and Temperature Measurements in an Interdigitated-Flow PEM Hydrogen Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In situ measurements of humidity, temperature, and pressure are demonstrated for a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell of interdigitated gas flow channel layout. Sensors are embedded at ...

S. Bell; G. Hinds; M. de Podesta; M. Stevens

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

High-temperature fiber optic cubic-zirconia pressure sensor - article no. 124402  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a critical need for pressure sensors that can operate reliably at high temperatures in many industrial segments such as in the combustion section of gas turbine engines for both transportation and power generation, coal gasifiers, coal fired boilers, etc. Optical-based sensors are particularly attractive for the measurement of a wide variety of physical and chemical parameters in high-temperature and high-pressure industrial environments due to their small size and immunity to electromagnetic interference. A fiber optic pressure sensor utilizing single-crystal cubic zirconia as the sensing element is reported. The pressure response of this sensor has been measured at temperatures up to 1000{sup o}C. Additional experimental results show that cubic zirconia could be used for pressure sensing at temperatures over 1000{sup o}C. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a novel cubic-zirconia sensor for pressure measurement at high temperatures.

Peng, W.; Pickrell, G.R.; Wang, A.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

47

Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K. (UAB)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

Understanding the Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, geothermal system using temperature and pressure data from exploration boreholes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chena Hot Springs is a small, moderate temperature, deep circulating geothermal system, apparently typical of those associated to hot springs of interior Alaska. Multi-stage drilling was used in some exploration boreholes and was found to be useful for understanding subsurface flow characteristics and developing a conceptual model of the system. The results illustrate how temperature profiles illuminate varying pressure versus depth characteristics and can be used alone in cases where staged drilling is not practical. The extensive exploration activities helped define optimal fluid production and injection areas, and showed that the system could provide sufficient hot fluids (?57C) to run a 400-kWe binary power plant, which came on line in 2006.

Kamil Erkan; Gwen Holdmann; Walter Benoit; David Blackwell

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Three precision differential pressure indicators for operation at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the design did have a 7 Pa sensitivity which is especially imoortant as the sensing transformer was located outside the pressure containment. This feature eliminates the need for electrical feedthroughs which usually limit the operating conditions... was constructed and the sensitivity increased to ? 5 -1 2x10 Pa using the same transformer. Based on the designs tested, a new differential pressure indicator was proposed. Using a diaphragm with a linear variable differential transformer outside the pressure...

Osburn, Douglas Clayton

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Rotating disk electrode apparatus for the study of fuel cell reactions at elevated temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A rotating disk electrode apparatus for studying fuel cell reactions at elevated temperatures and pressures was described. Preliminary data for oxygen reduction in 89.5 percent H3PO4 at temperatures up to 205 C and pressures up to 7.6 A were provided. The Tafel slope was approximately 120 mV/decade and invariant with temperature up to 175 C and pressures near atmospheric. Increasing the pressure to 3 A at 175 C caused the Tafel slope to decrease to a value of approximately RT/F. Above 3 A, the current was proportional to the oxygen pressure. A first order dependence with respect to oxygen pressure was suggested, as well as a mechanism change with increasing oxygen coverage of the platinum. 10 references.

Mcbreen, J.; Ogrady, W.E.; Richter, R.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

remotely and autonomous deployable structures for space and our high temperature composite technology developed for downhole applications. These devices offer several...

52

Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reviewer Panel: Outstanding (4), Good (3), Good (3) Supporting comments: * Silicon carbide-based electronics offer excellent potential for high-temperature application....

53

A correlation of rock compressibility with temperature and pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volume compressibilities 14. Decompression test (Core No. 5D and 12D) 15, Decompression test (Core No. 5E and 1062D). , 16. Decompression test (Core No. 3C) . . 17, Pore volume compressibility vs. porosity. 19 20 23 24 25 26 Table s 1. Des c..., psi Figure 4. Cumulative pore volume change/pore volume vs. pressure 14 0. 08 0. 06 0. 0 0. 0 Core No. 5C at 300 F Core No. 5A at 200 F Core No. 5E at 76 F ~'~ ~ ~* ~ Core No. 5B at 400 F (Fi 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 Pressure in thousands, psi...

Choudhary, Bijoy Kumar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

A high pressure, high temperature study of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of the novel high explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene at high pressures and high temperatures. Pressure was generated using a Paris-Edinburgh cell to employ larger sample volumes. High temperatures were created using a resistive graphite cylinder surrounding the sample. The PT phase diagram was explored in the 3.3 GPa pressure range and in the {approx} 400 C temperature range. We believe that the sample commenced in the {alpha}-phase and then ended up in an amorphous phase when the temperature increased beyond 280 C near 2 GPa, which we believe to be the {gamma}-phase. Further pressure and temperature cycling suggests that the sample transformed reversibly into and out of the amorphous phase near the phase line.

Pravica, Michael; Galley, Martin; Park, Changyong; Ruiz, Harrison; Wojno, Jennifer (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

55

Temperature and pressure dependences of the Copper-related Green...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(PL) from tetrapod-like ZnO micro-rods. The temperature dependence of the green emission energy follows the changes in the band gap from 10-200 K, but deviates from...

56

Pressure, temperature, and dissolved gas dependence of dielectric breakdown in water.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been shown experimentally that the optical breakdown strength of water is a pressure dependent quantity growing with increasing pressure. The dependence of the breakdown strength on temperature and dissolved gas concentration over a larger range of pressures will be observed. Using a custom fabricated pressure vessel and high?power Nd:YAG laser breakdown events will be generated and observed over a range of pressures from 0 to 25 kpsi. Observations of breakdown events will be made using a high?speed photodetector located behind the pressure vessels optical windows. Dissolved gas concentration will be controlled and varied using a custom water preparation system over a range from waters vapor pressure (?20 torr) to atmospheric pressure.Temperature will be monitored using a thermocouple attached to the pressure vessel and the temperature dependence will be measured over a range from 20 to 35 C. A comparison between current single detector methods and previous imaging methods of using breakdown to determine absolute pressure will then be made. [Work supported by Impulse Devices Inc.

Jonathan Sukovich; R. Glynn Holt

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Active control of underground stresses through rock pressurization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To significantly increase the stability of underground excavations while exploiting the full advantages of confined rock strength, methods must be developed to actively control the distribution of stresses near the excavation. This US Bureau of Mines study examines theoretical and practical aspects of rock pressurization, an active stress control concept that induces compressive stress in the wall rock through repeated hydraulic fracturing with a settable fluid. Numerical analyses performed by incorporating the rock pressurization concept into a variety of boundary-element models indicate that rock pressurization has the potential to improve underground excavation stability in three ways: (1) by relocating stress concentrations away from the weak opening surface to stronger, confined wall rock; (2) by inducing additional stresses in a biaxial stress field to reduce the difference between the principal stress components near the surface of the opening, and (3) by counteracting the tensile stresses induced in the rock around internally loaded openings. Practical aspects of the rock pressurization concept were investigated through a series of hydraulic fracturing experiments. The use of sulfur as a settable fluid for hydraulic fracturing was demonstrated, although problems related to sulfur viscosity suggest that other molten materials, such as wax, may be better suited to practical field application of the rock pressurization concept.

Vandergrift, T.L.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Water Electrolysis at High Pressure and Medium Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve the performance of water electrolyzers three problems have to be solved: (i) Proper activation of the electrod...

Jrgen Fischer; Hans Hoffmann; Gerhard Luft; Hartmut Wendt

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most...

Ravi, Ashwin

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

60

An examination of possible reversible combustion at high temperatures and pressures for a reciprocating engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ratio of 18. Although the temperatures and pressures considered are well beyond practical values for the materials and designs of today, the general result of the study is that conditions can be identified to eliminate the combustion irreversibility....

Patrawala, Kaushik Tanvir

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water: energetical and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water and Cecile Langlade2,3 1 FRAMATOME-ANP Technical Center, Avenue B. Marcet, Porte Magenta, 71200 Le Creusot.bec@ec-lyon.fr Abstract Specific wear of Rod Cluster Control Assemblies (RCCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

High Temperature and Pressure reactive flows through porous media.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC), used as high temperature material for combustion chamber or stagnation and chemical composition (Gas Chromatograph, Mass Spectrometer, Infra-Red spectrometer) in stationary and transient conditions. The tests on metallic and composite samples have been conducted with N2, CH4, H2+CH4

Boyer, Edmond

63

GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

64

GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

65

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis under Pressure and at Moderate Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This project tests an alcaline electrolyser concept under pressure using the thermal activation at 200C and available materials, i.e. uncatalised electrodes and metallic diaphragms made of porous nickel.

S. Kunstreich

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

A New Scanning Tunneling Microscope Reactor Used for High Pressure and High Temperature Catalysis Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design and performance of a home-built high-pressure and high-temperature reactor equipped with a high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for catalytic studies. In this design, the STM body, sample, and tip are placed in a small high pressure reactor ({approx}19 cm{sup 3}) located within an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber. A sealable port on the wall of the reactor separates the high pressure environment in the reactor from the vacuum environment of the STM chamber and permits sample transfer and tip change in UHV. A combination of a sample transfer arm, wobble stick, and sample load-lock system allows fast transfer of samples and tips between the preparation chamber, high pressure reactor, and ambient environment. This STM reactor can work as a batch or flowing reactor at a pressure range of 10{sup -13} to several bars and a temperature range of 300-700 K. Experiments performed on two samples both in vacuum and in high pressure conditions demonstrate the capability of in situ investigations of heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry at atomic resolution at a wide pressure range from UHV to a pressure higher than 1 atm.

Tao, Feng; Tang, David C.; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

68

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

70

Device For Determining Therophysical Properties Of A Multi-Component Gas At Arbitrary Temperature And Pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A computer product for determining thermodynamic properties of a natural gas hydrocarbon, when the speed of sound in the gas is known at an arbitrary temperature and pressure. Thus, the known parameters are the sound speed, temperature, pressure, and concentrations of any dilute components of the gas. The method uses a set of reference gases and their calculated density and speed of sound values to estimate the density of the subject gas. Additional calculations can be made to estimate the molecular weight of the subject gas, which can then be used as the basis for mass flow calculations, to determine the speed of sound at standard pressure and temperature, and to determine various thermophysical characteristics of the gas.

Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Gilbert, AZ)

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Apparatus for direct measurement of ash fusion and sintering behavior at elevated temperatures and pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash fusion sintering and deposition may impose serious operational difficulties in conventional and advanced coal?combustion systems. Conventional ash fusion techniques (e.g. ASTM methods) determine the qualitative behavior of ash samples at atmospheric pressure. Presently there is no known available technique that can measure the behavior of coal ash at elevated temperatures and pressures. In the literature methods based on electrical resistance or shrinkage of coal ash have been reported at atmospheric pressure (elevated temperatures) conditions. A high?pressure microdilatometer (HPMD) has been developed to investigate ash fusion and sintering behavior at elevated pressures and temperatures by the simultaneous measurement of the temperature of initial contraction and electrical resistivity of samples. This novel technique facilitates the measurement of ash properties over a wide range of temperature pressure and gas atmosphere (oxidizing reducing or inert). The operating principle of the HPMD includes measuring the temperature at which there is a significant shift in the electrical resistivity (and/or sample volume) that represents ash sintering and fusion. Sintering occurs through the formation of solid?state particle?to?particle necks or the appearance of a molten phase which allows a path for electrical conductance. The ability to perform both resistivity and shrinkage measurements simultaneously or independently at e l e v a t e d p r e s s u r e s makes the HPMD truly unique. The HPMD can also be used to investigate the swelling and softening behavior of pyrolyzing coal at elevated pressures and relatively rapid heating rates. The HPMD can provide insights into the sintering/fusion of coal ash or coal swelling at a range of conditions: (a) the influences of various gas atmospheres can be investigated (b) the effects of pressure can be studied (c) different temperature/heating rate schemes can be used (constant rates isothermal holds below or above the sinteringtemperature etc.) and (d) studies can be performed to investigate the influence of increased heating rate at elevated pressures (which were not performed previously) on coal swelling and plasticity.

M. Rashid Khan

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Coating application and evaluation for heavy wall thickness, temperature and pressure pipeline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Venezuelan oil company is developing a project for high pressure gas injection for oil recovery. This project has a compression plant to increase the gas pressure from 1,200 to 9,000 psi. Due to the high gas pressure (9,000 psi) and high temperature (90 C), a carbon steel API 5L-X60 with 2.5 in thickness pipe has been selected. The gas is transported from the compression plant to the injection well. This type of pipeline is unique in the world and in the authors` knowledge no one has applied and evaluated external coating for this combination of heavy wall thickness, pressure and temperature pipeline. Dual fusion bonded epoxy was selected as main coating, combined with high temperature sleeves for the joints. Several parameters were considered in the selection of the coating: high temperature, wall thickness, application condition, heat during the welding process and coating performance in the lab. The large amount of heat accumulated during the application, due to the thick wall, requires a modification of coating application parameters, as well as the cooling condition. The evaluation of the coating was performed with a specially designed test for high temperatures. The laboratory results (impact resistance, degree of curing, cathodic disbonding, adhesion and hot water immersion) indicate that the application condition used was good to obtain a product under specification.

Rodriguez, V.; Perozo, E.; Alvarez, E. [Intevep, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Tecnologia de Materiales

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Temperature Modeling in Activated Sludge Systems: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Modeling in Activated Sludge Systems: A Case Study Jacek Makinia, Scott A. Wells, Piotr Zima ABSTRACT: A model of temperature dynamics was developed as part of a general model of activated-sludge biochemical-energy inputs and other activated-sludge, heat-balance terms. All the models were tested under

Wells, Scott A.

74

Highly efficient oxidation of silicon at low temperatures using atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon oxide ( Si O 2 ) layers were formed with initial oxidation rates in the range of 6.2 14.1 nm ? min in the temperature range of 150 400 C by oxidizing Si(001) wafers. Such a high-rate and low-temperature oxidation was realized by using a stable glow He ? O 2 plasma excited at atmospheric pressure by a 150 MHz very high-frequency power. Increasing the temperature led to both the higher oxidation rate and the better quality of Si O 2 and Si O 2 ? Si interface. The oxidation at 400 C showed an interface trap density of 6.2 10 10 eV ? 1 cm ? 2 which is considerably lower than that in a radical oxidation process using low-pressure He ? O 2 plasma at the same temperature.

Hiroaki Kakiuchi; Hiromasa Ohmi; Makoto Harada; Heiji Watanabe; Kiyoshi Yasutake

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Highly efficient oxidation of silicon at low temperatures using atmospheric pressure plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers were formed with initial oxidation rates in the range of 6.2-14.1 nm/min in the temperature range of 150-400 deg. C by oxidizing Si(001) wafers. Such a high-rate and low-temperature oxidation was realized by using a stable glow He/O{sub 2} plasma excited at atmospheric pressure by a 150 MHz very high-frequency power. Increasing the temperature led to both the higher oxidation rate and the better quality of SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/Si interface. The oxidation at 400 deg. C showed an interface trap density of 6.2x10{sup 10} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, which is considerably lower than that in a radical oxidation process using low-pressure He/O{sub 2} plasma at the same temperature.

Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Harada, Makoto; Watanabe, Heiji; Yasutake, Kiyoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

76

High pressure--high temperature research using high energy synchrotron radiation at the TRISTAN accumulation ring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy synchrotron radiation emitted from the bending magnet of the TRISTAN accumulation ring (6.5 GeV) at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics has been used for the high pressure--high temperature diffraction experiments using a multianvil press system, MAX80. Owing to the specific features of high energy synchroton radiation, significant improvements have been brought to the high pressure research. The wide energy range of diffraction spectrum leads to an increase in the number of observable diffraction peaks in an energy-dispersive method, resulting in an increase in the accuracy of the measurements of the lattice and thermal parameters. Due to the high penetrating power of radiation, diffraction patterns can be taken in a short time from materials containing heavy elements or materials surrounded by a metal foil. Typical examples of high pressure--high temperature experiments with high energy synchrotron radiation are also described.

Kikegawa, T.; Shimomura, O.; Iwasaki, H.; Sato, S.; Mikuni, A.; Iida, A.; Kamiya, N.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Mach-uniformity through the coupled pressure and temperature correction algorithm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new type of algorithm: the coupled pressure and temperature correction algorithm. It is situated in between the fully coupled and the fully segregated approach, and is constructed such that Mach-uniform accuracy and efficiency are obtained. The essential idea is the separation of the convective and the acoustic/thermodynamic phenomena: a convective predictor is followed by an acoustic/thermodynamic corrector. For a general case, the corrector consists of a coupled solution of the energy and the continuity equations for both pressure and temperature corrections. For the special case of an adiabatic perfect gas flow, the algorithm reduces to a fully segregated method, with a pressure-correction equation based on the energy equation. Various test cases are considered, which confirm that Mach-uniformity is obtained.

Nerinckx, Krista [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: Krista.Nerinckx@UGent.be; Vierendeels, Jan [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: Jan.Vierendeels@UGent.be; Dick, Erik [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: Erik.Dick@UGent.be

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Atomic-Scale Observation of Temperature and Pressure Driven Preroughening and Roughening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic-Scale Observation of Temperature and Pressure Driven Preroughening and Roughening Z. Ding, D, Oklahoma 73019, USA (Received 13 January 2003; published 30 May 2003) Preroughening and roughening is roughening [6,7]. Here it is common for the surface morphology to change from a flat surface directly to one

Thibado, Paul M.

79

Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite at high temperatures and high pressures Lidong Dai a,b , Shun 2009 Editor: L. Stixrude Keywords: electrical conductivity wadsleyite oxygen fugacity frequency water The electrical conductivity of wadsleyite aggregates has been determined under the broad range of thermodynamic

80

Aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids at deep crustal pressure and temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids at deep crustal pressure and temperature Mainak Mookherjee a Abstract We investigated aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids in equilibrium with corundum using in situ Raman spectroscopy in hydrothermal diamond anvil cells to 20 kbar and 1000 °C. We have studied aluminum

Manning, Craig

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Detecting and modeling cement failure in high pressure/ high temperature wells using finite-element method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the event that high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) conditions are encountered, we must attempt to achieve permeability in the set cement to prevent gas migration and to prevent any other fluid passing through to collapse the entire structure. Therefore...

Shahri, Mehdi Abbaszadeh

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

82

Cavitation erosion of silver plated coating at different temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavitation often occurs in inducer pumps used for space rockets. Silver plated coating on the inducer liner faces the damage of cavitation. Therefore, it is important to study about the cavitation erosion resistance for silver plated coating at several operating conditions in the inducer pumps. In this study, the cavitation erosion tests were carried for silver plated coating in deionized water and ethanol at several liquid temperatures (273K400K) and pressures (0.10MPa0.48MPa). The mass loss rate is evaluated in terms of thermodynamic parameter ? proposed by Brennen [9], suppression pressure pp{sub v} (p{sub v}: saturated vapor pressure) and acoustic impedance ?c (?: density and c: sound speed). Cavitation bubble behaviors depending on the thermodynamic effect and the liquid type were observed by high speed video camera. The mass loss rate is formulated by thermodynamic parameter ?, suppression pressure pp{sub v} and acoustic impedance ?c.

Hattori, Shuji; Motoi, Yoshihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fuku-shi, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Kikuta, Kengo; Tomaru, Hiroshi [IHI Corperation, TOYOSU IHI BUILDING, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 1358710 (Japan)

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

83

Ionization and equation of state of dense xenon at high pressures and high temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ionization degree and equation of state of dense xenon plasma were calculated by using self-consistent fluid variational theory for temperature of 430kK and density of 0.018.5g?cm3. The dense fluid xenon will be ionized at high pressures and temperatures. The ionization energy of xenon will be lowered due to the interactions among all particles of Xe, Xe+, Xe2+, and e. The ionization degree is obtained from nonideal ionization equilibrium, taking into account the correlative contributions to the chemical potential which is determined self-consistently by the free energy function. The composition of xenon has been calculated with given densities and temperatures in the region of partial ionization. The calculated results show a pressure softening regime at the onset of ionization. Comparison is performed with available shock-wave experiments and other theoretical calculations.

Q. F. Chen, L. C. Cai, Y. J. Gu, and Y. Gu

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

84

Extension of an Artificial Neural Network Algorithm for Estimating Sulfur Content of Sour Gases at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extension of an Artificial Neural Network Algorithm for Estimating Sulfur Content of Sour Gases at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures ... (1, 39) The i neuron within the hidden k layer performs the following tasks: summation of the arriving weighted inputs and propagations of the resulting summation through an activation function, f, to the adjacent neurons of the next hidden layer or to the output neuron(s). ... This work deals with the potential application of artificial neural networks (ANN) to represent PVT data within their exptl. ...

Mehdi Mehrpooya; Amir H. Mohammadi; Dominique Richon

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

85

Velocity of Sound Measurements in High?Pressure, High?Temperature Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental information concerning the acoustic velocity in steam as a function of pressure and temperature is quite limited. Yet it is of particular interest to steam turbine designers who are now planning units as large as 400 000 kw operating at 4500 lb/sq in. and 1200F so as to increase thermal efficiencies of such units. Apparatus is now in operation for measuring the acoustic velocity up to 2000 lb/sq in. and 750F using a variable path acoustic interferometer.Measurements are taken at 200?lb/sq in. intervals along a given isotherm using a sound frequency of 750 kc. A special experimental high?pressure boiler is used to generate the steam at the desired pressure and the stem is then increased in temperature by means of a stainless steel superheater before entering the interferometer. The interferometer also of stainless steel is enclosed by an insulated steel vessel maintained at a given constant temperature by another separate steam system. Future work is now being considered up to 6000?lb/sq in. steam pressure based upon results of present experiments.

James Woodburn

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Autoignition of gasoline surrogates mixtures at intermediate temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition times were determined in high-pressure shock-tube experiments for various stoichiometric mixtures of two multicomponent model fuels in air for the validation of ignition delay simulations based on chemical kinetic models. The fuel blends were n-heptane (18%)/isooctane (62%)/ethanol (20%) by liquid volume (14.5%/44.5%/41% by mole fraction) and n-heptane (20%)/toluene (45%)/isooctane (25%)/diisobutylene (10%) by liquid volume (17.5%/55%/19.5%/8.0% by mole fraction). These fuels have octane numbers comparable to a standard European gasoline of 95 RON and 85 MON. The experimental conditions cover temperatures from 690 to 1200 K and pressures at 10, 30, and 50 bar. The obtained ignition time data are scaled with respect to pressure and compared to previous results reported in the literature. (author)

Fikri, M.; Herzler, J.; Starke, R.; Schulz, C.; Roth, P. [IVG, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions U.K., P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Plasma etching of cavities into diamond anvils for experiments at high pressures and high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method for precisely etching small cavities into the culets of diamond anvils for the purpose of providing thermal insulation for samples in experiments at high pressures and high temperatures. The cavities were fabricated using highly directional oxygen plasma to reactively etch into the diamond surface. The lateral extent of the etch was precisely controlled to micron accuracy by etching the diamond through a lithographically fabricated tungsten mask. The performance of the etched cavities in high-temperature experiments in which the samples were either laser heated or electrically heated is discussed.

Weir, S.T.; Cynn, H.; Falabella, S.; Evans, W.J.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Farber, D.; Vohra, Y.K. (LLNL); (UAB)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

88

Liquid dispersion and holdup in a small-scale upflow hydrotreater at high temperatures and pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Residence time distribution experiments were carried out at high temperatures and pressure in a small-scale upflow reactor. A diluted and a non-diluted bed were tested. Middle distillates and hydrogen were used as feeds. The axial dispersion model was used to describe the liquid flow through the packed bed. The dependency of Pe and liquid holdup on feed velocity and temperature was examined. The behaviour of the beds tested at hot flow conditions is compared with that of identical beds tested at ambient conditions using toluene as liquid feed and the effect of liquid-phase properties is discussed.

A.M. Thanos; P.A. Galtier; N.G. Papayannakos

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Experimental Investigation on High-pressure, High-temperature Viscosity of Gas Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

area A a layer in fluid flow between two plates bar pressure unit, 1 bar = 0.987 atms cm centimeter cp centipoise CO2 carbon dioxide oC Celsius temperature db ball diameter dt tube diameter D tube diameter ft foot or feet F... Subscripts Symbol Description 1atm 1 atmosphere Avg average CO2 carbon dioxide g gas H2S hydrogen sulfide i initial N2 nitrogen xiii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

Davani, Ehsan

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Flow-Through High-Pressure Electrical Conductance Cell for Determining of Ion Association of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions at High Temperature and Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flow-through high-pressure electrical conductance cell was designed and constructed to measure limiting molar conductances and ion association constants of dilute aqueous solutions with high precision at high temperatures and pressures. The basic concept of the cell employs the principle developed at the University of Delaware in 1995, but overall targets higher temperatures (to 600 C) and pressures (to 300 MPa). At present the cell has been tested by measuring aqueous NaCl and LiOH solutions (10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}5} mol.kg{sup {minus}1}) to 405 C and 33 MPa with good results.

Bianchi, H.; Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A.; Wood, R.H.

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

91

An investigation of temperature measurement methods in nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel annealing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to provide an assessment of several methods by which the temperature of a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel (RPV) could be measured during an annealing process. This project was a coordinated effort between DOE`s Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology; DOE`s Light Water Reactor Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories; and the Electric Power Research Institute`s Non- Destructive Evaluation Center. Ball- thermocouple probes similar to those described in NUREG/CR-5760, spring-loaded, metal- sheathed thermocouple probes, and 1778 air- suspended thermocouples were investigated in experiments that heated a section of an RPV wall to simulate a thermal annealing treatment. A parametric study of ball material, emissivity, thermal conductivity, and thermocouple function locations was conducted. Also investigated was a sheathed thermocouple failure mode known as shunting (electrical breakdown of insulation separating the thermocouple wires). Large errors were found between the temperature as measured by the probes and the true RPV wall temperature during heat-up and cool-down. At the annealing soak temperature, in this case 454{degrees}C [850`F], all sensors measured the same temperature within about {plus_minus}5% (23.6{degrees}C [42.5{degrees}F]). Because of these errors, actual RPV wall heating and cooling rates differed from those prescribed (by up to 29%). Shunting does not appear to be a problem under these conditions. The large temperature measurement errors led to the development of a thermal model that predicts the RPV wall temperature from the temperature of a ball- probe. Comparisons between the model and the experimental data for ball-probes indicate that the model could be a useful tool in predicting the actual RPV temperature based on the indicated ball- probe temperature. The model does not predict the temperature as well for the spring-loaded and air suspended probes.

Acton, R.U.; Gill, W.; Sais, D.J.; Schulze, D.H.; Nakos, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

High-Throughput Thin Film Approach for Screening of Temperature-Pressure-Composition Phase Space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many solar energy technologies, for example CIGS and CdTe photovoltaics, utilize materials in thin film form. The equilibrium phase diagrams for these and other more novel solar energy materials are not known or are irrelevant because of the non-equilibrium character of the thin film growth processes. We demonstrate a high-throughput thin film approach for screening of temperature-pressure-composition phase diagrams and phase spaces. The examples in focus are novel solar absorbers Cu-N, Cu-O and p-type transparent conductors in the Cr2O3-MnO system. The composition axis of the Cr2O3-MnO phase diagram was screened using a composition spread method. The temperature axis of the Mn-O phase diagram was screened using a temperature spread method. The pressure axes of the Cu-N and Cu-O phase diagrams were screened using rate spread method with the aid of non-equilibrium growth phenomena. Overall these three methods constitute an approach to high-throughput screening of inorganic thin film phase diagrams. This research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy as a part of two NextGen Sunshot projects and an Energy Frontier Research Center.

Zakutayev, A.; Subramaniyan, A.; Caskey, C. M.; Ndione, P. F.; Richards, R. M.; O'Hayre, R.; Ginley, D. S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

Ming, L. C. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Zinin, P. V. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii; Sharma, S. K. [University of Hawaii] [University of Hawaii

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

95

The Northwest Geysers High-Temperature Reservoir- Evidence For Active  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geysers High-Temperature Reservoir- Evidence For Active Geysers High-Temperature Reservoir- Evidence For Active Magmatic Degassing And Implications For The Origin Of The Geysers Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: The Northwest Geysers High-Temperature Reservoir- Evidence For Active Magmatic Degassing And Implications For The Origin Of The Geysers Geothermal Field Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Noble gas isotope abundances in steam from the Coldwater Creek field of the Northwest Geysers, California, show mixing between a nearly pure mid-ocean ridge (MOR) type magmatic gas with high 3He/4He and low radiogenic 40*Ar (R/Ra > 8.3 and 40*Ar/4He < 0.07), and a magmatic gas diluted with crustal gas (R/Ra 0.25). The

96

Magnesite formation from MgO and CO2 at the pressures and temperatures of Earths mantle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2007) Molecular carbon dioxide at high pressure and high temperature. Europhysics Letters, 77, 46002, 10.1209/0295-5075/77/46002 . Giordano, V.M. , Datchi, F., and Dewaele, A. (2006) Melting curve and fluid equation of...

Henry P. Scott; Vincent M. Doczy; Mark R. Frank; Maggie Hasan; Jung-Fu Lin; Jing Yang

97

Near-surface modification of optical properties of fused silica by low-temperature hydrogenous atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this Letter, we report on the near-surface modification of fused silica by applying a hydrogenous atmospheric pressure plasma jet at ambient temperature. A significant decrease in...

Gerhard, Christoph; Tasche, Daniel; Brckner, Stephan; Wieneke, Stephan; Vil, Wolfgang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Plasma-Assisted Reduction of Graphene Oxide at Low Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure for Flexible Conductor Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma-Assisted Reduction of Graphene Oxide at Low Temperature and Atmospheric Pressure for Flexible Conductor Applications ... The method allows rapid deoxygenation of bulk graphite oxide (GO) in an atmosphere of ... ...

Seung Whan Lee; Cecilia Mattevi; Manish Chhowalla; R. Mohan Sankaran

2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

99

A new sensor concept for simultaneous measurement of pressure, temperature and thickness of plate structures using modified wave propagation theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Acousto Photonic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TAP-NDE) is employed to remotely initiate and acquire interrogating ultrasonic waves. Parameters including pressure, temperature and plate thickness are determined through exploring the dispersion features...

Lo, Tzu-Wei

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Sensitivity of CO2 migration estimation on reservoir temperature and pressure uncertainty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The density and viscosity of supercritical CO{sub 2} are sensitive to pressure and temperature (PT) while the viscosity of brine is sensitive primarily to temperature. Oil field PT data in the vicinity of WESTCARB's Phase III injection pilot test site in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California, show a range of PT values, indicating either PT uncertainty or variability. Numerical simulation results across the range of likely PT indicate brine viscosity variation causes virtually no difference in plume evolution and final size, but CO{sub 2} density variation causes a large difference. Relative ultimate plume size is almost directly proportional to the relative difference in brine and CO{sub 2} density (buoyancy flow). The majority of the difference in plume size occurs during and shortly after the cessation of injection.

Jordan, Preston; Doughty, Christine

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 4501000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

102

Multipoint Pressure and Temperature Sensing Fiber Optic Cable for Monitoring CO2 Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the work completed on contract DE-FE0010116. The goal of this two year project was to develop and demonstrate in the laboratory a highly accurate multi-point pressure measurement fiber optic cable based on MEMS pressure sensors suitable for downhole deployment in a CO2 sequestration well. The sensor interrogator was also to be demonstrated in a remote monitoring system and environmental testing was to be completed to indicate its downhole survivability over a lengthy period of time (e.g., 20 years). An interrogator system based on a pulsed laser excitation was shown to be capable of multiple (potentially 100+) simultaneous sensor measurements. Two sensors packages were completed and spliced in a cable onto the same fiber and measured. One sensor package was subsequently measured at high temperatures and pressures in supercritical CO2, while the other package was measured prior and after being subjected to high torque stresses to mimic downhole deployment. The environmental and stress tests indicated areas in which the package design should be further improved.

Challener, William

2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Structural phase transitions in EuFe[subscript 2]As[subscript 2] superconductor at low temperatures and high pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has been studied up to a pressure of 35 GPa and down to a temperature of 8 K using temperature dependent x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at a synchrotron source. At 4.3 GPa, we have detected a structural phase transition from a high temperature tetragonal phase with I4/mmm space group to a low temperature orthorhombic phase with Fmmm space group around 120 K. With the application of pressure at a low temperature of 10 K, the orthorhombic phase is suppressed and a phase change to a collapsed tetragonal phase with I4/mmm space group is observed at 11 GPa. This collapsed tetragonal phase is similar to the one observed at ambient temperature and pressure above 8.5 GPa. We have shown that the collapsed tetragonal phase of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has the same pressure-volume (P-V) equation of state at ambient temperature and at 10 K, implying that the high pressure phase of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has a negligible thermal expansion coefficient.

Uhoya, Walter O.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; McGuire, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S. (UAB); (ORNL)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

104

Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the Advanced Light Source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the surface slope changes by approximately 1.5 ?mu rad rms (primarily defocus) under the same conditions.

Yuan, Sheng; Church, Matthew; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; McKinney, Wayne R.; Kirschman, Jonathan; Morrison, Greg; Noll, Tino; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

High-pressure phase transition and behavior of protons in brucite Mg(OH)2: a high-pressuretemperature study using IR synchrotron radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Infrared absorption spectra of brucite Mg (OH)2...were measured under high pressure and high temperature from 0.1?MPa 25?C to 16?GPa 360?C using infrared synchrotron radiation at BL43IR of Spring-8 and a high-...

K. Shinoda; M. Yamakata; T. Nanba; H. Kimura

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Design and development of a high resolution differential pressure transducer for use at high temperature and high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are multiple diaphragms attached at the edges. Flat and corrugated diaphragms are discussed at length by Giovanni (1982). The three most common detection systems are strain gauges, capacitance gauges, and linear variable differential transformers (LVDT... be necessary to connect the resistor and ratio transformer to. the same secondary coil to balance the voltage of the . two secondary coils. Samplers Inlet Inert Fluid Inlet Pressure Housing Electrical Feedthrough LVDT Coils Magnetic Core Pressure...

Childers, Laren Paul

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The design of laser trimmable temperature invariant active NMOS filters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE DESIGN OF LASER TRIMMABLE TEMPERATURE INVARIANT ACTIVE NMOS FILTERS A Thesis MATHEW ANTON RYBICKI Submitted to the Graduate College of Teras A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1983 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THE DESIGN OF LASER TRIMMABLE TEMPERA'IURE INVARIANT ACTIVE NMOS FILTERS A Thesis by MATHEW ANTON RYBICKI Approved as to style and content by: Randall L. Geiger (Chairman of Committee) Phil ip ED...

Rybicki, Mathew Anton

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

108

Equations of state and phase transformation of depleted uranium DU-238 by high pressure-temperature diffraction studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have conducted in situ high-pressure diffraction experiments on depleted uranium (DU-238) at pressures up to 8.5GPa and temperatures up to 1123K. From the pressure (P)-volume (V)-temperature (T) measurements, thermoelastic parameters were derived for ?-uranium based on a modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a thermal-pressure approach. With the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K0? fixed at 4.0, we obtained ambient bulk modulus K0=117(2)GPa, temperature derivative of bulk modulus at constant pressure (?K??T)P=?3.4(4)10?2GPa?K and at constant volume (?K??T)v=?1.1(6)10?2GPa?K, volumetric thermal expansivity ?T=a+bT, with a=1.2(0.4)10?5K?1 and b=8.0(0.7)10?8K?2, and the pressure derivative of thermal expansion (????P)T=?2.5(5)10?6GPa?1K?1. Within the experimental errors, the ambient bulk modulus and volumetric thermal expansion derived from this work are in good agreement with previous experimental results, whereas all other thermoelastic parameters represent the first determinations for the ? phase of uranium. We also studied the ?-? phase transformation and obtained a phase boundary described by T (inK)=1032+7.4P(inGPa). Although the ?-phase uranium cannot be pressure quenched to ambient conditions, it was observed to be stable upon cooling from 1123to300K at pressures of 78GPa. These observations indicate that pressure, in addition to the commonly utilized alloying techniques, provides an alternative route for stabilizing the ?-uranium at room temperature.

Yusheng Zhao; Jianzhong Zhang; Donald W. Brown; Deniece R. Korzekwa; Robert S. Hixson; Liping Wang

2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

109

High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

110

Temperature induced immiscibility in the NaCl?H[subscript 2]O system at high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure polymorphs of H{sub 2}O are a major component in many outer planets, extra solar bodies, and icy satellites. This study sought to examine the influence of ionic impurities on the phase stability, thermal expansion, and melting curve of ice VII. Powder diffraction patterns of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solutions were taken at room temperature up to 11.1 {+-} 0.3 and 26.6 {+-} 0.4 GPa, respectively. Thermal expansions, {alpha}, of all ice VII samples were recorded and modeled up to the melting point of the samples. Ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution at pressures greater than 2.2 GPa and less than 500 K can be indexed by ice VII only, whereas at temperatures greater than 500 K, diffraction lines indicative of halite (NaCl) are observed and become more intense with increasing temperature and only disappear at the melting point of the high-pressure ice. This phenomenon was observed in all NaCl-bearing ice samples that were heated to greater than 500 K. The melting curves of ice VII formed from pure H{sub 2}O and a 5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution suggest that the presence of Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} in the ice VII structure results in a depression of the melting curve by approximately 40 K. The exsolution of halite from the NaCl-doped ice VII and the depression of the ice VII melting curve suggest that the presence of ionic impurities in ice VII may promote the formation of a self-segregating zone deep within ice-rich bodies. This zone could initiate the formation of solute-rich melt pockets that may ascend toward the surface and result in surface manifestations such as solute-bearing aqueous vents, unexplained domes/diapirism, and/or salt-rich regions.

Frank, M.R.; Scott, H.P.; Maglio, S.J.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Shen, G. (NIU); (CIW); (UC); (Indiana)

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

111

Cross spectra between temperature and pressure in a constant area duct downstream of a hydrogen fueled combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was shown in a recent paper [J. H. Miles and E. A. Krejsa J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72 20082019 (1982)] that knowledge of pressure?temperature auto spectra and cross spectra could be used in a model for sound propagation in a variable duct having acoustic and convected entropy fluctuations. The present exploratory study investigates the measurement of pressure?temperature cross spectra and coherence and temperature cross spectra and coherence at well separated points in a combustion rig. Data obtained near the inlet and the exit of a 6.44?m?long duct attached to a J?47 combustor fueled with hydrogen are presented.

J. H. Miles; C. A. Wasserbauer; E. A. Krejsa

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive indexn in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that the temperature profile specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core the FWHM and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 0.2) mm which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics e.g. the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organizedplasma studied here. Instead it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable gradients of refractive index by local gas heating and opens new diagnostics prospects particularly for microplasmas.

J. Schfer; R. Foest; S. Reuter; T. Kewitz; J. perka; K.-D. Weltmann

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Anisotropic yielding of rocks at high temperatures and pressures; Annual Progress Report, 1988-1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental results we have obtained on Four-Mile gneiss have demonstrated that the yield behavior of quartzo-feldspathic rocks containing only a small percentage (10%) of mica can be markedly anisotropic, provided the mica minerals exhibit a strong crystallographic preferred orientation. Samples of gneiss oriented such that resolved shear stresses on the foliation plane are large are considerably weaker than granites of similar grain size and composition, and this weakness is attributed to enhanced nucleation of microcracks in quartz and feldspar adjacent to mica grains that are suitably oriented for slip. We expect the yield behavior of rocks containing a higher proportion of phyllosilicates to be influenced by the strongly anisotropic nature of these minerals as well, although the strengths, temperature and pressure dependencies, and flow-controlling mechanisms in such rocks may be significantly different.

Kronenberg, A.K.; Russell, J.E.; Carter, N.L.

1989-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

Timothy F. Price

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Fractional-calculus model for temperature and pressure waves in fluid-saturated porous rocks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study a fractional time derivative generalization of a previous Natale-Salusti model about nonlinear temperature and pressure waves, propagating in fluid-saturated porous rocks. Their analytic solutions, i.e., solitary shock waves characterized by a sharp front, are here generalized, introducing a formalism that allows memory mechanisms. In realistic wave propagation in porous media we must take into account spatial or temporal variability of permeability, diffusivity, and other coefficients due to the system history. Such a rock fracturing or fine particulate migration could affect the rock and its pores. We therefore take into account these phenomena by introducing a fractional time derivative to simulate a memory-conserving formalism. We also discuss this generalized model in relation to the theory of dynamic permeability and tortuosity in fluid-saturated porous media. In such a realistic model we obtain exact solutions of Burgers equation with time fractional derivatives in the inviscid case.

Roberto Garra

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

116

Synthesis of hydrogen-carbon clathrate material and hydrogen evolution therefrom at moderate temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making a hydrogenated carbon material is provided which includes forming a mixture of a carbon source, particularly a carbonaceous material, and a hydrogen source. The mixture is reacted under reaction conditions such that hydrogen is generated and/or released from the hydrogen source, an amorphous diamond-like carbon is formed, and at least a portion of the generated and/or released hydrogen associates with the amorphous diamond-like carbon, thereby forming a hydrogenated carbon material. A hydrogenated carbon material including a hydrogen carbon clathrate is characterized by evolution of molecular hydrogen at room temperature at atmospheric pressure in particular embodiments of methods and compositions according to the present invention.

Lueking, Angela (State College, PA); Narayanan, Deepa (Redmond, WA)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

117

Capture of CO2 from flue gas by vacuum pressure swing adsorption using activated carbon beads  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) for CO2 capture has attracted much research effort with the...2...adsorbent materials. In this work, a new adsorbent, that is, pitch-based activated carbon bead (AC bead), ...

Chunzhi Shen; Jianguo Yu; Ping Li; Carlos A. Grande; Alirio E. Rodrigues

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Experimental density measurements of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate at elevated temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) density data for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are reported in this study. DEHP is a popular choice as a reference fluid for viscosity calibrations in the HTHP region. However, reliable HTHP density values are needed for accurate viscosity calculations for certain viscometers (e.g. rolling ball). HTHP densities are determined at T = (373, 424, 476, 492, and 524) K and P to 270 MPa using a variable-volume, high-pressure view cell. The experimental density data are satisfactorily correlated by the modified Tait equation with a mean absolute percent deviation (?) of 0.15. The experimental data are modeled with the PengRobinson (PREoS), volume-translated PREoS (VT-PREoS), and perturbed chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT EoS) models. The required parameters for the two PREoS and the PC-SAFT EoS models are determined using group contribution methods. The PC-SAFT EoS performs the best of the three models with a ? of 2.12. The PC-SAFT EoS is also fit to the experimental data to obtain a new set of pure component parameters that yield a ? of 0.20 for these HTHP conditions.

Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Wu, Yue; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; Burgess, Ward A.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Experimental and theoretical study of pressure effects on hydrogen isotope fractionation in the system brucite-water at elevated temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed, systematic experimental and theoretical study was conducted to investigate the effect of pressure on equilibrium D/H fractionation between brucite (Mg(OH)2) and water at temperatures from 200 to 600C and pressures up to 800 MPa. A fine-grained brucite was isotopically exchanged with excess amounts of water, and equilibrium D/H fractionation factors were calculated by means of the partial isotope exchange method. Our experiments unambiguously demonstrated that the D/H fractionation factor between brucite and water increased by 4.4 to 12.4 with increasing pressure to 300 or 800 \\{MPa\\} at all the temperatures investigated. The observed increases are linear with the density of water under experimental conditions. We calculated the pressure effects on the reduced partition function ratios (?-factor) of brucite (300800 K and P ? 800 MPa) and water (400600C and P ? 100 MPa), employing a statistical-mechanical method similar to that developed by Kieffer (1982) and a simple thermodynamic method based on the molar volumes of normal and heavy waters, respectively. Our theoretical calculations showed that the reduced partition function ratio of brucite increases linearly with pressure at a given temperature (as much as 12.6 at 300 K and 800 MPa). The magnitude of the pressure effects rapidly decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the ?-factor of water decreases 4 to 5 with increasing pressure to 100 \\{MPa\\} at 400 to 600C. Overall D/H isotope pressure effects combined from the separate calculations on brucite and water are in excellent agreement with the experimental results under the same temperature-pressure range. Our calculations also suggest that under the current experimental conditions, the magnitude of the isotope pressure effects is much larger on water than brucite. Thus, the observed pressure effects on D/H fractionation are common to other systems involving water. It is very likely that under some geologic conditions, pressure is an important variable in controlling D/H partitioning.

Juske Horita; David R. Cole; Veniamin B. Polyakov; Thomas Driesner

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

A System And Method To Determine Thermophysical Properties Of A Multi-Component Gas At Arbitrary Temperature And Pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method to determine thermodynamic properties of a natural gas hydrocarbon, when the speed of sound in the gas is known at an arbitrary temperature and pressure. Thus, the known parameters are the sound speed, temperature, pressure, and concentrations of any dilute components of the gas. The method uses a set of reference gases and their calculated density and speed of sound values to estimate the density of the subject gas. Additional calculations can be made to estimate the molecular weight of the subject gas, which can then be used as the basis for mass flow calculations, to determine the speed of sound at standard pressure and temperature, and to determine various thermophysical characteristics of the gas.

Morrow, Thomas E. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Gilbert, AZ)

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

122

A compact bellows-driven diamond anvil cell for high-pressure, low-temperature magnetic measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design of an efficient bellows-controlled diamond anvil cell that is optimized for use inside the bores of high-field superconducting magnets in helium-3 cryostats, dilution refrigerators, and commercial physical property measurement systems. Design of this non-magnetic pressure cell focuses on in situ pressure tuning and measurement by means of a helium-filled bellows actuator and fiber-coupled ruby fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. We demonstrate the utility of this pressure cell with ac susceptibility measurements of superconducting, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic phase transitions to pressures exceeding 8 GPa. This cell provides an opportunity to probe charge and magnetic order continuously and with high resolution in the three-dimensional Magnetic FieldPressureTemperature parameter space.

Feng, Yejun [The Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [The Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Silevitch, D. M.; Rosenbaum, T. F. [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [The James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

Vohra, Yogesh, K.

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

124

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Some statistical associations between Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure patterns and temperatures at selected U.S. climate stations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Between Northern Hemisphere Sea Level Pressure Patterns and Temperatures at Selected U. S. Climate Stations. (December 1988) Janine Marie Bryan, B. S. , Youngstown State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Professor John F. Griffiths Atmospheric... large- scale monthly mean SLP patterns over the Northern Hemisphere and monthly mean temperatures over the central and eastern United States. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to reveal the dominant features of the SLP field...

Bryan, Janine Marie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

126

Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature, or both

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Process for CO.sub.2 capture using zeolites from high pressure and moderate temperature gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating CO.sub.2 from a gas stream comprised of CO.sub.2 and other gaseous constituents using a zeolite sorbent in a swing-adsorption process, producing a high temperature CO.sub.2 stream at a higher CO.sub.2 pressure than the input gas stream. The method utilizes CO.sub.2 desorption in a CO.sub.2 atmosphere and effectively integrates heat transfers for optimizes overall efficiency. H.sub.2O adsorption does not preclude effective operation of the sorbent. The cycle may be incorporated in an IGCC for efficient pre-combustion CO.sub.2 capture. A particular application operates on shifted syngas at a temperature exceeding 200.degree. C. and produces a dry CO.sub.2 stream at low temperature and high CO.sub.2 pressure, greatly reducing any compression energy requirements which may be subsequently required.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV); Stevens, Robert W. (Morgantown, WV)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

128

Low-temperature rupture behavior of Zircaloy-clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture studies on five well-characterized Zircaloy-clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods, which were pressurized to a hoop stress of about145 MPa, were conducted for up to 2101 h at 323/sup 0/C. The conditions were chosen for limited annealing of in-reactor irradiation hardening. No cladding breaches occurred, although significant hydride agglomeration and reorientation took place in rods that cooled under stress. Observations are interpreted in terms of a conservatively modified Larson-Miller curve to provide a lower bound on permissible maximum dry-storage temperatures, assuming creep rupture as the life-limiting mechanism. If hydride reorientation can be ruled out during dry storage, 305/sup 0/C is a conservative lower bound, based on the creep-rupture mechanism, for the maximum storage temperature of rods with irradiation-hardened cladding to ensure a 100-yr cladding lifetime in an inert atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere reduced the lower bound on the maximum permissible storage temperature by about5/sup 0/C. While this lower bound is based on whole-rod data, other types of data on spent fuel behavior in dry storage might support a higher limit. This isothermal temperature limit does not take credit for the decreasing rod temperature during dry storage. High-temperature tests based on creep rupture as the limiting mechanism indicate that storage at temperatures between 400 and 440/sup 0/C may be feasible for rods that are annealed.

Einsiger, R.E.; Kohli, R.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Pyrolysis behavior of coal and petroleum coke at high temperature and high pressure.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??While pyrolysis of coal is a well-studied thermal process, little is known about pressurized pyrolysis of coal and petroleum coke. This study aims to interpret (more)

Wagner, David Ray

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Synthesis of boron suboxide from boron and boric acid under mild pressure and temperature conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Well-crystallized and icosahedral B{sub 6}O crystals were prepared by reacting boron and boric acid at milder reaction conditions (1 GPa and 1300 {sup o}C for 2 h) as compared to previous work.. Research highlights: {yields} Well-crystallized icosahedral B{sub 6}O was synthesized by reacting boric acid and boron. {yields} The synthesis conditions (1 GPa and 1300 {sup o}C for 2 h) are milder in comparison with previous work. {yields} The more practical synthesis method may make B{sub 6}O as a potential substitute for diamond in industry. -- Abstract: Boron suboxide (B{sub 6}O) was synthesized by reacting boron and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) at pressures between 1 and 10 GPa, and at temperatures between 1300 and 1400 {sup o}C. The B{sub 6}O samples prepared were icosahedral with diameters ranging from 20 to 300 nm. Well-crystallized and icosahedral crystals with an average size of {approx}100 nm can be obtained at milder reaction conditions (1 GPa and 1300 {sup o}C for 2 h) as compared to previous work. The bulk B{sub 6}O sample was stable in air at 600 {sup o}C and then slowly oxidized up to 1000 {sup o}C. The relatively mild synthetic conditions developed in this study provide a more practical synthesis of B{sub 6}O, which may potentially be used as a substitute for diamond in industry as a new superhard material.

Jiao, Xiaopeng; Jin, Hua; Ding, Zhanhui; Yang, Bin; Lu, Fengguo; Zhao, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu, Xiaoyang, E-mail: liuxy@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Peng, Liping, E-mail: pengliping64@yahoo.cn [The 1st Norman Bethune Hospital, Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun 130021 (China)] [The 1st Norman Bethune Hospital, Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun 130021 (China)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Homogeneous carbon doping of magnesium diboride by high-temperature, high-pressure synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis at 15001700?C and 10?MPa to create homogeneously C-substituted MgB{sub 2} from a B{sub 4}C + Mg mixture. X-ray diffraction analysis showed large peak-shifts consistent with a decrease in the a lattice parameter for the B{sub 4}C-derived MgB{sub 2} as compared to an undoped sample (0.0330.037?, depending on the sample). Microstructural investigation showed a three-phase mixture in the B{sub 4}C-derived ingots: MgB{sub 2?x}C{sub x} (with 0.178?

Susner, M. A., E-mail: susner.1@osu.edu; Bohnenstiehl, S. D.; Dregia, S. A.; Sumption, M. D.; Yang, Y.; Collings, E. W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Donovan, J. J. [Center for Advanced Materials Characterization in Oregon (CAMCOR), University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

132

Valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids has inner and outer spaced shells and a valve actuator support of inner and outer spaced members which are connected at their end portions to the inner and outer shells, respectively, to extend substantially normal to the longitudinal axis of the inner shell. A layer of resilient heat insulating material covers the outer surfaces of the inner shell and the inner actuator support member and is of a thickness to only occupy part of the spaces between the inner and outer shells and inner and outer actuator support members. The remaining portion of the space between the inner and outer shells and the space between the inner and outer members is substantially filled with a body of castable, rigid refractory material. A movable valve member is disposed in the inner shell. A valve actuator assembly is supported in the valve actuator support to extend into the inner shell for connection with the movable valve member for movement of the movable valve member to positions from a fully open to a fully closed position to control flow of fluid through the inner shell. An anchor mneans is disposed adjacent opposite sides of the axis of the valve actuator support and attached to the inner shell so that relative radial movement between the inner and outer shell is permitted by the layer of resilient heat insulating material and relative longitudinal movement of the inner shell to the outer shell is permitted in opposite directions from the anchor means to thereby maintain the functional integrity of the movable valve member by providing an area of the inner shell surrounding the movable valve member longitdinally stationary, but at the same time allowing radial movement.

De Feo, Angelo (Totowa, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Influence of pressure, temperature, and pore fluid on the frequency-dependent attenuation of elastic waves in Berea sandstone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of pore fluid, effective stress, pore fluid pressure, and temperature on the frequency dependence of elastic wave attenuation in Berea sandstone are interrelated in a series of systematic experiments. The attenuation of both the extensional and torsional modes of cylindrical samples of the sandstone is measured on the frequency range 330 kHz. To simulate conditions within the earth, the sandstone is subjected to confining stress to 70.0 MPa and temperature from 24.0 C to 120.0 C. Confining pressure and pore fluid pressure are varied independently. Data for two different pore fluids, brine and n-heptane, suggest that a scaling law exists for the pressure and temperature dependence of the attenuation in terms of the pore fluid. The logarithmic decrement of the sandstone is almost frequency independent in a vacuum evacuated sample, but shows a linear frequency dependence, once the sample is saturated. Extrapolation of this linear trend to low frequencies suggests that the decrement in fluid-filled sandstone is effectively frequency independent at seismic frequencies (process is apparently influenced most strongly by chemical processes at the pore fluid-matrix interface accompanied by subtle changes in the sandstone matrix dimensions.

Stephen G. OHara

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A study of diurnal pressure and temperature oscillations in the atmosphere between 500 MB and 50 MB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A STUDY OF DIURNAL PRESSURE AND 'IEMPERATURE OSCILLATIONS IN TRE ATMOSPMSRE BETWEEN 500 MB AND 50 MB A Thesis By Victor Shelby Whitehead Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of January l960 IlaJor subJect - Meteorology A STUDY OP DIURNAL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE OSCILLATIONS IN THE ATII)SPHERE BETWEEN 500 MB AND 50 MB A Thesis By Victor Shelby Whitehead Approved as to style...

Whitehead, Victor Shelby

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Low-temperature rupture behavior of Zircaloy clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture studies on five well-characterized Zircaloy clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods, which were pressurized to a hoop stress of approximately 145 MPa, were conducted for up to 2101 h at 323/sup 0/C. The conditions were chosen for limited annealing of in-reactor irradiation-hardening. No cladding breaches occurred, although significant hydride agglomeration and reorientation took place in rods that cooled under stress. Observations are interpreted in terms of a conservatively modified Larson-Miller curve to provide a lower bound on permissible maximum dry-storage temperatures, assuming creep rupture as the life-limiting mechanism. If hydride reorientation can be ruled out during dry storage, 305/sup 0/C is a conservative lower bound, based on the creep rupture mechanism, for the maximum storage temperature of rods with irradiation hardened cladding to ensure a 100-year cladding lifetime in an inert atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere reduces the lower bound on the maximum permissible storage temperature by approx. 5/sup 0/C. While high-temperature tests based on creep rupture as the limiting mechanism indicate that storage at temperatures between 400/sup 0/C and 440/sup 0/C may be feasible for rods which are annealed, tests to study rod performance in the 305/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/C temperature range have not been conducted. 37 references, 10 figures, 7 tables.

Einziger, R.E.; Kohli, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Effect of temperature on the fracture toughness in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel (SA508-3)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The elastic-plastic fracture toughness J{sub IC} of the Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (SA508-3) which has high toughness was obtained at three temperatures (room temperature, {minus}20 C, 200 C) using a 1/2 CT specimen. Especially the two methods recommended in ASTM and JSME were compared. It was found that difficulty exists in obtaining J{sub IC} by ASTM R-curve method, while JSME R-curve method yielded good results. The stretched zone width method gave slightly larger J{sub IC} values than those by the R-curve method for SA508-3 steel and the blunting line was not affected by the test temperatures. The relation between SZW and J, SZW and J/E and SZW and J/{sigma}{sub ys} before initiation of a stable crack growth in the fracture toughness test at three temperatures is described.

Oh, S.W.; Lim, M.B. [Dong-A Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.K. [Dong-Eui Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Numerical Investigation of Temperature Distribution on a High Pressure Gas Turbine Blade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A numerical code is developed to calculate the temperature distributions on the surface of a gas turbine blade. This code is a tool for quick prediction of the temperatures by knowing the boundary conditions and the flow conditions, and doesn...

Zirakzadeh, Hootan

2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

138

Theoretical full power correction factors as related to changes in ambient temperature, pressure and absolute humidity for aircraft turbine engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

turbine or jet engine since it is based on the actual thermodynamic Brayton cycle. ACKNOHLEDGEMEHTS Assistance and advice from many people have contributed greatly to this research. The Author is grateful to Professor Stanley H. Lowy from... The nature of the probj em Objectives Background 1 3 4 4 7 1I EFFECTS OF STATE POINT VARIATIONS ? General ? Variations of inlet state points with temperature and pressure III IDEAL AND ACTUAL CYCLE ANALYSIS 21 General Variations of power...

Raphael, Michel Antoun

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

139

Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy studies of adsorbates on Pt(111): Studies of CO at high pressures and temperatures, coadsorbed with olefins and its role as a poison in ethylene hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure high temperature CO adsorption and coadsorption with ethylene and propylene on Pt(111) was monitored in situ with infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG). At high pressures and high temperatures, CO dissociates on a Pt(111) surface to form carbon. At 400 torr CO pressure and 673K, CO modifies the Pt(111) surface through a carbonyl intermediate, and dissociates to leave carbon on the surface. SFG was used to follow the CO peak evolution from monolayer adsorption in ultra high vacuum (UHV) to 400 torr CO pressure. At this high pressure, a temperature dependence study from room temperature to 823K was carried out. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to identify carbon on the surface CO coadsorption with ethylene and CO coadsorption with propylene studies were carried out with 2-IR 1-visible SFG. With this setup, two spectral ranges covering the C-H stretch range and the CO stretch range can be monitored simultaneously. The coadsorption study with ethylene reveals that after 5L ethylene exposure on a Pt(111) surface to form ethylidyne , CO at high pressures cannot completely displace the ethylidyne from the surface. Instead, CO first adsorbs on defect sites at low pressures and then competes with ethylidyne for terrace sites at high pressures. Propylene coadsorption with CO at similar conditions shows that propylidyne undergoes conformation changes with increased CO pressure and at 1 torr, is absent from the Pt(111) surface. Experiments on CO poisoning of ethylene hydrogenation was carried by 2-IR 1-visible SFG. At 1 torr CO,10 torr ethylene and 100 torr hydrogen, CO was found to block active sites necessary for ethylene hydrogenation, Above 425K, CO desorbs from the surface to allow ethylene hydrogenation to occur. The gas phase species were monitored by gas chromatography.

Kung, Kyle Yi

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

soot emissions - Cylinder pressure and rise rate limits - Low load combustion stabilityignition Robust combustion control - Cylinder-to-cylinder variability - Ambient...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Steam quality determination using pressure and temperature measurements in a venturi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1987 Steam (tuality Ue~tion using Pressure and ~tuze Measurements M A Venturi(December 1987) Benny leo O' Neil, B. S ~ Texas A & M University Chairman of Advisory Crmsittee: Dr. R. A. Staztnaan Steam injecticn into heavy oil reservoirs accounted...-Rmse Flow 'Ihrough Venturi. . . TABID 2: Pressures and ~tures Gorrespanding to location on Heat E&n9anger. 25 59 LI87 OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: Steam distribution network facilities. . FIGURE 2: Counter flow heat exchanger FIGURE 3: Gas fired stan...

O'Neil, Danny Leo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

142

The influence of temperature on the estimation of interstitial water by capillary pressure measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The residual hydrocarbons reznaining in the core samples were zemoved by a Soxhlet extractor using toluene as the solvent. The extraction time was eight hours. The ccrc samples we "e then dried at 250'F. The exact diameter and length of each core sample... in the graduated pipettes to an initial level corresponding to the top of the diaphragms. The cores we e placed in contact with FIGURE I CAPILLARY PRESSURE MEASUREMENT APPARATUS FRONT VIEW FIGURE l CAPILLARY PRESSURE CELI. i0 the diaphragm using a single...

Shah, Narendra

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

143

Field measurement of lateral earth pressures on retaining walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The measured pressures are compared with the computed Coulomb and Rankine pressures for the active case. The measured pressures on the cantilever wall are in close agreement with the theoretical pressures on the upper half of the wall, but the measured... Pressure Variance with Time and Temperature. INTRODUCTION Present Status of the Question -- The latera1 earth pressure theories developed by Coulomb in 1776 and Rankine in 1S57 are known as the classical earth pressure theories (5)*. The basic equation...

Riggins, Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

144

On the performance and mechanisms of toluene removal by FeOx/SBA-15-assisted non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract FeOx/SBA-15 catalysts were prepared via impregnation and utilized for toluene removal in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Toluene removal was investigated in the environment of various mixed N2/O2 plasmas, showing that toluene removal efficiency and \\{COx\\} selectivity were greatly increased by FeOx/SBA-15 and that the organic intermediates were greatly reduced by catalysts. In pure N2 plasma, the bulk oxygen in the catalyst was involved in the toluene oxidation, and the 3%FeOx/SBA-15 catalyst showed the optimal toluene oxidation activity. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorptiondesorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and O2 temperature-programmed desorption (O2-TPD), showing that toluene oxidation was closely related to the highly dispersed nature of iron on the SBA-15 surface, the reduction temperature of Fe2+ and the oxygen adsorption ability of the catalyst. The pathways of toluene decomposition in the combination of FeOx/SBA-15 with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) system were proposed based on the identified intermediates.

Meijuan Lu; Rong Huang; Junliang Wu; Mingli Fu; Limin Chen; Daiqi Ye

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High pressure/high temperature hydrogen permeability in candidate stirling engine alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen permeation tests of eight high-temperature engineering alloys were conducted in 20.7 MPa hydrogen at 923 to 1088 K for assessing suitability in Stirling engine application for heater head and heater head...

S. Bhattacharyya; E. J. Vesely; V. L. Hill

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

An experimental investigation of single and multiple pass high temperature, high pressure paper drying  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary drying process used in the paper industry is conventional drying which employs heated, rotating cylinders to evaporate moisture from the paper. One process which may improve energy efficiency is the use of higher temperature, higher...

Simonson, Eric Howard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

147

Effects of temperature and pressure on the in-reactor creepdown of Zircaloy fuel cladding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted to study the behavior of Zircaloy fuel cladding under conditions that approximate those found in an operating pressurized-water power reactor. Radial surface displacement values as functions of time, average diametral-circumferential strain as a function of time, and isochronal deformation surfaces are presented. Tests were conducted at 343 degree C with external pressures from 13.3 to 18.7 MPa. Contrary to similar tests conducted out-of-reactor, the in-reactor specimens did not deform uniformly, that is, by diametral contraction and smooth ovalization. Rather, the deformation surfaces were nonuniform with hills and valleys being formed at irregular intervals. This implies that conventional concepts of creep rate and simplified modeling procedures will not work for predicting cladding behavior. 10 refs.

Hobson, D.O.; Thoms, K.R.; Dodd, C.V.; van der Kaa, Th.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Phonon spectrum and interaction between nanotubes in single-walled carbon nanotube bundles at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes at temperatures up to 730 K and pressures up to 7 GPa have been measured. The behavior of phonon modes and the interaction between nanotubes in bundles have been studied. It has been found that the temperature shift of the vibrational G mode is completely reversible, whereas the temperature shift of radial breathing modes is partially irreversible and the softening of the modes and narrowing of phonon bands are observed. The temperature shift and softening of radial breathing modes are also observed when samples are irradiated by laser radiation with a power density of 6.5 kW/mm{sup 2}. The dependence of the relative frequency {Omega}/{Omega}{sub 0} for G{sup +} and G{sup -} phonon modes on the relative change A{sub 0}/A in the triangular lattice constant of bundles of nanotubes calculated using the thermal expansion coefficient and compressibility coefficient of nanotube bundles shows that the temperature shift of the G mode is determined by the softening of the C-C bond in nanotubes. An increase in the equilibrium distances between nanotubes at the breaking of random covalent C-C bonds between nanotubes in bundles of nanotubes is in my opinion the main reason for the softening of the radial breathing modes.

Meletov, K. P., E-mail: mele@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Experimental Rankine cycle engine designed for utilization of low temperature, low pressure heat. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a Rankine cycle engine using Freon 11 as working fluid, for the utilization of low temperature heat sources is described together with the results obtained. The experimental investigations showed that the engine performance is in good agreement with the calculated values; that the mechanical behavior of some components is not yet satisfactory; and that the working fluid (Freon 11) is not completely reliable in the higher temperatures range. An extension of the feasibility study dealing mainly with engine behavior and fluid suitability is envisaged, using either Freon 113 or a fluorine compound of the composition CmF(2m+2).

Cipolla, G.; Margary, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Workshop including an overview about Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric...

151

The development and operational testing of an experimental reactor for gas-liquid-solid reaction systems at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shaft. With the impeller in place and rotating, gas was drawn into the top port and ejected at the impeller mount. The reactor pressure was monitored via the transducer port. The transducer was a Viatran Pressure Transducer, model 103. The liquid...THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES A Thesis by RICHARD KENNETH HESS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial...

Hess, Richard Kenneth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

152

Two-Temperature Two-Dimensional Non Chemical Equilibrium Modeling of ArCO2H2 Induction Thermal Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here the authors developed a two-dimensional two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium (2T-NCE) model of Ar...2H2 inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTP) around atmospheric pressure (760torr). Assuming 22 di...

Sharif Abdullah Al-Mamun; Yasunori Tanaka

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

In situ X-ray observations of the decomposition of brucite and the graphitediamond conversion in aqueous fluid at high pressure and temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...?An experimental technique to make real-time observations at high pressure and temperature of the diamond-forming process in candidate material of mantle fluids as a catalyst has been established for the first...

T. Okada; W. Utsumi; H. Kaneko; M. Yamakata

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Effect of Ultra High Pressure Under Argon and Temperature on the Volatiles and Piperine Content and Microbiological Quality of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum L.)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the search of effective decontamination methods of herbal spices, combined action of high pressure under argon at various temperatures has been applied. Ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) samples were expos...

S. Sk?pska; B. Windyga; E. Kostrzewa

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A tomographic technique for the simultaneous imaging of temperature, chemical species, and pressure in reactive flows using absorption spectroscopy with frequency-agile lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper proposes a technique that can simultaneously retrieve distributions of temperature, concentration of chemical species, and pressure based on broad bandwidth, frequency-agile tomographic absorption spectroscopy. The technique holds...

Cai, Weiwei; Kaminski, Clemens F.

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

156

A combustion/deposition entrained reactor for high?temperature/pressure studies of coal and coal minerals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of coal and coal?derived fuels in heat engines poses significant technical challenges in terms of establishing high combustion rates and efficiencies controlling emissions and minimizing the impact of fuel contaminants on engine components. An entrained reactor has been designed and constructed to study coal particle combustion the tendency of coal ash to form deposits on heat engine components and the effects of fuel additives on residual ash composition. The reactor is designed for high temperature/pressure conditions similar to those of a coal?fired gas turbine. Optical access ports and advanced instrumentation allow the i n s i t u measurement of gas and particle temperatures and vapor phase alkali concentrations. The reactor has been used to study the deposition potential of several coals as a function of process conditions and to determine the effects of selected additives on the deposition rate.

Rodney J. Anderson; Ronald G. Logan; Charles T. Meyer; Richard A. Dennis

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Rheological behavior of heavy oil and water mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is divided into two categories. The first part was done by using a mercury capillary viscometer. A heavy oil sample (over 2,000 cp at standard condition) and three synthetic oil samples were analyzed at a range of temperatures up to about 350F. The results...

Setiadarma, Agustinus

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

158

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the once-through coolant cycle reactor are described, which consists of fuel, core, reactor and plant system, stability and safety. Material studies include corrosion tests with supercritical water loops and simulated irradiation tests using a high-energy transmission electron microscope. Possibilities of oxide dispersion strengthening steels for the cladding material are studied. The water chemistry research includes radiolysis and kinetics of supercritical pressure water, influence of radiolysis and radiation damage on corrosion and behavior on the interface between water and material. The thermal hydraulic research includes heat transfer tests of single tube, single rod and three-rod bundles with a supercritical Freon loop and numerical simulations. The conceptual designs include core design with a three-dimensional core simulator and sub-channel analysis, and balance of plant. (authors)

Yoshiaki Oka [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-0006 (Japan); Katsumi Yamada [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Electrical conductivity measurements of brucite under crustal pressure and temperature conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrous minerals are crucial because their occurrence is associated with seismic activity through the dehydration process that occurs in the earths crust and/or mantle. We have developed a technique to observe t...

Kiyoshi Fuji-ta; Tomoo Katsura; Takuya Matsuzaki

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

A diamond-window XAFS cell for studies of high-temperature, high-pressure aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a method to collect x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of ions in a supercritical water solvent. Supercritical water (SCW), at temperatures above water{close_quote}s critical point of 374{degree}C, is an interesting solvent for chemical reactions and hazardous waste destruction due to the high solubility of organics and the aggressive oxidizing environment. XAFS may provide a better understanding of the solvent environment in SCW. The XAFS cell used in these studies was composed of a block of high-nickel alloy, Hastelloy C-22, containing two windows for transmission of the x-ray beam and a single optical view window. All internal wetted surfaces were platinum plated. The maximum operating conditions for this design were 500{degree}C and 700 bar. The x-ray transmission windows consisted of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond windows (3 mm diameter {times}0.5 mm thick) that were brazed to the tip of a standard 1/4-in. high-pressure, coned-shape fitting. Spectra are reported for strontium and rubidium ions in a supercritical water solvent. This cell design could be used for a variety of other solvent systems at high temperatures and high pressures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fulton, J.L.; Pfund, D.M. [Chemical Sciences Department, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Chemical Sciences Department, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Ma, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510 E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510 E, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure and visual observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures can be very low, many heat pipes will have the working fluid in an initially frozen state. To insure that the heat pipes will work as desired, it is important to be able to model the frozen startup. Transient modeling of heat pipe operation has... startup. The same sort of measurements are also rare for transients that do not include frozen conditions, and could be equally important in verifying appropriate transient computational models. The objective of the work presented here is to obtain...

Reinarts, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

163

Effects of temperature and pressure on the in-reactor creepdown of Zircaloy fuel cladding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Descriptions and results for seven of the eight in-reactor creepdown tests of Zircaloy fuel cladding, which were part of a joint program between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland, are presented. These tests were conducted to study the behavior of Zircaloy fuel cladding under conditions that approximate those found in an operating pressurized-water power reactor. The most important conclusion to be drawn from this study involves the deformation of the cladding during testing. Contrary to similar tests conducted out-of-reactor, the in-reactor specimens did not deform uniformly, that is, by diametral contraction and smooth ovalization. Rather, the deformation surfaces were nonuniform with hills and valleys being formed at irregular intervals. This implies that conventional concepts of creep rate and simplified modeling procedures will not work for predicting cladding behavior. Sufficient data have been generated in this program to supply modelers with detailed descriptions of the cladding surface shapes from which new interpretations can be derived to predict cladding behavior.

Hobson, D.O. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Thoms, K.R.; Dodd, C.V.; van der Kaa, Th.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospectin...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the level of unrecognized active faults present in these areas. Analysis of low-sun-angle aerial photography acquired over the Needle Rocks, Astor Pass, Empire, and Lee...

165

Enhancing polymer adhesion through surface activation using an in-line atmospheric pressure plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A reel-to-reel atmospheric pressure plasma treatment system known as Labline?, was used to activate the surface of Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). An epoxy adhesive was used to bond the activated polymers and the bond strength was assessed using the tensile lap shear test method. For PP treated in a helium discharge at 900 W a fivefold increase in adhesive bond strength was observed compared with that of the untreated polymer. The effect of adding nitrogen and oxygen into the helium plasma was examined, both with respect to the bond strength of the epoxy and polymer surface energy. An 18-fold increase in adhesive strength was observed after the treatment of PP in a helium/oxygen plasma, while a threefold increase was observed for PET. A similar increase in adhesion was observed for PET treated in a helium/nitrogen plasma, while a 16-fold increase in adhesion was obtained for PP.

John Tynan; Denis P. Dowling; Gerald Byrne; Donal Hughes

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Superconducting trapped-field magnets: Temperature and field distributions during pulsed-field activation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

progress in fabrication of large-sized high- temperature superconductors with high critical current den We calculate the temperature and magnetic field distributions in a bulk superconductor during leads to a strong temperature rise in superconductor during the activation pro- cess. There have already

Johansen, Tom Henning

168

Low-temperature formation of Si O 2 layers using a two-step atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced deposition-oxidation process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon oxide ( Si O 2 ) layers were fabricated at low temperatures ( ? 400 C ) by combining the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous Si ( a - Si : H ) with its oxidation using atmospheric pressure plasmas excited by a 150 MHz very high-frequency (VHF) power. The surface excitation by the atmospheric pressure VHF plasma was capable of reducing the temperature for the hydrogen effusion from a - Si : H . As a result a porous a - Si : H film containing a large amount of hydrogen could be transformed into a stoichiometric Si O 2 with an approximately 24% increase in oxidation rate compared with the oxidation of Si(001) at a temperature of 400 C .

Hiroaki Kakiuchi; Hiromasa Ohmi; Makoto Harada; Heiji Watanabe; Kiyoshi Yasutake

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Low refractive index silicon oxide coatings at room temperature using atmospheric-pressure very high-frequency plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low refractive index silicon oxide films were deposited using atmospheric-pressure He/SiH4/CO2 plasma excited by a 150-MHz very high-frequency power. Significant increase in deposition rate at room temperature could prevent the formation of dense SiO2 network, decreasing refractive index of the resulting film effectively. As a result, a silicon oxide film with the lowest refractive index, n=1.24 at 632.8nm, was obtained with a very high deposition rate of 235nm/s. The reflectance and transmittance spectra showed that the low refractive index film functioned as a quarter-wave anti-reflection coating of a glass substrate.

H. Kakiuchi; H. Ohmi; Y. Yamaguchi; K. Nakamura; K. Yasutake

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Review on the effects of hydrogen at extreme pressures and temperatures on the mechanical behavior of polymers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of hydrogen on the mechanics (e.g. strength, ductility, and fatigue resistance) of polymer materials are outlined in this report. There are a small number of studies reported in the literature on this topic, and even fewer at the extreme temperatures to which hydrogen service materials will be exposed. Several studies found little evidence that hydrogen affects the static tensile properties, long term creep, or ductile fracture of high density polyethylene or polyamide. However, there has been a report that a recoverable drop in the modulus of high density polyethylene is observable under high hydrogen pressure. A research need exists on the mechanical effects of hydrogen on the wide range of polymers used or considered for use in the hydrogen economy, due to the lack of data in the literature.

Hecht, Ethan S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Effect of Isomeric Structures of Branched Cyclic Hydrocarbons on Densities and Equation of State Predictions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cis and trans conformation of a branched cyclic hydrocarbon affects the packing and, hence, the density, exhibited by that compound. Reported here are density data for branched cyclohexane (C6) compounds including methylcyclohexane, ethylcyclohexane (ethylcC6), cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane (cis-1,2), cis-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane (cis-1,4), and trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane (trans-1,4) determined at temperatures up to 525 K and pressures up to 275 MPa. Of the four branched C6 isomers, cis-1,2 exhibits the largest densities and the smallest densities are exhibited by trans-1,4. The densities are modeled with the PengRobinson (PR) equation of state (EoS), the high-temperature, high-pressure, volume-translated (HTHP VT) PREoS, and the perturbed chain, statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) EoS. Model calculations highlight the capability of these equations to account for the different densities observed for the four isomers investigated in this study. The HTHP VT-PREoS provides modest improvements over the PREoS, but neither cubic EoS is capable of accounting for the effect of isomer structural differences on the observed densities. The PC-SAFT EoS, with pure component parameters from the literature or from a group contribution method, provides improved density predictions relative to those obtained with the PREoS or HTHP VT-PREoS. However, the PC-SAFT EoS, with either set of parameters, also cannot fully account for the effect of the C6 isomer structure on the resultant density.

Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; McHugh, Mark

2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

172

High-Temperature Phase Transitions in CsH2PO4 Under Ambient and High-Pressure Conditions: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To clarify the microscopic origin of the temperature-induced three-order-of-magnitude jump in the proton conductivity of CsH2PO4 (superprotonic behavior), we have investigated its crystal structure modifications within the 25-300 C temperature range under both ambient- and high-pressure conditions using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Our high-pressure data show no indication of the thermal decomposition/polymerization at the crystal surface recently proposed as the origin of the enhanced proton conductivity. Instead, we found direct evidence that the superprotonic behavior of the title material is associated with a polymorphic structural transition to a high-temperature cubic phase. Our results are in excellent agreement with previous high-pressure ac impedance measurements.

Botez,C.; Hermosillo, J.; Zhang, J.; Qian, J.; Zhao, Y.; Majzlan, J.; Chianelli, R.; Pantea, C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Structural and electronic properties of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} binary semiconducting alloys under the effect of temperature and pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the empirical pseudo-potential method which incorporates compositional disorder as an effective potential, the band structure of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloy are calculated for different alloy composition x. The effect of temperature and pressure on the electronic band structure of the considered alloy has been studied. Monotonic decreasing and increasing functions are obtained for the temperature and pressure dependent form factors respectively. Some physical quantities as band gaps, bowing parameters, and the refractive index of the considered alloy with different Ge concentration and under the effect of temperature and pressure are calculated. The results obtained are found in good agreement with the experimental and published data.

Degheidy, A. R.; Elkenany, E. B., E-mail: kena@mans.edu.eg [Mansoura University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Egypt)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Experimental measurements and equation of state modeling of liquid densities for long-chain n-alkanes at pressures to 265 MPa and temperatures to 523 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental densities are reported for n-hexadecane, n-octadecane, and n-eicosane at pressures to ?265 MPa and temperatures of 323.15, 423.15, and 523.15 K. The reported densities are in good agreement with the available literature data that cover limited pressure and temperature ranges. The PengRobinson equation of state (PR EOS), a new high-temperature high-pressure volume-translated SoaveRedlichKwong equation of state (HTHP-VT SRK EOS), and the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) are used to predict the reported densities. Both the HTHP-VT SRK and PC-SAFT equations exhibit mean absolute percent deviation (MAPD) values of 2.41.3% for the densities of all three hydrocarbons while the MAPD values for the PR EOS are all near 16%.

Wu, Yu; Bamgbade, Babatunde; Liu, Kun; McHugh, Mark A.; Baled, Hseen; Enick, Robert M.; Burgess, Ward; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

A SYSTEMATIC SURVEY OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE EMISSION IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent analysis of observations taken with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer and X-Ray Telescope instruments on Hinode suggests that well-constrained measurements of the temperature distribution in solar active regions can finally be made. Such measurements are critical for constraining theories of coronal heating. Past analysis, however, has suffered from limited sample sizes and large uncertainties at temperatures between 5 and 10 MK. Here we present a systematic study of the differential emission measure distribution in 15 active region cores. We focus on measurements in the 'inter-moss' region, that is, the region between the loop footpoints, where the observations are easier to interpret. To reduce the uncertainties at the highest temperatures we present a new method for isolating the Fe XVIII emission in the AIA/SDO 94 A channel. The resulting differential emission measure distributions confirm our previous analysis showing that the temperature distribution in an active region core is often strongly peaked near 4 MK. We characterize the properties of the emission distribution as a function of the total unsigned magnetic flux. We find that the amount of high-temperature emission in the active region core is correlated with the total unsigned magnetic flux, while the emission at lower temperatures, in contrast, is inversely related. These results provide compelling evidence that high-temperature active region emission is often close to equilibrium, although weaker active regions may be dominated by evolving million degree loops in the core.

Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Brooks, David H. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

176

Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple, classical, and expedient method for the retrieval of atmospheric pressure-temperature profiles has been applied to the high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra obtained with the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument. The basis for this method is a rotational analysis of retrieved apparent abundances from CO2 rovibrational absorption lines, employing existing constituent concentration retrieval software used in the analysis of data returned by ATMOS. Pressure-temperature profiles derived from spectra acquired during the ATLAS 1 space shuttle mission of March-April 1992 are quantitatively evaluated and compared with climatological and meteorological data as a means of assessing the validity of this approach.

Stiller, G.P.; Gunson, M.R.; Lowes, L.L.; Abrams, M.C.; Raper, O.F.; Farmer, C.B.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C.P. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); [Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); [Liege Univ., Liege (Belgium); [NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Preparation of activated carbon aerogel and its application to electrode material for electric double layer capacitor in organic electrolyte: Effect of activation temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon aerogel was chemically activated with KOH at various activation temperatures with the aim of improving the electrochemical performance of carbon aerogel for EDLC electrode. Electrochemical performance o...

Soon Hyung Kwon; Eunji Lee; Bum-Soo Kim

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Dissolution and compaction of natural quartz sand as functions of temperature, pore-fluid pressure, and strain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concluded that the results pmve the validity of Weyl's mechanism of pressure solunon. Tada and Siever (1986) proposed that a combinanon of mechanisms occurs during pressure solution. Using a quartz knife-edge against halite crystals in a halite...

Elmquist, Valerie Renee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

179

Field application of an interpretation method of downhole temperature and pressure data for detecting water entry in horizontal/highly inclined gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condition change, wellbore structure change, geothermal environment change, or simple just noise of measurement. To separate flow condition change from the other causes of temperature change, we require a comprehensive understanding of flow dynamics. 5.... The interpretation model for downhole temperature and pressure data is a coupled thermal wellbore/reservoir flow model. The model is built on fundamental flow and energy conservation equations for both the reservoir and wellbore. These equations are: Mass balance...

Achinivu, Ochi I.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospecting For  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospecting For New Faults Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospecting For New Faults Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Our previous studies found spatial associations between seismically active faults and high-temperature geothermal resources in the western Basin and Range, suggesting that recency of fault movement may be a useful criterion for resource exploration. We have developed a simple conceptual model in which recently active (Holocene) faults are preferred conduits for migration of thermal water from deep crustal depths, and we

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Investigation on the effects of ultra-high pressure and temperature on the rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Designing a fit-for-purpose drilling fluid for high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) operations is one of the greatest technological challenges facing the oil and gas industry today. Typically, a drilling fluid is subjected to increasing...

Ibeh, Chijioke Stanley

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

On plasma parameters of a self-organized plasma jet at atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Electron temperature and electron concentration in the active zone of a miniaturized radio frequency (RF) non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet in argon have been determined using... ...

J. Schfer; F. Sigeneger; R. Foest; D. Loffhagen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature and by-products formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature efficiency together with the catalyst activation temperature when a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) is placed the advantageous plasma catalyst coupling effect on the lowering of the catalyst activation temperature

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

The measurement of solubility and viscosity of oil/refrigerant mixtures; At high pressures and temperatures test facility and initial results for R-22/naphthenic oil mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and construction of a test facility for measuring the solubility and viscosity of lubricating oil/refrigerant mixtures at high pressures and temperatures are described. An auxiliary charging system, developed to provide precisely measured quantities of oil and refrigerant to the test facility, is also presented. Initial results for liquid mixtures of 10% to 40% R-22 (by mass) in a 150 SUS naphthenic oil are reported over the temperature range 70 {degrees} F (20{degrees}C) to 300 {degrees} F(150 {degrees}C). Good agreement with existing data from the open literature is obtained over the limited temperature range for which previously published data are available.

Van Gaalen, N.A.; Zoz, S.C.; Pate, M.B. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Low-temperature formation of SiO{sub 2} layers using a two-step atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced deposition-oxidation process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers were fabricated at low temperatures ({<=}400 deg. C) by combining the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) with its oxidation using atmospheric pressure plasmas excited by a 150 MHz very high-frequency (VHF) power. The surface excitation by the atmospheric pressure VHF plasma was capable of reducing the temperature for the hydrogen effusion from a-Si:H. As a result, a porous a-Si:H film containing a large amount of hydrogen could be transformed into a stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} with an approximately 24% increase in oxidation rate compared with the oxidation of Si(001) at a temperature of 400 deg. C.

Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Harada, Makoto; Watanabe, Heiji; Yasutake, Kiyoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Estimation of point of zero charge for activated carbon treated with atmospheric pressure non-thermal oxygen plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Commercial activated carbon was treated with a non-thermal oxygen plasma under atmospheric pressure using three types of reactors: a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) parallel-plate reactor; an atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma jet reactor and a DBD coaxial type reactor. The samples treated with the plasma were characterized by the pH value at the point of zero charge. An estimation of the adsorption properties of samples for copper ions in aqueous solution was also carried out in order to explain the effect of pH value on the adsorption results.

Satoshi Kodama; Hidetoshi Sekiguchi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Temperature variability in central Mexico and its possible association to solar activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Minimum extreme temperature variability from five meteorological stations in the central part of Mexico covering a period from ?1920 to ?1990 is examined. We found a correlation coefficient (r=0.65) between these temperature records and geomagnetic activity. Furthermore, by performing spectral analysis peaks were obtained with similar periodicities to those found in the sunspot number, the magnetic solar cycle, cosmic ray fluxes and geomagnetic activity; all of these phenomena are modulated by solar activity. Signals with periodicities comparable to those observed in El Nio and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation were also identified. We conclude that the solar signal is probably present in the minimum extreme temperature record of the central part of Mexico.

B Mendoza; A Lara; D Maravilla; E Juregui

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during JanuaryAugust 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

James O'Brien

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

The analysis and specification of large high-pressure, high-temperature valves for combustion turbine protection in second-generation PFB power plants: Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to provide a specification for the high-pressure/high-temperature valves for turbine overspeed protection in a commercial-scale second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant. In the event of a loss of external (generator) load, the gas turbine rapidly accelerates from its normal operating speed. Protection from excessive overspeed can be maintained by actuation of fuel isolation and air bypass valves. A design specification for these valves was developed by analyses of the turbine/compressor interaction during a loss of load and analyses of pressure and flow transients during operation of the overspeed protection valves. The basis for these analyses was the Phase 1 plant conceptual design prepared in 1987.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Apparatus for the detection and removal of vapor phase alkali species from coal-derived gases at high temperature and pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-pressure high-temperature apparatus has been developed for the analysis of sorbents capable of removing alkali compounds to the concentration levels required by advanced coal-fired power generating systems. The reactor is capable of operating at temperatures up to 1200? C and pressures up to 2.0 MPa. A laser-based techniquephotofragment fluorescenceenables in situ analysis of the sodium content in a gas stream before and after a sorbent bed thereby determining the efficiency of the alkali removal by the various sorbents studied (typically alumino-silicate clays). The design and development of both the reactor and the laser-based analytical technique is described.

P. G. Griffin; R. J. S. Morrison; A. Campisi; B. L. Chadwick

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Graphene Nucleation Density on Copper: Fundamental Role of Background Pressure Ivan Vlassiouk,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Graphene Nucleation Density on Copper: Fundamental Role of Background Pressure Ivan Vlassiouk the effect of background pressure and synthesis temperature on the graphene crystal sizes in chemical vapor of the background pressure and provide the activation energy for graphene nucleation in atmospheric pressure CVD (9

Feenstra, Randall

192

Lipolytic activity in whole, skim, and cream fractions of temperature activated milk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Ililk. I, 'esture and Distributio. . . Origin. Distribution. Ii'umber. Purification and Characterization. Properties. Specificity. PH optima. Temperature optima. I'actors Affectino Lipolysis. F rm Factors. Physiolooical condIitions. Ration.... ; will deal with the nature and distribution, purification and characterization, and properties of lip . ses in nilk. I!. ture and Distri?ution Orioin. The oricin oi lipases in bovine milk is still obscure (86) Several investigators have postulated...

Wang, Liangen

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Reduced pressure and temperature reclamation of water using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for potential space flight application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYSTEM FOR POTENTIAL SPACE FLIGHT APPLICATION A Thesis by HASAN IMTIAZ CHOWDHURY Approved as to style and content by: G. P. Peterson (Chair of Committee) T. D. Rogers (Member) R. D. pence (Member) W. Bradley (Head of Department) December... 1989 ABSTRACT Reduced Pressure and Temperature Reclamation of Water Using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for Potential Space Flight Application. (December 1989) Hasan Imtiaz Chowdhury, B. S. , Prairie View AlkM University Chair...

Chowdhury, Hasan Imtiaz

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

195

Studies of the mechanism of Coal Hydrogenation by Electron Spin Resonance. Quarterly technical progress report, March 1-May 31, 1980. [For high-temperature, high pressure measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the first quarterly report on the program Studies of Coal Hydrogenation by Electron Spin Resonance. This quarter has been devoted to constructing apparatus for high temperature-high pressure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, characterizing the performance of the microwave cavity, and carrying out preliminary room temperature studies on coals and coal products. At the start of this program, there were no microwave cavities available to study high pressure-high temperature reactions. A system was constructed which can be used to study coal hydrogenation, and satisfies the conditions described in the report. This cavity was constructed using funding from Rockwell International, and will be used on this program. Because of the dependence of the work to be done with this device for this program, the construction is described in detail. This report, therefore, considers the design philosophy, construction of the device, a preliminary discussion of its performance, and application of the cavity for room temperature studies on several varieties of coal.

Goldberg, Ira B.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

The minimum gas temperature at the inlet of regulators in natural gas pressure reduction stations (CGS) for energy saving in water bath heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study a computational procedure for the computation of JouleThomson coefficient of natural gas has been developed using fundamental thermodynamic equations and AGA-8 equation of state, and then the minimum possible temperature of the natural gas entering to the pressure regulator of city gate stations (CGS) is calculated. As a case study, a CGS located in Bistoon (of Iran's CGSs) with nominal capacity of 20,000 SCMH has been considered. A comparison has been made between the calculated results and corresponding collected data from the station within 10 months. Results of this study help to determine the minimum temperature values of entering gas with different pressures to the regulator in order to avoid hydrate formation of the outlet gas, and can be used to design appropriate temperature control systems for water bath heaters and in turn save consumed energy for gas heating. The results show that heating the gas up to calculated minimum temperatures can save energy consumption of heaters by 43%. Also, it is indicated that by applying a control system, based on the result of this study, in the CGS the payback period would be less than a year.

Esmail Ashouri; Farzad Veysi; Ehsan Shojaeizadeh; Maryam Asadi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Temperaturepressure conditions in coalbed methane reservoirs of the Black Warrior basin: implications for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorption of gas onto coal is sensitive to pressure and temperature, and carbon dioxide can be a potentially volatile supercritical fluid in coalbed methane reservoirs. More than 5000 wells have been drilled in the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior basin in west-central Alabama, and the hydrologic and geothermic information from geophysical well logs provides a robust database that can be used to assess the potential for carbon sequestration in coal-bearing strata. Reservoir temperature within the coalbed methane target zone generally ranges from 80 to 125 F (2752 C), and geothermal gradient ranges from 6.0 to 19.9 F/1000 ft (10.936.2 C/km). Geothermal gradient data have a strong central tendency about a mean of 9.0 F/1000 ft (16.4 C/km). Hydrostatic pressure gradients in the coalbed methane fields range from normal (0.43 psi/ft) to extremely underpressured (wells have pressure gradients greater than 0.30 psi/ft, and 20% have pressure gradients lower than 0.10 psi/ft. Pockets of underpressure are developed around deep longwall coal mines and in areas distal to the main hydrologic recharge zone, which is developed in structurally upturned strata along the southeastern margin of the basin. Geothermal gradients within the coalbed methane fields are high enough that reservoirs never cross the gasliquid condensation line for carbon dioxide. However, reservoirs have potential for supercritical fluid conditions beyond a depth of 2480 ft (756 m) under normally pressured conditions. All target coal beds are subcritically pressured in the northeastern half of the coalbed methane exploration fairway, whereas those same beds were in the supercritical phase window prior to gas production in the southwestern half of the fairway. Although mature reservoirs are dewatered and thus are in the carbon dioxide gas window, supercritical conditions may develop as reservoirs equilibrate toward a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient after abandonment. Coal can hold large quantities of carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, and supercritical isotherms indicate non-Langmiur conditions under which some carbon dioxide may remain mobile in coal or may react with formation fluids or minerals. Hence, carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery show great promise in subcritical reservoirs, and additional research is required to assess the behavior of carbon dioxide in coal under supercritical conditions where additional sequestration capacity may exist.

Jack C Pashin; Marcella R McIntyre

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

High-pressure/high-temperature gas-solubility study in hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems using static and chromatographic techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and discovery of sources for alternative energy such as coal liquefaction has become of major importance over the past two decades. One of the major problems in such design in the lack of available data, particularly, for gas solubility in polycyclic aromatics at high temperature and pressure. Static and gas-liquid partition chromatographic methods were used for the study of hydrogen-phenanthrene and methane-phenanthrene systems. The static data for these two binaries were taken along 398.2, 423.2, 448.2, and 473.2 K isotherms up to 25.23 MPa. Gas-liquid partition chromatography was used to study the infinite dilution behavior of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the hydrogen-phenanthrene system as well as hydrogen, ethane, n-butane, and carbon dioxide in the methane-phenanthrene binary. The principle objective was to examine the role of the elution gas. Temperatures were along the same isotherms as the static data and up to 20.77 MPa. With the exception of carbon dioxide, Henry's constants were calculated for all systems. Expressions for the heat of solution as a function of pressure were derived for both binary and chromatographic data. Estimates of delta H/sub i/sup sol/ at high pressure were presented.

Malone, P.V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

High pressure/high temperature vapor liquid equilibrium study of light gases in hydrogen-coal liquid model compound systems using perturbation chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perturbation chromatography or gas-liquid partition chromatography (GLPC) provides a powerful tool for making physicochemical measurements. In this investigation GLPC was applied to study the vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior of light gases in nonvolatile coal liquid model compound solvents at high temperatures and high pressures. Improvements made in existing GLPC techniques include: the use of a high pressure tandem proportioning pump to give precise control of the carrier gas flow rate and low pressure drops; a high pressure ionization chamber to detect the injection of very dilute radioactive sample gases; and the use of a microcomputer to provide instantaneous integration and very precise retention times of the chromatographic peaks. Infinite dilution K-values for methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide in hydrogen-dibenzofuran systems were obtained at 100 and 125 C and up to 800 psia. Infinite dilution K-values for the same light gases in hydrogen-9-methylanthracene systems were obtained at 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 C and up to 3000 psia. Henry's constants were determined for the light gases in 9-methylanthracene. Second cross virial coefficients and vapor phase infinite dilution fugacity coefficients were calculated for methane, ethane, propane, and n-butane in hydrogen. These results were combined with the experimental K-value measurements to obtain Henry's constants in hydrogen-9-methylanthracene mixtures of fixed liquid compositions. Infinite dilution heats of solution of the solute gases in the mixtures were calculated.

Kragas, T.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Interrelationships between diet, activity, body composition, and blood pressure in elderly subjects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Blood Pressure A sphygmomanometer cuff was snugly wrapped around the subject's left upper arm. The lower border of the cuff was at least one inch above the elbow. The valve of the rubber bulb was closed. The index and middle fingers were used... to palpate the location of the brachial artery. The 30 diaphragm (flat section) of a Littman stethoscope was placed directly over the brachial artery. With the bell diaphragm in place, the rubber bulb was squeezed to inflate the sphygmomanometer cuff...

Ideno, Katherine Tamiko

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High-Temperature Air/Steam-Blown Gasification of Coal in a Pressurized Spout-Fluid Bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

7-10 However, in the MEET system a pebble bed slagging entrained-flow gasifier was used that had to be operated at very high temperatures (1350?1550 C), which required excessive energy input to maintain such a high gasification temperature when compared with fluidized bed gasifiers, such as spout-fluid bed gasifiers which used medium temperatures (800?1100 C) to convert coal to fuel gas. ... The typical size distribution is shown in Table 2, where is specific surface-equivalent diameter. ...

Rui Xiao; Mingyao Zhang; Baosheng Jin; Yaji Huang; Hongcang Zhou

2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

202

Surface Modification by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Improved Bonding.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An atmospheric pressure plasma source operating at temperatures below 150C and fed with 1.0-3.0 volume% oxygen in helium was used to activate the surfaces of (more)

Williams, Thomas Scott

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275{degrees}C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275[degrees]C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

High-temperature high-pressure phases of lithium from electron force field (eFF) quantum electron dynamics simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...temperatures (20,0002,000,000 K) characteristic of deep interiors of giant planets (1), conditions of thermonuclear fusion, and phenomena generated by shocks from planetary impact (2). New methods for experimental study of these regimes...

Hyungjun Kim; Julius T. Su; William A. Goddard III

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

High-temperature high-pressure phases of lithium from electron force field (eFF) quantum electron dynamics simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...high temperatures (20,0002,000,000 K) characteristic of deep interiors of giant planets (1), conditions of thermonuclear fusion, and phenomena generated by shocks from planetary impact (2). New methods for experimental study of these regimes...

Hyungjun Kim; Julius T. Su; William A. Goddard III

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 17571765 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

directly, as in a traditional H , 23.1% CO, 5.8% CO , 6.6% H O, 0.5% H S, and2 2 2 2 coal-fired power plant types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H S from a simulated coal temperature was examined as a2 function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal

Cal, Mark P.

208

Modeling high-pressure adsorption of gas mixtures on activated carbon and coal using a simplified local-density model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simplified local-density (SLD) theory was investigated regarding its ability to provide accurate representations and predictions of high-pressure supercritical adsorption isotherms encountered in coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration. Attention was focused on the ability of the SLD theory to predict mixed-gas adsorption solely on the basis of information from pure gas isotherms using a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). An extensive set of high-pressure adsorption measurements was used in this evaluation. These measurements included pure and binary mixture adsorption measurements for several gas compositions up to 14 MPa for Calgon F-400 activated carbon and three water-moistened coals. Also included were ternary measurements for the activated carbon and one coal. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} on dry activated carbon, the SLD-PR can predict the component mixture adsorption within about 2.2 times the experimental uncertainty on average solely on the basis of pure-component adsorption isotherms. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} on two of the three wet coals, the SLD-PR model can predict the component adsorption within the experimental uncertainties on average for all feed fractions (nominally molar compositions of 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, and 80/20) of the three binary gas mixture combinations, although predictions for some specific feed fractions are outside of their experimental uncertainties.

Fitzgerald, J.E.; Robinson, R.L.; Gasem, K.A.M. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

209

Effects of water-saturation on strength and ductility of three igneous rocks at effective pressures to 50 MPA and temperatures to partial melting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The short-term failure strengths and strains at failure of room-dry and water-saturated, cylindrical specimens (2 by 4 cm) of Charcoal Granodiorite (CG), Mt. Hood Andesite (MHA), and Cuerbio Basalt (CB) at a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/, at effective confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa and at temperatures to partial melting were investigated. Data from water-saturated specimens of the granodiorite and andesite, compared to room-dry counterparts, indicate (1) the pore pressures are essentially communicated throughout each test specimen so that they are fully effective; (2) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 50 MPa the granodiorite does not water-weaken; (3) at these same effective pressures the more porous and finer-grained andesite begins to exhibit water-weakening at about 600/sup 0/C; (4) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 870 to 900/sup 0/C the andesite's strength averages 20 MPa while the strength of dry specimens at the same P and T exhibit a strength of 100 MPa; (5) at P/sub e/ = 50 MPa compared to 160 MPa dry; (6) the basalt at P/sub e/ = 0, appears to be water-weakened at 800/sup 0/C; (7) water saturated specimens deformed at temperatures less than that of melting exhibit ultimate strengths at less than 2% shortening and then work-soften along faults; (8) again as do the dry counterparts, the wet specimens deform primarily by microscopic fracturing that coalesces into one or more macroscopic faults; and (9) the temperature for incipient melting of the andesite is decreased >150/sup 0/C in the water-saturated tests.

Bauer, S.J.; Friedman, M.; Handin, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Solubilities of nitrogen in selected naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons at temperatures from 344 to 433 K and pressures to 22.8 MPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubilities of nitrogen in selected naphthenic (cyclohexane and trans-Decalin) and aromatic (benzene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene) solvents were measured using a static equilibrium cell over the temperature range from 344.3 to 433.2 K at pressures to 22.8 MPa. The uncertainty in these measurements is estimated to be less than 0.001 in mole fraction. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was shown to represent the experimental data with root-mean-square deviations of about 0.002 when a single interaction parameter (C{sub ij}) is used for each binary system.

Gao, W.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L. Jr. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering] [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - active earth pressure Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a,b Summary: is a COLLADA (COLLAborative Design Activity) model supported by Google's SketchUp tool and Google Earth. 3D... it into Google Earth for display. COLLADA is for...

212

Predation pressure from above: observations on the activities of piscivorous birds at a shallow eutrophic lake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The foraging activities of piscivorous birds at a small eutrophic lake in southern Sweden were observed during the ice-free months of 1984. Species-specific patterns of abundance and distribution were apparent...

Ian J. Winfield

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Predation pressure from above: observations on the activities of piscivorous birds at a shallow eutrophic lake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The foraging activities of piscivorous birds at a small eutrophic lake in southern Sweden were observed during the ice-free months of 1984. Species-specific patterns of abundance and distribution were apparent...

Ian J. Winfield

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Features of temperature control of fuel element cladding for pressurized water nuclear reactor WWER-1000 while simulating reactor accidents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the experiments simulating NPR (nuclear power reactor) accidents with a coolant loss fuel elements behavior in a steam-hydrogen medium was studied at the temperature changed with the rate from 1 to 100K/s within the range of 3001500 C. Indications of the thermocouples fixed on the cladding notably differ from real values of the cladding temperatures in the area of measuring junction due to thermal resistance influence of the transition zones cladding-junction and junction-coolant. The estimating method of a measurement error was considered which can provide adequate accounting of the influence factors. The method is based on thermal probing of a thermocouple by electric current flashing through thermoelements under the coolant presence or absence, a response time registration and processing, calculation of thermal inertia value for a thermocouple junction. A formula was derived for calculation of methodical error under stationary mode and within the stage of linear increase in temperature, which will determine the conditions for the cladding depressurization. Some variants of the formula application were considered, and the values of methodical errors were established which reached ?5% of maximum value by the final moment of the stage of linear increase in the temperature.

Zaytsev, P. A.; Priymak, S. V.; Usachev, V. B.; Oleynikov, P. P.; Soldatkin, D. M. [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)] [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

215

Room temperature reaction of oxygen with gold: an in situ ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gold is commonly regarded as the most inert element.1 However, the discovery of the exceptional catalytic properties of gold nanoparticles (NPs) for low temperature CO oxidation2 initiated great interest due to its promising applications and spawned a large number of studies devoted to the understanding of the reaction mechanism.3-6 Nevertheless, no consistent and conclusive picture has arisen.7-13

Jiang, Peng; Porsgaard, Soeren; Borondics, Ferenc; Kober, Mariana; Caballero, Alfonso; Bluhm, Hendrik; Besenbacher, Flemming; Salmeron, Miquel

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Development of Designer Diamond Anvils for High Pressure-High-Temperature Experiments in Support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) is to develop the next generation of designer diamond anvils that can perform simultaneous joule heating and temperature profile measurements in a diamond anvil cell. A series of tungsten-rhenium thermocouples will be fabricated onto to the anvil and encapsulated by a chemical vapor deposited diamond layer to allow for a complete temperature profile measurement across the anvil. The tip of the diamond anvil will be engineered to reduce the thermal conductivity so that the tungsten-heating coils can be deposited on top of this layer. Several different approaches will be investigated to engineer the tip of the diamond anvil for reduction in thermal conductivity (a) isotopic mixture of 12C and 13C in the diamond layer, (b) doping of diamond with impurities (nitrogen and/or boron), and (c) growing diamond in a higher concentration of methane in hydrogen plasma. Under this academic alliance with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), PI and his graduate students will use the lithographic and diamond polishing facility at LLNL. This proposed next generation of designer diamond anvils will allow multi-tasking capability with the ability to measure electrical, magnetic, structural and thermal data on actinide materials with unparallel sensitivity in support of the stockpile stewardship program.

Yogesh K. Vohra

2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

217

The current status of titaniterutile thermobarometry in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks: The in uence of titanite activity models on phase equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The current status of titanite­rutile thermobarometry in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks: The in uence of titanite activity models on phase equilibrium calculations Peter Tropper a,b, , Craig E Article history: Accepted 12 March 2008 Keywords: Titanite Activity model Al+F substitution UHP

Manning, Craig

218

Solubility of methane in cyclohexane and in trans-decalin at temperatures from 323 to 423 K at pressures to 9.6 MPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solubility data are presented for methane in the naphthenic solvents cyclohexane and trans-decalin (decahydronaphthalene) at temperatures from 323 to 423 K and pressures to 9.6 MPa. The data for methane + cyclohexane are in reasonable agreement with the measurements of Reamer et al. but differ significantly from some of the data of Schoch et al. The new data can be described with root-mean-square errors of about 0.0005 mole fraction by the Soave-Redlich-Kwong and Peng-Robinson equations of state when a single interaction parameter per isotherm is employed in the equations. Addition of a second interaction parameter provides little improvement in the quality of representation of the data.

Darwish, N.A. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L. Jr. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering] [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures; Quarterly report, January 1, 1990--March 31, 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine the chemical and physical effects of thermophilic organisms on crude oils and cores at elevated temperatures and pressures. Ultimately a data base will be generated which will be used in technical and economic feasibility studies leading to field application. Results of the biotreatment of the teapot Naval Petroleum Resume {number_sign}3(PR3) with BNL strain BNL-4-24 at 65{degree}C under 2000 psi of nitrogen and 80 psi of carbon dioxide are presented. Results are also briefly discussed on the biotreatment of Wilmington, CA crude with BNL-4-22 on the reduction of nickel porphyrin complex. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Pressure transducer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output.

Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Gunchin, Elmer R. (Lockport, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

U.S. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2010 International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 2729, 2010, in Beijing, China.

222

Effect of glass composition on activation energy of viscosity in glass-melting-temperature range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the high-temperature range, where the viscosity (Eta) of molten glass is <10{sup 3} Pa s, the activation energy (B) is virtually ln(Eta) = A + B/T, is nearly independent of melt composition. Hence, the viscosity-composition relationship for Eta < 10{sup 3} Pa s is defined by B as a function of composition. Using a database encompassing over 1300 compositions of high-level waste glasses with nearly 7000 viscosity data, we developed mathematical models for B(x), where x is the composition vector in terms of mass fractions of components. In this paper, we present 13 versions of B(x) as first- and second-order polynomials with coefficients for 15 to 39 components, including Others, a component that sums constituents having little effect on viscosity.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Han, Sang Soo

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Microcrystalline Si films grown at low temperatures (90-220 deg. C) with high rates in atmospheric-pressure VHF plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work deals with the structural properties of microcrystalline silicon (muc-Si:H) films grown at low temperatures (90-220 deg. C) with high rates in atmospheric-pressure He/H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4} plasma, which is excited by a 150 MHz very high frequency power using a porous carbon electrode. This plasma permits to enhance the chemical reactions both in gas phase and on the film-growing surface, while suppressing ion impingement upon the surface. Raman crystalline volume fractions of the muc-Si:H films are studied in detail as functions of film thickness and substrate temperature (T{sub sub}). The results show that the muc-Si:H film deposited with 50 (SCCM) (SCCM denotes standard cubic centimeters per minute at STP) SiH{sub 4} has no amorphous transition layers at the film/substrate interface in spite of the high deposition rate of 6.4 nm/s, which is verified by the cross sectional observations with a transmission electron microscope. In addition, the T{sub sub} dependence of Raman crystallinity of the muc-Si:H films indicates that a highly crystallized muc-Si:H film grows even when T{sub sub} is reduced to 90 deg. C. Further systematic studies are needed for both device applications and deposition on thermally sensitive plastic materials.

Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Ouchi, Kentaro; Tabuchi, Keita; Yasutake, Kiyoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Synthesis of boron suboxide (B{sub 6}O) with ball milled boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) under lower pressure and temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron reacted with ball milled boron oxide under pressures between 1 and 5 GPa and at temperatures between 1300 and 1700 {sup o}C to afford boron suboxide (B{sub 6}O). Icosahedral B{sub 6}O grains with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 1.3 {mu}m were prepared. The factors that affect the synthesis of B{sub 6}O are investigated. The best sample with crystal size up to 1.3 {mu}m is obtained at 2 GPa and 1400 {sup o}C for 6 h. The indentation experiment gave an average Vickers hardness of 32.3 GPa for bulk B{sub 6}O sample, which is consistent with previous reports. Bulk B{sub 6}O sample exhibits oxidation resistance in air up to 1000 {sup o}C and mild oxidation in the temperatures of 1000-1200 {sup o}C, which is more oxidation resistant than diamond. It is possible that B{sub 6}O could be used as a substitute for diamond in industry because of its relatively mild synthesis conditions, high thermal stability and high hardness. - Graphical abstract: Icosahedral B{sub 6}O grains were prepared for mixtures of boron and ball milled boron oxide at 2 GPa and 1400 {sup o}C, a milder synthesis condition in comparison with previous works.

Jiao Xiaopeng; Jin Hua; Liu Fuyang; Ding Zhanhui; Yang Bin; Lu Fengguo; Zhao Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu Xiaoyang, E-mail: Liuxy@jlu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Experimentation of a High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Prototype Using Phase Change Materials for the Thermal Protection of a Pressurized Air Solar Receiver  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The work addresses the issue of fast variations of temperature of a central solar receiver under cloud covering. A specific attention is paid to the situation of Hybrid Solar Gas Turbine (HSGT) systems using pressurized air as Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF), as it is considered in the Pegase project (France). A Thermal Energy Storage (TES) unit integrated in the receiver is proposed for smoothing the variation of temperature. The technology is based on the utilization of both Phase Change Material (PCM) and metallic fins in order to enhance charge and discharge capability of the storage unit. A test-bench is designed with copper fins and is experienced with paraffin wax and with Li2CO3 successively as PCMs. In the same time, the test unit is modeled and the charging and discharging modes are simulated. The results show that the full charging is achieved in about 4hours starting from 700C when the receiver is maintained at 900C, whereas the discharge from 900C to 700C is achieved in 2.5hours.

D. Verdier; A. Ferrire; Q. Falcoz; F. Siros; R. Couturier

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

227

Reversible Hydrogen Storage using CO2 and a Proton-Switchable Iridium Catalyst in Aqueous Media under Mild Temperatures and Pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Green plants convert CO{sub 2} to sugar for energy storage via photosynthesis. We report a novel catalyst that uses CO{sub 2} and hydrogen to store energy in formic acid. Using a homogeneous iridium catalyst with a proton-responsive ligand, we show the first reversible and recyclable hydrogen storage system that operates under mild conditions using CO{sub 2}, formate and formic acid. This system is energy-efficient and green because it operates near ambient conditions, uses water as a solvent, produces high-pressure CO-free hydrogen, and uses pH to control hydrogen production or consumption. The extraordinary and switchable catalytic activity is attributed to the multifunctional ligand, which acts as a proton-relay and strong {pi}-donor, and is rationalized by theoretical and experimental studies.

Hull J. F.; Himeda, Y.; Wang, W.-H.; Hashiguchi, B.; Szalda, D.J.; Muckerman, J.T.; Fujita, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Thermally activated low temperature creep and primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A phenomenological SCC-CGR model is developed based on an apriori assumption that the SCC-CGR is controlled by low temperature creep (LTC). This mode of low temperature time dependent deformation occurs at stress levels above the athermal flow stress by a dislocation glide mechanism that is thermally activated and may be environmentally assisted. The SCC-CGR model equations developed contain thermal activation parameters descriptive of the dislocation creep mechanism. Thermal activation parameters are obtained by fitting the CGR model to SCC-CGR data obtained on Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750. These SCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to LTC activation parameters obtained from stress relaxation tests. When the high concentration of hydrogen at the tip of an SCC crack is considered, the SCC-CGR activation energies and rate sensitivities are shown to be quantitatively consistent with hydrogen reducing the activation energy and increasing the strain rate sensitivity in LTC stress relaxation tests. Stress dependence of SCC-CGR activation energy consistent with that found for the LTC activation energy. Comparisons between temperature dependence of the SCC-CGR stress sensitivity and LTC stress sensitivity provide a basis for speculation on effects of hydrogen and solute carbon on SCC crack growth rates.

Hall, M.M. Jr.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

A high-pressure and high-temperature gas-loading system for the study of conventional to real industrial sized samples in catalysed gas/solid and liquid/solid reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-pressure-high-temperature gas-loading system has been developed for combined in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction and mass spectrometry investigations during catalysed gas/solid or liquid/solid reactions. The benefits of such a system are the combination of different gases, the flexibility of the cell design, the rotation of the cell, and the temperature, pressure and gas-flow ranges accessible. This opens up new opportunities for studying catalysts or compounds not just from a fundamental point of view but also for industrial applications, in both cases in operando conditions.

Andrieux, J.

2014-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

230

The effects of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on cellular activity at SLA-treated titanium surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Titanium (Ti) is a primary material used for dental implants, and the sandblasted, large-grit, and acid-etched (SLA) surface treatment is commonly used on titanium to promote early osseointegration. Despite their benefits, SLA-treated Ti surfaces are disadvantaged by their hydrophobic property, and much research has been performed to address this problem. In current study, we hypothesized the effects of a nitrogen-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) treatment on SLA-treated Ti would increase hydrophilicity and cellular activity. Samples with and without the NTAPPJ treatment were analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope, optical surface roughness system, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, and water contact angle measuring system. MC3T3-E1 cells (murine osteoblastic cell line) attachments and proliferations were examined by the MTT and BrdU colorimetry assay. Cell immunofluorescent microscopic images were observed by a confocal laser scanning microscope for a morphological analysis. This study found that the nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment on SLA-treated Ti significantly increased the hydrophilicity and MC3T3-E1 cell attachments and proliferations. Hence, it was concluded that an additional procedure of nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment just prior to implantation of SLA-treated Ti into oral defect sites could improve the success of dental implant surgery.

Eun-Jung Lee; Jae-Sung Kwon; Soo-Hyuk Uhm; Doo-Hoon Song; Yong Hee Kim; Eun Ha Choi; Kyoung-Nam Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Long-term trends in temperature of the Arctic atmosphere and their relation to variations of solar activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solar activity expressed in its various forms (the total solar irradiance (TSI) and a permanent injection of the solar charged particles called as the solar wind) is considered in this study as a possible candidate capable to influence on the long-term variations of the atmospheric temperature. The data of atmospheric balloon sounding at four polar and subpolar stations were chosen for the study of long-term variations of atmospheric temperature as functions of the solar activity. The experimentally observed long-term trends in variations of the tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures could be related to some extent to the variability of the solar activity. The impact of the solar wind energy on thermal regime of the stratosphere and troposphere in the Arctic could be different due to non-uniformity of electric conductivity of the ground surface as well as to different relations between conductivity of the atmospheric layers and ground surface.

A.V. Shirochkov; L.N. Makarova; V.V. Maystrova; A.P. Nagurny

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

High spin polarization at room temperature in Ge-substituted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} epitaxial thin film grown under high oxygen pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial thin films of room-temperature ferrimagnetic (Fe,Ge){sub 3}O{sub 4} were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition. Films with a single-phase spinel structure were grown under high oxygen pressures (0.010.6?Pa). The carrier transport across (Fe,Ge){sub 3}O{sub 4}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} interface was studied to estimate the spin polarization of (Fe, Ge){sub 3}O{sub 4}. Currentvoltage curves of Fe{sub 2.8}Ge{sub 0.2}O{sub 4}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} junction showed rectifying behavior even at 300?K whereas Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} junction showed ohmic behavior. Calculations based on a model for a Schottky contact with a ferromagnetic component yielded a spin polarization of 0.50 at 300?K for Fe{sub 2.8}Ge{sub 0.2}O{sub 4}, indicating its potential as a promising spin injector.

Seki, Munetoshi, E-mail: m-seki@ee.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takahashi, Masanao; Ohshima, Toshiyuki; Yamahara, Hiroyasu; Tabata, Hitoshi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

234

Volume-translated cubic EoS and PC-SAFT density models and a free volume-based viscosity model for hydrocarbons at extreme temperature and pressure conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focuses on providing the petroleum reservoir engineering community with robust models of hydrocarbon density and viscosity at the extreme temperature and pressure conditions (up to 533 K and 276 MPa, respectively) characteristic of ultra-deep reservoirs, such as those associated with the deepwater wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Our strategy is to base the volume-translated (VT) PengRobinson (PR) and SoaveRedlichKwong (SRK) cubic equations of state (EoSs) and perturbed-chain, statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) on an extensive data base of high temperature (278533 K), high pressure (6.9276 MPa) density rather than fitting the models to low pressure saturated liquid density data. This high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) data base consists of literature data for hydrocarbons ranging from methane to C{sub 40}. The three new models developed in this work, HTHP VT-PR EoS, HTHP VT-SRK EoS, and hybrid PC-SAFT, yield mean absolute percent deviation values (MAPD) for HTHP hydrocarbon density of ?2.0%, ?1.5%, and <1.0%, respectively. An effort was also made to provide accurate hydrocarbon viscosity models based on literature data. Viscosity values are estimated with the frictional theory (f-theory) and free volume (FV) theory of viscosity. The best results were obtained when the PC-SAFT equation was used to obtain both the attractive and repulsive pressure inputs to f-theory, and the density input to FV theory. Both viscosity models provide accurate results at pressures to 100 MPa but experimental and model results can deviate by more than 25% at pressures above 200 MPa.

Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.; Soong, Yee; Baled, Hseen; O Enick, Robert M; Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; McHugh,Mark A.

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

The effect of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of dissolved organic matter and atrazine on granular activated carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of water temperature on the adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) on activated carbon has not been investigated intensively yet. In this study, batch experiments with granular activated carbon (GAC) F300, from bituminous coal, have been carried out at three temperatures (5, 20, 35{sup o} C) using a humic acid model water and different types of surface water (lake, river, canal). Furthermore, the adsorption of an anthropogenic contaminant, atrazine, was quantified in the absence and presence of DOM. The results indicate a significant influence of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of DOM and atrazine. Contrary to expectations, DOM and atrazine adsorption in surface water tends to be increased with increasing water temperature, whereas the extent of this effect is dependent on the type and concentration of DOM. Furthermore, the temperature effect on atrazine adsorption is controlled by competition of DOM and atrazine on adsorption sites. Some assumptions are proposed and discussed for explaining the temperature effects observed in the batch studies. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Bernd Schreiber; Viktor Schmalz; Thomas Brinkmann; Eckhard Worch [Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany). Institute of Water Chemistry

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature ... The low utilization of calcium-based sorbent is caused by the formation of calcium sulfite or sulfate, which have larger molar volumes than CaO or Ca(OH)2. ... ignition?loss ...

Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

237

MRO/CRISM Retrieval of Surface Lambert Albedos for Multispectral Mapping of Mars with DISORT-based Rad. Transfer Modeling: Phase 1 - Using Historical Climatology for Temperatures, Aerosol Opacities, & Atmo. Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the DISORT-based radiative transfer pipeline ('CRISM_LambertAlb') for atmospheric and thermal correction of MRO/CRISM data acquired in multispectral mapping mode (~200 m/pixel, 72 spectral channels). Currently, in this phase-one version of the system, we use aerosol optical depths, surface temperatures, and lower-atmospheric temperatures, all from climatology derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) data, and surface altimetry derived from MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The DISORT-based model takes as input the dust and ice aerosol optical depths (scaled to the CRISM wavelength range), the surface pressures (computed from MOLA altimetry, MGS-TES lower-atmospheric thermometry, and Viking-based pressure climatology), the surface temperatures, the reconstructed instrumental photometric angles, and the measured I/F spectrum, and then outputs a Lambertian albedo spectrum. The Lambertian albedo spectrum is valuable geologically since it allows the mineralogical ...

McGuire, P C; Smith, M D; Arvidson, R E; Murchie, S L; Clancy, R T; Roush, T L; Cull, S C; Lichtenberg, K A; Wiseman, S M; Green, R O; Martin, T Z; Milliken, R E; Cavender, P J; Humm, D C; Seelos, F P; Seelos, K D; Taylor, H W; Ehlmann, B L; Mustard, J F; Pelkey, S M; Titus, T N; Hash, C D; Malaret, E R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Temperature measurement of an atmospheric pressure arc discharge plasma jet using the diatomic CN (B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}-X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}, violet system) molecular spectra  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CN (B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}-X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}) molecular emission spectrum is used to measure both the vibrational and rotational temperatures in atmospheric pressure arc jet discharges. The vibrational and rotational temperature effects on the synthetic diatomic molecular spectra were investigated from the (v{sup '},v{sup ''})=(0,0) band to the (5,5) band. The temperatures obtained from the synthetic spectra compared with the experimental result of a low-frequency arc discharge show a vibrational temperature of (4250-5010) K and a rotational temperature of (3760-3980) K for the input power in the range of (80-280) W. As the (0,0) band is isolated from other vibrational transition bands, determination of the rotational temperature is possible based only on the (0,0) band, which simplifies the temperature measurement. From the result, it was found that the CN molecular spectrum can be used as a thermometer for atmospheric pressure plasmas containing carbon and nitrogen.

Moon, Se Youn; Kim, D. B.; Gweon, B.; Choe, W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Development and testing of non-bonded flexible pipe for high temperature/high pressure/deep water/dynamic sour service applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-bonded flexible risers are a critical element of floating systems for offshore oil and gas production. This paper reviews product innovations and prototype testing of risers developed to cope with severe environments. Full scale dynamic test results with combined tension, bending, internal pressure and heating, and with these structural loads combined with sour production fluids introduced into the bore of the pipe are presented. The loading conditions for the tests were based on floating production systems in North Sea environments. End fittings must assure a leak tight transition to subsea and surface facilities when subjected to the pipe applied loads, thermal cycling during startup and shutdowns, and changing of the fluid barrier material properties over the service life. The results of analyses and tests conducted to verify the integrity of the end fitting with thermal cycling and fluid barrier changes due to the high temperature production fluids is presented. Conventional flexible pipe employs carbon steel for axial and hoop structural reinforcement. In deeper water, the tension loads induced by pipe weight increase stress levels in the pipe structure and deck and installation loads. As pipe stresses increase, larger cross sectional areas of the steel members are required, further increasing the weight. To reduce the unit weight, while retaining the required strength levels, composite materials have been developed to replace the steel tensile armor. The composite consists of carbon fibers in a thermoplastic matrix. Tests to verify the suitability of the material in the flexible pipe annulus environment and to evaluate the performance of the composite pipe structure are presented.

Kalman, M.; Belcher, J.; Chen, B.; Fraser, D.; Ethridge, A.; Loper, C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

METC/3M Cooperative Agreement CRADA 94-024 high temperature high pressure filter materials exposure test program. Volume 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In conjunction with shakedown, operation, and desulfurization testing at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 10 in. Fluid Bed Gasification and Cleanup facility, a series of tests was completed in cooperation with the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M). This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between METC and 3M was to evaluate exposure of 3M SICONEX{trademark} fiber-reinforced ceramic and NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabric materials to a gasifying environment at high temperatures (1000--1100{degree}F) and high pressure (300 psia). Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) provided two 60 mm I.D. {times} 0.5 m SICONEX{trademark} spools and one each of the NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabrics for exposure to coal gas from the METC gasifier. METC installed the materials in a vessel existing in the METC Cleanup Facility and provided process data in exchange for ceramic filter and ash/char characterization. Details of the CRADA are found in CRADA 94-024. This report contains METC`s contribution to CRADA 94-024. Four gasifier runs were conducted over a five month period to accumulate 483 hours of operation. During this time, 2 LayCer{trademark} 70/3 filters were used for filtering the coal gas while the SICONEX{trademark} and NEXTEL{trademark} were exposed along side of the filters. During one 89 hour test, one Laycer{trademark} 70/3 candle was installed with a 3M ceramic composite filter. The face velocity through the candles was maintained nominally at 2.5 ft/min throughout the testing.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Low and Room Temperature X-ray Structures of Protein Kinase A Ternary Complexes Shed New Light on Its Activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Posttranslational protein phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) is a ubiquitous signaling mechanism which regulates many cellular processes. A low temperature X-ray structure of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) ternary complex with ATP and a 20-residue peptidic inhibitor (IP20) at the physiological Mg2+ concentration of < 0.5mM revealed a single metal ion in the active site. The lack of a second metal in the low-temperature LT-PKAc-MgATP-IP20 renders the and phosphoryl groups of ATP to be very flexibile, with high thermal B-factors. Thus, the second metal is crucial for tight positioning of the terminal phosphoryl for transfer to a substrate, as demonstrated by comparison of the former structure with LT-PKAc- Mg2ATP-IP20 complex. In addition to the kinase activity, PKAc is also able to slowly catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP using a water molecule as a substrate. We found that at room temperature under X-ray irradiation ATP can be readily and completely hydrolyzed into ATP and a free phosphate ion in the crystals of the ternary complex LT-PKAc- Mg2ATP-IP20. The cleavage of ATP may be aided by X-ray-born free hydroxyl radicals, a very reactive chemical species, that move quickly through the crystal at room temperature. The phosphate anion is clearly visible in the electron density maps; it remains in the active site, but slides about 2 from its position in ATP toward Ala21 of IP20 that mimics the phosphorylation site. The phosphate, thus, pushes the peptidic inhibitor away from the product ADP, while resulting in dramatic conformational changes of IP20 terminal residues 24 and 25. X-ray structures of PKAc in complex with non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, AMPPNP, at both room and low temperatures demonstrated no temperature effects on the conformation and position of IP20.

Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hanson, Leif [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Langan, Paul [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

High temperature (600 to 800/sup 0/C) thermally activated deformation behavior of. cap alpha. -Zircaloy-4-oxygen alloys. [DS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high temperature thermally activated deformation behavior of Zircaloy-4-oxygen alloys containing oxygen up to 1 wt % has been investigated. Decremental unloading technique (Dip technique) was employed to determine the internal stress (tau/sub ..mu../) and thus the effective stress (tau*). Strain rate change tests were done to determine strain rate sensitivity (m) and activation volume (V*). Activation energy (..delta..G/sup ..mu../) was calculated from the above data. Oxygen was found to produce an increase in y.s. (0.2%), tau* and ..delta..G/sub 0//sup ..mu../ and a decrease in m and V* while tau/sub ..mu../ was not affected significantly. These experimental results support the view that the predominant rate controlling mechanism for deformation in this temperature regime is the thermally activated breaking of attractive junctions for these alloys. Oxygen atoms, pairs or clusters of oxygen atoms, are ruled out as barriers, instead the strengthening is attributed to an increase in the core width of the dislocations due to the presence of oxygen. This in turn results in a more stable attractive junction, which is reflected in the increasing values of ..delta..G/sub 0//sup ..mu../ with the increase in oxygen. Finally it is suggested that the atypical temperature dependence of tau/sub ..mu..//..mu.. and ..delta..G/sup ..mu../ is a direct consequence of dynamic recovery.

Mehrotra, B.N.; Tangri, K.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Pressure reducing regulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

244

Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given at the 2011 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop including an overview about Fraunhofer IPM, new funding situation in Germany, high temperature material and modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric metrology.

245

Steelhead Migration: Potential Temperature Effects as Indicated by Gill Adenosine Triphosphatase Activities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...fishes. Proposed nuclear power plants for electric power generation are the largest...Federal Water Pollution Control Administration has suggested a provi-sional...temperature of the Columbia River at Bonneville Dam, for example, reached...

W. S. Zaugg; B. L. Adams; L. R. McLain

1972-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

246

Electrocatalytic activities of supported Pt nanoparticles for low-temperature fuel cell applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-temperature fuel cells (FCs) are highly efficient and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices that have been in the spotlight of many energy research efforts in the past few decades. However, FC commercialization ...

Sheng, Wenchao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Room-Temperature Silicon Nitrides Prepared with Very High Rates (>50nm/s) in Atmospheric-Pressure Very High-Frequency Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated the structure and stability of SiN x ...films deposited with very high rates (>50nm/s) in atmospheric-pressure (AP) He-based plasma excited by a 150MHz ver...

Hiroaki Kakiuchi; Hiromasa Ohmi; Kei Nakamura

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Atmospheric Water Vapor Pressure over Land Surfaces: A Generic Algorithm with Data Input Limited to Air Temperature, Precipitation and Geographic Location  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A lack of information for surface water vapor pressure (WVP) represents a major impediment to model-assisted ecosystem analysis for understanding plant-environment interactions or for projecting biospheric re...

X. Yin

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Low-temperature atmospheric pressure argon plasma treatment and hybrid laser-plasma ablation of barite crown and heavy flint glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on atmospheric pressure argon plasma-based surface treatment and hybrid laser-plasma ablation of barite crown glass N-BaK4 and heavy flint glass SF5. By pure plasma...

Gerhard, Christoph; Roux, Sophie; Brckner, Stephan; Wieneke, Stephan; Vil, Wolfgang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures at temperatures of 3003500?K and pressures of 0.011.0?MPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, much attention has been paid to SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures as one of substitutes for pure SF{sub 6} gas. In this paper, the dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures are investigated at temperatures of 3003500?K and pressures of 0.011.0?MPa. Under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium and local chemical equilibrium, the equilibrium compositions of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures with different CO{sub 2} proportions are obtained based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The cross sections for interactions between electrons and neutral species are presented. Some unknown ionization cross sections are determined theoretically using DeutschMrk (DM) formalism based on quantum chemistry. Two-term Boltzmann equation is adopted to calculate the electron energy distribution function, reduced ionization coefficient, reduced attachment coefficient, and reduced effective ionization coefficient. Then the reduced critical electric field strength of mixtures, corresponding to dielectric breakdown performances, is determined when the generation and loss of electrons are balanced. Finally, the influences of temperature, pressure, and CO{sub 2} proportion on the reduced critical electric field strength are studied. It is found that a large percentage of CO{sub 2} can obviously reduce concentrations of high-energy electrons. At temperatures above 1750?K, an addition of CO{sub 2} to SF{sub 6} gas can enhance dielectric breakdown performances. However, at low temperatures, too much CO{sub 2} added into mixtures can reduce dielectric breakdown abilities. In addition, increasing gas pressure can improve dielectric breakdown performances. But the influence will be no more significant if pressure is over 0.8?MPa.

Zhong, Linlin; Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Dingxin; Wu, Yi; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Berry Berry Salvador M. Aceves Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (925) 422-0864 saceves@LLNL.GOV DOE Delivery Tech Team Presentation Chicago, Illinois February 8, 2005 Inexpensive delivery of compressed hydrogen with ambient temperature or cryogenic compatible vessels * Pressure vessel research at LLNL Conformable (continuous fiber and replicants) Cryo-compressed * Overview of delivery options * The thermodynamics of compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage * Proposed analysis activities * Conclusions Outline We are investigating two techniques for reduced bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize bending stresses Spherical and cylindrical tanks

252

Portable room-temperature self-powered/active H2 sensor driven by human motion through piezoelectric screening effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Room-temperature high H2 sensing has been realized from SnO2/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator. Without any external electricity power source, the portable device can be self-powered under the driving of human motion, in which the piezoelectric output can actively act as both the power source and H2 sensing signal. Upon exposure to 800ppm H2 at room temperature, the piezoelectric output voltage of the device under the same applied deformation decreases from 0.80V (in dry air) to 0.14V, and the sensitivity is up to 471.4. The detection limit is ~10ppm H2, and the selectivity against H2 at room temperature is very high. The excellent room-temperature H2 sensing performance can be attributed to the coupling of the piezoelectric screening effect of ZnO nanowires and the conversion of SnO2/ZnO heterojunctions. This study can stimulate a research trend for the development of the next generation of portable room-temperature H2 sensors.

Yongming Fu; Weili Zang; Penglei Wang; Lili Xing; Xinyu Xue; Yan Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator as self-powered active gas sensor with linear ethanol sensing at room temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A self-powered gas sensor that can actively detect ethanol at room temperature has been realized from a Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator. Pt nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the whole surface of ZnO nanowires. The piezoelectric output of Pt/ZnO nanoarrays can act not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to ethanol at room temperature. Upon exposure to dry air and 1500ppm ethanol at room temperature, the piezoelectric output of the device under the same compressive strain is 0.672 and 0.419V, respectively. Moreover, a linear dependence of the sensitivity on the ethanol concentration is observed. Such a linear ethanol sensing at room temperature can be attributed to the atmosphere-dependent variety of the screen effect on the piezoelectric output of ZnO nanowires, the catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles, and the Schottky barriers at Pt/ZnO interfaces. The present results can stimulate research in the direction of designing new material systems for self-powered room-temperature gas sensing.

Yayu Zhao; Xuan Lai; Ping Deng; Yuxin Nie; Yan Zhang; Lili Xing; Xinyu Xue

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

detonation pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation pressure ? Detonationsdruck m [Er ist dem Quadrat der Detonationsgeschwindigkeit und der Sprengstoffdichte proportional

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Flow and Temperature Fields Generated by a Thermally Activated Interventional Vascular Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experimental imaging in a physical model. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. Maitland, for giving me the opportunity to expand my horizons in the ever-growing realm of biomedical research. His guidance and insight have been... ? B constant M constant normalized temperature (at inner wall) ( ) viii Subscripts e entrance fd fully developed i inner surface o outer surface j heated surface k opposite (adiabatic...

McCurrin, Casey

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

256

High temperature properties of Ce1-xPrxO2-? as an active layer material for SOFC cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We prepared Ce1-xPrxO2-? and investigated its high temperature properties as a material for the composite active layer of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode. We found that increasing the Pr concentration increases the total conductivity and oxygen vacancy concentration at high temperature, and this may lead to improvement of the cathodic reaction. When Ce1-xPrxO2-? is heated, it expands significantly at a certain temperature (Tinf), and this expansion depends on the Ce1-xPrxO2-? composition. The expansion is associated with an abrupt increase in the unit cell volume of the cubic structure. Abrupt increases in the total conductivity and oxygen vacancy concentration were also observed at Tinf. These results can be explained by oxygen vacancy and electron formation (n-type electronic conductivity increase) at Tinf and above Tinf. A sample with a Ce1-xPrxO2-? composition where x=1.0 has no such Tinf. A composition near x=1.0 for Ce1-xPrxO2-? is favorable for the active layer material of an SOFC cathode, because of the high conductivity and high concentration of oxygen vacancies.

Reiichi Chiba; Hiroaki Taguchi; Takeshi Komatsu; Himeko Orui; Kazuhiko Nozawa; Hajime Arai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

In situ determination of the spinelpost-spinel transition in Fe3O4 at high pressure and temperature by synchrotron X-ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Crystallography, 34, 210-213. Wang, Y., Rivers, M., Sutton...high-pressure facility for synchroton radiation research at GeoSoilEnviroCars...Technology, 7, 1490-1495. Wang, Y., Rivers, M., Sutton...Swiss-army-knife approach to synchroton-based experimental studies...

K. Schollenbruch; A.B. Woodland; D.J. Frost; Y. Wang; T. Sanehira; F. Langenhorst

258

Highly entangled photons and rapidly responding polarization qubit phase gates in a room-temperature active Raman gain medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a scheme for obtaining entangled photons and quantum phase gates in a room-temperature four-state tripod-type atomic system with two-mode active Raman gain (ARG). We analyze the linear and nonlinear optical responses of this ARG system and show that the scheme is fundamentally different from those based on electromagnetically induced transparency and hence can avoid significant probe-field absorption as well as a temperature-related Doppler effect. We demonstrate that highly entangled photon pairs can be produced and rapidly responding polarization qubit phase gates can be constructed based on the unique features of the enhanced cross-phase-modulation and superluminal probe-field propagation of the system.

Hang Chao [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Centro de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade de Lisbon, Complex Interdisciplinary, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, Lisbon P-1649-003 (Portugal); Huang Guoxiang [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Institute of Nonlinear Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the use of highly dispersed catalysts for the pretreatment of coal by mild hydrogenation, (2) to identify the active forms of the catalysts under reaction conditions and (3) to clarify the mechanisms of catalysis. The ultimate objective is to ascertain if mild catalytic hydrogenation resulting in very limited or no coal solubilization is an advantageous pretreatment for the transformation of coal into transportable fuels. The experimental program will focus upon the development of effective methods of impregnating coal with catalysts, evaluating the conditions under which the catalysts are most active and establishing the relative impact of improved impregnation on conversion and product distributions obtained from coal hydrogenation.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energys High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Active Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry hydrogen can be activated in an electric discharge if the pressure and voltage are carefully regulated. Active hydrogen reduces metallic sulphides whose heat of formation is 22 000 cal. or less. The active gas is decomposed by 3 cm of well packed glass wool. A quantitative method is given for the determination of active hydrogen. Less of the active gas is formed in a tube coated with stearic acid or phosphoric acid than when no coating is employed. The decay reaction was found to follow the expression for a unimolecular reaction. The rate of decay appears to be independent of the wall surface. The period of half?life at room temperature and 40 mm pressure is 0.2 sec. approximately. The energy of formation of active hydrogen is approximately 18 000 cal. The energy of activation for the decay of the active constituent is approximately 17 800 cal. The properties of active hydrogen are considered in relation to the properties predicted for H3.

A. C. Grubb; A. B. Van Cleave

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

On the use of the double floating probe method to infer the difference between the electron and the heavy particles temperatures in an atmospheric pressure, vortex-stabilized nitrogen plasma jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sweeping double probe measurements in an atmospheric pressure direct current vortex-stabilized plasma jet are reported (plasma conditions: 100 A discharge current, N{sub 2} gas flow rate of 25 Nl/min, thoriated tungsten rod-type cathode, copper anode with 5 mm inner diameter). The interpretation of the double probe characteristic was based on a generalization of the standard double floating probe formulae for non-uniform plasmas coupled to a non-equilibrium plasma composition model. Perturbations caused by the current to the probe together with collisional and thermal processes inside the probe perturbed region were taken into account. Radial values of the average electron and heavy particle temperatures as well as the electron density were obtained. The calculation of the temperature values did not require any specific assumption about a temperature relationship between different particle species. An electron temperature of 10?900 900 K, a heavy particle temperature of 9300 900 K, and an electron density of about 3.5 10{sup 22} m{sup ?3} were found at the jet centre at 3.5 mm downstream from the torch exit. Large deviations from kinetic equilibrium were found toward the outer border of the plasma jet. These results showed good agreement with those previously reported by the authors by using a single probe technique. The calculations have shown that this method is particularly useful for studying spraying-type plasma torches operated at power levels of about 15 kW.

Prevosto, L., E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.ar; Mancinelli, B. R. [Grupo de Descargas Elctricas, Departamento Ingeniera Electromecnica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, 2600 Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina)] [Grupo de Descargas Elctricas, Departamento Ingeniera Electromecnica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, 2600 Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Elctricas, Departamento Ingeniera Electromecnica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, 2600 Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina) [Grupo de Descargas Elctricas, Departamento Ingeniera Electromecnica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, 2600 Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe (Argentina); Instituto de Fsica del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Synthetic fluid inclusions: XIII. Experimental determination of PVT properties in the system H{sub 2}O + 40 wt% NaCl + 5 mol% CO{sub 2} at elevated temperature and pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The location of the liquid + vapor {yields} liquid phase boundary and the P-T slopes of iso-Th lines were determined for a constant composition of 40 {+-} 0.1 wt% NaCl 5 {+-} 0.15 mol% CO{sub 2} (both relative) to H{sub 2}O at high density. Synthetic fluid inclusions with this composition were formed in cold-seal pressure vessels at pressures of 2 and 4 kbar and temperatures between 350{degrees}C and 700{degrees}C. The inclusions were analyzed on a gas-flow heating/cooling stage to determine the temperatures of halite dissolution [Tm{sub (H+L+V{yields}L+V)}] and total homogenization [Th{sub (L+V{yields}L)}]. Addition to 40 wt% NaCl to an aqueous solution containing 5 mol% CO{sub 2} causes a significant shift of the liquid + vapor {yields} liquid boundary towards higher pressures. The slopes of the iso-Th lines decrease from 29.5 bars/{degrees}C for Th{sub (L+V{yields}L)} of 400{degrees}C, to 6.4 bars/{degrees}C for Th{sub (L+V{yields})} = 600{degrees}C. Addition of 5 mol% CO{sub 2} to an aqueous solution containing 40 wt% NaCl results in halite dissolution temperatures that are slightly higher (Tm{sub (H+L+V{yields}L+V)} {approx} 332{degrees}C) than the literature value of 323{degrees}C for the vapor-saturated liquidus of an H{sub 2}O-40 wt% NaCl mixture. Calculated molar volumes for 40 wt% NaCl + 5 mol% CO{sub 2} solutions at 2 and 4 kbar show trends that are similar to those of other compositions in the ternary system H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl at the same pressures and temperatures. In the P-T range of this study, all excess volumes are negative and lie between the values for the compositions H{sub 2}O-5 mol% CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O-40 wt% NaCl. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Schmidt, C.; Rosso, K.M.; Bodnar, R.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blackburg, VA (United States)] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blackburg, VA (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. 2. Results and Recommendations for Scaling Up  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. ... Once the existence of segregation in the bed of the gasifier with the particles' sizes used for coal and for the CaO in the preliminary tests are confirmed and analyzed, the particle size of the coal was increased to 0.4?2.0 ... In general small differences in d. readily lead to segregation while quite differently sized particles are fairly easily mixed. ...

Jose Corella; Jose M. Toledo; Gregorio Molina

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Steam gasification of coal at low-medium (600-800{sup o}C) temperature with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture in fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure: The effect of inorganic species. 1. Literature review and comments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the H{sub 2} production with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture by steam gasification of coal in a fluidized bed, at low/medium temperatures (600-800{sup o}C) and atmospheric pressure. This work is mainly aimed at reviewing the effects of the inorganic species present in the matrix of the coal or added to the gasifier bed. The most promising species seems to be the calcined limestone (CaO), which intervenes in the overall gasification reaction network in at least five different types of reactions. The effectiveness of the CaO for CO{sub 2} capture in the coal gasifier is, therefore, affected/influenced by the other four simultaneous or competitive types of reactions in the gasifier. The effects of the temperature in the gasifier and of the (CaO/coal) ratio fed to the gasifier are finally reviewed and discussed in detail.

Corella, J.; Toledo, J.M.; Molina, G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Electro-catalytically Active, High Surface Area Cathodes for Low Temperature SOFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focused on developing low polarization (area specific resistance, ASR) cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In order to accomplish this we focused on two aspects of cathode development: (1) development of novel materials; and (2) developing the relationships between microstructure and electrochemical performance. The materials investigated ranged from Ag-bismuth oxide composites (which had the lowest reported ASR at the beginning of this contract) to a series of pyrochlore structured ruthenates (Bi{sub 2-x}M{sub x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where M = Sr, Ca, Ag; Pb{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 6.5}; and Y{sub 2-2x}Pr{sub 2x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}), to composites of the pyrochlore ruthenates with bismuth oxide. To understand the role of microstructure on electrochemical performance, we optimized the Ag-bismuth oxide and the ruthenate-bismuth oxide composites in terms of both two-phase composition and particle size/microstructure. We further investigated the role of thickness and current collector on ASR. Finally, we investigated issues of stability and found the materials investigated did not form deleterious phases at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Further, we established the ability through particle size modification to limit microstructural decay, thus, enhancing stability. The resulting Ag-Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} and Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7{sup -}}Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} composite cathodes had ASRs of 1.0 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and 0.73 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.048 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and 0.053 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 650 C, respectively. These ASRs are truly impressive and makes them among the lowest IT-SOFC ASRs reported to date.

Eric D. Wachsman

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Master external pressure charts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a method to develop master external pressure charts from which individual external pressure charts for each material specification may be derived. The master external charts can represent a grouping of materials with similar chemical composition, similar stress-strain curves but produced to different strength levels. External pressure charts are used by various Sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes to design various components such as cylinders, sphered, formed heads, tubes, piping, rings and other components, subjected to external pressure or axial compression loads. These charts are pseudo stress-strain curves for groups of materials with similar stress-strain shapes. The traditional approach was originally developed in the 1940`s and is a graphical approach where slopes to the strain curves are drawn graphically from which pseudo-strain levels are calculated. The new method presented in this paper develops mathematical relationships for the material stress-strain curves and the external pressure charts. The method has the ability to calculate stress-strain curves from existing external pressure charts. The relationships are a function of temperature, the modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and two empirical material constants. In this approach, conservative assumptions used to assign materials to lower bound external pressure charts can be removed. This increases the buckling strength capability of many materials in the Code, providing economic benefits while maintaining the margin of safety specified by the Code criteria. The method can also reduce the number of material charts needed in the Code and provides for the capability to extend the existing pressure charts to higher design temperatures. The new method is shown to contain a number of improvements over the traditional approach and is presently under consideration by appropriate ASME Code committees.

Michalopoulos, E. [Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., CT (United States). Codes and Standards Dept.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A {gamma}-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250 C at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region there between. A jet of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

Selwyn, G.S.

1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

269

Experimental Study of Solubility of Natural Gas Components in Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol at Low-Temperature and High-Pressure Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solubility of natural gas components, for example, methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide, was measured in aqueous solutions of (40 and 60) mass % of ethylene glycol at (15.00 and 20.00) MPa and at temperatures of (?10.0, ... This eliminates the presence of air or other gases in the gasometer. ... The solubilities of CH4 in the diethylene glycol, water, and diethylene glycol-water solns. ...

Majid Abedinzadegan Abdi; Arshad Hussain; Kelly Hawboldt; Erika Beronich

2007-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

270

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient pressure estimation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at ambient pressure. That is confirmed from the transition temperature TN vs pressure phase... was observed at ambient pressure 6. Along with the data indicating relatively...

271

Steam Oxidation at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

272

Osmotic Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Whetham in which he attempts to consign actual experimental work on osmotic pressure to the humble rle of showing how far the assumptions made in so-called thermodynamical proofs can be ... actual osmotic processes, and that the experimental work on osmotic pressure does not play that humble rle to which Mr. Whetham would consign it. ...

LOUIS KAHLENBERG

1906-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

273

Neutron scattering at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron scattering spectra at pressures up to 30 kilobar in the temperature range 3004 K have been obtained with a compact clamped type apparatus. The pressure cell geometry by allowing the detection of neutronsscattered in a plane makes it compatible with operation on crystal spectrometers both for elastic and inelastic scattering. The instrument is light (4.5 kg) and easy to move. An external diameter of 68 mm makes the pressure cell adaptable to standard cryostats or furnaces.

D. Bloch; J. Paureau; J. Voiron; G. Parisot

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Investigation and Design Studies of SOFC Electrode Performance at Elevated Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental program was set forth to study fuel cell performance at pressure and under various compositions. Improvement in cathode electrode performance is on the order of 33-40% at pressures of 6.4 Bara compared to atmospheric pressure. Key cathode operational parameters are the concentration and partial pressure of O2, and temperature. The effect of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) decreases the activation polarization, although there appears to be a secondary effect of absolute pressure as well. The concentration of oxygen impacts the diffusion component of the polarization, which is largely insensitive to absolute pressure. The effect of pressure was found to reduce the total polarization resistance of full fuel-cells beyond the reduction determined for the cathode alone. The total reduction in ASR was on the order of 0.10 ohm-cm2 for a pressure increase from 1 to 6.5 Bara, with about 70% of the improvement being realized from 1 to 4 Bara. An important finding was that there is an effect of steam on the cathode that is highly temperature dependent. The loss of performance at temperatures below 850 C was very large for the standard LSM + YSZ cathodes.

Ted Ohrn; Shung Ik Lee

2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Thermal expansion of Mg(OH)2 brucite under high pressure and pressure dependence of entropy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An equation of state for Mg(OH)2 brucite under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions ... -ray diffraction. Pressure dependence of entropy of brucite has been calculated with thermal expansion coefficient....

H. Fukui; O. Ohtaka; T. Suzuki; K. Funakoshi

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Role of temperature change in micro seismic activity during fluid injections in faulted and fractured zones. Part 1: Updating the thermal modelling in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of temperature change in micro seismic activity during fluid injections in faulted and fractured zones. Part 1: Updating the thermal modelling in a DFN model using a double media approach Ahmed) or at comparisons of tracer and thermal transport in fractured reservoirs (Juliusson et Horne, 2010) to investigate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at least at the outset, exclude new ideas. The drift issue appears to have brought a new search for materials into this research. * Objectives: Develop temperature and pressure...

278

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

279

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Thomas W. Lion; Rosalind J. Allen

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Lion, Thomas W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Viscosity of liquid Fe at high pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray radiography has been used to measure the viscosity of pure liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature in a large volume press. A probe sphere rising through liquid Fe at high pressure and temperature is imaged, in situ, allowing for the derivation of sample viscosity through a modified form of Stokes equation. The effect of pressure on viscosity is fit by the semi empirical framework for transport coefficients in liquid metals, providing experimental verification of constant viscosity at the pressure-dependent melting temperature of liquid Fe where no change in liquid structure occurs.

Michael D. Rutter; Richard A. Secco; Hongjian Liu; Takeyuki Uchida; Mark L. Rivers; Stephen R. Sutton; Yanbin Wang

2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

283

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

284

Portable high precision pressure transducer system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high precision pressure transducer system is described for checking the reliability of a second pressure transducer system used to monitor the level of a fluid confined in a holding tank. Since the response of the pressure transducer is temperature sensitive, it is continually housed in an battery powered oven which is configured to provide a temperature stable environment at specified temperature for an extended period of time. Further, a high precision temperature stabilized oscillator and counter are coupled to a single board computer to accurately determine the pressure transducer oscillation frequency and convert it to an applied pressure. All of the components are powered by the batteries which during periods of availability of line power are charged by an on board battery charger. The pressure readings outputs are transmitted to a line printer and a vacuum fluorescent display. 2 figures.

Piper, T.C.; Morgan, J.P.; Marchant, N.J.; Bolton, S.M.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

285

Partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal at a medium temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal. Sulfation tests were performed at 550{sup o}C using a fixed bed reactor under conditions simulating economizer zone injection flue gas desulfurization. Activation experiments were conducted with water or steam using a range of temperatures between 100 and 550{sup o}C. The results showed that the reactivity of the sorbents was closely related to the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} formed in the activation process, which varied with the water or steam temperature. The sulfur dioxide capture capacity of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the sorbent is higher than that of CaO at a medium temperature. Water or steam temperatures in the range of 100-200{sup o}C are favorable to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from CaO. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The viscosity of liquids (a) Normal octanol at atmospheric pressure (b) An equipment for high pressures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Theories of Liquid Viscosity lead to equations giving the variation of the viscosity with temperature and pressure, but give poor agreement with experimental values, particularly (more)

De Verteuil, Georges Francois

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Electronic Activation At Oxide Hetero-structure At Elevated Temperatures Source Of Markedly Accelerated Oxygen Reduction Kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance. Therefore, it is needed to synthesize cathode materials with high oxygen reduction activity activity and ionic conductivity give a promising alternative approach to achieve high-performance cathodes, based on such understanding, we aim to design novel oxide hetero-structure as highly active cathode

Yildiz, Bilge

288

Improving the equilibrium performance of active carbons for separation processes by co-adsorption with low pressure solvent: application to carbon capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The equilibrium performance of a novel gas separation process described quite recently (Sweatman in Chem. Eng. Sci. 65:3907, 2010...) called pressure-swing wetting layer absorption here is investigated by means...

Martin B. Sweatman

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase TiO[subscript 2] Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Charges for Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, the positively or negatively charged anatase TiO[subscript 2] nanoparticles were synthesized via a low temperature precipitation-peptization process (LTPPP) in the presence of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and ...

Li, Ye

290

Experimental study of the density and derived (excess, apparent, and partial molar volumes) properties of binary water+ethanol and ternary water+ethanol+lithium nitrate mixtures at temperatures from 298K to 448K and pressures up to 40MPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Densities of binary water+ethanol and ternary water+ethanol+LiNO3 mixtures have been measured over the temperature range from 298K to 448K and at pressures up to 40MPa using the constant-volume piezometer immersed in a precision liquid thermostat. The measurements for water+ethanol mixture were made for four compositions of 0.0163, 0.0343, 0.0730, and 0.0946mol fraction of ethanol. The measurements for thernary water+ethanol+LiNO3 mixtures were performed in the same temperature and pressure ranges for twelve concentrations. The combined expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and concentration measurements at the 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k=2 is estimated to be 0.06%, 0.05%, 20mK, and 0.015%, respectively. The derived volumetric properties such as excess ( V m E ), apparent ( V ? ), and partial ( V 2 ? ) molar volumes were calculated using the measured values of density for the binary water+ethanol mixture and for pure water and ethanol. The small and negative values of excess molar volume for the mixtures were found at all experimental temperatures, pressures, and over the entire concentration range. The excess molar volume minimum is found at concentration about 0.4mol fraction of 1-propanol. The concentration minimum of the derived apparent molar volumes V ? near 2molkg?1 (dilute mixture) was observed.

I.M. Abdulagatov; Lala A. Akhmedova-Azizova; N.D. Azizov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Effect of nickel loading on the activity of Ni/ZrO2 for methane steam reforming at low temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of Ni loading on the catalytic activity of Ni/ZrO2 catalyst for methane steam reforming was investigated. The sample containing 15 wt...

Long Q. Nguyen; Leonila C. Abella

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Neutron Scattering Methodology for Absolute Measurement of Room-Temperature Hydrogen Storage Capacity and Evidence for Spillover Effect in a Pt-Doped Activated Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron Scattering Methodology for Absolute Measurement of Room-Temperature Hydrogen Storage Capacity and Evidence for Spillover Effect in a Pt-Doped Activated Carbon ... A neutron scattering methodology is proposed to simultaneously determine the total hydrogen adsorption, the excess hydrogen adsorption, and hydrogen gas confined in the porous sample. ... It can be combined with an in situ small-angle neutron scattering to study the hydrogen spillover effect in the kinetic adsorption process. ...

Cheng-Si Tsao; Yun Liu; Mingda Li; Yang Zhang; Juscelino B. Leao; Hua-Wen Chang; Ming-Sheng Yu; Sow-Hsin Chen

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

293

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

February 8 February 8 th , 2005 Mark J. Warner, P.E. Principal Engineer Quantum Technologies, Inc. Irvine, CA Low Cost, High Efficiency, Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. 70 MPa Composite Tanks Vent Line Ports Defueling Port (optional) Fill Port Filter Check Valve Vehicle Interface Bracket with Stone Shield In Tank Regulator with Solenoid Lock-off Pressure Relief Device Manual Valve Compressed Hydrogen Storage System In-Tank Regulator Pressure Sensor (not visible here) Pressure Relief Device (thermal) In Tank Gas Temperature Sensor Carbon Composite Shell (structural) Impact Resistant Outer Shell (damage resistant) Gas Outlet Solenoid Foam Dome (impact protection)

294

NETL: Pressure Swing Absorption Device  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the combustion turbine of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. The overall goal of the proposed work is to develop an advanced PSAB device and cyclic process for use in a coal-fired IGCC plant to produce purified hydrogen at high pressure and a highly purified CO2 stream suitable for use or sequestration.

295

Facile xenon capture and release at room temperature using a metal-organic framework: a comparison with activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two well known Metal organic frameworks (MOF-5, NiDOBDC) were synthesized and studied for facile xenon capture and separation. Our results indicate the NiDOBDC adsorbs significantly more xenon than MOF-5, releases it more readily than activated carbon, and is more selective for Xe over Kr than activated carbon.

Thallapally, Praveen K.; Grate, Jay W.; Motkuri, Radha K.

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

296

Temperature Dependences of Limiting Activity Coefficients and Henry's Law Constants for Nitrobenzene, Aniline, and Cyclohexylamine in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrobenzene, aniline, and cyclohexylamine are important chemical intermediates produced worldwide on a large scale and further extensively used in industry to manufacture rubber, agrochemicals, dyes and pigments, pharmaceuticals, and synthetic fibers. ... The HSA method consists of a gas chromatographic determination of the equilibrium solute partial pressure above a highly dilute solution of known composition. ... For the present systems, the HSA measurements were carried out typically for five solution compositions in the range of solute mole fractions from 0.0001 to 0.0015, and the results were subsequently averaged or, when exhibiting a trend, extrapolated to infinite dilution. ...

Milan Bernauer; Vladimr Dohnal; Alain H. Roux; Genevieve Roux-Desgranges; Vladimr Majer

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

297

General trend for pressurized superconducting hydrogen-dense materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-standing prediction that hydrogen can assume a metallic state under high pressure, combined with arguments put forward more recently that this state might even be superconducting up to high temperatures, continues to spur tremendous research activities toward the experimental realization of metallic hydrogen. These efforts have however so far been impeded by the enormous challenges associated with the exceedingly large required pressure. Hydrogen-dense materials, of the MH{sub 4} form (where M can be, e.g., Si, Ge, or Sn) or of the MH{sub 3} form (with M being, e.g., Al, Sc, Y, or La), allow for the rather exciting opportunity to carry out a proxy study of metallic hydrogen and associated high-temperature superconductivity at pressures within the reach of current techniques. At least one experimental report indicates that a superconducting state might have been observed already in SiH{sub 4}, and several theoretical studies have predicted superconductivity in pressurized hydrogen-rich materials; however, no systematic dependence on the applied pressure has yet been identified so far. In the present work, we have used first-principles methods in an attempt to predict the superconducting critical temperature (T{sub c}) as a function of pressure (P) for three metal-hydride systems of the MH{sub 3} form, namely ScH{sub 3}, YH{sub 3}, and LaH{sub 3}. By comparing the obtained results, we are able to point out a general trend in the T{sub c}-dependence on P. These gained insights presented here are likely to stimulate further theoretical studies of metallic phases of hydrogen-dense materials and should lead to new experimental investigations of their superconducting properties.

Kim, D. Y.; Scheicher, R. H.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Kang, T. W.; Ahuja, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel effects Temperature Pressure Inject. Pressure Soot volume fraction Mixture fraction Rate of injection Experimental Data Liquid penetration Vapor penetration Lift-off length...

299

Student Activities Student Activities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Solar Energy? Activity B How do Atmospheres Produce their Effect Upon Surface Temperatures? Activity C and populations found in developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Figure 4.3 illustrates the actual

300

Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume IV. Field activities. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume describes those activities which took place at the Sperry DOE Gravity Head plant site at the East Mesa Geothermal Reservoir near Holtville, California between February 1980, when site preparation was begun, and November 1982, when production well 87-6 was permanently abandoned. Construction activities were terminated in July 1981 following the liner collapse in well 87-6. Large amounts of program time manpower, materials, and funds had been diverted in a nine-month struggle to salvage the production well. Once these efforts proved futile, there was no rationale for continuing with the site work unless and until sufficient funding to duplicate well 87-6 was obtained. Activities reported here include: plant construction and pre-operational calibration and testing, drilling and completion of well 87-6, final repair effort on well 87-6, abandonment of well 87-6, and performance evaluation of well 87.6. (MHR)

Harvey, C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Measuring the pressure in ultrahigh-pressure mercury arcs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) mercury lamps are important as high-brightness light sources for digital projection. Hg pressures are usually above 20 MPa and difficult to measure. We have built special UHP lamps with a liquid Hg condensate in a temperature-controlled reservoir, allowing us to tune the Hg vapor pressure p between 14 and 30 MPa. As a simple measure for p, we recorded the width DELTAlambda of the 546 nm Hg line while varying p and also the lamp current I and voltage U. The data define a function p(DELTAlambda,I,U) that will deliver p to better than 3% from simple measurements of DELTAlambda, I, and U for most UHP lamps in the important 100-200 W power range. The method is applied to sample lamps, yielding pressures up to 26 MPa and demonstrating how filled Hg amount, burning position, arc gap, and lamp power affect the pressure. The effective temperature of typical UHP lamps is found to be 2400 K. We also derive an improved characteristic U(d,p,I) for the dependence of the arc voltage on arc gap, pressure, and current for electrode-stabilized Hg discharges in the UHP regime. Some aspects of the experiment are of general interest in the field of discharge lamps, such as a model for the heat balance of the Hg condensate under conductive, radiative, and evaporative cooling/heating, a short discussion of high-temperature vapor-pressure data for Hg, and an improved Hg equation of state for UHP conditions.

Hechtfischer, U.; Engelbrecht, B.; Carpaij, M.; Fischer, E.; Koerber, A. [Philips Research Laboratories, Weisshausstrasse 2, 52066 Aachen (Germany)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

The performance of active spectral reflectance sensors as influenced by measuring distance, device temperature and light intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spectral remote sensing is widely used for land-use management, agriculture, and crop management. Spectral sensors are most frequently adopted for site-specific fertiliser applications and, increasingly, for precision phenotyping. With the use of active ... Keywords: Fertilisation, Phenomics, Precision farming, Precision phenotyping, Site specific management

Sebastian Kipp; Bodo Mistele; Urs Schmidhalter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description This raw data reflects readings from instruments mounted on or near a 82 meter meteorological tower located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), approximately 5 miles south of Boulder, CO (specifically: 39.9107 N, 105.2348 W, datum WGS84). The base elevation at the site is 1,855 meters AMSL. Source NREL Date Released Unknown Date Updated March 10th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords DOE humidity irrandiance NREL NWTC pressure temperature turbulence wind wind direction wind speed Data text/plain icon Raw data (8/24/2001 - 3/10/2011) (txt, 681 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Field IDs for above .txt file (xls, 69.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Scientists and Technicians are notified real-time via email of instruments outside the above min/max or delta comparisons (http://www.nrel.gov/midc/nwtc_m2/) Data have not been reviewed for accuracy or completeness; disclaimer available (http://www.nrel.gov/disclaimer.html).

305

Correlations describing the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversions of six Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of correlations has been developed to describe the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversion of six Eastern oil shales. Laboratory scale fluidized bed and thermogravimetric data were used to relate hydroretorting conditions and organic carbon conversions to oil, gas, and residue. Conversions have been found to depend on temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time over the ranges studied of 750 to 865 K, 0 to 7 MPa H{sub 2}, and 0 to 30 minutes, respectively. Gas yield increases with increasing temperature but is independent of changes in hydrogen pressure. Oil yield increases with increasing hydrogen pressure and has different relationships to temperature for the various shales. A single mechanism has been used to describe the carbon conversions of Alabama and Tennessee Chattanooga, Indiana and Kentucky, New Albany, Michigan Antrim, and Ohio Cleveland shales under PFH conditions. The mechanism includes the simultaneous conversion of carbon to gas, oil, and an active carbon species which can form oil or remain as residue carbon. Yields are predicted over the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time ranges used to PFH processing.

Rue, D.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Correlations describing the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversions of six Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of correlations has been developed to describe the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversion of six Eastern oil shales. Laboratory scale fluidized bed and thermogravimetric data were used to relate hydroretorting conditions and organic carbon conversions to oil, gas, and residue. Conversions have been found to depend on temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time over the ranges studied of 750 to 865 K, 0 to 7 MPa H{sub 2}, and 0 to 30 minutes, respectively. Gas yield increases with increasing temperature but is independent of changes in hydrogen pressure. Oil yield increases with increasing hydrogen pressure and has different relationships to temperature for the various shales. A single mechanism has been used to describe the carbon conversions of Alabama and Tennessee Chattanooga, Indiana and Kentucky, New Albany, Michigan Antrim, and Ohio Cleveland shales under PFH conditions. The mechanism includes the simultaneous conversion of carbon to gas, oil, and an active carbon species which can form oil or remain as residue carbon. Yields are predicted over the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time ranges used to PFH processing.

Rue, D.M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the use of highly dispersed catalysts for the pretreatment of coal by mild hydrogenation, (2) to identify the active forms of the catalysts under reaction conditions and (3) to clarify the mechanisms of catalysis. The ultimate objective is to ascertain if mild catalytic hydrogenation resulting in very limited or no coal solubilization is an advantageous pretreatment for the transformation of coal into transportable fuels. The experimental program will focus upon the development of effective methods of impregnating coal with catalysts, evaluating the conditions under which the catalysts are most active and establishing the relative impact of improved impregnation on conversion and product distributions obtained from coal hydrogenation.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Remarkable catalytic activity of cobalt tetraphenylporphyrin modified on a titania for the oxidation of carbon monoxide below room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CoTPP on TiO/sub 2/-120s modified at 250 /sup 0/C under vacuum catalytically oxidized carbon monoxide rapidly with oxygen even at -79/sup 0/C. Its catalytic activity was incomparably higher than that of commercial Hopcalite. Comparison of its catalytic performance with those of the same catalyst or different TiO/sub 2/ supporting catalyst both evacuated at 200 /sup 0/C revealed unique features of the present catalyst in terms of its oxygen adsorption, the poisoning of adsorbed oxygen, and the insolubility of the complex in benzene. Both significant structural modification of the complex and its strong interaction with properly dehydrated TiO/sub 2/-120s brought about by evacuation at 250 /sup 0/C may induce such extraordinary activity. 14 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Mochida, I.; Iwai, Y.; Kamo, T.; Fujitsu, H.

1985-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

309

Activities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Activities and events provide Residential Network members the opportunity to discuss similar needs and challenges, and to collectively identify effective strategies and useful resources.

310

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure electrical measurements have a long history of use in the study of materials under ultra-high pressures. In recent years, electrical transport experiments have played a key role in the study of many interesting high pressure phenomena including pressure-induced superconductivity, insulator-to-metal transitions, and quantum critical behavior. High-pressure electrical transport experiments also play an important function in geophysics and the study of the Earth's interior. Besides electrical conductivity measurements, electrical transport experiments also encompass techniques for the study of the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of materials under high pressures. In addition, electrical transport techniques, i.e., the ability to extend electrically conductive wires from outside instrumentation into the high pressure sample chamber have been utilized to perform other types of experiments as well, such as high-pressure magnetic susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen Fermi surface experiments. Finally, electrical transport techniques have also been utilized for delivering significant amounts of electrical power to high pressure samples, for the purpose of performing high-pressure and -temperature experiments. Thus, not only do high-pressure electrical transport experiments provide much interesting and valuable data on the physical properties of materials extreme compression, but the underlying high-pressure electrical transport techniques can be used in a number of ways to develop additional diagnostic techniques and to advance high pressure capabilities.

Weir, S

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

311

Electrical resistance of Evanohm under pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrical resistance of Evanohm wire has been determined as a function of hydrostatic pressure. A Teflon cell with a novel type of electrical feedthrough was used to contain the fluid medium. The resistance was found to decrease approximately linearly by 0.3% up to 27 kilobar. The remarkably small variation of its resistance with temperature and pressure makes Evanohm a suitable material for strain measurements under pressure.

P. Andersson; G. Bckstrm

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Analysis of Gasifier Samples Collected with a High-Temperature/High-Pressure Cascade Impactor: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A particulate sample was collected from the process stream of a low Btu gasifier in a cascade impactor operated at 400C and 1012 atmospheres pressure. Stainless steel shim stock...

Rothenberg, S J; Brundle, C R; Denee, P B; Carpenter, R L; Newton, G J; Henderson, R F

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Variable pressure power cycle and control system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

314

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

315

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

316

Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200 C and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100 C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired. 12 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Havens, J.H.; Jones, P.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

317

Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200.degree. C and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100.degree. C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Havens, John (San Diego, CA); Jones, Phil (Marlborough, GB)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Metastable oxygen incorporation into thin film NiO by low temperature active oxidation: Influence on hole conduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to controllably tune cation valence state and resulting electrical conductivity of transition metal-oxides such as NiO is of great interest for a range of solid state electronic and energy devices and more recently in understanding electron correlation phenomena at complex oxide interfaces. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to enhance electrical conductivity of NiO thin films by one order of magnitude by photoexcitation and three orders of magnitude by ozone treatment at as low as 310 K. The change occurs within nearly 2000 s and, thereafter, reaches a self-limiting value. A surprising difference is seen at 400 K: ultraviolet photon and ozone treatments cause only a marginal reduction in resistance in the first few minutes and, then, the resistance begins to increase and recovers its original value. This unusual reversal is explained by considering metastable incorporation of oxygen in NiO and oxygen equilibration with the environment. Variation in nickel valence state prior to and after photoexcitation and ozone treatment, investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, provides mechanistic insights into resistance trends. This study demonstrates photon-assisted and ozone oxidation as effective low temperature routes to tune the electrical properties as well as metastably incorporate oxygen into oxides with direct influence on electrical conduction properties.

Aydogdu, Gulgun H.; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Ramanathan, Shriram [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Implication of site quality on mitochondrial electron transport activity and its interaction with temperature in feral Mya arenaria clams from the Saguenay Fjord  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The advent of global warming has given rise to questions about the impact of temperature/pollution interactions on the integrity of certain benthic organisms like bivalves. This interaction was examined in intertidal Mya arenaria clams from the Saguenay Fjord using the concepts of cellular energy allocation and temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport (MET{sub T}) activity. Clams were collected at low tide from six sites (two clean, four polluted) for determinations of condition factor (weight/shell length), growth index (age-to-length ratio), gonadal lipids and maturation index, gonad MET at various habitat temperatures, MET{sub T}, gill xanthine oxidase and gill DNA damage. Condition factor was generally lower at the four polluted sites, with growth index being severely affected at two of them. Gonadal maturation was also significantly dampened at two of the four pollution-impacted sites. Gill xanthine oxidase (purine bases salvage pathway) and DNA strand breaks were significantly increased at most of the polluted sites, confirming pollution-mediated damage in clams. Moreover, MET at 20 deg. C, MET{sub T} and gonad lipids were significantly induced at the polluted sites. Clam condition factor was negatively correlated with most of the biomarkers for cellular energy allocation (gonadal lipids, MET and MET{sub T}), but not with gonadal maturation. DNA damage and xanthine oxidase were positively correlated with MET at 20 deg. C and MET{sub T}. This is the first report of electron transport in mitochondria being more sensitive to incremental temperature increases in clams under pollution stress. The gradual warming of clam habitats would likely worsen the impacts of pollution in feral clam populations.

Gagne, F. [River Ecosystems Research, Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Division, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)]. E-mail: Francois.Gagne@ec.gc.ca; Blaise, C. [River Ecosystems Research, Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Division, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Andre, C. [River Ecosystems Research, Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Division, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Pellerin, J. [ISMER, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec, G5L 3A1 (Canada)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Improved Martensitic Steel Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications Opportunity Research is active on the patented technology, titled "Heat-Treated 9 Cr-1 Mo Steel for High Temperature Application." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview The operating efficiency of coal-fired power plants is directly related to combustion system temperature and pressure. Incorporation of ultra- supercritical (USC) steam conditions into new or existing power plants can achieve increased efficiency and reduce coal consumption, while reducing carbon dioxide emissions as well as other pollutants. Traditionally used materials do not possess the optimal characteristics for operation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Compliant high temperature seals for dissimilar materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, gas-tight seal is formed by utilizing one or more compliant metallic toroidal ring sealing elements, where the applied pressure serves to activate the seal, thus improving the quality of the seal. The compliant nature of the sealing element compensates for differences in thermal expansion between the materials to be sealed, and is particularly useful in sealing a metallic member and a ceramic tube art elevated temperatures. The performance of the seal may be improved by coating the sealing element with a soft or flowable coating such as silver or gold and/or by backing the sealing element with a bed of fine powder. The material of the sealing element is chosen such that the element responds to stress elastically, even at elevated temperatures, permitting the seal to operate through multiple thermal cycles.

Rynders, Steven Walton (Fogelsville, PA); Minford, Eric (Laurys Station, PA); Tressler, Richard Ernest (Boalsburg, PA); Taylor, Dale M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

The deterioration in heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure and high heat fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At slightly supercritical pressure and in the neighborhood of the pseudo-critical temperature (defined as the temperature corresponding to the peak in specific heat at the operating pressure), the heat transfer coefficient ...

Shiralkar, B. S.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Low-Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

reaction 12 The CO LIF results are semi-quantitative - lending credence to the measured spatial distributions We apply temperature and pressure corrections to the CO absorption...

324

Temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography for the rapid determination of triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-triclosan in aqueous samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As extraction solvents, ionic liquids have green characteristics. In this study, an environmentally benign analytical method termed temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TIL...

JieHong Guo; XingHong Li; XueLi Cao; Lei Qu; DeKun Hou

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat Transfer Losses  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This research discusses how reducing heat-transfer losses from pressure oscillation can increase low-temperature combustion engine efficiency.

326

Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer.

Chen, Nan (Downers Grove, IL); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (La Grange Park, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

328

Static Temperature Survey At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Static Temperature Survey At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) Static Temperature Survey At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Static Temperature Survey At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Chena Area Exploration Technique Static Temperature Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Once a hole is drilled the natural-state pressure distribution with depth is essentially unrecoverable (Grant et al., 1982). One of the best ways to mitigate this effect is to use multi-stage drilling (White et al., 1975; Grant et al., 1982). This type of drilling was applied at Chena and its usefulness in understanding the natural flow regimes is demonstrated. Here, we illustrate how high-quality equilibrium temperature logs can often be

329

Active Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Active Seismic Techniques Active Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Active Seismic Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Seismic Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. Stratigraphic/Structural: Structural geology- faults, folds, grabens, horst blocks, sedimentary layering, discontinuities, etc. Hydrological: Combining compressional and shear wave results can indicate the presence of fluid saturation in the formation. Thermal: High temperatures and pressure impact the compressional and shear wave velocities.

330

Combustor oscillation pressure stabilizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In accordance with the objective of the present invention, the active control of unsteady combustion induced oscillations in a combustion chamber fired by a suitable fuel and oxidizer mixture, such as a hydrocarbon fuel and air mixture, is provided by restructuring and moving the position of the main flame front and thereby increasing the transport time and displacing the pressure wave further away from the in-phase relationship with the periodic heat release. The restructuring and repositioning of the main flame are achieved by utilizing a pilot flame which is pulsed at a predetermined frequency corresponding to less than about one-half the frequency of the combustion oscillation frequency with the duration of each pulse being sufficient to produce adequate secondary thermal energy to restructure the main flame and thereby decouple the heat release from the acoustic coupling so as to lead to a reduction in the dynamic pressure amplitude. The pulsating pilot flame produces a relatively small and intermittently existing flame front in the combustion zone that is separate from the oscillating main flame front but which provides the thermal energy necessary to effectively reposition the location of the oscillating main flame front out of the region in the combustion zone where the acoustic coupling can occur with the main flame and thereby effectively altering the oscillation-causing phase relationship with the heat of combustion.

Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.T.J.; Robey, E.; Cully, S.R.; Addis, R.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

activities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Detecting Things We Cannot See: Learning the Concepts of Control and Detecting Things We Cannot See: Learning the Concepts of Control and Variable in an Experiment Submitted by Anita Brook-Dupree, 1996 TRAC teacher at Fermilab, Teacher, Alternative Middle Years School, Philadelphia, PA. Particle physicists at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois are faced with the problem of detecting the presence of sub-atomic particles they cannot see. During my summer as a TRAC teacher at Fermilab, I tried to think of ways to teach middle school students about things we cannot see. I want to thank my nine-year-old daughter Gia for the idea for the following activity. I was lamenting that I could not come up with ideas of how to relate the work of Fermilab scientists to anything that my students would understand. Then I was reminded by my daughter, that when I brought her to school on the

332

Pressure dependent diffraction and spectroscopy of a dimerized antiferromagnet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present pressure dependent neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the dimerized antiferromagnet Ba$_3$Mn$_2$O$_8$. The room temperature diffraction measurements reveal a linear decrease in lattice constant as a function of applied pressure. No structural transitions are observed. The low-temperature neutron spectroscopy measurements indicate a small change in magnetic scattering intensity in the vicinity of the spin gap for pressures up to $P=0.6$~kbar.

Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Tulk, Christopher A [ORNL; dos Santos, Antonio M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Molaison, Jamie J [ORNL; Chang, S. [Ames Laboratory; Leo, J B [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD; Samulon, Eric C [Stanford University; Shapiro, Max C [Stanford University; Fisher, Ian R [Stanford University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

334

High temperature probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

Swan, Raymond A. (Fremont, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Chapter 9 - Vacuum and High-Pressure Distillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In industrial practice, multistage distillation operations are carried out over a wide range of operating pressures, from about 0.1 to 40 bar (10,000 to 40105Pa). Major factors in choosing the operating pressure are the temperatures of the available cooling and heating media, with water and low-pressure steam being the most convenient ones. Volatile materials require high pressure to raise their condensation temperature to the desired level. Relative volatility tends to decrease with increasing pressure, and, thermodynamically, the upper limit is the critical temperature of the components in the feed. In such cases, a lower operating pressure is chosen and refrigeration must be employed for condensation of overhead vapor instead of cooling water or air. When dealing with high-boiling material, the upper limit for setting the operating pressure depends on the heat sensitivity of the bottom product components. This often requires distilling under an appropriate vacuum in conjunction with a low enough pressure drop to reduce the column bottom temperature accordingly. From the column design point of view, the operating pressure dictates to a great extent the choice and design of internals, and it influences significantly their functionality and overall performance. The main objective of the present chapter is to address and discuss operating pressure selection criteria as well as pressure effects on stage and reflux requirement, vapor and liquid properties, distillation process in general, and trayed and packed-column hydraulics and efficiency in particular.

arko Oluji?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Three-Phase Vapor?Liquid?Liquid Equilibria for Methane + n-Octane + Monoethylene Glycol + Water at Pressures from (3.1 to 15.0) MPa and Temperatures from (281 to 363) K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are several commercial processes available for the dehydration of gas, such as the use of liquid or solid desiccants and expansion refrigeration. ... The gaseous part of the liquid samples, and the gas phase samples direct from the equilibrium cell, were expanded into a series of evacuated vessels of known volume from which the total amount of substance was determined from the perfect gas equation using the measured low-pressure PVT data. ... To predict the losses of MEG in processes for the dehydration of natural gas, the concentrations of MEG in the vapor phase are of interest to the gas industry. ...

Stanley J. Ashcroft; Gerd Brunner; Hansjrg Vollmer; Christopher W. Sweeney

2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

337

Abstract A196: Characterization of stability and biological activity of the cancer gene therapy biologic SNS01 following storage at ambient and freezing temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ambient and freezing temperatures Catherine Taylor 1...Zhongda Liu 1 Zhong Sun 1 Richard Dondero 2...monitoring changes in size distribution, polydispersity...as 48 hours at room temperature with no significant...relatively stable at room temperature and was also found...

Catherine Taylor; Bin Ye; Zhongda Liu; Zhong Sun; Richard Dondero; Bruce Galton; John Lust; Kathleen Donovan; and John Thompson

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Effects of external pressure on the terminal lymphatic flow rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Activity Measured During Experiments With External Pressure 0 mm Hg. . . . . . . . Page 31 Table 2: Activity Measured During Experiments With External Pressure 30 mm Hg. . . . . . . 32 Table 3: Activity Measured During Experiments... Deviation of the Mean Calculated for Each External Pressure. 38 Table 8 Table g Data Collected for Experiment 1 at 0 mm Hg. Data Co'llected for Experiment 2 at 0 mm Hg. 51 53 Table 10 Data Collected for Experiment 3 at 0 ran Hg. Page 55 Table...

Seale, James Lewis

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

Linker, Kevin L

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

340

Generalized enthalpy model of a high-pressure shift freezing process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...non-homogeneous temperature distribution induces a non-homogeneous...computational model for temperature and sterility distributions in a pilot-scale...high-pressure high-temperature process. A.I...and Da-Wen. Sun 2009 Simulation...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Plasma pressure compaction of nanodiamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detonation synthesized nanodiamond (ND) was sintered using a Plasma Pressure Compaction (P2C) technique. Sintering was performed for 1min at temperatures between 700 and 1200C, and for 110min at 900C under 65MPa pressure. Structure and composition of the sintered samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. The selected sintering conditions prevent excessive graphitization of diamond and allow formation of porous pellets having the density of 1.31.6g/cm3, hardness >0.1GPa and Young's modulus >3GPa. The sintered ND pellets with porosity of about 50% have mechanical properties sufficient for handling and can be infiltrated to produce ND composites.

Sebastian Osswald; Adrian Gurga; Franklyn Kellogg; Kyu Cho; Gleb Yushin; Yury Gogotsi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

Mosher, D.M.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

343

Field measurements of lateral earth pressures on a pre-cast panel retaining wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Test Wall Description Instrumentation Installation of Pressure Cells and Transducers Backfilling Procedure Properties of the Backfill Material Placement of Clay Backfill DATA COLLECTION Earth Pressure Cell Measurements Force Transducer... Analysis of Backfill Material 2 Lateral Earth Pressures Measured by Pressure Cells (Psi) . . . . . . . . . . . - . ~ . ~ 3 Maximum Deviation From Zero Gage Reading and Temperature Relationship. . . . 4 Forces Measured by Force Transducers (Kips) 5...

Prescott, David Monroe

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

344

Electrical resistance of Manganin under high static pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrical resistance of manganin was measured under pressures up to 220 kbar at room temperature. The pressure was produced by means of a multianvil apparatus using semisintered magnesia for the pressure medium and was calibrated against well?known fixed points. Obtained results show a linear relationship between the resistance and pressure up to 180 kbar with good reproducibility. The pressure coefficient of resistance turns out to be (2.3220.008) 10?3 kbar?1 which is in close agreement with the value obtained under hydrostatic conditions. Manganin can be satisfactorily used as a pressure gauge for a high?pressure experiment using a solidpressure medium. The deviation from the linearity observed above 180 kbar is ascribed to either an intrinsic property of Manganin or the uncertainty of the fixed point adopted. If the linearity is assumed above 180 kbar the transition pressure of GaP is estimated to be 2062 kbar.

N. Fujioka; O. Mishima; S. Endo; N. Kawai

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

ASME post construction pressure technology codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to continue to operate pressurized equipment and other facilities in a safe, reliable and cost effective manner has led to the development of many new approaches to in-service inspection, flaw evaluation, and repair. Interest on the part of users, regulatory authorities and others in standardizing these approaches has led to the formation of a new ASME Main Committee on Post Construction under the Board on Pressure Technology Codes and Standards, and a new Division of the Pressure Vessel Research Council on Continued Operation of Equipment. This paper provides a brief overview of these activities.

Sims, J.R. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, NJ (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

Carver, D.W.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

347

Comparison between pressurized design and ambient pressure design of hybrid solid oxide fuel cellgas turbine systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Design performances of the hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)gas turbine (GT) system have been investigated. A pressurized system and an indirectly heated ambient pressure system were analyzed and their performances were compared. In the baseline layout, the basic performance characteristics of the two system configurations were analyzed, with the cell operation temperature and the pressure ratio as the main design parameters. The pressurized system exhibits a better efficiency owing to not only the higher cell voltage but also more effective utilization of gas turbine, i.e., a larger GT power contribution due to a higher turbine inlet temperature. Independent setting of the turbine inlet temperature was simulated by using the additional fuel supply as well as the air bypass. Increasing the pressure ratio of the gas turbine hardly improves the system efficiency, but the efficiency becomes less sensitive to the turbine inlet temperature. In the ambient pressure system, the available design parameter range is much reduced due to the limit on the recuperator temperature. In particular, design of the ambient pressure hybrid system with a gas turbine of a high pressure ratio does not seem quite feasible because the system efficiency that can be achieved at the possible design conditions is even lower than the efficiency of the SOFC only system.

S.K. Park; T.S. Kim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Correlation Gas Chromatography Chase Gobble, Nigam Rath, and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals and boiling temperatures when available. Sublimation enthalpies and vapor pressures are also evaluated for 1

Chickos, James S.

350

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pressure nitrogen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

study over the temperature range... studied for comparison with oxygen and nitrogen adsorption over the pressure range 0-1.8 kPa for pressure... is the industrial separation of...

352

A comparative study of imtermediate P-mode pressure-wave propagation in the sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By analyzing the observed frequencies of solar P-mode pressure waves, it has been possible to obtain detailed knowledge about the density, rate of rotation, temperature, pressure and composition of the sun in its interior. The frequencies...

Brown, Terry T

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

353

SILICON PROCESSING 1. THE TRUE SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF A SILICON WAFER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this temperature rises- moderately and sooner or later, depending on RF- power and gas pressure, it levels off

Boyer, Edmond

354

Study of the synergistic activity between industrial yeast strains resistant to high temperature and ethanol concentrations and high fermentative capacity to produce ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel-ethanol fermentation process includes a reutilization of the ... other well established commercial yeast strains: ZFC4 (ethanol best producer) and ZFD4 (most ethanol and temperature tolerant). Based on these...

Strohmayer Lourencetti Natlia Manuela; Danieli Flvia

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

High-pressure Infrared Spectra of Tal and Lawsonite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present high-pressure infrared spectra of two geologically important hydrous minerals: talc, Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 and lawsonite, CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2{center_dot}H2O,{center_dot}at room temperature. For lawsonite, our data span the far infrared region from 150 to 550 cm-1 and extend to 25 GPa. We combine our new spectroscopic data with previously published high-pressure mid-infrared and Raman data to constrain the Gr{umlt u}neisen parameter and vibrational density of states under pressure. In the case of talc, we present high-pressure infrared data that span both the mid and far infrared from 150 to 3800 cm-1 covering lattice, silicate, and hydroxyl stretching vibrations to a maximum pressure of 30 GPa. Both phases show remarkable metastability well beyond their nominal maximum thermodynamic stability at simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

Scott,H.; Liu, Z.; Hemley, R.; Williams, Q.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

High-pressure crystallography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

Katrusiak, A.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

357

Dental Applications of Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents a summary of selected recent research efforts devoted to the use of low-temperature (or non-thermal) atmospheric-pressure plasmas in various dental applications. Areas of application ... fun...

WeiDong Zhu; Kurt Becker; Jie Pan; Jue Zhang; Jing Fang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

On the maximum pressure rise rate in boosted HCCI operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper explores the combined effects of boosting, intake air temperature, trapped residual gas fraction, and dilution on the Maximum Pressure Rise Rate (MPRR) in a boosted single cylinder gasoline HCCI engine with ...

Wildman, Craig B.

359

Wind Tunnel Evaluation of PAM II Pressure Ports  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Portable Automated Mesonet II (PAM II) is a network of automated remote weather stations developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for measuring wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, and ...

Fikri Adnan Akyz; Henry Liu; Tom Horst

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Thermodynamics of high-temperature nuclear fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for performing a thermodynamic analysis of the high-temperature nuclear fuel using the ASTA computer program is substantiated. Calculations of the chemical composition and pressure of the gas phase of...

I. A. Belov; A. S. Ivanov

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Single pressure steam bottoming cycle for gas turbines combined cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recapturing waste heat from the exhaust of a gas turbine to drive a high pressure-high temperature steam turbine and a low pressure steam turbine. It comprises: delivering the exhaust of the gas turbine to the hot side of an economizer-reheater apparatus; delivering a heated stream of feedwater and recycled condensate through the cold side of the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus to elevate the temperature below the pinch point of the boiler; delivering the discharge from the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine through the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus; driving the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine with the discharge stream of feedwater and recycled condensate which is heated to a temperature below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus; and driving the low pressure steam turbine with the discharged stream of the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine reheated below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus.

Zervos, N.

1990-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

363

High pressure studies on nanocrystalline aurivillius oxides lead and mercury chalcogenides;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The high pressure and high temperature play a vital role in newlineunderstanding the physical properties of the solids including such classes of newlinematerials like semiconductors (more)

Freny joy K M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

365

High pressure counterflow CHF.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

Walkush, Joseph Patrick

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Nonlinear optomechanical pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A transparent material exhibits ultra-fast optical nonlinearity and is subject to optical pressure if irradiated by a laser beam. However, the effect of nonlinearity on optical pressure is often overlooked, even if a nonlinear optical pressure may be potentially employed in many applications, as optical manipulation, biophysics, cavity optomechanics, quantum optics, optical tractors, and is relevant in fundamental problems as the Abraham-Minkoswky dilemma, or the Casimir effect. Here we show that an ultra-fast nonlinear polarization gives indeed a contribution to the optical pressure that also is negative in certain spectral ranges; the theoretical analysis is confirmed by first-principles simulations. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effect can be observable by measuring the deflection of a membrane made by graphene.

Claudio Conti; Robert Boyd

2014-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

367

Dynamic surge/swab pressure predictions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is generally accepted that the pulling and running of pipe causes pressure surges. The prediction of pressure surges is of economic importance in wells where the pressure must be examined within narrow limits to prevent lost circulation and formation-fluid influx. For these wells, the drilling engineer needs the best possible method of calculating surge pressures to drill wells with a minimum of trouble. This paper presents a dynamic surge/swab model that extends existing technology with the following features: (1) pipe and annulus pressures are coupled through the pipe elasticity; (2) longitudinal pipe elasticity and fluid viscous forces determine pipe displacement; (3) fluid properties vary as a function of temperature and pressure; and (4) formation elasticity; pipe elasticity, and cement elasticity are all used to determine the composite elastic response of the wellbore. Comparisons between the model and field data demonstrate good agreement. Data matches have been made for both water- and oil-based muds in both shallow and deep wells. Furthermore, the model matches data that had not been previously matched by other models.

Mitchell, R.F. (Enertech Engineering and Research (US))

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology A. Kostival, C. Rivkin, W. Buttner, and R. Burgess National Renewable Energy...

369

Effect of Drying Temperature and Time on Alpha-Amylase, Beta-Amylase, Limit Dextrinase Activities and Dimethyl Sulphide Level of Teff (Eragrostis tef) Malt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During kilning of the teff samples, both the activation and inactivation of alpha-amylase were observed. Thus, these two opposing ... of the enzymes during the kilning process. Alpha-amylase is a pacemaker enzyme...

Mekonnen M. Gebremariam; Martin Zarnkow; Thomas Becker

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Auto-calibration of accelerometer data for free-living physical activity assessment using local gravity and temperature: an evaluation on four continents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: Wearable acceleration sensors are increasingly used for the assessment of free-living physical activity. Acceleration sensor calibration is a potential source of error. This study aims to describe and evaluate an auto-calibration method...

van Hees, Vincent Theodoor; Fang, Zhou; Langford, Joss; Assah, Felix; Mohammad, Anwar; da Silva, Inacio C. M.; Trenell, Michael I.; White, Tom; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Brage, Sren

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

Room temperature discharge characteristics of Li/NH4NO3?LiNO3-amide cells using silver salts as active cathode materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The discharge characteristics of cells using lithium anodes in conjunction with nitrate-amide melt electrolytes and silver salt cathodes are presented. The use of insoluble or sparingly soluble silver salts as active

G. E. McManis; A. N. Fletcher; D. E. Bliss

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Towards a 'Thermodynamics' of Active Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-propulsion allows living systems to display unusual collective behavior. Unlike passive systems in thermal equilibrium, active matter systems are not constrained by conventional thermodynamic laws. A question arises however as to what extent, if any, can concepts from classical thermodynamics be applied to nonequilibrium systems like active matter. Here we use the new swim pressure perspective to develop a simple theory for predicting phase separation in active matter. Using purely mechanical arguments we generate a phase diagram with a spinodal and critical point, and define a nonequilibrium chemical potential to interpret the "binodal." We provide a generalization of thermodynamic concepts like the free energy and temperature for nonequilibrium active systems. Our theory agrees with existing simulation data both qualitatively and quantitatively and may provide a framework for understanding and predicting the behavior of nonequilibrium active systems.

Sho C. Takatori; John F. Brady

2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

373

Pressure Safety Program Implementation at ORNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. In February 2006, DOE promulgated worker safety and health regulations to govern contractor activities at DOE sites. These regulations, which are provided in 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program, establish requirements for worker safety and health program that reduce or prevent occupational injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE contractors and their workers with safe and healthful workplaces at DOE sites. The regulations state that contractors must achieve compliance no later than May 25, 2007. According to 10 CFR 851, Subpart C, Specific Program Requirements, contractors must have a structured approach to their worker safety and health programs that at a minimum includes provisions for pressure safety. In implementing the structured approach for pressure safety, contractors must establish safety policies and procedures to ensure that pressure systems are designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, maintained, repaired, and operated by trained, qualified personnel in accordance with applicable sound engineering principles. In addition, contractors must ensure that all pressure vessels, boilers, air receivers, and supporting piping systems conform to (1) applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2004) Sections I through XII, including applicable code cases; (2) applicable ASME B31 piping codes; and (3) the strictest applicable state and local codes. When national consensus codes are not applicable because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc., contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local codes. This report documents the work performed to address legacy pressure vessel deficiencies and comply with pressure safety requirements in 10 CFR 851. It also describes actions taken to develop and implement ORNLs Pressure Safety Program.

Lower, Mark [ORNL; Etheridge, Tom [ORNL; Oland, C. Barry [XCEL Engineering, Inc.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

Isaksson, Juhani M. (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

Isaksson, J.M.

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

376

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplment au n 8, Tome 39, aot 1978, page C6-463 SEARCH FOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN RUBIDIUM AT HIGH PRESSURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Figure 1 shows the room-temperature resistan- ce as a function of pressure for one particular cell. New

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

The core pressure drop characteristics in a CANDU 6 reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The core pressure drop characteristics in a CANDU 6 have been examined to reveal the mechanism inducing the difference in the core pressure drop among four passages. The general characteristics for the inlet header temperature and core pressure drop are deduced from the measured data of CANDU 6 NPPs. The passages, which are connected to the purification system, are shown to have a larger core pressure drop and lower inlet header temperature compared with other passages in a loop. The temperature difference among four inlet headers has been analytically obtained by considering the effect of the purification system and verified by the measured data of CANDU 6 NPPs. The relationship between the inlet header temperature and core pressure drop has been secured from the magnetite transport mechanism in a CANDU 6. The analytical computations for a CANDU 6 NPP have revealed that the core pressure drop difference among four passages is largely dependent on the single phase friction factor rather than the mass flow rate in a passage. The calculated single phase friction factors are in accord with the magnetite deposition characteristics derived from the difference in the inlet header temperature.

Jun Ho Bae; Jong Yeob Jung

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Temperature maintained battery system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A chassis contains a battery charger connected to a multi-cell battery. The charger receives direct current from an external direct current power source and has means to automatically selectively charge the battery in accordance with a preselected charging program relating to temperature adjusted state of discharge of the battery. A heater device is positioned within the chassis which includes heater elements and a thermal switch which activates the heater elements to maintain the battery above a certain predetermined temperature in accordance with preselected temperature conditions occurring within the chassis. A cooling device within the chassis includes a cooler regulator, a temperature sensor, and peltier effect cooler elements. The cooler regulator activates and deactivates the peltier cooler elements in accordance with preselected temperature conditions within the chassis sensed by the temperature sensor. Various vehicle function circuitry may also be positioned within the chassis. The contents of the chassis are positioned to form a passage proximate the battery in communication with an inlet and outlet in the chassis to receive air for cooling purposes from an external source.

Newman, W.A.

1980-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

379

Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

Kramer, D.P.

1984-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

380

Continuous nanoparticle generation and assembly by atmospheric pressure arc discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuous nanoparticle generation and assembly by atmospheric pressure arc discharge Jesse J. Cole a dc arc discharge plasma. The particles are positively charged by the arc and form a room temperature precursor materials.5,6 High temperature plasmas in the form of dc arc discharges led to the discovery

Jacobs, Heiko O.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

382

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Etching polyimide with a nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet has been used to etch polyimide films at 1.08.00.2?? m/min at 760 Torr and between 50 and 250?C. The plasma was produced by flowing helium and oxygen between two concentric electrodes with the inner one coupled to 13.56 MHz rf power and the outer one grounded. The etch rate increased with the O 2 partial pressure the rf power and the substrate temperature. The apparent activation energy for etching was 0.16 eV. Langmuir-probe measurements revealed that the ion densities were between 110 10 and 110 11 ? cm ?3 5 mm from the end of the powered electrode. Biasing the substrate had no effect on the rate. Ozone singlet sigma metastable oxygen (b? 1 ? g + ) and singlet delta metastable oxygen (a? 1 ? g ) were detected in the plasma by emission spectroscopy. More ozone was produced in the effluent through the recombination of O atoms with O 2 . Based on the production rate of O 3 the concentration of O atoms 6 mm from the powered electrode was estimated to be ?710 14 ? cm ?3 at 6.6 Torr O 2 and 200 W power. It is proposed that O atoms are the principal reactive species involved in etching polyimide.

J. Y. Jeong; S. E. Babayan; A. Schtze; V. J. Tu; J. Park; I. Henins; G. S. Selwyn; R. F. Hicks

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Equilibrium adsorption of multicomponent gas mixtures at elevated pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Equilibrium adsorption of H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/S (single and mixed gases-two to five species) was measured on activated carbon at pressures up to 400 psia. Temperature-dependent parameters, regressed from single-gas data, were applied to four theoretical models which predict adsorption from gas mixtures. Deviations between theory (IAS) and experiment increased with pressure and with the number of components in the mixture. None of the theories employing only single-gas data could consistently predict multicomponent adsorption. It was found that multicomponent adsorption could be predicted from the extended Langmuir equation by including an interaction parameter calculated from only single and binary data. In the application of mixture adsorption theories, it was shown that from the same model significantly different results can be obtained depending on the selection of the independent set, /T, P, X/sub i// or /T, P, Y/sub i//.

Ritter, J.A.; Yang, R.T.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Volumes of liquid hydrocarbons at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. To determine effective values of a and b fo r each fraction, the following equations were applied to each of the 47 o il m ixtures: C am C - Z ai xi = ----------------------------------------------- (10) 7+ C7+ C6 - r b - - i ibm r b.... 1951. 6. Keyes, F . G. , "A New Equation of Continuity, " P roc . Nat. Acad. Sci. , Vol. 3, pp. 323-330, 1917. 7. Beattie, J. A ., and Bridgeman, O. C. , "A New Equation of State fo r Fluids, " P roc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci. , Vol. 63, pp. 229...

Alani, Ghalib H.

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

386

Solubility of Nitrogen in Water at High Pressures and Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas Solubility Measurement and Modeling for the Nitrogen + Water System from 274.18 K to 363.02 K ... Two recent events allow a more detailed picture of the solubility of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and the noble gases in water to be given, than could have been given even a year ago. ...

John B. Goodman; Norman W. Krase

1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rev. 99 , 77 (1999). Peltier source & model FTS systemsgas environments. Peltier sample holder We constructed abased on a thermoelectric Peltier cooler for experiments in

Ogletree, D. Frank

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engineers from the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have demonstrated an innovative method for seal or pinch welding stainless steel tubing. Sometimes a tube has fuel or contamination that must be contained, or the tube needs to be shortened or cut for handling, and the tube needs to have a guaranteed sealed weld that is both quick and easy. This technique was demonstrated in a laboratory using a resistance welding system with specially designed electrodes to ensure a tube end is seal welded or if a long tube is to be shortened, the severed ends are seal welded. The unique electrodes design is integral to achieving the sealed ends. This process could readily be adapted for robotic--remote handling or for contact handling in a glovebox or hood.

Larry Zirker; Craig Tyler

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Temperature and Pressure Dependence of the AMOEBA Water Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 ...

Pengyu Ren; Jay W. Ponder

2004-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

390

Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than ~ 100 l/s in a typical UHV system, so this produces aof spectroscopy chamber p 0 = UHV~ torr preparation chamberpumping system was capable of UHV performance and maintained

Ogletree, D. Frank

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Pressure Temperature Log At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Phase I exploration program. References (Unknown) Integrated Geoscience Investigation and Geothermal Exploration at Chena Hot Springs, Alaska (Unknown) Low Cost Exploration,...

392

Temperature-pressure phase diagram of deuterated tetramethylammonium tetrachlorozincate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the range 0 to 1.8 kbar and 2014 5 to 36 °C. This diagram is a nice illustration of the devil's staircase.4 and one with k 0.4. There the devil's staircase is incomplete, hysteresis appears at the lock-in transitions. At low P and T the devil's staircase is complete and behaviour irreversible

Boyer, Edmond

393

THE INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY ON THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF SUPER-EARTHS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths-resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution-the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.

Stamenkovic, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman [Institute of Planetology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Breuer, Doris, E-mail: Vlada.Stamenkovic@dlr.de, E-mail: Lena.Noack@dlr.de, E-mail: Doris.Breuer@dlr.de, E-mail: Tilman.Spohn@dlr.de [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

394

Effects of Reduction Temperature and Metal-Support Interactions on the Catalytic Activity of Pt/g-Al2O3 and Pt/TiO2 for the Oxidation of CO in the Presence and Absence of H2.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TiO2- and -Al2O3-supported Pt catalysts were characterized by HRTEM, XPS, EXAFS, and in situ FTIR spectroscopy after activation at various conditions, and their catalytic properties were examined for the oxidation of CO in the absence and presence of H2 (PROX). When {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used as the support, the catalytic, electronic, and structural properties of the Pt particles formed were not affected substantially by the pretreatment conditions. In contrast, the surface properties and catalytic activity of Pt/TiO2 were strongly influenced by the pretreatment conditions. In this case, an increase in the reduction temperature led to higher electron density on Pt, altering its chemisorptive properties, weakening the Pt-CO bonds, and increasing its activity for the oxidation of CO. The in situ FTIR data suggest that both the terminal and bridging CO species adsorbed on fully reduced Pt are active for this reaction. The high activity of Pt/TiO2 for the oxidation of CO can also be attributed to the ability of TiO2 to provide or stabilize highly reactive oxygen species at the metal-support interface. However, such species appear to be more reactive toward H{sub 2} than CO. Consequently, Pt/TiO{sub 2} shows substantially lower selectivities toward CO oxidation under PROX conditions than Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Alexeev,O.; Chin, S.; Engelhard, M.; Ortiz-Soto, L.; Amiridis, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Pressure balance at the magnetopause: Experimental studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The pressure balance at the magnetopause is formed by magnetic field and plasma in the magnetosheath, on one side, and inside the magnetosphere, on the other side. In the approach of dipole earth's magnetic field configuration and gas-dynamics solar wind flowing around the magnetosphere, the pressure balance predicts that the magnetopause distance R depends on solar wind dynamic pressure Pd as a power low R ~ Pd^alpha, where the exponent alpha=-1/6. In the real magnetosphere the magnetic filed is contributed by additional sources: Chapman-Ferraro current system, field-aligned currents, tail current, and storm-time ring current. Net contribution of those sources depends on particular magnetospheric region and varies with solar wind conditions and geomagnetic activity. As a result, the parameters of pressure balance, including power index alpha, depend on both the local position at the magnetopause and geomagnetic activity. In addition, the pressure balance can be affected by a non-linear transfer of the solar ...

Suvorova, A V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

An investigation of convergence pressure methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, hydrocarbons having molecular weights from methane through hexane, and the remainder of the hydrocarbons are lumped into a single pseudocomponent G7+. Butane and pentane are further split into iso and normal... of Mixtures Versus Saturation Pressure Number of Mixtures Versus Temperature 55 56 10 Number of Mixtures Versus Mole Fraction of Carbon Dioxide 57 Number of Mixtures Versus Mole Fraction of Hydrogen Sulfide 12 Number of Mixtures Versus Mole Fraction...

Wattenbarger, Robert Chick

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Saltstone Osmotic Pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H {sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

TRENDS: TEMPERATURE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Graphics Digital Data J.R. Petit, D. Raynaud, and C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciogie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, CNRS, Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France J. Jouzel and G. Delaygue Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA/CNRS, L'Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France N.I. Barkov Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringa Street 38, 199397 St. Petersburg, Russia V.M. Kotlyakov Institute of Geography, Staromonetny, per 29, Moscow 109017, Russia DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.006 Period of Record 420,000 years BP-present Methods Because isotopic fractions of the heavier oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) in snowfall are temperature-dependent and a strong spatial correlation

399

Reference Handbook: Pressure detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand pressure detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: Define pressure in terms of force and area. Describe the basic operating principles of the U-Tube Manometer. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading Manometers. Describe the basic operating principles of the three types of Bourdon Tubes. Explain the difference between diaphragm. and bellows-type pressure measurement devices. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Pressure Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operations of Rocky Flats Plant.

Not Available

1990-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

400

High-pressure-temperature gradient instrument: use for determining the temperature and pressure limits of bacterial growth.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...shows the valve manifold (VM), the polystyrene foam insulation (U), and the therm- istor probe (TM) for determining...which the samples were loaded. U is the polystyrene foam insulation, AB is the aluminum block, TW the thermometer well...

A A Yayanos; R van Boxtel; A S Dietz

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

402

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

403

Thermal solar collector with VO2 absorber coating and thermochromic glazing Temperature matching and triggering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Overheating is a common problem both with the use of active and passive solar energy in thermal solar energy systems and in highly glazed buildings, even in central European latitudes. In solar thermal collectors, the elevated temperatures occurring during stagnation result in reduced lifetime of the collector materials. They lead to water evaporation, glycol degradation and stresses in the collector with increasing vapor pressure. Special precautions are necessary to release this pressure; only mechanical solutions exist nowadays. The temperature of degradation of glycols is above 160170C. However, it would be preferable to limit the temperature of the collector to approximately 100C, avoiding likewise the evaporation of the used water-glycol mixture. Additionally, the elevated temperatures lead to degradation of the materials that compose the collector, such as sealing, thermal insulation and the selective absorber coating. A new way of protecting solar thermal systems without any mechanical device (e.g. for shading or for pressure release) is proposed. A durable inorganic thermochromic material, which exhibits a change in optical properties at a transition temperature T t , is vanadium dioxide (VO2). At 68C, VO2 undergoes a reversible crystal structural phase transition accompanied by a strong variation in optical properties. Therefore, a dynamical switching of the thermal emittance ? th can be achieved by VO2. By doping the material with tungsten, it is possible to lower the transition temperature making it suitable as a glazing coating. The possibility of using the switch in emittance of the absorber coating in order to trigger the transition of a thermochromic coating on the glazing of the solar collector has been studied. An analytical approach yielded the required transition temperature of such a switching glazing. The fascinating optical properties of these switchable films elucidate the way towards novel intelligent thermal solar collector materials.

Antonio Paone; Mario Geiger; Rosendo Sanjines; Andreas Schler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

High pressure storage vessel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

Liu, Qiang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

405

Static Temperature Survey At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Static Temperature Survey At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Static Temperature Survey At Glass...

406

Sublimation Pressures of Solid Ar, Kr, and Xe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of an experiment to measure the sublimation pressures of Ar, Kr, and Xe over wide temperature and pressure ranges are presented. Data are reported from near the respective triple points to about (2.3 10-6 Torr, 25.506 K) for Ar; (2.1 10-4 Torr, 45.130 K) for Kr; (3.8 10-4 Torr, 70.075 K) for Xe. Pressures were measured with a Hg manometer, a McLeod gauge, and a calibrated Bourdon gauge. The data have been corrected for thermomolecular flow and streaming. Temperatures were measured with a N.B.S.-calibrated Pt resistance thermometer. The application of the law of corresponding states is investigated. Values for static lattice energy, geometric mean of the lattice vibrational spectrum, heat of sublimation, and lattice vibrational energy are calculated using theoretical sublimation pressure curves.

Charles W. Leming and Gerald L. Pollack

1970-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Active oxygen species and mechanism for low-temperature CO oxidation reaction on a TiO{sub 2}-supported Au catalyst prepared from Au(PPh{sub 3})(NO{sub 3}) and as-precipitated titanium hydroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The active oxygen species and mechanism for catalytic CO oxidation with O{sub 2} on a highly active TiO{sub 2}-supported Au catalyst (denoted as Au/Ti(OH){sub 4}{sup *}), which was prepared by supporting a Au-phophine complex on as-precipitated wet titanium hydroxide followed by calcination at 673 K, have been studied by means of oxygen isotope exchange, O{sub 2} temperature-programmed desorption (O{sub 2} TPD), electron spin resonance (ESR), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Surface lattice oxygen atoms on the Au/Ti(OH){sub 4}{sup *} catalyst were inactive for oxygen exchange with O{sub 2} and CO and also for CO oxidation at room temperature. The surface lattice oxygen atoms were exchanged only with the oxygen atoms of CO{sub 2}, probably via carbonates. O{sub 2} did not dissociate to atomic oxygen on the catalyst. The catalyst showed a paramagnetic signal at g = 2.002 due to unpaired electrons trapped at oxygen vacancies mainly at the surface. O{sub 2} adsorbed on the oxygen vacancies to form superoxide O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} with g{sub 1} = 2.020, g{sub 2} = 2.010, and g{sub 3} = 2.005, which are characteristic of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} with an angular arrangement. Upon CO exposure, all the adsorbed oxygen species disappeared. The mechanism for the catalytic CO oxidation on the active Au/Ti(OH){sub 4}{sup *} catalyst is discussed in detail and compared with mechanisms reported previously.

Liu, H.; Kozlov, A.I.; Kozlova, A.P.; Shido, Takafumi; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1999-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

408

Thermal conductivity of Permian Basin bedded salt at elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of thermal conductivity were made on five core samples of bedded rock salt from the Permian Basin in Texas. The sample size was 100 mm in diameter by 250 mm in length. Measurements were conducted under confining pressures ranging from 3.8 to 31.0 MPa and temperatures from room temperature to 473 K. Conductivity showed no dependence on confining pressure, but showed a monotonic, negative temperature dependence. Four of the five samples showed conductivities clustered in a range of 5.6 +- 0.5 W/m.K at room temperature, falling to 3.6 +- 0.3 W/m.K at 473 K. These values are approximately 20% below the values for pure halite, reflecting perhaps the 5 to 20% non-halite component of the samples. The fifth sample showed a conductivity vs temperature dependence much like that of halite. 19 references, 4 figures.

Durham, W.B.; Boro, C.O.; Beiriger, J.M.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: a new tool for surface science and nanotechnology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress in science often follows or parallels the development of new techniques. The optical microscope helped convert medicine and biology from a speculative activity in old times to today's sophisticated scientific disciplines. The telescope changed the study and interpretation of heavens from mythology to science. X-ray diffraction enabled the flourishing of solid state physics and materials science. The technique object of this review, Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy or APPES for short, has also the potential of producing dramatic changes in the study of liquid and solid surfaces, particularly in areas such as atmospheric, environment and catalysis sciences. APPES adds an important missing element to the host of techniques that give fundamental information, i.e., spectroscopy and microscopy, about surfaces in the presence of gases and vapors, as encountered in industrial catalysis and atmospheric environments. APPES brings electron spectroscopy into the realm of techniques that can be used in practical environments. Decades of surface science in ultra high vacuum (UHV) has shown the power of electron spectroscopy in its various manifestations. Their unique property is the extremely short elastic mean free path of electrons as they travel through condensed matter, of the order of a few atomic distances in the energy range from a few eV to a few thousand eV. As a consequence of this the information obtained by analyzing electrons emitted or scattered from a surface refers to the top first few atomic layers, which is what surface science is all about. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and other such techniques have been used for decades and provided some of the most fundamental knowledge about surface crystallography, composition and electronic structure available today. Unfortunately the high interaction cross section of electrons with matter also prevents them from traveling long distances unscattered in gas environments. Above the millibar pressure range this distance is reduced to less that a millimeter, effectively preventing its use in the most relevant environments, usually between millibars and atmospheric pressures. There is therefore a large gap of several orders of magnitude where information about surfaces is scarce because these powerful electron spectroscopies cannot operate. One characteristic of surfaces in ambient pressure environments is that they are covered by dense layers of molecules, even when their binding energy is weak. Water for example is known to form layers several molecules thick at room temperature in humid environments. Metals readily form oxide films several layers thick in oxygen atmospheres. Dense layers of adsorbed molecules can also be produced in ultra high vacuum, often by the simple and expedient method of cooling the sample to cryogenic temperatures. A large amount of data has been obtained in the past in UHV by surface scientists using this method. While this has provided valuable information it begs the question of whether the structures formed in this manner represent equilibrium structures or metastable ones, kinetically trapped due to high activation energies that cannot be overcome at low temperature. From a thermodynamic point of view is interesting to consider the entropic contribution to the Gibbs free energy, which we can call 'the pressure factor', equal to kT.logP. This factor amounts to a sizeable 0.3 eV difference at room temperature between UHV (<10{sup -8} Pascal) and atmospheric pressures. Such change if free energy can definitely result in changes in surface structure and stability. Entire areas of the phase diagram are out of reach due to the pressure gap. Even when cooling is not necessary, many surface treatments and most chemical reactions necessitate the presence of gases at pressures ranging from millibar to bars. What is the structure and chemical nature of the species formed on the surface in equilibrium with suc

Salmeron, Miquel; Salmeron, Miquel; Schlogl, Robert

2008-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

410

Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

Oakley, David J. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

412

Effect of pressure on the behavior of copper-, iron-, and nickel-based oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work analyzes the main characteristics related to the chemical looping combustion (CLC) process necessary to use the syngas obtained in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. The kinetics of reduction with H{sub 2} and CO and oxidation with O{sub 2} of three high-reactivity oxygen carriers used in the CLC system have been determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer at atmospheric pressure. The iron- and nickel-based oxygen carriers were prepared by freeze-granulation, and the copper-based oxygen carrier was prepared by impregnation. The changing grain size model (CGSM) was used for the kinetic determination, assuming spherical grains for the freeze-granulated particles containing iron and nickel and a platelike geometry for the reacting surface of the copper-based impregnated particles. The dependence of the reaction rates on temperature was low, with the activation energy values varying from 14 to 33 kJ mol{sup -1} for the reduction and 7 to 15 kJ mol{sup -1} for the oxidation. The reaction order depended on the reacting gas and oxygen carrier, with values ranging from 0.25 to 1. However, an increase in the operating pressure for the IGCC + CLC system increases the thermal efficiency of the process, and the CO{sub 2} is recovered as a high pressure gas, decreasing the energy demand for further compression. The effect of pressure on the behavior of the oxygen carriers has been analyzed in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at 1073 K and pressures up to 30 atm. It has been found that an increase in total pressure has a negative effect on the reaction rates of all the oxygen carriers. Moreover, the use of the CGSM with the kinetic parameters obtained at atmospheric pressure predicted higher reaction rates than those experimentally obtained at higher pressures, and therefore, the kinetic parameters necessary to design pressurized CLC plants must be determined at the operating pressure. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Juan Adanez; Luis F. de Diego; Pilar Gayan; Alberto Abad [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Department of Energy and Environment

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Using of the tunable CO2-laser without frequency stabilization for diagnostics of CO2 gas mixture at barometric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is presented a technique for determining temperature and pressure of CO2 in gas mixture using absorption factor spectral distribution. Errors calculated for tunable frequency...

Arshinov, K

414

Beamline Temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Temperatures Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 493.2242 mA Date: 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 493.2 mA 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 LN:MainTankLevel 124.4 in LN:MainTankPress 56.9 psi SPEAR-BL:B120HeFlow 15.4 l/min SPEAR-BL:B131HeFlow 22.2 l/min BL 4 BL02:LCW 0.0 ℃ BL02:M0_LCW 31.5 ℃ BL 4-1 BL04-1:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom1 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom2 47.0 ℃ BL04-1:Lower 32.0 ℃ BL04-1:Moly 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalA -167.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalB -172.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalA -177.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalB -175.0 ℃ BL 4-2 BL04-2:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom1 24.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom2 25.0 ℃

415

SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Resumming the pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The convergence properties of the resummed thermal perturbation series for the thermodynamic pressure are investigated by comparison with the exact results obtained in large-N phi^4 theory and possibilities for improvements are discussed. By going beyond conventional resummed perturbation theory, renormalization has to be carried out nonperturbatively yet consistently. This is exemplified in large-N phi^4_4 and in a special large-N \\phi^3_6 model that mimics QED in the limit of large flavour number.

Anton Rebhan

1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

417

Atmospheric Pressure Weakly Ionized Plasma Reactor Based on the Corona Discharge .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Atmospheric pressure weakly ionized plasma (APWIP) is being used to treat or process goods and materials because it only activates the surface without modification of (more)

[No author

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

E-Print Network 3.0 - altered disc pressure Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences ; Biology and Medicine 33 Pressuredriven outflow and magnetocentrifugal wind from a dynamo active disc Summary: Pressure-driven outflow and magneto-centrifugal...

419

Contribution of water vapor pressure to pressurization of plutonium dioxide storage containers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressurization of long-term storage containers filled with materials meeting the US DOE storage standard is of concern.1 2 For example temperatures within storage containers packaged according to the standard and contained in 9975 shipping packages that are stored in full view of the sun can reach internal temperatures of 250?C.3 Twenty five grams of water (0.5 wt.%) at 250?C in the storage container with no other material present would result in a pressure of 412 psia which is limited by the amount of water. The pressure due to the water can be substantially reduced due to interactions with the stored material. Studies of the adsorption of water by PuO 2 and surface interactions of water with PuO 2 show that adsorption of 0.5 wt.% of water is feasible under many conditions and probable under high humidity conditions.4 5 6 However no data are available on the vapor pressure of water over plutonium dioxide containing materials that have been exposed to water.

D. Kirk Veirs; John S. Morris; Dane R. Spearing

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Casing design for trapped annular pressure buildup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional single-string analysis for casing design with annular-fluid expansion can underpredict or overpredict pressures between strings because multistring effects are neglected. Multiple-string systems with multiple sealed annuli behave as composite interactive systems. This paper presents a constitutive-based multistring analysis method for composite string effects and complex fluid behavior. The composite stiffness of cemented casings is determined from elastic stress/strain relationships, and the nonlinear fluid behavior is modeled by direct use of fluid PVT relations in the formulation and solution. The method is incorporated in a computer model linking comprehensive stress calculations to accurate temperature and pressure predictions. Sensitivity studies of the system response to various key parameters and operating conditions are presented, and comparisons are made with single-string analyses to demonstrate the strong interaction between casing strings.

Halal, A.S.; Mitchell, R.F. (Enertech Engineering Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Towards breaking temperature equilibrium in multi-component Eulerian schemes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the effects ofthermal equilibrium on hydrodynamic flows and describe models for breaking the assumption ofa single temperature for a mixture of components in a cell. A computational study comparing pressure-temperature equilibrium simulations of two dimensional implosions with explicit front tracking is described as well as implementation and J-D calculations for non-equilibrium temperature methods.

Grove, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Masser, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Tan, Sugata [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Surface Damage and Treatment by Impact of a Low Temperature Nitrogen Jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen jets under high pressure and low temperature have been introduced recently. The process consists in projecting onto a surface a low temperature jet obtained from releasing the liquid nitrogen stored in a high pressure tank (e.g. 3000 bars) through a nozzle. It can be used in a range of industrial applications, including surface treatment or material removal through cutting, drilling, striping and cleaning. The process does not generate waste other than the removed matter, and it only releases neutral gas into the atmosphere. This work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms of the interaction between the jet and the material surface. Depending on the impacted material, the thermo-mechanical shock and blast effect induced by the jet can activate a wide range of damage mechanisms, including cleavage, crack nucleation and spalling, as well as void expansion and localized ductile failure. The test parameters (standoff distance, dwell time, operating pressure) play a role in selecting the dominant damage mechanism, but combinations of these various modes are usually present. Surface treatment through phase transformation or grain fragmentation in a layer below the surface can also be obtained by adequate tuning of the process parameters. In the current study, work is undertaken to map the damage mechanisms in metallic materials as well as the influence of the test parameters on damage, along with measurements of the thermo-mechanical conditions (impact force, temperature) in the impacted area.

Laribou, Hicham; Fressengeas, Claude; Entemeyer, Denis; Jeanclaude, Veronique [LPMM - Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz / CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, Metz, 57045 (France); Tazibt, Abdel [CRITT TJF and U, Laboratoire Jet Fluide Tres Hautes Pressions, Bar-le-Duc, 55000 (France)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

425

High Strain-Rate Response of High Purity Aluminum at Temperatures Approaching Melt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature, pressure-shear plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the rate-controlling mechanisms of the plastic response of high-purity aluminum at high strain rates (10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) and at temperatures approaching melt. Since the melting temperature of aluminum is pressure dependent, and a typical pressure-shear plate impact experiment subjects the sample to large pressures (2 GPa-7 GPa), a pressure-release type experiment was used to reduce the pressure in order to measure the shearing resistance at temperatures up to 95% of the current melting temperature. The measured shearing resistance was remarkably large (50 MPa at a shear strain of 2.5) for temperatures this near melt. Numerical simulations conducted using a version of the Nemat-Nasser/Isaacs constitutive equation, modified to model the mechanism of geometric softening, appear to capture adequately the hardening/softening behavior observed experimentally.

Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Jiao, T

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

426

Stabilizing System Pressure | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

System Pressure This tip sheet summarizes three methods used to stabilize compressed air system pressure: adequate primary and secondary storage, PressureFlow Controllers (P...

427

Ignition characteristics of laser-ablated aluminum at shock pressures up to 2?GPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ignition of aluminum particles under high pressure and temperature conditions is considered. The laser ablation method is used to generate oxide-free aluminum particles exposed to pressures ranging between 0.35 and 2.2?GPa. A continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser radiation heats the surface of the aluminum target until ignition is observed. We confirm ignition by a spectroscopic analysis of AlO vibronic band of 484?nm wavelength, and the radiant temperature is measured with respect to various pressures for estimating the heating energy for ignition. The ignition characteristics of the oxide-free aluminum particles exposed to extremely high pressures are reported.

Lee, Kyung-Cheol; Young Lee, Jae; Yoh, Jack J., E-mail: jjyoh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanakro, Gwanakgu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Taira, Tsubasa [Division of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Mo Koo, Goon [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Cradle and pressure grippers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gripper that is designed to incorporate the functions of gripping, supporting and pressure tongs into one device. The gripper has two opposing finger sections with interlocking fingers that incline and taper to form a wedge. The interlocking fingers are vertically off-set so that the opposing finger sections may close together allowing the inclined, tapered tips of the fingers to extend beyond the plane defined by the opposing finger section's engagement surface. The range of motion defined by the interlocking relationship of the finger sections allows the gripper to grab, lift and support objects of varying size and shape. The gripper has one stationary and one moveable finger section. Power is provided to the moveable finger section by an actuating device enabling the gripper to close around an object to be lifted. A lifting bail is attached to the gripper and is supported by a crane that provides vertical lift.

Muniak, John E. (New York, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Role of adsorption kinetics in the low-temperature Si growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy: In situ observations and detailed modeling of the growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth rate and surface hydrogen coverage during Si gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using disilane have been obtained as functions of both the growth temperature and the source-gas pressure. The activation energy of the low-temperature (<600{sup o}C) growth rate was found to increase with the source-gas pressure, indicating a contribution by the adsorption process in these low-temperature growth kinetics. Several growth models have been constructed based on the results, among which the two-site/four-site-adsorption model [M. Suemitsu Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 236, L625 (1997)] showed the best fit to both the growth rate and the hydrogen coverage. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Murata, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Hideki; Tsukidate, Yoshikazu; Suemitsu, Maki

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

431

Pilot-scale pressurized base hydrolysis of HMX plastic-bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pilot-scale, pressurized, base hydrolysis reactor has been designed and its construction is nearly completed. Up to 120 L of 1--6 M NaOH aqueous solutions will convert as much as 25 kg of consolidated, explosive pieces to non-energetic compounds. Temperatures approaching 155 C in the pressurized unit will reduce reaction times significantly for the destruction of plastic-bonded explosives compared to previous atmospheric-pressure reactors. The hydrolysis effluent is then pumped into a holding tank where it is fed into a hydrothermal oxidation reactor for complete destruction to non-hazardous products. The hydrothermal unit operates at 480 C and 100 MPa and hydrogen peroxide fed into the reactor at two points will ensure complete destruction of all organic species and nitrogen-containing salts. The entire system is comprised of eight major components and is assembled on five separate and transportable skids. Following construction and preliminary testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the unit will be shipped to the Pantex Plant where it will be used for continuous demilitarization activities.

Larson, S.A.; Brewer, G.R.; Harradine, D.M.; Polston, C.E.; Le, L.A.; Bishop, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Flesner, R.L.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Green version of the EERE PowerPoint template, for use with PowerPoint 97 through 2004....

433

Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The nature of solid earth tidal strain and surface load deformation due to the influence of gravitational forces and barometric pressure loading are discussed. The pore pressure response to these types of deformation is investigated in detail, including the cases of a confined aquifer intersected by a well and a discrete fracture intersected by a well. The integration of the tidal response method with conventional pump tests in order to independently calculate the hydraulic parameters of the

434

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

435

ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322C and 750C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Monthly Mean Pressure Reconstructions for Europe (1780-1980) and North  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Monthly Mean Pressure Reconstructions for Europe (1780-1980) and North Monthly Mean Pressure Reconstructions for Europe (1780-1980) and North America (1858-1980) (1987) (NDP-025) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.ndp025 image Data Investigators P. D. Jones, T. M. L. Wigley, and K. R. Briffa Real and reconstructed measurements of monthly mean pressure data have been constructed for Europe for 1780 through 1980 and North America for 1858 through 1980. The reconstructions use early pressure, temperature, and precipitation data from a variety of sources including World Weather Records, meteorological and national archives, circulation maps, and daily chart series. Each record contains the year, monthly mean pressure, quality code, and annual mean pressure. These reconstructed gridded monthly pressures provide a reliable historical record of mean sea-level pressures

437

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building...

438

Pressure testing of torispherical heads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two vessels fabricated from SA516-70 steel with 6% knuckle radius torispherical heads were tested under internal pressure to failure. The D/t ratios of Vessel 1 and Vessel 2 were 238 and 185 respectively. The calculated maximum allowable working pressures of Vessel 1 and 2 heads using the ASME Section 8, Div. 1 rules and measured dimensions were 85 and 110 psi, respectively. Vessel 1 failed at a nozzle weld in the cylindrical shell at 700 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed at a theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse pressure of 241 and a calculated buckling pressure of 270 psi. Buckles were observed developing slowly after 600 psi pressure, and a total of 22 buckles were observed after the test, having the maximum amplitude of 0.15 inch. Vessel 2 failed at the edge of the longitudinal weld of the cylindrical shell at 1,080 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed up to the final pressure, which exceeded the theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse and calculated buckling pressures of 274 psi and 342 psi, respectively.

Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Structural phase transition in ZrO2 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural phase transition in ZrO2 induced by swift heavy ion irradiation at high pressure B transition becomes larger with increasing pressure. Keywords: Zirconia, phase transition, high pressure-temperature poly- morphs (tetragonal and cubic) (see Fig 1). At about 1200 C, a martensitic-type phase transition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

440

The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-Term Monthly Temperature,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-Term Monthly Temperature, The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-Term Monthly Temperature, Precipitation, Sea Level Pressure, and Station Pressure Data (1992) (NDP-041) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.ndp041 data Data PDF PDF File graphics NDP-041 Temperature Stations graphics NDP-041 Precipitation Stations Please note: the latest version of the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) is available directly from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. Investigators R. S. Vose, R. L. Schmoyer, P. M. Steurer, T. C. Peterson, R. Heim, T. R. Karl, and J. K. Eischeid This NDP contains monthly temperature, precipitation, sea-level pressure, and station-pressure data for thousands of meteorological stations worldwide. The database was compiled from pre-existing national, regional, and global collections of data as part of the Global Historical Climatology

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.B. Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899, Russia Bonnell D.W., Hastie J.W. National temperature chemistry situations, vapor pressures are typically less than 100 kPa. The molar volume is p = 101325 Pa). The subscript trs denotes that the changeisfor a transition, typically sublimation

Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

442

Barometric pressure variations associated with eastern Pacific tropical instability waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the life cycle of deep convective mixing, i.e., 8-12 hours (Bretherton et al. 1995). Likewise, sounding, USA. E-mail: cronin@pmel.noaa.gov. #12;2 Abstract. Barometric pressure, surface temperature and wind difference also had a spectral peak in the 20-30 day TIW band. Cross- spectral analysis shows that within

Xie, Shang-Ping

443

Spectroscopic measurement of the vapour pressure of ice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Murphy Meeting Issue Water in the gas phase . We...triple-point state of water and uses frequency-stabilized...temperature-regulated standard humidity generator, which contains ice...within 0.35 per cent. water vapour|ice vapour pressure...technical fields. In atmospheric physics, ice crystals...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Method for obtaining large levitation pressure in superconducting magnetic bearings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for compressing magnetic flux to achieve high levitation pressures. Magnetic flux produced by a magnetic flux source travels through a gap between two high temperature superconducting material structures. The gap has a varying cross-sectional area to compress the magnetic flux, providing an increased magnetic field and correspondingly increased levitation force in the gap. 4 figs.

Hull, J.R.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

445

Pressure Vessel Burst Program: Automated hazard analysis for pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design, development, and use of a Windows based software tool, PVHAZARD, for pressure vessel hazard analysis is presented. The program draws on previous efforts in pressure vessel research and results of a Pressure Vessel Burst Test Study. Prior papers on the Pressure Vessel Burst Test Study have been presented to the ASME, AIAA, JANNAF, NASA Pressure Systems Seminar, and to a DOD Explosives Safety Board subcommittee meeting. Development and validation is described for simplified blast (overpressure/impulse) and fragment (velocity and travel distance) hazard models. The use of PVHAZARD in making structural damage and personnel injury estimates is discussed. Efforts in-progress are reviewed including the addition of two-dimensional and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) hydrodynamic code analyses to supplement the simplified models, and the ability to assess barrier designs for protection from fragmentation.

Langley, D.R. [Aerospace Corp., Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Chrostowski, J.D. [ACTA Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Goldstein, S. [Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States); Cain, M. [General Physics Corp., Titusville, FL (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

446

Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

447

High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Symmetric and Asymmetric Styrene?Diene Diblocks in Compressible Near Critical Solvents: Micellization Pressures and Cloud Pressures Respond but Micellar Cloud Pressures Insensitive to Copolymer Molecular Weight, Concentration, and Block Ratio Changes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical nonmicellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Concentration-dependent pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size, and ratio. The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

Winoto, Winoto [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Tan, Sugata [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Shen, Youqin [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Radosz, Maciej [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Partial Pressure of Saturated Sodium Nitrite Vapor over the System NaNO2-NaNO3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The partial pressure of sodium nitrite was measured in the system NaNO2-NaNO3...at temperatures of 798, 823, and 848 K and the logarithm of the NaNO2 pressure was obtained as a function of inverse temperature. Th...

V. I. Glazov; G. P. Dukhanin; M. Kh. Dkhaibe

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

450

On the Use of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for the Bio-Decontamination of Polymers and Its Impact on Their Chemical and Morphological Surface Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma processes can be applied to inactivate micro-...2 plasma of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet leads to an inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus...spores with a maximum r...

K. Fricke; H. Tresp; R. Bussiahn; K. Schrder

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Low temperature synthesis of methyl formate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas reaction process for the preferential production of methyl formate over the co-production of methanol wherein the reactant ratio of CO/H.sub.2 is upgraded and this reaction takes place at low temperatures of 50.degree.-150.degree. C. and moderate pressures of .gtoreq.100 psi.

Mahajan, Devinder (Selden, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

High-pressure EXAFS measurements of solid and liquid Kr  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray-absorption measurements of liquid and solid krypton at room temperature in the pressure range 0.130 GPa have been performed using the dispersive setup and diamond-anvil cells as a pressure device. The evolution of the near-edge structures as a function of pressure, including the first intense resonance, has been interpreted using multiple-scattering calculations. It is shown that the near-edge structures are reproduced taking into account two-body and three-body terms associated with the first-neighbor atoms. Extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra have been analyzed in the framework a multiple-scattering data-analysis approach taking proper account of the atomic background including the [1s4p], [1s3d], and [1s3p] double-electron excitation channels. Isobaric Monte Carlo (MC) computer simulations based on empirical pair potentials, as proposed by Barker (K2) and Aziz (HFD-B), have been performed to make a quantitative comparison of theoretical and experimental local structural details of condensed krypton at high pressures. From the analysis of EXAFS data we were able to obtain simultaneous information on average distance, width, and asymmetry of the first-neighbor distribution, as a function of pressure. These parameters yield a unique insight on the potential function because they are affected by both minimum position and curvature of the effective pair potential. The trend of the first-neighbor distribution as a function of pressure is in quantitative agreement with the HFD-B potential at moderate pressures, deviations are found at higher pressures where EXAFS spectra are very sensitive to the hard-core repulsive part of the potential. The weak EXAFS signal of liquid krypton at room temperature and 0.75 GPa has been found in accord with the results of the MC simulations within the noise of the measurement. 1996 The American Physical Society.

A. Di Cicco; A. Filipponi; J. P. Iti; A. Polian

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

456

Observation of Metal-insulator and Metal-Metal Transitions in Hydrogen Iodide under Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen iodide has been studied up to pressures of 70 GPa at low temperatures in a diamondanvil cell. Electrical-conductivity and optical measurements have been used to observe pressure-induced phase transitions which are interpreted as follows: First a metal-insulator transition takes place in the molecular solid; with increased pressure a metal-metal molecular-to-atomic transition occurs. An additional transition due to intrinsic impurities has been observed. Implications for metallic hydrogen are discussed.

J. van Straaten and Isaac F. Silvera

1986-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

457

High-pressure neutron diffraction study on HD isotope effects in brucite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A neutron powder diffraction study of hydrogenated and deuterated brucite was conducted at ambient temperature and at...a axis, parallel to the sheets of MgO octahedra, decrease only slightly with pressure with ...

Juske Horita; Antnio M. dos Santos

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Performance Evaluation of Honeywell Silicon Piezoresistive Pressure Transducers for Oceanographic and Limnological Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simultaneous calibrations of three temperature-compensated piezoresistive ruggedized precision absolute pressure transducers (Honeywell model PPTR0040AP5VB-BD), which have been designed specially for long-term coastal oceanographic and ...

Vijay Kumar; Antony Joseph; R. G. Prabhudesai; S. Prabhudesai; Surekha Nagvekar; Vimala Damodaran

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Decontamination of VX Surrogate Malathion by Atmospheric Pressure Radio-frequency Plasma Jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Decontamination of the VX surrogate (malathion) by the atmospheric pressure radio-frequency plasma jet (APPJ) was investigated. Optical emission ... the neutral gas temperature. The effects of RF input power and ...

Wen-Chao Zhu; Bai-Rong Wang; Hai-Ling Xi

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Surface free energy changes of stainless steel after one atmospheric pressure plasma treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stainless steel plates (AISI 304L) were treated by an atmospheric pressure plasma treatment at room temperature in order to modify the surface properties. After plasma treatment, the surface wettability and the s...

Shen Tang; Oh-June Kwon; Na Lu; Ho-Suk Choi

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "activity pressure temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.