National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for activity gas flux

  1. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  2. Gas Flux Sampling At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  3. Gas Flux Sampling At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  4. Gas Flux Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  5. Gas Flux Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  6. Gas Flux Sampling At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Gas Flux Sampling At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  8. Gas Flux Sampling At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  9. Gas Flux Sampling At Steamboat Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steamboat Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Steamboat Springs Area...

  10. Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And...

  11. Category:Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Flux Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Gas Flux Sampling page? For detailed information on Gas Flux...

  12. Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the true flux of hydrothermal gases may affect the results of geochemical modeling of gas dispersion in the near-surface environment.3 References 1.0 1.1 Measuring...

  13. Gas Flux Sampling At Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  14. Gas Flux Sampling At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  15. Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  16. Gas Flux Sampling At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Maui Area...

  17. Gas Flux Sampling At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  18. Gas Flux Sampling At Brady Hot Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brady Hot Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Brady Hot Springs Area...

  19. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lewicki...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    between chamber CO2 fluxes and the atmospheric parameters over a comparable time period. Energy balance closure was assessed by statistical regression of EC energy fluxes...

  20. Gas Flux Sampling (Evans, Et Al., 2001) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    show that gas samples collected by either sudden pre-evacuated container or gradual gas pump. Removal of tens of cm3 of gas through an access pipe appear to reflect steady-state...

  1. SNS Sample Activation Calculator Flux Recommendations and Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Tucker C.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Iverson, Erik B.; Lu, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses the Sample Activation Calculator (SAC) to calculate the activation of a sample after the sample has been exposed to the neutron beam in one of the SNS beamlines. The SAC webpage takes user inputs (choice of beamline, the mass, composition and area of the sample, irradiation time, decay time, etc.) and calculates the activation for the sample. In recent years, the SAC has been incorporated into the user proposal and sample handling process, and instrument teams and users have noticed discrepancies in the predicted activation of their samples. The Neutronics Analysis Team validated SAC by performing measurements on select beamlines and confirmed the discrepancies seen by the instrument teams and users. The conclusions were that the discrepancies were a result of a combination of faulty neutron flux spectra for the instruments, improper inputs supplied by SAC (1.12), and a mishandling of cross section data in the Sample Activation Program for Easy Use (SAPEU) (1.1.2). This report focuses on the conclusion that the SAPEU (1.1.2) beamline neutron flux spectra have errors and are a significant contributor to the activation discrepancies. The results of the analysis of the SAPEU (1.1.2) flux spectra for all beamlines will be discussed in detail. The recommendations for the implementation of improved neutron flux spectra in SAPEU (1.1.3) are also discussed.

  2. Gas Flux Sampling (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the near surface: Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include (1) the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for measurement of concentrations at...

  3. Mechanical properties and microstructures of a magnesium alloy gas tungsten arc welded with a cadmium chloride flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z.D.; Liu, L.M. Shen, Y.; Wang, L.

    2008-01-15

    Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds were prepared on 5-mm thick plates of wrought magnesium AZ31B alloy, using an activated flux. The microstructural characteristics of the weld joint were investigated using optical and scanning microscopy, and the fusion zone microstructure was compared with that of the base metal. The elemental distribution was also investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Mechanical properties were determined by standard tensile tests on small-scale specimens. The as-welded fusion zone prepared using a CdCl{sub 2} flux exhibited a larger grain size than that prepared without flux; the microstructure consisted of matrix {alpha}-Mg, eutectic {alpha}-Mg and {beta}-Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}. The HAZ was observed to be slightly wider for the weld prepared with a CdCl{sub 2} flux compared to that prepared without flux; thus the tensile strength was lower for the flux-prepared weld. The fact that neither Cd nor Cl was detected in the weld seam by EPMA indicates that the CdCl{sub 2} flux has a small effect on convection in the weld pool.

  4. Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Jennifer L. Lewicki, Curtis M. Oldenburg (Unknown) Near-Surface Co2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden...

  5. Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg, 2005) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Jennifer L. Lewicki, Curtis M. Oldenburg (2005) Strategies To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based On Monitoring...

  6. Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg, 2004) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Jennifer L. Lewicki, Curtis M. Oldenburg (2004) Strategies For Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems By Near-Surface...

  7. Geochemical Analyses of Surface and Shallow Gas Flux and Composition Over a Proposed Carbon Sequestration Site in Eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Parris; Michael Solis; Kathryn Takacs

    2009-12-31

    Using soil gas chemistry to detect leakage from underground reservoirs (i.e. microseepage) requires that the natural range of soil gas flux and chemistry be fully characterized. To meet this need, soil gas flux (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and the bulk (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and isotopic chemistry ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) of shallow soil gases (<1 m, 3.3 ft) were measured at 25 locations distributed among two active oil and gas fields, an active strip mine, and a relatively undisturbed research forest in eastern Kentucky. The measurements apportion the biologic, atmospheric, and geologic influences on soil gas composition under varying degrees of human surface disturbance. The measurements also highlight potential challenges in using soil gas chemistry as a monitoring tool where the surface cover consists of reclaimed mine land or is underlain by shallow coals. For example, enrichment of ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) and high CH{sub 4} concentrations in soils have been historically used as indicators of microseepage, but in the reclaimed mine lands similar soil chemistry characteristics likely result from dissolution of carbonate cement in siliciclastic clasts having {delta}{sup 13}C values close to 0{per_thousand} and degassing of coal fragments. The gases accumulate in the reclaimed mine land soils because intense compaction reduces soil permeability, thereby impeding equilibration with the atmosphere. Consequently, the reclaimed mine lands provide a false microseepage anomaly. Further potential challenges arise from low permeability zones associated with compacted soils in reclaimed mine lands and shallow coals in undisturbed areas that might impede upward gas migration. To investigate the effect of these materials on gas migration and composition, four 10 m (33 ft) deep monitoring wells were drilled in reclaimed mine material and in undisturbed soils with and without coals. The wells, configured with sampling zones at discrete intervals, show the persistence of some of the aforementioned anomalies at depth. Moreover, high CO{sub 2} concentrations associated with coals in the vadose zone suggest a strong affinity for adsorbing CO{sub 2}. Overall, the low permeability of reclaimed mine lands and coals and CO2 adsorption by the latter is likely to reduce the ability of surface geochemistry tools to detect a microseepage signal.

  8. Bayesian calibration of reactor neutron flux spectrum using activation detectors measurements: Application to CALIBAN reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartier, J.; Casoli, P.; Chappert, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present calibration methods in order to estimate reactor neutron flux spectrum and its uncertainties by using integral activation measurements. These techniques are performed using Bayesian and MCMC framework. These methods are applied to integral activation experiments in the cavity of the CALIBAN reactor. We estimate the neutron flux and its related uncertainties. The originality of this work is that these uncertainties take into account measurements uncertainties, cross-sections uncertainties and model error. In particular, our results give a very good approximation of the total flux and indicate that neutron flux from MCNP simulation for energies above about 5 MeV seems to overestimate the 'real flux'. (authors)

  9. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Xiang, Yongyuan E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST H? data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11Mm, and the estimated twist is 1?. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in H? images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 , and as a bright structure in 171 and 131 images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux.

  10. Nutrient dynamics and nitrogen trace gas flux during ecosystem development in montane rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, R.H.; Vitousek, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Patterns of nitrogen trace gas emissions, soil nitrogen flux, and nutrient availability were evaluated at five sites that form a chronosequence in Hawaiian montane rain forest. The estimated age of basaltic parent material from which soils developed at the Kilauea site was 200 yr, 6000 yr at the Puu Makaala site, 185000 yr at the Kohala site, 1.65 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Molokai site, and 4.5 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Kauai site. Peak net N mineralization and nitrification values were found in soils from the 185000-yr-old Kohala site. Nitrogen content of foliage and leaf litter was highest in the intermediate age sites (Puu Makaala and Kohala) and N and P retranslocation was lowest at the Puu Makaala site. Soil cores fertilized with nitrogen had significantly higher rates of root ingrowth than control cores at the two youngest sites (200 and 6000 yr old) but not in older sites (185000 and 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old sites) and total fine root growth into control cores was greatest at the Kohala site. The highest N{sub 2}O emissions were found at the 185000-yr-old Kohala site, while the highest combined flux of N{sub 2}O + NO was observed at the 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old Kauai site. While overall N{sub 2}O emission rates were correlated with rates of N transformations, soil water content appeared to influence the magnitude of emissions of N{sub 2}O and the ratios of emissions of NO vs. N{sub 2}O. N{sub 2}O emissions occurred when water-filled pore space (WFPS) values were >40%, with highest emissions in at least two sites observed at WFPS values of 75%. Among sites, high N{sub 2}O emissions were associated with high soil N transformation rates. Large NO fluxes were observed only at the Kauai site when WFPS values were <60%. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Minimum activation martensitic alloys for surface disposal after exposure to neutron flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lechtenberg, Thomas (San Diego, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Steel alloys for long-term exposure to neutron flux have a martensitic microstructure and contain chromium, carbon, tungsten, vanadium and preferably titanium. Activation of the steel is held to within acceptable limits for eventual surface disposal by stringently controlling the impurity levels of Ni, Mo, Cu, N, Co, Nb, Al and Mn.

  12. Compare All CBECS Activities: Natural Gas Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    call 202-586-8800. Natural Gas Consumption per Building by Building Type Inpatient health care buildings used by far the most natural gas per building. Figure showing natural...

  13. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Activity: Natural Gas Engine and Vehicle Research & Development (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the status of the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) activity, including goals, R&D progress, NGV implementation, and the transition to hydrogen.

  14. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, David B. (108 Tall Oaks Dr., Wayne, NJ 07470); Gelbein, Abraham P. (45 Headley Rd., Morristown, NJ 07960)

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  15. Application of Crunch-Flow Routines to Constrain Present and Past Carbon Fluxes at Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, Marta

    2014-01-31

    In November 2012, Oregon State University initiated the project entitled: Application of Crunch-Flow routines to constrain present and past carbon fluxes at gas-hydrate bearing sites. Within this project we developed Crunch-Flow based modeling modules that include important biogeochemical processes that need to be considered in gas hydrate environments. Our modules were applied to quantify carbon cycling in present and past systems, using data collected during several DOE-supported drilling expeditions, which include the Cascadia margin in US, Ulleung Basin in South Korea, and several sites drilled offshore India on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Specifically, we completed modeling efforts that: 1) Reproduce the compositional and isotopic profiles observed at the eight drilled sites in the Ulleung Basin that constrain and contrast the carbon cycling pathways at chimney (high methane flux) and non-chimney sites (low methane, advective systems); 2) Simulate the Ba record in the sediments to quantify the past dynamics of methane flux in the southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin; and 3) Provide quantitative estimates of the thickness of individual mass transport deposits (MTDs), time elapsed after the MTD event, rate of sulfate reduction in the MTD, and time required to reach a new steady state at several sites drilled in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin off India. In addition we developed a hybrid model scheme by coupling a home-made MATLAB code with CrunchFlow to address the methane transport and chloride enrichment at the Ulleung Basins chimney sites, and contributed the modeling component to a study focusing on pore-scale controls on gas hydrate distribution in sediments from the Andaman Sea. These efforts resulted in two manuscripts currently under review, and contributed the modeling component of another pare, also under review. Lessons learned from these efforts are the basis of a mini-workshop to be held at Oregon State University (Feb 2014) to instruct graduate students (OSU and UW) as well as DOE staff from the NETL lab in Albany on the use of Crunch Flow for geochemical applications.

  16. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1,872 1,824 1,629 1,296 1,066 1973-2015 Offshore 58 53 59 53 52 43 1973-2015 By Type Crude Oil 1,596 1,573 1,539 1,362 1,050 857 1973-2015 Natural Gas 328 351 342 320 296 250...

  17. Magnetic flux leakage inspection of gas pipelines: Experience with a collapsible tool. Final report, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scrivner, R.W.

    1996-07-01

    The Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) technique is the most commonly used method to inspect transmission pipelines for corrosion. A typical MFL tool operates in pipelines which have no restrictions. Reduced size valves, a 24 inch valve in a 30 inch pipeline, are one such restriction. A collapsible MFL tool was developed to allow pipelines with reduced size valves to be inspected without expensive valve replacement. The first use, in 1995, of a 30 inch tool succeeded in passing through the valves and inspecting the pipeline. The first use of a 36 inch tool railed due to a partially closed valve, damaging the tool. The tool was ultimately run after some repairs to the tool and most of the reduced size valves were replaced with full size valves. The results of the final run were very good. Additional use of the tools in 1996 has provided excellent results.

  18. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilling Activity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Data Series Oct-14 Nov-14 Dec-14...

  19. EMERGENCE OF HELICAL FLUX AND THE FORMATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lites, B. W.; Kubo, M.; Berger, T.; Frank, Z.; Shine, R.; Tarbell, T.; Title, A.; Okamoto, T. J.; Otsuji, K.

    2010-07-20

    We present comprehensive observations of the formation and evolution of a filament channel within NOAA Active Region (AR) 10978 from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope and TRACE. We employ sequences of Hinode spectro-polarimeter maps of the AR, accompanying Hinode Narrowband Filter Instrument magnetograms in the Na I D1 line, Hinode Broadband Filter Instrument filtergrams in the Ca II H line and G-band, Hinode X-ray telescope X-ray images, and TRACE Fe IX 171 A image sequences. The development of the channel resembles qualitatively that presented by Okamoto et al. in that many indicators point to the emergence of a pre-existing sub-surface magnetic flux rope. The consolidation of the filament channel into a coherent structure takes place rapidly during the course of a few hours, and the filament form then gradually shrinks in width over the following two days. Particular to this filament channel is the observation of a segment along its length of horizontal, weak (500 G) flux that, unlike the rest of the filament channel, is not immediately flanked by strong vertical plage fields of opposite polarity on each side of the filament. Because this isolated horizontal field is observed in photospheric lines, we infer that it is unlikely that the channel formed as a result of reconnection in the corona, but the low values of inferred magnetic fill fraction along the entire length of the filament channel suggest that the bulk of the field resides somewhat above the low photosphere. Correlation tracking of granulation in the G band presents no evidence for either systematic flows toward the channel or systematic shear flows along it. The absence of these flows, along with other indications of these data from multiple sources, reinforces (but does not conclusively demonstrate) the picture of an emerging flux rope as the origin of this AR filament channel.

  20. Flux enhancement with powdered activated carbon addition in the membrane anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H.; Choo, K.H.; Lee, C.H.

    1999-10-01

    The effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the performance of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) was investigated in terms of membrane filterability and treatability through a series of batch and continuous microfiltration (MF) experiments. In both batch and continuous MF of the digestion broth, a flux improvement with PAC addition was achieved, especially when a higher shear rate and/or a higher PAC dose were applied. Both the fouling and cake layer resistances decreased continuously with increasing the PAC dose up to 5 g/L. PAC played an important role in substantially reducing the biomass cake resistance due to its incompressible nature and higher backtransport velocities. PAC might have a scouring effect for removing the deposited biomass cake from the membrane surface while sorbing and/or coagulating dissolved organics and colloidal particles in the broth. The chemical oxygen demand and color in the effluent were much removed with PAC addition, and the system was also more stable against shock loading.

  1. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    20, 2014 The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities U.S. Department of Energy Attention: Larine Moore, Docket Room Manager Docket Room FE-34 P.0. Box 44375 Washington, DC 20026-4375 Re: Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC DOE Semi-annual Report DOE/FE Order Nos. 2833, 2961, and 3384 FE Docket Nos. 10-85-LNG, 10-111-LNG, and 13-121-LNG Dear Ms. Moore: Pursuant to the above-referenced Orders, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC ("Sabine Pass"), herein submits documents describing

  3. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    0, 2013 The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities U.S. Department of Energy Attention: Larine Moore, Docket Room Manager Docket Room FE-34 P. O. Box 44375 Washington, DC 20026-4375 RE: Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC DOE Semi-Annual Report DOE/FE Order Nos. 2833 and 2961 FE Docket Nos. 10-85-LNG and 10-111-LNG Dear Ms. Moore: Pursuant to the above-referenced Orders, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC ("Sabine Pass"), herein submits its Semi-Annual Report for the documents

  4. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    October 1, 2013 The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities U.S. Department of Energy Attention: Larine Moore, Docket Room Manager Docket Room FE-34 P.0. Box 44375 Washington, DC 20026-4375 Re: Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC DOE Semi-annual Report DOE/FE Order Nos. 2833 and 2961 FE Docket Nos. 10-85-LNG and 10-111-LNG Dear Ms. Moore: Pursuant to the above-referenced Orders, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC ("Sabine Pass"), herein submits documents describing the progress

  5. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    9, 2014 The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities U.S. Department of Energy Attention: Larine Moore, Docket Room Manager Docket Room FE-34 P.0. Box 44375 Washington, DC 20026-4375 Re: Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC DOE Semi-annual Report DOE/FE Order Nos. 2833, 2961, 3384, and 3442 FE Docket Nos. 10-85-LNG, 10-111-LNG, 13-121-LNG and 14-31-LNG Dear Ms. Moore: Pursuant to the above-referenced Orders, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC ("Sabine Pass"), herein submits

  6. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    31, 2015 The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities U.S. Department of Energy Attention: Larine Moore, Docket Room Manager Docket Room FE-34 P.0. Box 44375 Washington, DC 20026-4375 Re: Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC DOE Semi-Annual Report DOE/FE Order Nos. 2833, 2961, 3384, 3442, 3306, 3307, and 3595 FE Docket Nos. 10-85-LNG, 10-111-LNG, 13-121-LNG, 14-31-LNG, 13-30-LNG, 13-42-LNG, and 14-92-LNG Dear Ms. Moore: Pursuant to the above-referenced Orders, Sabine Pass Liquefaction,

  7. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    September 30, 2015 The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities U.S. Department of Energy Attention: Larine Moore, Docket Room Manager Docket Room FE-34 P.0. Box 44375 Washington, DC 20026-4375 Re: Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC DOE Semi-Annual Report DOE/FE Order Nos. 2833, 2961-A, 3384, 3442, 3306, 3307, 3595, and 3669 FE Docket Nos. 10-85-LNG, 10-111-LNG, 13-121-LNG, 14-31-LNG, 13-30-LNG, 13-42-LNG, and 14-92-LNG Dear Ms. Moore: Pursuant to the above-referenced Orders, Sabine

  8. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A.; Noh, Joong S.; Agarwal, Rajiv K.

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  9. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R.; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C.

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 2030% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  10. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12:20:34 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5440US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground...

  11. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5560US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground...

  12. 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology Of Magmatic Activity, Magma Flux And...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    activity and hazard prediction. Authors John A. Gamble, Richard C. Price, Ian E. M. Smith, William C. McIntosh and Nelia W. Dunbar Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and...

  13. The Office of Fossil Energy Natural Gas Regulatory Activities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... fire and gas detection, and the supervision of refrigeration compressors installation. ... Train 4 worked on completing the refrigeration compressor table top foundation and ...

  14. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  15. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  16. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by ?-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nault, Rance; Abdul-Fattah, Hiba; Mironov, Gleb G.; Berezovski, Maxim V.; Moon, Thomas W.

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist ?-naphthoflavone (?NF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 ?M ?NF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: Energetic costs of AhR activation by ?NF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. Exposure to ?NF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism.

  17. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Category:Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Subcategories This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total. G Gas Flux Sampling 1 pages S Soil Gas Sampling 1 pages Surface Gas...

  19. The AmeriFlux Data Activity and Data System: An Evolving Collection of Data Management Techniques, Tools, Products and Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, Thomas A; Krassovski, Misha B; Yang, Bai

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the U.S. Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Over this period, climate change science has expanded from research focusing on basic understanding of geochemical cycles, particularly the carbon cycle, to integrated research addressing climate change impacts, vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation. Interests in climate change data and information worldwide have grown remarkably and, as a result, so have demands and expectations for CDIAC s data systems. To meet the growing demands, CDIAC s strategy has been to design flexible data systems using proven technologies blended with new, evolving technologies and standards. CDIAC development teams are multidisciplinary and include computer science and information technology expertise, but also scientific expertise necessary to address data quality and documentation issues and to identify data products and system capabilities needed by climate change scientists. CDIAC has learned there is rarely a single commercial tool or product readily available to satisfy long-term scientific data system requirements (i.e., one size does not fit all and the breadth and diversity of environmental data are often too complex for easy use with commercial products) and typically deploys a variety of tools and data products in an effort to provide credible data freely to users worldwide. Like many scientific data management applications, CDIAC s data systems are highly customized to satisfy specific scientific usage requirements (e.g., developing data products specific for model use) but are also designed to be flexible and interoperable to take advantage of new software engineering techniques, standards (e.g., metadata standards) and tools and to support future Earth system data efforts (e.g., ocean acidification). CDIAC has provided data management support for numerous long-term measurement projects crucial to climate change science. One current example is the AmeriFlux measurement network. AmeriFlux provides continuous measurements from forests, grasslands, wetlands, and croplands in North, Central, and South America and offers important insight about carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We share our approaches in satisfying the challenges of delivering AmeriFlux data worldwide to benefit others with similar challenges handling climate change data, further heighten awareness and use of an outstanding ecological data resource, and highlight expanded software engineering applications being used for climate change measurement data.

  20. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm{sup 2}-sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface.

  1. Active control of low frequency sound in a gas turbine compressor installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinbanks, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    During the last decade, the development of active attenuators has progressed from theoretical analysis, through laboratory experiments of increasing sophistication to the stage where their practical application to certain large scale industrial sources has finally become reality. This paper outlines some features which the author has investigated in the laboratory, and concludes with a description of the results achieved in applying these techniques to an 11 M.W. Avon Gas Turbine Compressor Installation. The active control hardware necessary to achieve these results represented a very considerable cost saving compared to the estimated cost of achieving similar performance by passive means.

  2. Modeling hot gas flow in the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2014-02-20

    Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with ?{sup 2}/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 10{sup 9} M {sub ?}. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r {sub st} ? 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r{sub B} = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 10{sup 3} M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}. We find a shallow density profile n?r {sup ?} with ? ? 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r ? 1'', and (4) the outflow at r ? 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T{sub v} at any radius.

  3. Innovative high pressure gas MEM's based neutron detector for ICF and active SNM detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Shawn Bryan; Derzon, Mark Steven; Renzi, Ronald F.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew

    2007-12-01

    An innovative helium3 high pressure gas detection system, made possible by utilizing Sandia's expertise in Micro-electrical Mechanical fluidic systems, is proposed which appears to have many beneficial performance characteristics with regards to making these neutron measurements in the high bremsstrahlung and electrical noise environments found in High Energy Density Physics experiments and especially on the very high noise environment generated on the fast pulsed power experiments performed here at Sandia. This same system may dramatically improve active WMD and contraband detection as well when employed with ultrafast (10-50 ns) pulsed neutron sources.

  4. Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With ethanol becoming more prevalent in the media and in gas tanks, it is important for students to know where it comes from. This module uses a series of four activities to show how energy and mass are converted from one form to another. It focuses on the conversion of light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis, then goes on to show how the chemical energy in plant sugars can be fermented to produce ethanol. Finally, the reasons for using ethanol as a fuel are discussed.

  5. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  6. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  7. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2005-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  8. Fast flux locked loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  9. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  10. Gas Phase Uranyl Activation: Formation of a Uranium Nitrosyl Complex from Uranyl Azide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Yu; De Jong, Wibe A.; Gibson, John K.

    2015-05-13

    Activation of the oxo bond of uranyl, UO22+, was achieved by collision induced dissociation (CID) of UO2(N3)Cl2 in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The gas phase complex UO2(N3)Cl2 was produced by electrospray ionization of solutions of UO2Cl2 and NaN3. CID of UO2(N3)Cl2 resulted in the loss of N2 to form UO(NO)Cl2, in which the inert uranyl oxo bond has been activated. Formation of UO2Cl2 via N3 loss was also observed. Density functional theory computations predict that the UO(NO)Cl2 complex has nonplanar Cs symmetry and a singlet ground state. Analysis of the bonding of the UO(NO)Cl2 complex shows that the side-on bonded NO moiety can be considered as NO3, suggesting a formal oxidation state of U(VI). Activation of the uranyl oxo bond in UO2(N3)Cl2 to form UO(NO)Cl2 and N2 was computed to be endothermic by 169 kJ/mol, which is energetically more favorable than formation of NUOCl2 and UO2Cl2. The observation of UO2Cl2 during CID is most likely due to the absence of an energy barrier for neutral ligand loss.

  11. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  12. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  13. Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of geothermometric calculations and geochemical modeling of the data. In the case of gas flux sampling, different measurement techniques and devices may disrupt or alter the...

  14. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  15. Energy flux density in a thermoacoustic couple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, N.; Chen, S. |; Olson, R.; Swift, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    The hydro- and thermodynamical processes near and within a thermoacoustic couple are simulated and analyzed by numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes, continuity, and energy equations for an ideal gas, concentrating on the time-averaged energy flux density in the gas. The numerical results show details of the heat sink at one end of the plates in the thermoacoustic couple. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Methane flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane flux Vertical flux of methane near the surface due to turbulent transport. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  17. LCLS Spectral Flux Viewer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-25

    This application (FluxViewer) is a tool for displaying spectral flux data for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This tool allows the user to view sliced spatial and energy distributions of the photons selected for specific energies and positions transverse to the beam axis.

  18. HIGS Flux Performance Projection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HIGS flux performance table for high-flux, quasi-CW operation, DFELL/TUNL, Nov. 9, 2010 (Version 2.3). HIGS Flux Performance Projection (2010 - 2011) Total Flux [g/s] CW Operation Two-Bunch (*) Collimated Flux (∆E γ /E γ = 5% FWHM) (#), (@) FEL λ [nm] Comment No-loss Mode : < 20 MeV Linear Pol. with OK-4 Circular Pol with OK-5 E γ = 1 - 2 MeV (E e = 237 - 336 MeV) 1 x 10 8 - 4 x 10 8 6 x 10 6 - 2.4 x 10 7 1064 Linear and Circular (a), (b) E γ = 2 - 2.9 MeV (E e = 336 - 405 MeV) 4 x 10

  19. PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION AND THE BUILD-UP OF SIGMOIDAL FLUX ROPES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Green, L. M.

    2012-11-10

    In this study we explore the scenario of photospheric flux cancellation being the primary formation mechanism of sigmoidal flux ropes in decaying active regions. We analyze magnetogram and X-ray observations together with data-driven non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models of observed sigmoidal regions to test this idea. We measure the total and canceled fluxes in the regions from MDI magnetograms, as well as the axial and poloidal flux content of the modeled NLFFF flux ropes for three sigmoids-2007 February, 2007 December, and 2010 February. We infer that the sum of the poloidal and axial flux in the flux ropes for most models amounts to about 60%-70% of the canceled flux and 30%-50% of the total flux in the regions. The flux measurements and the analysis of the magnetic field structure show that the sigmoids first develop a strong axial field manifested as a sheared arcade and then, as flux cancellation proceeds, form long S-shaped field lines that contribute to the poloidal flux. In addition, the dips in the S-shaped field lines are located at the sites of flux cancellation that have been identified from the MDI magnetograms. We find that the line-of-sight-integrated free energy is also concentrated at these locations for all three regions, which can be liberated in the process of eruption. Flare-associated brightenings and flare loops coincide with the location of the X-line topology that develops at the site of most vigorous flux cancellation.

  20. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Actinic flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsActinic flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Actinic flux The quantity of light in the atmosphere available to molecules at a particular point and which, on absorption, initiates photochemical processes in the atmosphere (spectral spheradiance) actinic flux units: (quanta or photons) / ( m2 nm s ), sometimes specific to a particular reaction, e.g. j(NO2). Categories

  2. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Information Program. Update 2, August 1981, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: a summary report, July 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In July 1980, the Office of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Information issued an initial report called Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: A Summary Report, July 1980. The purpose of this report was to provide State and local governments with current information about offshore oil and gas resources and onshore activity in the area extending from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Cape Canaveral, Florida. This information was designed to assist in socioeconomic planning for the onshore impacts of oil and gas development in the affected areas. This report, Update 2, discusses Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities and their onshore impacts for the period of February 1981 to August 1981. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the South Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Very little, if any, development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. Even though the South Atlantic OCS does contain large areas with hydrocarbon potential, little optimism has been generated by exploration associated with Lease Sale 43. Lease Sale 56 included tracts with geologic conditions more favorable to the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, especially the deepwatr tracts, but industry showed moderate interest in the first deepwater lease sale. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with Lease Sale 56. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of exploration efforts.

  3. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

  4. FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

    2012-08-01

    Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

  5. Final Report Independent Verification Survey of the High Flux Beam Reactor, Building 802 Fan House Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpeneau, Evan M.

    2011-06-24

    On May 9, 2011, ORISE conducted verification survey activities including scans, sampling, and the collection of smears of the remaining soils and off-gas pipe associated with the 802 Fan House within the HFBR (High Flux Beam Reactor) Complex at BNL. ORISE is of the opinion, based on independent scan and sample results obtained during verification activities at the HFBR 802 Fan House, that the FSS (final status survey) unit meets the applicable site cleanup objectives established for as left radiological conditions.

  6. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-26

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  7. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  8. Diagnostic Neutral Beam Injector for Active Plasma Spectroscopy at Gas-Dynamic Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korepanov, S.A.; Deichuli, P.O.; Ivanov, A.A.; Mishagin, V.V.

    2005-01-15

    A diagnostic beam system has been developed for the GDT. This injector is the modification of the diagnostic injector RFX-DNBI. The system is primarily used for magnetic field measurements via motional Stark effect (MSE). The ion source provides 50keV, 5A hydrogen beam. Ions are extracted from a plasma created by an arc-discharge source and, after accelerating and focusing, are neutralized in a gas target. A plasma emitter, which is formed by collisionless expansion of a plasma jet on to the grids, has low perpendicular ion temperature. These results in rather low (0.01 rad) angular divergence of the extracted ion beam. In the accelerator, there is a set of four nested grids with 421 circular apertures of 4 mm diameter configured in a hexagonal pattern. The geometry of the elementary cell was optimized by using 2D computer code PBGUNS to obtain small angular divergence of the beam. The grids of ion optical system are spherically curved providing geometric focusing of the beam at a distance 1.5 m. Arc-discharge plasma box provides highly ionized plasma, so that the extracted beam has about 90% of full energy specie. The injector provides up to 4 ms duration pulse.

  9. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  10. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  11. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

  12. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

  13. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  14. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  15. COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE DECAY HEAT REMOVAL APPROACH FOR THE 24 MWt GAS-COOLED FAST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHENG,L.Y.; LUDEWIG, H.

    2007-06-01

    Decay heat removal at depressurized shutdown conditions has been regarded as one of the key areas where significant improvement in passive response was targeted for the GEN IV GFR over the GCFR designs of thirty years ago. It has been recognized that the poor heat transfer characteristics of gas coolant at lower pressures needed to be accommodated in the GEN IV design. The design envelope has therefore been extended to include a station blackout sequence simultaneous with a small break/leak. After an exploratory phase of scoping analysis in this project, together with CEA of France, it was decided that natural convection would be selected as the passive decay heat removal approach of preference. Furthermore, a double vessel/containment option, similar to the double vessel/guard vessel approach of the SFR, was selected as the means of design implementation to reduce the PRA risks of the depressurization accident. However additional calculations in conjunction with CEA showed that there was an economic penalty in terms of decay heat removal system heat exchanger size, elevation heights for thermal centers, and most of all in guard containment back pressure for complete reliance on natural convection only. The back pressure ranges complicated the design requirements for the guard containment. Recognizing that the definition of a loss-of-coolant-accident in the GFR is a misnomer, since gas coolant will always be present, and the availability of some driven blower would reduce fuel temperature transients significantly; it was decided instead to aim for a hybrid active/passive combination approach to the selected BDBA. Complete natural convection only would still be relied on for decay heat removal but only after the first twenty four hours after the initiation of the accident. During the first twenty four hour period an actively powered blower would be relied on to provide the emergency decay power removal. However the power requirements of the active blower/circulators would be kept low by maintaining a pressurized system coolant back pressure of {approx}7-8 bars through the design of the guard containment for such a design pressure. This approach is termed the medium pressure approach by both CEA and the US. Such a containment design pressure is in the range of the LWR experience, both PWRs and BWRs. Both metal containments and concrete guard containments are possible in this pressure range. This approach is then a time-at-risk approach as the power requirements should be low enough that battery/fuel cell banks without diesel generator start-up failure rate issues should be capable of providing the necessary power. Compressed gas sources are another possibility. A companion PRA study is being conducted to survey the reliability of such systems.

  16. High flux reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lake, James A.; Heath, Russell L.; Liebenthal, John L.; DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R.; Leyse, Carl F.; Parsons, Kent; Ryskamp, John M.; Wadkins, Robert P.; Harker, Yale D.; Fillmore, Gary N.; Oh, Chang H.

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  17. CURRENT BUILDUP IN EMERGING SERPENTINE FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pariat, E.; Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.

    2009-08-20

    The increase of magnetic flux in the solar atmosphere during active-region formation involves the transport of the magnetic field from the solar convection zone through the lowest layers of the solar atmosphere, through which the plasma {beta} changes from >1 to <1 with altitude. The crossing of this magnetic transition zone requires the magnetic field to adopt a serpentine shape also known as the sea-serpent topology. In the frame of the resistive flux-emergence model, the rising of the magnetic flux is believed to be dynamically driven by a succession of magnetic reconnections which are commonly observed in emerging flux regions as Ellerman bombs. Using a data-driven, three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation of flux emergence occurring in active region 10191 on 2002 November 16-17, we study the development of 3D electric current sheets. We show that these currents buildup along the 3D serpentine magnetic-field structure as a result of photospheric diverging horizontal line-tied motions that emulate the observed photospheric evolution. We observe that reconnection can not only develop following a pinching evolution of the serpentine field line, as usually assumed in two-dimensional geometry, but can also result from 3D shearing deformation of the magnetic structure. In addition, we report for the first time on the observation in the UV domain with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) of extremely transient loop-like features, appearing within the emerging flux domain, which link several Ellermam bombs with one another. We argue that these loop transients can be explained as a consequence of the currents that build up along the serpentine magnetic field.

  18. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; McCabe, D.

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  19. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts. South Atlantic summary report update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havran, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    An update of the South Atlantic Summary Report 2, this report provides current information about Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil- and gas-related activities and their onshore impacts for the period June 1982 to February, 1983. The geographical area covered by the report extends from north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to Cape Canaveral, Florida. The information is designed to assist in planning for the onshore effects associated with offshore oil and gas development. It covers lease and transportation strategies and the nature and location of onshore facilities. An appendix summarizes related state and federal studies. 11 references, 2 tables.

  20. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

  1. Oil and Gas Gateway | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    States, oil and gas boards and commissions are the place for finding data related to oil and gas activities. These activities include well records, permitting, and production...

  2. Plasma focus ion beam fluence and fluxFor various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Saw, S. H. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    A recent paper derived benchmarks for deuteron beam fluence and flux in a plasma focus (PF) [S. Lee and S. H. Saw, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112703 (2012)]. In the present work we start from first principles, derive the flux equation of the ion beam of any gas; link to the Lee Model code and hence compute the ion beam properties of the PF. The results show that, for a given PF, the fluence, flux, ion number and ion current decrease from the lightest to the heaviest gas except for trend-breaking higher values for Ar fluence and flux. The energy fluence, energy flux, power flow, and damage factors are relatively constant from H{sub 2} to N{sub 2} but increase for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe due to radiative cooling and collapse effects. This paper provides much needed benchmark reference values and scaling trends for ion beams of a PF operated in any gas.

  3. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 5. Neutron measurements. Part 2. External neutron- and gamma flux measurements by sample activation. Section 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggers, W.A.; Brown, L.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Greenhouse operation consisted of a series of four shots conducted at Eniwetok during the Srping of 1951. The external neutron threshold measurements consisted of the use of good samples to measure integrated thermal neutron fluxes and sulfur, iodine, and zirconium samples to measure fluxes of higher-energy neutrons. The iodine also measured high-energy gamma-ray intensity. Measurements were also made on slow- and fast-neutron intensities as a function of time.

  4. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2)more » and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.« less

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Accounting Standards Board. The changes will allow FERC an understanding of the nature and extent to which hedging activities are used by electric utilities and gas...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storm activity has been above average this year, there has been little impact on natural gas markets. Tropical Depression 6 showed up in the eastern Caribbean early this...

  7. Relativistic MHD simulations of poynting flux-driven jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Xiaoyue; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2014-01-20

    Relativistic, magnetized jets are observed to propagate to very large distances in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations to study the propagation of Poynting flux-driven jets in AGNs. These jets are already assumed to be being launched from the vicinity (?10{sup 3} gravitational radii) of supermassive black holes. Jet injections are characterized by a model described in Li et al., and we follow the propagation of these jets to ?parsec scales. We find that these current-carrying jets are always collimated and mildly relativistic. When ?, the ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal magnetic flux injection, is large the jet is subject to nonaxisymmetric current-driven instabilities (CDI) which lead to substantial dissipation and reduced jet speed. However, even with the presence of instabilities, the jet is not disrupted and will continue to propagate to large distances. We suggest that the relatively weak impact by the instability is due to the nature of the instability being convective and the fact that the jet magnetic fields are rapidly evolving on Alfvnic time scales. We present the detailed jet properties and show that far from the jet launching region, a substantial amount of magnetic energy has been transformed into kinetic energy and thermal energy, producing a jet magnetization number ? < 1. In addition, we have also studied the effects of a gas pressure supported 'disk' surrounding the injection region, and qualitatively similar global jet behaviors were observed. We stress that jet collimation, CDIs, and the subsequent energy transitions are intrinsic features of current-carrying jets.

  8. Natural gas monthly, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    This document presents information pertaining to the natural gas industry. Data are included on production, consumption, distribution, and pipeline activities.

  9. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Gas Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Gas Methane gas is another naturally occurring greenhouse gas. It is produced as a result of microbial activity in the absence of oxygen. Pre-industrial concentrations of methane were about 700 ppb and in 1994 they were up

  10. ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsLatent heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Latent heat flux The time rate of flow for the specific enthalpy difference between two phases of a substance at the same temperature, typically water. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  11. ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    moisture flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dq/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the moisture is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  12. Natural gas monthly, August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    This report presents information on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  13. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  14. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O'Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  15. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  16. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Home > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency > Posts by term > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Content Group Activity By term Q & A...

  17. Oman Ministry of Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of oil and gas. Prepare legislation and regulations governing oil and gas. Oversee oil and gas exploration and production activities. Establish "Petroleum Agreements" with...

  18. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  20. Natural gas monthly, September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-27

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Gas Flux Sampling At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  7. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Bergfeld...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from locations west and east of the plant revealed the presence of isobutane related to plant operations. The 13C values of diffuse CO2 range from - 5.7 to - 3.4, similar...

  8. Gas Flux Sampling (Klein, 2007) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The Past 20 Years- Geochemistry In Geothermal Exploration Resource Evaluation And Reservoir Management Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  9. Gas Flux Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Iovenitti...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    H. Ibser, Jennifer Lewicki, B. Mack. Kennedy, Michael Swyer (2013) Egs Exploration Methodology Project Using the Dixie Valley Geothermal System, Nevada, Status Update Additional...

  10. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutart, Charles H. (Washington, IL); Choi, Cathy Y. (Morton, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  11. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  12. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsSensible heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sensible heat flux The time rate of flow for the energy transferred from a warm or hot surface to whatever is touching it, typically air. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of

  14. ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil heat flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dT/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the heat is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  15. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Mid-Atlantic and their onshore impacts: a summary report, November 1979. Update 3, August 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    At the present, there are no operators drilling in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The prime targets for future exploration will be in areas of 3000 to 6000 feet (914 to 1829 m) depth of water, seaward of previously leased tracts. No commercial discoveries have been found during the 4-year drilling history of the area. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the Mid-Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Little development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with upcoming Lease Sale 59. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of future exploration efforts. After Lease Sale 59, the next sale is Lease Sale 76, which is tentatively scheduled for March 1983.

  16. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; Moridis, George J.

    2015-03-01

    We conducted three-dimensional coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical modeling of fault activation and seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing stimulation of a shale-gas reservoir. We simulated a case in which a horizontal injection well intersects a steeply dip- ping fault, with hydraulic fracturing channeled within the fault, during a 3-hour hydraulic fracturing stage. Consistent with field observations, the simulation results show that shale-gas hydraulic fracturing along faults does not likely induce seismic events that could be felt on the ground surface, but rather results in numerous small microseismic events, as well as aseismic deformations along with the fracture propagation. The calculated seismicmore » moment magnitudes ranged from about -2.0 to 0.5, except for one case assuming a very brittle fault with low residual shear strength, for which the magnitude was 2.3, an event that would likely go unnoticed or might be barely felt by humans at its epicenter. The calculated moment magnitudes showed a dependency on injection depth and fault dip. We attribute such dependency to variation in shear stress on the fault plane and associated variation in stress drop upon reactivation. Our simulations showed that at the end of the 3-hour injection, the rupture zone associated with tensile and shear failure extended to a maximum radius of about 200 m from the injection well. The results of this modeling study for steeply dipping faults at 1000 to 2500 m depth is in agreement with earlier studies and field observations showing that it is very unlikely that activation of a fault by shale-gas hydraulic fracturing at great depth (thousands of meters) could cause felt seismicity or create a new flow path (through fault rupture) that could reach shallow groundwater resources.« less

  17. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  18. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  19. HOMOLOGOUS FLUX ROPES OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-12-01

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of four homologous flux ropes in the active region (AR) 11745 on 2013 May 20-22. The four flux ropes are all above the neutral line of the AR, with endpoints anchoring at the same region, and have a generally similar morphology. The first three flux ropes rose with a velocity of less than 30km s{sup 1} after their appearance, and subsequently their intensities at 131 decreased and the flux ropes became obscure. The fourth flux rope erupted last, with a speed of about 130km s{sup 1} and formed a coronal mass ejection (CME). The associated filament showed an obvious anti-clockwise twist motion at the initial stage, and the twist was estimated at 4?. This indicates that kink instability possibly triggers the early rise of the fourth flux rope. The activated filament material was spatially within the flux rope and showed consistent evolution in the early stages. Our findings provide new clues for understanding the characteristics of flux ropes. Firstly, multiple flux ropes are successively formed at the same location during an AR evolution process. Secondly, a slow-rise flux rope does not necessarily result in a CME, and a fast-eruption flux rope does result in a CME.

  20. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  1. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  2. Initial activity of reduced chromia/alumina catalyst in n-butane dehydrogenation monitored by on-line FT-IR gas analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakuli, A.; Kytoekivi, A.; Suntola, T.

    1996-06-01

    The initial activity of chromia/alumina catalyst (13 wt% Cr) in n-butane dehydrogenation was studied in a flow reactor at 853 K. The initial activity was determined by on-line FT-IR gas analysis, which enabled sampling of the gaseous product mixture at a time resolution of seconds. The catalysts were processed in repeated cycles of oxidation, reduction, and dehydrogenation using n-butane, methane, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide as reducing agents. With n-butane, methane, and hydrogen and dehydrogenation activity was associated with Cr{sup 3+} species apparently formed in the reduction of high-valence Cr species. The catalyst reduced with carbon monoxide at 853 K showed poor initial selectivity for butenes and, relative to the other catalysts. Simultaneous data relating the initial activity, coke content, and some of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst indicated that the surfaces of all catalysts were modified to some extent by the successive reaction cycles. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Calzetti, Daniela; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Yun, Min S.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Montaa, Alfredo; Vega, Olga; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Shi, Yong

    2014-12-01

    The molecular gas, H{sub 2}, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L {sub IR} to L{sub CO}{sup ?} is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to L{sub IR}{sup tot} results in a mean L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} for our entire sample consistent with the mean L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ? 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L{sub 6.2}/L{sub IR}{sup SF} and L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ?}, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  4. Gas Sampling At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Sampling At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  5. Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities) Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities) Below is information...

  6. CO2 and CH4 Fluxes across Polygon Geomorphic Types, Barrow, Alaska, 2006-2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tweedie,Craig; Lara, Mark

    2014-09-17

    Carbon flux data are reported as Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE), Ecosystem Respiration (ER), and Methane (CH4) flux. Measurements were made at 82 plots across various polygon geomorphic classes at research sites on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), the Biocomplexity Experiment site on the BEO, and the International Biological Program (IBP) site a little west of the BEO. This product is a compilation of data from 27 plots as presented in Lara et al. (2012), data from six plots presented in Olivas et al. (2010); and from 49 plots described in (Lara et al. 2014). Measurements were made during the peak of the growing seasons during 2006 to 2010. At each of the measurement plots (except Olivas et al., 2010) four different thicknesses of shade cloth were used to generate CO2 light response curves. Light response curves were used to normalize photosynthetically active radiation that is diurnally variable to a peak growing season average ~400 umolm-2sec-1. At the Olivas et al. (2010) plots, diurnal patterns were characterized by repeated sampling. CO2 measurements were made using a closed-chamber photosynthesis system and CH4 measurements were made using a photo-acoustic multi-gas analyzer. In addition, plot-level measurements for thaw depth (TD), water table depth (WTD), leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are summarized by geomorphic polygon type.

  7. CO2 and CH4 Fluxes across Polygon Geomorphic Types, Barrow, Alaska, 2006-2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tweedie,Craig; Lara, Mark

    Carbon flux data are reported as Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE), Ecosystem Respiration (ER), and Methane (CH4) flux. Measurements were made at 82 plots across various polygon geomorphic classes at research sites on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), the Biocomplexity Experiment site on the BEO, and the International Biological Program (IBP) site a little west of the BEO. This product is a compilation of data from 27 plots as presented in Lara et al. (2012), data from six plots presented in Olivas et al. (2010); and from 49 plots described in (Lara et al. 2014). Measurements were made during the peak of the growing seasons during 2006 to 2010. At each of the measurement plots (except Olivas et al., 2010) four different thicknesses of shade cloth were used to generate CO2 light response curves. Light response curves were used to normalize photosynthetically active radiation that is diurnally variable to a peak growing season average ~400 umolm-2sec-1. At the Olivas et al. (2010) plots, diurnal patterns were characterized by repeated sampling. CO2 measurements were made using a closed-chamber photosynthesis system and CH4 measurements were made using a photo-acoustic multi-gas analyzer. In addition, plot-level measurements for thaw depth (TD), water table depth (WTD), leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are summarized by geomorphic polygon type.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  9. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  10. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  13. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUXES IN A CENTRAL HARDWOODS OAK-HICKORY FOREST ECOSYSTEM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: CARBON DIOXIDE FLUXES IN A CENTRAL HARDWOODS OAK-HICKORY FOREST ECOSYSTEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CARBON DIOXIDE FLUXES IN A CENTRAL HARDWOODS OAK-HICKORY FOREST ECOSYSTEM A long-term experiment to measure carbon and water fluxes was initiated in 2004 as part of the Ameriflux network in a second-growth oak-hickory forest in central Missouri. Ecosystem-scale (~ 1 km2) canopy gas exchange (measured by eddy-covariance methods),

  17. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. Influence of Arctic cloud thermodynamic phase on surface shortwave flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A.

    2010-03-15

    As part of the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Inc.) spectroradiometer was deployed at the Barrow NSA site during April and May of 2008, and in April-October of 2009. This instrument recorded one-minute averages of surface downwelling spectral flux in the wavelength interval 350-2200 nm, thus sampling the two major near infrared windows (1.6 and 2.2 microns) in which the flux is influenced by cloud microphysical properties including thermodynamic phase and effective particle size. Aircraft in situ measurements of cloud properties show mostly mixed-phase clouds over Barrow during the campaign, but with wide variability in relative liquid versus ice water content. At fixed total optical depth, this variability in phase composition can yield of order 5-10 Watts per square meter in surface flux variability, with greater cloud attenuation of the surface flux usually occurring under higher ice water content. Thus our data show that changes in cloud phase properties, even within the 'mixed-phase' category, can affect the surface energy balance at the same order of magnitude as greenhouse gas increases. Analysis of this spectral radiometric data provides suggestions for testing new mixed-phase parameterizations in climate models.

  20. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-24

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. High-flux solar photon processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorents, D C; Narang, S; Huestis, D C; Mooney, J L; Mill, T; Song, H K; Ventura, S

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

  5. Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-17

    International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

  6. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  7. South Atlantic summary report 2. Revision of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deis, J.L.; Kurz, F.N.; Porter, E.O.

    1982-05-01

    The search for oil and gas on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the South Atlantic Region began in 1960, when geophysical surveys of the area were initiated. In 1977, a Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well was drilled in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. In March 1978, the first lease sale, Sale 43, was held, resulting in the leasing of 43 tracts. Approximately a year later, in May 1979, the first exploratory drilling began, and by February 1980, six exploratory wells had been drilled by four companies. Hydrocarbons were not found in any of these wells. Lease Sale 56, the second lease sale in the South Atlantic Region, was held in August 1981. The sale resulted in the leasing of 47 tracts. Most of the leased tracts are in deep water along the Continental Slope off North Carolina. To date, no drilling has occurred on these tracts, but it is likely that two wells will be drilled or will be in the process of being drilled by the end of 1982. Reoffering Sale RS-2 is scheduled for July 1982, and it will include tracts offered in Lease Sale 56 that were not awarded leases. Lease Sale 78 is scheduled to be held in July 1983. The most recent (March 1982) estimates of risked resources for leased lands in the South Atlantic OCS are 27 million barrels of oil and 120 billion cubic feet of gas. To date, onshore impacts resulting from OCS exploration have been minimal, and they were associated with Lease Sale 43 exploratory activities. In June 1981, the South Atlantic Regional Technical Working Group prepared a Regional Transportation Management Plan for the South Atlantic OCS. The plan is principally an integration of regulatory frameworks, policies, and plans that are applicable to pipeline siting from each of the South Atlantic coastal States and Federal agencies with jurisdiction in the area.

  8. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic and their onshore impacts. Atlantic summary report, July 1, 1983-December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, R.W.; Havran, K.J.

    1984-12-01

    The search for oil and gas on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Atlantic continues. Hydrocarbon exploration efforts have been and probably will continue to be concentrated on four major sedimentary basins: the Georges Bank Basin, the Baltimore Canyon Trough, the Carolina Trough, and the Blake Plateau Basin. To date, 46 exploratory wells have been drilled in these areas, most of them in the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area where resource estimates indicate the hydrocarbon potential is the greatest of the three Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Currently, no operators are involved in exploration efforts in the Atlantic. No commercial discoveries have been announced. Since the first and most successful sale of Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf blocks in Lease Sale 40 in August 1976, there have been eight other sales bringing total revenues of almost $3 billion to the Federal Treasury. The current tentative milestone chart for the 5-year offshore leasing schedule calls for four additional lease sales to be held in the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. Although no firm plans have been made for the transportation of potential offshore hydrocarbons to onshore processing facilities, it is believed that oil would be transported by tanker or tug-barge system to existing refineries on the Raritan and Delaware Bays. Gas probably would be transported by pipeline to one of several onshore landfalls identifed by Atlantic Coast States and in Federal environmental impact documents. Recent onshore support for Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf exploration came from Davisville, Rhode Island, the only shore support base for the Atlantic that was active during 1984. Three maps are provided in the back pocket of this report for the North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic planning areas. 29 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 2000-2002

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates research and development (R&D) activity expanded significantly during the 2000-2002.

  10. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  11. Third millenium ideal gas and condensed phase thermochemical database for combustion (with update from active thermochemical tables).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burcat, A.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.

    2005-07-29

    The thermochemical database of species involved in combustion processes is and has been available for free use for over 25 years. It was first published in print in 1984, approximately 8 years after it was first assembled, and contained 215 species at the time. This is the 7th printed edition and most likely will be the last one in print in the present format, which involves substantial manual labor. The database currently contains more than 1300 species, specifically organic molecules and radicals, but also inorganic species connected to combustion and air pollution. Since 1991 this database is freely available on the internet, at the Technion-IIT ftp server, and it is continuously expanded and corrected. The database is mirrored daily at an official mirror site, and at random at about a dozen unofficial mirror and 'finger' sites. The present edition contains numerous corrections and many recalculations of data of provisory type by the G3//B3LYP method, a high-accuracy composite ab initio calculation. About 300 species are newly calculated and are not yet published elsewhere. In anticipation of the full coupling, which is under development, the database started incorporating the available (as yet unpublished) values from Active Thermochemical Tables. The electronic version now also contains an XML file of the main database to allow transfer to other formats and ease finding specific information of interest. The database is used by scientists, educators, engineers and students at all levels, dealing primarily with combustion and air pollution, jet engines, rocket propulsion, fireworks, but also by researchers involved in upper atmosphere kinetics, astrophysics, abrasion metallurgy, etc. This introductory article contains explanations of the database and the means to use it, its sources, ways of calculation, and assessments of the accuracy of data.

  12. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  13. Activation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emergency Response Services Activated At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CARLSBAD, N.M., 2/5/2014, 11:43 a.m. (MDT) - Emergency response services have been activated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The activation occurred as a result of an emergency incident at the site. More information will be provided as soon as the extent of the emergency is determined. The Joint Information Center (JIC), located at 4021 National Parks Highway, has been

  14. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  15. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z. [Newton, MA

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  16. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye (Newton, MA)

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  17. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; et al

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis ofmore » the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.« less

  18. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hrtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the landatmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.

  19. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunkel, Ronald W. (Lower Burrell, PA); Podey, Larry L. (Greensburg, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  20. Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Improved Hydrogen Flux New processing technique to develop ionic transport membranes with improved ionic and electronic conductivity Savannah River National Laboratory...

  1. Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  2. Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  3. Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  4. Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  5. Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  6. Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  7. Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  8. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  9. Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  10. Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  11. Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  12. Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  13. Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  14. Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  15. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the

  18. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  19. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Peter J; Rousculp, Christopher L; Reinovsky, Robert E; Reass, William A; Griego, Jeffrey R; Oro, David M; Merrill, Frank E

    2010-06-28

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  20. Dealing with natural gas uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J.; Graeber, D. )

    1991-04-01

    The fuel of choice for generating new power is and will continue over the next two decades to be natural gas. It is the fuel of choice because it is plentiful, environmentally acceptable, and relatively inexpensive. This paper reports that gas reserves on the North American continent continue to be discovered in amounts that may keep the gas bubble inflated far longer than currently estimated. New gas transportation capacity is actively being developed to overcome the capacity bottlenecks and deliverability shortfalls. Natural gas prices will probably remain stable (with expected CPI-related increases) for the short run (2-4 years), and probably will be higher than CPI increases thereafter.

  1. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  2. Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At...

  3. Gas Sampling At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Sampling At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  4. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency > Posts by term > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Combined Heat And Power...

  5. ARM - VAP Product - lblch1flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Productslbllblch1flux Documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) Citation DOI: 10.5439/1095322 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : LBLCH1FLUX AERI: LBLRTM, channel 1

  6. Hot-gas conditioning of biomass derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Litt, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Battelle has tested selected catalysts to evaluate the potential for hot-gas conditioning of biomass gasifier product gas to modify the product gas to produce a gas suitable for methanol synthesis. The Battelle Process Research Unit (PRU) gasifier was utilized as a source of a stable supply of product gas that contained all of the trace constituents that might be present in a commercial scale gasification system. One goal of alternate fuel generation with renewable biomass fuels is the production of a liquid transportation fuel such as methanol. The hot-gas conditioning tests run were planned to evaluate commercial catalysts that would crack hydrocarbons and provide water gas shift activity to adjust the product gas composition for methanol synthesis. During the test program, a novel, low cost catalyst, was identified that showed high levels of activity and stability. The composition of this catalyst is such that it has the potential to be a disposable catalyst and is free from hazardous materials. The initial tests with this catalyst showed high levels of water gas shift activity superior to, and hydrocarbon cracking activity nearly as high as, a commercial cracking catalyst tested.

  7. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  8. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  9. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  10. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  11. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1992-06-10

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

  12. Separation of gas mixtures by thermoacoustic waves.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G. W.; Geller, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Imposing sound on a binary gas mixture in a duct separates the two gases along the acoustic-propagation axis. Mole-fraction differences as large as 10% and separation fluxes as high as 0.001 M-squared c, where M is Mach number and c is sound speed, are easily observed. We describe the accidental discovery of this phenomenon in a helium-xenon mixture, subsequent experiments with a helium-argon mixture, and theoretical developments. The phenomenon occurs because a thin layer of the gas adjacent to the wall is immobilized by viscosity while the rest of the gas moves back and forth with the wave, and the heat capacity of the wall holds this thin layer of the gas at constant temperature while the rest of the gas experiences temperature oscillations due to the wave's oscillating pressure. The oscillating temperature gradient causes the light and heavy atoms in the gas to take turns diffusing into and out of the immobilized layer, so that the oscillating motion of the wave outside the immobilized layer tends to carry light-enriched gas in one direction and heavy-enriched gas in the opposite direction. Experiment and theory are in very good agreement for the initial separation fluxes and the saturation mole-fraction differences.

  13. SEPARATION OF GAS MIXTURES BY THERMOACOUSTIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.W. SWIFT; D.A. GELLER; P.S. SPOOR

    2001-06-01

    Imposing sound on a binary gas mixture in a duct separates the two gases along the acoustic-propagation axis. Mole-fraction differences as large as 10% and separation fluxes as high as 0.001 M-squared c, where M is Mach number and c is sound speed, are easily observed. We describe the accidental discovery of this phenomenon in a helium-xenon mixture, subsequent experiments with a helium-argon mixture, and theoretical developments. The phenomenon occurs because a thin layer of the gas adjacent to the wall is immobilized by viscosity while the rest of the gas moves back and forth with the wave, and the heat capacity of the wall holds this thin layer of the gas at constant temperature while the rest of the gas experiences temperature oscillations due to the wave's oscillating pressure. The oscillating temperature gradient causes the light and heavy atoms in the gas to take turns diffusing into and out of the immobilized layer, so that the oscillating motion of the wave outside the immobilized layer tends to carry light-enriched gas in one direction and heavy-enriched gas in the opposite direction. Experiment and theory are in very good agreement for the initial separation fluxes and the saturation mole-fraction differences.

  14. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klunder; ,Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  15. Historical Natural Gas Annual - 1930 Through 2000

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and exports of natural gas, underground storage activities, and deliveries to consumers. ... PDF 9 Changes in Natural Gas Underground Storage by State, 1967-1975 PDF 10 Changes in ...

  16. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao; Liu Yu

    2010-03-10

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10{sup 16} g with a momentum of 0.57x10{sup 22} g cm s{sup -1} by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  17. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURES OF FLUX ROPES TRACKED BY ERUPTING MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-06-20

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 4, respectively. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to 'peel off' the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are, respectively, composed of 85 {+-} 12 and 102 {+-} 15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1.''6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} Mx to 8.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller magnetic structures over 10 hr before the appearance of the flux rope. By calculating the magnetic fields of the FPs, we deduce that the two flux ropes occupy at least 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx and 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx magnetic fluxes, respectively.

  18. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  19. MiniBooNE Flux Data Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Neutrino Flux Prediction at MiniBooNE", arXiv:0806.1449 [hep-ex], Phys. Rev. D. 79, 072002 (2009) The following MiniBooNE information from the large flux paper in 2009 is made available to the public: Text files containing flux information for each neutrino species Positive horn polarity (neutrino-enhanced mode) Negative horn polarity (anti neutrino-enhanced mode) Contact Information For clarifications on how to use MiniBooNE public data or for enquiries about additional data not linked

  20. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  1. ARM - PI Product - Radiative Flux Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsRadiative Flux Analysis ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Radiative Flux Analysis The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and

  2. oil and gas portfolio reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Gas Research Portfolio Reports Natural Gas & Oil Program Research Portfolio Reports The Office of Fossil Energy (FE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is releasing a series of nine Research Portfolio Reports to provide a snapshot of results and accomplishments completed to-date for active and completed projects under three focus areas: Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources; Ultra-Deepwater; and Small Producers. The reports capture research conducted over the last ten years

  3. FLUX ROPE FORMATION PRECEDING CORONAL MASS EJECTION ONSET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, L. M.; Kliem, B. E-mail: bhk@mssl.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-08-01

    We analyze the evolution of a sigmoidal (S-shaped) active region toward eruption, which includes a coronal mass ejection (CME) but leaves part of the filament in place. The X-ray sigmoid is found to trace out three different magnetic topologies in succession: a highly sheared arcade of coronal loops in its long-lived phase, a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) in the hours before the CME, and the first flare loops in its major transient intensity enhancement. The coronal evolution is driven by photospheric changes which involve the convergence and cancellation of flux elements under the sigmoid and filament. The data yield unambiguous evidence for the existence of a BPSS, and hence a flux rope, in the corona prior to the onset of the CME.

  4. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatfield, Kirk

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under controlled field conditions. In the third and fourth year a suite of larger field studies were conducted. For these studies, the uranium flux sensor was used with uranium speciation measurements and molecular-biological tools to characterize microbial community and active biomass at synonymous wells distributed in a large grid. These field efforts quantified spatial changes in uranium flux and field-scale rates of uranium attenuation (ambient and stimulated), uranium stability, and quantitatively assessed how fluxes and effective reaction rates were coupled to spatial variations in microbial community and active biomass. Analyses of data from these field experiments were used to generate estimates of Monod kinetic parameters that are effective in nature and optimal for modeling uranium fate and transport at the field-scale. This project provided the opportunity to develop the first sensor that provides direct measures of both uranium (VI) and groundwater flux. A multidisciplinary team was assembled to include two geochemists, a microbiologist, and two quantitative contaminant hydrologists. Now that the project is complete, the sensor can be deployed at DOE sites to evaluate field-scale uranium attenuation, source behavior, the efficacy of remediation, and off-site risk. Because the sensor requires no power, it can be deployed at remote sites for periods of days to months. The fundamental science derived from this project can be used to advance the development of predictive models for various transport and attenuation processes in aquifers. Proper development of these models is critical for long-term stewardship of contaminated sites in the context of predicting uranium source behavior, remediation performance, and off-site risk.

  5. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  6. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR)

    1989-01-01

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  7. ARM - VAP Product - lblch2flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : LBLCH2FLUX AERI, line by line...

  8. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  9. CLOSURE OF THE FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY (FFTF) CURRENT STATUS & FUTURE PLANS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LESPERANCE, C.P.

    2007-05-23

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400 MWt sodium-cooled fast reactor situated on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in the southeastern portion of Washington State. DOE issued the final order to shut down the facility in 2001, when it was concluded that there was no longer a need for FFTF. Deactivation activities are in progress to remove or stabilize major hazards and deactivate systems to achieve end points documented in the project baseline. The reactor has been defueled, and approximately 97% of the fuel has been removed from the facility. Approximately 97% of the sodium has been drained from the plant's systems and placed into an on-site Sodium Storage Facility. The residual sodium will be kept frozen under a blanket of inert gas until it is removed later as part of the facility's decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Plant systems have been shut down and placed in a low-risk state to minimize requirements for surveillance and maintenance. D&D work cannot begin until an Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared to evaluate various end state options and to provide a basis for selecting one of the options. The Environmental Impact Statement is expected to be issued in 2009.

  10. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ape034hsu2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets John...

  11. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  12. Slow rise and partial eruption of a double-decker filament. II. A double flux rope model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kliem, Bernhard; Trk, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Liu, Rui; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2014-09-10

    Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov and Dmoulin and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. If this component decreases sufficiently, then both flux ropes turn unstable for conditions typical of solar active regions, with the lower rope typically becoming unstable first. Either both flux ropes erupt upward, or only the upper rope erupts while the lower rope reconnects with the ambient flux low in the corona and is destroyed. However, for shear field strengths staying somewhat above the threshold value, the configuration also admits evolutions which lead to partial eruptions with only the upper flux rope becoming unstable and the lower one remaining in place. This can be triggered by a transfer of flux and current from the lower to the upper rope, as suggested by the observations of a split filament in Paper I. It can also result from tether-cutting reconnection with the ambient flux at the X-type structure between the flux ropes, which similarly influences their stability properties in opposite ways. This is demonstrated for the numerically constructed equilibrium.

  13. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  14. TRANSIENT BRIGHTENINGS ASSOCIATED WITH FLUX CANCELLATION ALONG A FILAMENT CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Muglach, K. E-mail: karin.muglach@nasa.gov

    2013-02-15

    Filament channels coincide with large-scale polarity inversion lines of the photospheric magnetic field, where flux cancellation continually takes place. High-cadence Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) images recorded in He II 30.4 nm and Fe IX 17.1 nm during 2010 August 22 reveal numerous transient brightenings occurring along the edge of a filament channel within a decaying active region, where SDO line-of-sight magnetograms show strong opposite-polarity flux in close contact. The brightenings are elongated along the direction of the filament channel, with linear extents of several arcseconds, and typically last a few minutes; they sometimes have the form of multiple two-sided ejections with speeds on the order of 100 km s{sup -1}. Remarkably, some of the brightenings rapidly develop into larger scale events, forming sheetlike structures that are eventually torn apart by the diverging flows in the filament channel and ejected in opposite directions. We interpret the brightenings as resulting from reconnections among filament-channel field lines having one footpoint located in the region of canceling flux. In some cases, the flow patterns that develop in the channel may bring successive horizontal loops together and cause a cascade to larger scales.

  15. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  16. Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... changed to active. References Methodology Related Links Storage Basics Field Level Annual Capacity Data Map of Storage Facilities Natural Gas Data Tables Short-Term Energy Outlook

  17. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  18. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W.; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K.

    1996-12-31

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  19. Sandia Labs high-flux solar simulator with one-of-a-kind capability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-flux solar simulator with one-of-a-kind capability - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense

  20. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of trying to oppose it. It is robust and could be particularly useful for PM generators and electric vehicle drives. Recent efforts have introduced a brushless machine that transfers a magneto-motive force (MMF) generated by a stationary excitation coil to the rotor [4]. Although a conventional PM machine may be field weakened using vector control, the air-gap flux density cannot be effectively enhanced. In Hsu's new machine, the magnetic field generated by the rotor's PM may be augmented by the field from the stationery excitation coil and channeled with flux guides to its desired destination to enhance the air-gap flux that produces torque. The magnetic field can also be weakened by reversing the current in the stationary excitation winding. A patent for advanced technology in this area is pending. Several additional RTFC methods have been discussed in open literature. These include methods of changing the number of poles by magnetizing and demagnetizing the magnets poles with pulses of current corresponding to direct-axis (d-axis) current of vector control [5,6], changing the number of stator coils [7], and controlling the air gap [8]. Test experience has shown that the magnet strengths may vary and weaken naturally as rotor temperature increases suggesting that careful control of the rotor temperature, which is no easy task, could yield another method of RTFC. The purpose of this report is to (1) examine the interaction of rotor and stator flux with regard to RTFC, (2) review and summarize the status of RTFC technology, and (3) compare and evaluate methods for RTFC with respect to maturity, advantages and limitations, deployment difficulty and relative complexity.

  1. An empirical model of electron and ion fluxes derived from observations at geosynchronous orbit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, M. H.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jordanova, V. K.; Henderson, M. G.; Borovsky, J. E.; Denton, J. S.; Pitchford, D.; Hartley, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit is important to both scientific and operational investigations. We present a new empirical model of the ion flux and the electron flux at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV. The model is based on a total of 82 satellite-years of observations from the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer instruments on Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites at GEO. These data are assigned to a fixed grid of 24 local-times and 40 energies, at all possible values of Kp. Bi-linear interpolation is used between grid points to provide the ion flux and the electron flux values at any energy and local-time, and for given values of geomagnetic activity (proxied by the 3-hour Kp index), and also for given values of solar activity (proxied by the daily F10.7 index). Initial comparison of the electron flux from the model with data from a Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II (CEASE-II), also located at geosynchronous orbit, indicate a good match during both quiet and disturbed periods. The model is available for distribution as a FORTRAN code that can be modified to suit user-requirements.

  2. An empirical model of electron and ion fluxes derived from observations at geosynchronous orbit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Denton, M. H.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jordanova, V. K.; Henderson, M. G.; Borovsky, J. E.; Denton, J. S.; Pitchford, D.; Hartley, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit is important to both scientific and operational investigations. We present a new empirical model of the ion flux and the electron flux at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV. The model is based on a total of 82 satellite-years of observations from the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer instruments on Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites at GEO. These data are assigned to a fixed grid of 24 local-times and 40 energies, at all possible values of Kp. Bi-linear interpolation is used between grid points to provide the ionmore » flux and the electron flux values at any energy and local-time, and for given values of geomagnetic activity (proxied by the 3-hour Kp index), and also for given values of solar activity (proxied by the daily F10.7 index). Initial comparison of the electron flux from the model with data from a Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II (CEASE-II), also located at geosynchronous orbit, indicate a good match during both quiet and disturbed periods. The model is available for distribution as a FORTRAN code that can be modified to suit user-requirements.« less

  3. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  5. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio (Rome, IT); Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Bennett, Timothy (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

    1993-01-01

    Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

  6. Passive gas separator and accumulator device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choe, H.; Fallas, T.T.

    1994-08-02

    A separation device employing a gas separation filter and swirler vanes for separating gas from a gas-liquid mixture is provided. The cylindrical filter utilizes the principle that surface tension in the pores of the filter prevents gas bubbles from passing through. As a result, the gas collects in the interior region of the filter and coalesces to form larger bubbles in the center of the device. The device is particularly suited for use in microgravity conditions since the swirlers induce a centrifugal force which causes liquid to move from the inner region of the filter, pass the pores, and flow through the outlet of the device while the entrained gas is trapped by the filter. The device includes a cylindrical gas storage screen which is enclosed by the cylindrical gas separation filter. The screen has pores that are larger than those of the filters. The screen prevents larger bubbles that have been formed from reaching and interfering with the pores of the gas separation filter. The device is initially filled with a gas other than that which is to be separated. This technique results in separation of the gas even before gas bubbles are present in the mixture. Initially filling the device with the dissimilar gas and preventing the gas from escaping before operation can be accomplished by sealing the dissimilar gas in the inner region of the separation device with a ruptured disc which can be ruptured when the device is activated for use. 3 figs.

  7. Constraining UV continuum slopes of active galactic nuclei with cloudy models of broad-line region extreme-ultraviolet emission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moloney, Joshua [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Michael Shull, J., E-mail: joshua.moloney@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [Also at Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the composition and structure of the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is important for answering many outstanding questions in supermassive black hole evolution, galaxy evolution, and ionization of the intergalactic medium. We used single-epoch UV spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure EUV emission-line fluxes from four individual AGNs with 0.49 ? z ? 0.64, two AGNs with 0.32 ? z ? 0.40, and a composite of 159 AGNs. With the CLOUDY photoionization code, we calculated emission-line fluxes from BLR clouds with a range of density, hydrogen ionizing flux, and incident continuum spectral indices. The photoionization grids were fit to the observations using single-component and locally optimally emitting cloud (LOC) models. The LOC models provide good fits to the measured fluxes, while the single-component models do not. The UV spectral indices preferred by our LOC models are consistent with those measured from COS spectra. EUV emission lines such as N IV ?765, O II ?833, and O III ?834 originate primarily from gas with electron temperatures between 37,000 K and 55,000 K. This gas is found in BLR clouds with high hydrogen densities (n {sub H} ? 10{sup 12} cm{sup 3}) and hydrogen ionizing photon fluxes (?{sub H} ? 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} s{sup 1}).

  8. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  9. Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Koros, William J. (Austin, TX)

    1990-01-01

    Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

  10. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  11. SYNOPTIC MAPPING OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, C. L.; Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A. E-mail: jharvey@nso.edu

    2013-03-10

    We used daily full-disk Ca II 854.2 nm magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility to study the chromospheric magnetic field from 2006 April through 2009 November. We determined and corrected previously unidentified zero offsets in the SOLIS magnetograms. By tracking the disk passages of stable unipolar regions, the measured net flux densities were found to systematically decrease from the disk center to the limb by a factor of about two. This decrease was modeled using a thin flux tube model with a difference in signal formation height between the center and limb sides. Comparison of photospheric and chromospheric observations shows that their differences are largely due to horizontal spreading of magnetic flux with increasing height. The north polar magnetic field decreased nearly linearly with time during our study period while the south polar field was nearly constant. We used the annual change in the viewing angle of the polar regions to estimate the radial and meridional components of the polar fields and found that the south polar fields were tilted away from the pole. Synoptic maps of the chromospheric radial flux density distribution were used as boundary conditions for extrapolation of the field from the chromosphere into the corona. A comparison of modeled and observed coronal hole boundaries and coronal streamer positions showed better agreement when using the chromospheric rather than the photospheric synoptic maps.

  12. Gas Sampling At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Maui Area...

  13. Soil Gas Sampling At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Soil Gas Sampling At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    natural gas demand, thereby contributing to larger net injections of natural gas into storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases The Natural Gas Annual 2006: The Energy...

  15. NETL: Natural Gas Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Resources Useful for heating, manufacturing, and as chemical feedstock, natural gas has the added benefit of producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions than other fossil...

  16. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  17. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  18. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  19. Passive gas separator and accumulator device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choe, Hwang (Saratoga, CA); Fallas, Thomas T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A separation device employing a gas separation filter and swirler vanes for separating gas from a gasliquid mixture is provided. The cylindrical filter utilizes the principle that surface tension in the pores of the filter prevents gas bubbles from passing through. As a result, the gas collects in the interior region of the filter and coalesces to form larger bubbles in the center of the device. The device is particularly suited for use in microgravity conditions since the swirlers induce a centrifugal force which causes liquid to move from the inner region of the filter, pass the pores, and flow through the outlet of the device while the entrained gas is trapped by the filter. The device includes a cylindrical gas storage screen which is enclosed by the cylindrical gas separation filter. The screen has pores that are larger than those of the filters. The screen prevents larger bubbles that have been formed from reaching and interfering with the pores of the gas separation filter. The device is initially filled with a gas other than that which is to be separated. This technique results in separation of the gas even before gas bubbles are present in the mixture. Initially filling the device with the dissimilar gas and preventing the gas from escaping before operation can be accomplished by sealing the dissimilar gas in the inner region of the separation device with a ruptured disc which can be ruptured when the device is activated for use.

  20. Gaseous Emissions From Steamboat Springs, Brady'S Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    p. () Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (3) Gas Flux Sampling At Brady Hot Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area...

  1. Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  2. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Laug, Matthew T.; Lambert, John D. B.; Herzog, James P.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod.

  5. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.; Lambert, J.B.; Herzog, J.P.

    1997-02-11

    A method and system are disclosed for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod. 12 figs.

  6. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.

    1995-03-15

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.

  7. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  8. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leclerc, Monique Y.

    2014-11-17

    This final report presents the main activities and results of the project “A Carbon Flux Super Site: New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling” from 10/1/2006 to 9/30/2014. It describes the new AmeriFlux tower site (Aiken) at Savanna River Site (SC) and instrumentation, long term eddy-covariance, sodar, microbarograph, soil and other measurements at the site, and intensive field campaigns of tracer experiment at the Carbon Flux Super Site, SC, in 2009 and at ARM-CF site, Lamont, OK, and experiments in Plains, GA. The main results on tracer experiment and modeling, on low-level jet characteristics and their impact on fluxes, on gravity waves and their influence on eddy fluxes, and other results are briefly described in the report.

  9. Natural gas monthly, July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

  10. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  11. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  12. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  13. EMFLUX{reg_sign} soil-gas survey of Technical Area 54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-30

    This EMFLUXR Soil-Gas Survey was conducted on Material Disposal Areas (MDAS) G, J, and L in Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), New Mexico. MDA L has been used for disposal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and MDA G (comprising sub-areas G-1 through G-8) for disposal of both VOCs and radioactive waste; MDA I has reportedly been used for disposal of waste without either of these contaminants. All three of the sites are currently active. Figure 1 shows the location of the three MDAs within Technical Area 54 of operable Unit 1148. The purpose of the EMFLUX{reg_sign} Soil-Gas Survey was to determine the presence, identities, and relative strengths of contaminants within the three areas of LANL investigated. Quadrel understands that this information will be used in Phase-I assessment of these areas to determine flux rates of -- VOCs emanating from the ground.

  14. Radiation dosimetry at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.

    1998-02-01

    The HFBR is a heavy water, D{sub 2}O, cooled and moderated reactor with twenty-eight fuel elements containing a maximum of 9.8 kilograms of {sup 235}U. The core is 53 cm high and 48 cm in diameter and has an active volume of 97 liters. The HFBR, which was designed to operate at forty mega-watts, 40 NW, was upgraded to operate at 60 NW. Since 1991, it has operated at 30 MW. In a normal 30 MW operating cycle the HFBR operates 24 hours a day for thirty days, with a six to fourteen day shutdown period for refueling and maintenance work. While most reactors attempts to minimize the escape of neutrons from the core, the HFBR`s D{sub 2}O design allows the thermal neutron flux to peak in the reflector region and maximizes the number of thermal neutrons available to nine horizontal external beams, H-1 to H-9. The HFBR neutron dosimetry effort described here compares measured and calculated energy dependent neutron and gamma ray flux densities and/or dose rates at horizontal beam lines and vertical irradiation thimbles.

  15. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Eric Bonebrake

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University /Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRCs current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational protocols and in-core instrumentation under the ATR Modeling, Simulation and V&V Upgrade initiative, as well as the work to replace nuclear instrumentation under the ATR Life Extension Project (LEP) and provide support to the ATR NSUF.

  16. Gas Sampling At Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Sampling At Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Gabbs Valley Area (DOE GTP)...

  17. Gas Sampling At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Sampling At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP)...

  18. November 30, 2011 | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rating of Post-combustion Gas Permeation Carbon Capture Systems Eric Bloch (Dept. of Chemistry, UC Berkeley) Gas Separations with Redox-Active Metal-Organic Frameworks...

  19. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed. Similarly, if a fire were to break out anywhere in the D-ZERO Hall, fire sensors would stop the output of all flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed, by unpowering electrically controlled solenoid valves that are normally closed in the event of a power failure. Fire sensor contacts have not yet been installed.

  20. ARM - Evaluation Product - Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (QCECOR) ProductsQuality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux (QCECOR) Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux (QCECOR) Eddy correlation flux measurement systems (ECOR) are used by ARM to provide surface turbulence flux measurements. With the help of the Recovery Act, ARM has

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanobarbed fibers treated with atmospheric pressure plasma using O{sub 2} gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyun-Uk; Ahn, Kyun; Jeong, Se-Young; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kim, Jong-Pil; Bae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Gyu; Kwon, Se-Hun; Lee, Hyung Woo

    2010-11-29

    TiO{sub 2} nanobarbed fibers (NBFs) were prepared by growing rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorods on anatase TiO{sub 2} nanofibers via electrospinning and hydrothermal reaction processes. There was a large increase in the photocatalytic activity of O{sub 2}-plasma-treated (OP)-TiO{sub 2} NBFs relative to that of the TiO{sub 2} NBFs; this is due to the hydroxylation of the surface of the TiO{sub 2} NBFs by OP treatment. The repeatability of the photocatalytic activity of the OP-TiO{sub 2} NBFs was found to be high and the decolorization rate after ten cycles was 88.3% of the initial value. These results indicate that OP-TiO{sub 2} NBFs have great potential for use as a photocatalyst.

  2. Design of a Modular E-Core Flux Concentrating Axial Flux Machine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husain, Tausif; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-08-24

    In this paper a novel E-Core axial flux machine is proposed. The machine has a double-stator, single-rotor configuration with flux-concentrating ferrite magnets and pole windings across each leg of an E-Core stator. E-Core stators with the proposed flux-concentrating rotor arrangement result in better magnet utilization and higher torque density. The machine also has a modular structure facilitating simpler construction. This paper presents a single-phase and a three-phase version of the E-Core machine. Case studies for a 1.1-kW, 400-rpm machine for both the single-phase and three-phase axial flux machines are presented. The results are verified through 3D finite element analysis. facilitating simpler construction. This paper presents a single-phase and a three-phase version of the E-Core machine. Case studies for a 1.1-kW, 400-rpm machine for both the single-phase and three-phase axial flux machines are presented. The results are verified through 3D finite element analysis.

  3. Spheromak reactor with poloidal flux-amplifying transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Janos, Alan C. (East Windsor, NJ); Uyama, Tadao (Osaka, JP); Yamada, Masaaki (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    An inductive transformer in the form of a solenoidal coils aligned along the major axis of a flux core induces poloidal flux along the flux core's axis. The current in the solenoidal coil is then reversed resulting in a poloidal flux swing and the conversion of a portion of the poloidal flux to a toroidal flux in generating a spheromak plasma wherein equilibrium approaches a force-free, minimum Taylor state during plasma formation, independent of the initial conditions or details of the formation. The spheromak plasma is sustained with the Taylor state maintained by oscillating the currents in the poloidal and toroidal field coils within the plasma-forming flux core. The poloidal flux transformer may be used either as an amplifier stage in a moving plasma reactor scenario for initial production of a spheromak plasma or as a method for sustaining a stationary plasma and further heating it. The solenoidal coil embodiment of the poloidal flux transformer can alternately be used in combination with a center conductive cylinder aligned along the length and outside of the solenoidal coil. This poloidal flux-amplifying inductive transformer approach allows for a relaxation of demanding current carrying requirements on the spheromak reactor's flux core, reduces plasma contamination arising from high voltage electrode discharge, and improves the efficiency of poloidal flux injection.

  4. Recovery of Information from the Fast Flux Test Facility for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, Deborah L.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2009-09-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor to operate in the United States. Information from the design, construction, and operation of this reactor was at risk as the facilities associated with the reactor are being shut down. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is a program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy with a mission to develop new fuel cycle technologies to support both current and advanced reactors. Securing and preserving the knowledge gained from operation and testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility is an important part of the Knowledge Preservation activity in this program.

  5. AmeriFlux Network Data from the ORNL AmeriFlux Website

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996 to provide continuous observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. It is fed by sites from North America, Central America, and South America. DOE's CDIAC stores and maintains AmeriFlux data, and this web site explains the different levels of data available there, with links to the CDIAC ftp site. A separate web-based data interface is also provided; it allows users to graph, query, and download Level 2 data for up to four sites at a time. Data may be queried by site, measurement period, or parameter. More than 550 site-years of level 2 data are available from AmeriFlux sites through the interface.

  6. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  7. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Poon, Siu-Joe (Palo Alto, CA); Duwez, Pol E. (Pasadena, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  8. Methane flux from mangrove sediments along the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sotomayor, D.; Corredor, J.E.; Morell, J.M. )

    1994-03-01

    Although the sediments of coastal marine mangrove forests have been considered a minor source of atmospheric methane, these estimate have been based on sparse data from similar areas. We have gathered evidence that shows that external nutrient and freshwater loading in mangrove sediments may have a significant effect on methane flux. Experiments were performed to examine methane fluxes from anaerobic sediments in a mangrove forest subjected to secondary sewage effluents on the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico. Emission rates were measured in situ using a static chamber technique, and subsequent laboratory analysis of samples was by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. Results indicate that methane flux rates were lowest at the landward fringe nearest to the effluent discharge, higher in the seaward fringe occupied by red mangroves, and highest in the transition zone between black and red mangrove communities, with average values of 4 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], 42 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], and 82 mg CH[sub 4] m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1], respectively. Overall mean values show these sediments may emit as much as 40 times more methane than unimpacted pristine areas. Pneumatophores of Aviciennia germinans have been found to serve as conduits to the atmosphere for this gas. Fluctuating water level overlying the mangrove sediment is an important environmental factor controlling seasonal and interannual CH[sub 4] flux variations. Environmental controls such as freshwater inputs and increased nutrient loading influence in situ methane emissions from these environments. 34 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  10. High Flux Isotope Reactor | Neutron Science at ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Flux Isotope Reactor High Flux Isotope Reactor Operating at 85 MW, HFIR is the highest flux reactor-based source of neutrons for research in the United States, and it provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world. The thermal and cold neutrons produced by HFIR are used to study physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering, and biology. The intense neutron flux, constant power density, and constant-length fuel cycles are used by more than

  11. Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources The single largest source of energy information...

  12. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  13. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  14. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of the Alaska gas pipeline. The opening of ANWR might reduce the gas resource risk of building an Alaska gas pipeline, as the area has an estimated 3.6 trillion cubic...

  16. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  17. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of this resource was considered uneconomical to produce. But Office of Fossil Energy (FE) research helped refine cost-effective horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, protective environmental practices and data development, making hundreds of trillions of cubic feet of gas technically recoverable where

  18. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed fluxmore » continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.« less

  19. The solar internetwork. I. Contribution to the network magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goi?, M.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Surez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.

    2014-12-10

    The magnetic network (NE) observed on the solar surface harbors a sizable fraction of the total quiet Sun flux. However, its origin and maintenance are not well known. Here we investigate the contribution of internetwork (IN) magnetic fields to the NE flux. IN fields permeate the interior of supergranular cells and show large emergence rates. We use long-duration sequences of magnetograms acquired by Hinode and an automatic feature tracking algorithm to follow the evolution of NE and IN flux elements. We find that 14% of the quiet Sun (QS) flux is in the form of IN fields with little temporal variations. IN elements interact with NE patches and modify the flux budget of the NE either by adding flux (through merging processes) or by removing it (through cancellation events). Mergings appear to be dominant, so the net flux contribution of the IN is positive. The observed rate of flux transfer to the NE is 1.5 10{sup 24} Mx day{sup 1} over the entire solar surface. Thus, the IN supplies as much flux as is present in the NE in only 9-13 hr. Taking into account that not all the transferred flux is incorporated into the NE, we find that the IN would be able to replace the entire NE flux in approximately 18-24 hr. This renders the IN the most important contributor to the NE, challenging the view that ephemeral regions are the main source of flux in the QS. About 40% of the total IN flux eventually ends up in the NE.

  20. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts: a summary report, July 1980. Update 1, February 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havran, K.J.

    1981-02-01

    Lease Sale 43, in the Southeast Georgia Embayment, was the first lease sale to be held in the South Atlantic. Two additional sales are scheduled between now and 1985: Sale 56 is scheduled for August 1981 and Sale 78, for January 1984. All leases from Sale 43 remain active, but no drilling has taken place since the last of six dry holes was plugged and abandoned. There are no additional plans for drilling on Sale 43 leases in the immediate future. Future exploration may shift away from previous Sale 43 leased tracts to deep-water areas after Sale 56. One hundred thirty of the 286 proposed Sale 56 tracts are in deep-water. The geologic conditions in the deep-water areas are more favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation than those under shallower waters. Structures that may provide trapping mechanisms have been shown to exist in the area. Because leases in deep-water areas take longer and are more costly to explore and develop than those in areas of shallower water, industry consensus is that longer primary lease terms may be required and some delays in acquiring rigs may be experienced. The Sale 43 area appears to be a region of relatively low hydrocarbon-bearing potential. However, the Bureau of Land Management's Intergovernmental Planning Program is preparing the necessary Regional Transportation Management Plan for the entire South Atlantic OCS Region. Nearly all the support facilities associated with Sale 43 have been removed or converted to other uses. Temporary support facilities are likely to be reactivated only if Sale 56 results in further exploration of the South Atlantic OCS.

  1. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Final report, February 24, 1992--September 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, V.J.

    1995-09-18

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the {open_quotes}beach cone{close_quotes} in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island, and they might have been instrumental in repairing an approximately 200 meter gap in the island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced (on the order of $3.00 per cubic yard). The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is not significant enough to hinder their effectiveness. A subcontract to Xavier University to assess the ecological quality of the experimental sites involved the study of the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals. The highest concentration of heavy metals were near a fishing camp while the lowest levels were in the beach sand of a barrier island. This suggests that the metals do not occur naturally in these areas, but have been placed in the sediments by man`s activities.

  2. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2012-02-21

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  3. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  4. HFBR handbook, 1992: High flux beam reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axe, J.D.; Greenberg, R.

    1992-10-01

    Welcome to the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), one of the world premier neutron research facilities. This manual is intended primarily to acquaint outside users (and new Brookhaven staff members) with (almost) everything they need to know to work at the HFBR and to help make the stay at Brookhaven pleasant as well as profitable. Safety Training Programs to comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) mandates are in progress at BNL. There are several safety training requirements which must be met before users can obtain unescorted access to the HFBR. The Reactor Division has prepared specific safety training manuals which are to be sent to experimenters well in advance of their expected arrival at BNL to conduct experiments. Please familiarize yourself with this material and carefully pay strict attention to all the safety and security procedures that are in force at the HFBR. Not only your safety, but the continued operation of the facility, depends upon compliance.

  5. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  6. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  7. Gas scrubbing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowrie, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01

    Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas...

  9. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  10. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    , 2008 Next Release: July 10, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 25, natural gas spot prices...

  12. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  13. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  14. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    cooling demand for natural gas. Meanwhile, it became increasingly clear that Hurricane Frances likely would not pose a significant threat to natural gas production in the Gulf of...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    more from the system than they nominate. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    that had been in place since February 1. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    strong price contango during the report week, mitigated withdrawals of natural gas from storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases New Report on U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions:...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas vehicles. The Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy reports that there were 841 compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel stations and 41...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5, 2009 Next Release: July 2, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 24, 2009) Natural gas...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ability to process gas. The company's Main Pass 260 line to Pascagoula Gas Plant in Jackson, Mississippi, will not be available for transportation services. While the plant is...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Market Trends: MMS Announces New Incentives for Gulf Gas Production: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) unveiled proposed new incentives to increase deep gas production...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2008 Next Release: November 6, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, October 29) Natural gas...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9, 2008 Next Release: June 26, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 11, natural gas spot prices...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prices using spot prices from producing areas, plus an allowance for interstate natural gas pipeline and local distribution company charges to transport the gas to market. Such a...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Report. The sample change occurred over a transition period that began with the release of the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR)...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 12, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Spot gas at most market locations (outside the Rocky Mountain Region) traded...

  8. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: Flux variability analysis in relation to 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior 13C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH4+ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO2 efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the 13C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  9. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  10. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  11. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  12. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  13. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  14. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ape034_hsu_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles

  15. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions PDF icon crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Development of a 100-Watt

  16. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Magnets - U Machine Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon apep_07_hsu.pdf More Documents & Publications Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Alternative High-Performance

  17. ARM - PI Product - Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAtmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux [ ARM Principal Investigator (PI) Data Product ] Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the

  18. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  19. The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these fields include cloud altitude, cloud amount, liquid and ice content, particle size spectra, and radiative fluxes at the surface and the TOA. Comparisons with Atmospheric...

  20. Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of surface heat flux were made using point measurements of the correlation of vertical velocity (w) and temperature (T) (sonic anemometer-fine wire thermocouple),...

  1. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnets Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Alternative High-Performance Motors with Non-Rare Earth Materials...

  2. A dual mass flux framework for boundary layer convection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A dual mass flux framework for boundary layer convection Neggers, Roel European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Category: Modeling A new convective boundary layer...

  3. Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin-film silicon solar cells Prev Next Title: Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmonic thin-film silicon solar cells Authors: Chung, H. ...

  4. John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles John Hsu, Oak Ridge National...

  5. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current Source Inverters for HEVs and FCVs Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wireless Charging Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

  6. Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San...

  7. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  8. CLOSURE OF THE FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY (FFTF) CURRENT STATUS & FUTURE PLANS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BURKE, T.M.

    2005-04-13

    Deactivation activities are currently in progress at the Fast Flux Test Facility. These deactivation activities are intended to remove most hazardous materials and prepare the facility for final disposition. The two major hazards to be removed are the nuclear fuel and the alkali metal (most sodium) coolant. The fuel and coolant removal activities are proceeding well and are expected to complete in 2006. Plant systems are being shut down as allowed by completion of various fuel and coolant removal actions. A Decommissioning Environmental Impact Statement is in progress to evaluate a range of potential final disposition end states.

  9. Destruction of acid gas emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fu, Yuan C. (Muroran, JP); Ekmann, James M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boyle, John M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A method of destroying NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 in a combustion gas in disclosed. The method includes generating active species by treating stable moleucles in a high temperature plasma. Ammonia, methane, steam, hydrogen, nitrogen or a combination of these gases can be selected as the stable molecules. The gases are subjected to plasma conditions sufficient to create free radicals, ions or excited atoms such as N, NH, NH.sub.2, OH.sup.-, CH and/or CH.sub.2. These active species are injected into a combustion gas at a location of sufficiently high temperature to maintain the species in active state and permit them to react with NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2. Typically the injection is made into the immediate post-combustion gases at temperatures of 475.degree.-950.degree. C.

  10. Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen...

  11. Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Exploration...

  12. Water-Gas Samples At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water-Gas Samples At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Janik & Goff, 2002)...

  13. Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur...

  14. Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002)...

  15. Surface Gas Sampling At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Jemez Springs Area (Goff & Janik,...

  16. Surface Gas Sampling At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik,...

  17. Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff &...

  18. Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Geothermal Area Mexico (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At International...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Accounting Standards Board. The changes will allow FERC an understanding of the nature and extent to which hedging activities are used by electric utilities and gas...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    storm activity has been above average this year, there has been little impact on natural gas markets. Tropical Depression 6 showed up in the eastern Caribbean early this...

  1. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  2. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  3. Confined partial filament eruption and its reformation within a stable magnetic flux rope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Kayshap, Pradeep; Uddin, Wahab; Srivastava, Abhishek K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Filippov, Boris; Chandra, Ramesh; Choudhary, Debi Prasad E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com

    2014-05-20

    We present observations of a confined partial eruption of a filament on 2012 August 4, which restores its initial shape within ?2 hr after eruption. From the Global Oscillation Network Group H? observations, we find that the filament plasma turns into dynamic motion at around 11:20 UT from the middle part of the filament toward the northwest direction with an average speed of ?105 km s{sup 1}. A little brightening underneath the filament possibly shows the signature of low-altitude reconnection below the filament eruptive part. In Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 images, we observe an activation of right-handed helically twisted magnetic flux rope that contains the filament material and confines it during its dynamical motion. The motion of cool filament plasma stops after traveling a distance of ?215 Mm toward the northwest from the point of eruption. The plasma moves partly toward the right foot point of the flux rope, while most of the plasma returns after 12:20 UT toward the left foot point with an average speed of ?60 km s{sup 1} to reform the filament within the same stable magnetic structure. On the basis of the filament internal fine structure and its position relative to the photospheric magnetic fields, we find filament chirality to be sinistral, while the activated enveloping flux rope shows a clear right-handed twist. Thus, this dynamic event is an apparent example of one-to-one correspondence between the filament chirality (sinistral) and the enveloping flux rope helicity (positive). From the coronal magnetic field decay index, n, calculation near the flux rope axis, it is evident that the whole filament axis lies within the domain of stability (i.e., n < 1), which provides the filament stability despite strong disturbances at its eastern foot point.

  4. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian MacDonald

    2011-05-31

    A multi-disciplinary investigation of distribution and magnitude of methane fluxes from seafloor gas hydrate deposits in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted based on results obtained from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and from sampling conducted during a research expedition to three sites where gas hydrate occurs (MC118, GC600, and GC185). Samples of sediments, water, and air were collected from the ship and from an ROV submersible using sediments cores, niskin bottles attached to the ROV and to a rosette, and an automated sea-air interface collector. The SAR images were used to quantify the magnitude and distribution of natural oil and gas seeps that produced perennial oil slicks on the ocean surface. A total of 176 SAR images were processed using a texture classifying neural network algorithm, which segmented the ocean surface into oil-free and oil-covered water. Geostatistical analysis indicates that there are a total of 1081 seep formations distributed over the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Oil-covered water comprised an average of 780.0 sq. km (sd 86.03) distributed with an area of 147,370 sq. km. Persistent oil and gas seeps were also detected with SAR sampling on other ocean margins located in the Black Sea, western coast of Africa, and offshore Pakistan. Analysis of sediment cores from all three sites show profiles of sulfate, sulfide, calcium and alkalinity that indicated anaerobic oxidation of methane with precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Difference among the three sampling sites may reflect the relative magnitude of methane flux. Methane concentrations in water column samples collected by ROV and rosette deployments from MC118 ranged from {approx}33,000 nM at the seafloor to {approx}12 nM in the mixed layer with isolated peaks up to {approx}13,670 nM coincident with the top of the gas hydrate stability field. Average plume methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the mixed layer are 7, 630, and 9,540 times saturation, respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts * Supply vs. Capacity * Sources * Consumption * Pipeline system * Gas Interruptions - Operational Flow Orders * Pricing Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, FL Sources of Natural Gas * Mine * Import * Remove from storage Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 5-6,

  6. Gas Flux Sampling At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Notes soil-as surveys are pending References Lara Owens, Richard Baars, David Norman, Harold Tobin (2005) New Methods In Exploration At The Socorro Peak Kgra- A...

  7. Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (CHsub 4), nitrous oxide (Nsub 2O), ammonia (NHsub 3) and nitric oxide (NO). Global climate models predict that future climatic change is likely to alter the frequency and...

  8. Gas Flux Sampling At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kolker, Et Al., 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    loss, probably northwest of the junction, or erosion has carried these elements in sediment from the higher elevation manifestations. The presence of such volatiles in sediments...

  9. Analysis of K west basin canister gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Gas and Liquid samples have been collected from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters providing source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System Subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System Subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled for gas and liquid in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results from the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b). The analysis results from the second campaign liquid samples have been documented (Trimble and Welsh 1997; Trimble 1997). This report documents the results for the gas samples from the second campaign and evaluates all gas data in terms of expected releases when opening the canisters for SNFP activities. The fuel storage canisters consist of two closed and sealed barrels, each with a gas trap. The barrels are attached at a trunion to make a canister, but are otherwise independent (Figure 1). Each barrel contains up to seven N Reactor fuel element assemblies. A gas space of nitrogen was established in the top 2.2 to 2.5 inches (5.6 to 6.4 cm) of each barrel. Many of the fuel elements were damaged allowing the metallic uranium fuel to be corroded by the canister water. The corrosion releases fission products and generates hydrogen gas. The released gas mixes with the gas-space gas and excess gas passes through the gas trap into the basin water. The canister design does not allow canister water to be exchanged with basin water.

  10. Flux-induced Isometry Gauging in Heterotic Strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Gao, Peng

    2007-01-05

    We study the effect of flux-induced isometry gauging of the scalar manifold in N = 2 heterotic string compactification with gauge fluxes. We show that a vanishing theorem by Witten provides the protection mechanism. The other ungauged isometries in hyper moduli space could also be protected, depending on the gauge bundle structure. We also discuss the related issue in IIB setting.

  11. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  12. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-03-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  13. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  14. Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  15. Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  16. Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  17. Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  18. Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  19. New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  20. Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  1. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  2. West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  3. South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  4. Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  5. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  6. Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  7. Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  8. Fast flux test facility, transition project plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1994-11-15

    The FFTF Transition Project Plan, Revision 1, provides changes and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  9. Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, Clark L. (Greeley, CO); Pitts, John Roland (Lakewood, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Hale, Mary Jane (Golden, CO); Bingham, Carl E. (Denver, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- ANC Gas Hills Site - 040

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ANC Gas Hills Site - 040 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: ANC Gas Hills Site (040) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: The ANC Gas Hills site is a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Title II site located in Gas Hills, Wyoming. UMTRA Title II sites are privately owned and operated sites that were active when the Uranium Mill

  11. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Combined Natural Gas Transportation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maps Combined Natural Gas Transportation Maps About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors Map of Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors see related text enlarge see related text enlarge U.S. Regional Breakdown

  12. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Pipeline Mileage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mileage by State About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Estimated Natural Gas Pipeline Mileage in the...

  13. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Transmission...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Transmission Path Diagram About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Transmission Path Natural...

  14. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  15. Middle East oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The following subjects are covered in this publication: (1) position of preeminence of the Middle East; (2) history of area's oil operations for Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, neutral zone, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Egypt; (3) gas operations of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq and United Arab Emirates; (4) changing relationships with producing countries; (5) a new oil pricing environment; (6) refining and other industrial activities; and (7) change and progress. 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Gas Sampling At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Rye...

  17. Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Black...

  18. RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

  19. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, B/252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Shimizu, Toshifumi [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp

    2009-05-20

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  20. Materials Compatibility and Aging for Flux and Cleaner Combinations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, Kim; Piatt, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

  1. Ethane enrichment and propane depletion in subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milkov, Alexei V.; Claypool, G E.; Lee, Young-Joo; Torres, Marta E.; Borowski, W S.; Tomaru, H; Sassen, Roger; Long, Philip E.

    2004-07-02

    The recognition of finely disseminated gas hydrate in deep marine sediments heavily depends on various indirect techniques because this mineral quickly decomposes upon recovery from in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Here, we discuss molecular properties of closely spaced gas voids (formed as a result of core recovery) and gas hydrates from an area of relatively low gas flux at the flanks of the southern Hydrate Ridge Offshore Oregon (ODP Sites 1244, 1245 and 1247).

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 2,414 Bcf as of Friday, January 9,...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 821 Bcf as of May 2, according to...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Natural gas stocks stood at 2,155 Bcf as of Friday, July 9,...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage as of September 2 totaled 2,669 Bcf,...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Northeast were expected to be in the single digits. Prices off Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line in New York and Algonquin Gas Transmission in the New England region yesterday...

  7. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 14.4 percent. During this period, U.S. manufacturers used less petroleum and coal in manufacturing processes. This expansion of gas use occurred although natural gas prices to...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    withdrawal from working gas storage reported last Thursday. A contributing factor to the run-up in natural gas prices could be climbing crude oil prices, which rallied late last...

  10. EIA - Natural Gas Publications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    these data from 2005 to 2009 are presented for each State. (12282010) U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves: 2009 National and State...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    week's gas markets. As of Friday, May 11, 2001, the spot price of natural gas at the Henry Hub dropped 0.24 from the previous Friday to 4.25 per MMBtu. The NYMEX price of...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.217 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.315 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas into storage. However, shut-in natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico reduced available current supplies, and so limited net injections during the report...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    while the OFO was in effect. Pacific Gas and Electric Company extended a systemwide high-inventory OFO on its California Gas Transmission system through Saturday, July 5. It was...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the OFO customers who delivered more than 110 percent of their actual gas usage into the system would be assessed for charges. Pacific Gas and Electric Company issued a...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in storage, as well as decreases in the price of crude oil. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 2,905 Bcf as of...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of natural gas into storage, despite robust inventories. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 3,258 Bcf as of...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to withdraw natural gas from storage to meet current demand. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage decreased to 2,406 Bcf as of...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas inventories...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working gas in storage was 3,121 Bcf as of Friday, Oct 24, 2003, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report. This is 2.7...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in combination with water. Gas hydrate is thought to exist in great abundance in nature and has the potential to be a significant new energy source to meet future energy...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heating-related demand for natural gas that limited the size of the net addition to storage. The economic incentives for storing natural gas for next winter are considerably...

  8. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on Thursday, May 9, 2002. A sample of EIA's report can be seen at: Weekly Gas Storage Test Page. The Natural Gas Weekly Market Update report will convert to the new data series...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The report provides an overview of U.S. international trade in 2008 as well as historical data on natural gas imports and exports. Net natural gas imports accounted for only 13...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of 1 Tcf from the 1994 estimate of 51 Tcf. Ultimate potential for natural gas is a science-based estimate of the total amount of conventional gas in the province and is an...

  12. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  13. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    10 (next release 2:00 p.m. on March 17) Natural gas spot prices increased this week (Wednesday to Wednesday, March 2-9) as a late season cold front moved into major gas-consuming...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next heating season. Net injections reported in today's release of EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report brought natural gas storage supplies to 2,163 Bcf as of Friday, June 1,...

  16. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    delivery volumes. Northern Natural Gas Company issued a system overrun limitation (SOL) for all market-area zones for gas day February 21, 2008. The SOL was the result of...

  18. Variations in the Solar Neutrino Flux

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B. T.; Rowley, J. K.

    1987-08-02

    Observations are reported from the chlorine solar neutrino detector in the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota, USA. They extend from 1970 to 1985 and yield an average neutrino capture rate of 2.1 +- 0.3 SNU. The results from 1977 to 1985 show an anti-correlation with the solar activity cycle, and an apparent increased rate during large solar flares.

  19. Landfill Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Landfill Gas Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLandfillGas&oldid267173...

  20. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  1. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  2. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

    2012-07-31

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  5. Measurements of instantaneous heat flux to metal and ceramic surfaces in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.C.; Borman, G.L.

    1987-02-01

    The effects of surface materials and extent of insulation on the heat transfer to the head of an open-chamber diesel were studied. A large instrumentation plug designed to incorporate plates of various materials on the gas-side surface was utilized with a special research head. Instantaneous rates of heat transfer to the plate gas-side surface were measured. Measurement results obtained with a zirconia plate and an insulated metal plate are compared to data for an inunsulated metal plate. The insulation of the metal plate increased its gas-side surface temperature over the uninsulated case by about the same amount achieved with a 6.35-mm-thick zirconia plate. The magnitude of the surface temperature swing for zirconia is not as high as expected from conduction theory, but is substantially higher than that for the uninsulated metal. Significant reductions of steady-state heat fluxes were achieved with both the zirconia and the insulated metal compared to the uninsulated metal.

  6. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  7. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  8. Natural gas industry directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

  9. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  10. High order harmonic generation in dual gas multi-jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosa, Valer E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro

    2013-11-13

    High order harmonic generation (HHG) in gas media suffers from a low conversion efficiency that has its origins in the interaction of the atom/molecule with the laser field. Phase matching is the main way to enhance the harmonic flux and several solutions have been designed to achieve it. Here we present numerical results modeling HHG in a system of multi-jets in which two gases alternate: the first gas jet (for example Ne) generates harmonics and the second one which ionizes easier, recover the phase matching condition. We obtain configurations which are experimentally feasible with respect to pressures and dimensions of the jets.

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2004.04.15 - 2004.12.15 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Abstract Accurate prediction of the regional responses of CO2 flux to changing climate, land use, and management requires models that are

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2005.03.01 - 2006.01.08 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Abstract Accurate prediction of the regional responses of CO2 flux to changing climate, land use, and management requires models that are

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2006.01.01 - 2006.12.31 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Abstract Accurate prediction of the regional responses of CO2 flux to changing climate, land use, and management requires models that are

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETING GAS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM ONTO CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanigawa, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Machida, Masahiro N.

    2012-03-01

    We investigate gas accretion flow onto a circumplanetary disk from a protoplanetary disk in detail by using high-resolution three-dimensional nested-grid hydrodynamic simulations, in order to provide a basis of formation processes of satellites around giant planets. Based on detailed analyses of gas accretion flow, we find that most of gas accretion onto circumplanetary disks occurs nearly vertically toward the disk surface from high altitude, which generates a shock surface at several scale heights of the circumplanetary disk. The gas that has passed through the shock surface moves inward because its specific angular momentum is smaller than that of the local Keplerian rotation, while gas near the midplane in the protoplanetary disk cannot accrete to the circumplanetary disk. Gas near the midplane within the planet's Hill sphere spirals outward and escapes from the Hill sphere through the two Lagrangian points L{sub 1} and L{sub 2}. We also analyze fluxes of accreting mass and angular momentum in detail and find that the distributions of the fluxes onto the disk surface are well described by power-law functions and that a large fraction of gas accretion occurs at the outer region of the disk, i.e., at about 0.1 times the Hill radius. The nature of power-law functions indicates that, other than the outer edge, there is no specific radius where gas accretion is concentrated. These source functions of mass and angular momentum in the circumplanetary disk would provide us with useful constraints on the structure and evolution of the circumplanetary disk, which is important for satellite formation.

  15. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    site near the Stillwater Fault to 0.1 t dayy1 from a 0.01-km2 location of steaming ground on the valley floor. Anomalous CO2 flux is positively correlated with shallow...

  16. Posters Surface Flux Intercomparison Between the MM5 Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dependent on the stability, z l 1 cm, k 0.4 K a is the molecular diffusivity. Ground temperature is prognostic based upon the energy budget. The fluxes are then given...

  17. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 more glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius...

  18. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 ... Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment ... (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled nuclear research ...

  19. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  20. OBSERVATION OF FLUX-TUBE CROSSINGS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, L.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Yan, Y.

    2013-03-20

    Current sheets are ubiquitous in the solar wind. They are a major source of the solar wind MHD turbulence intermittency. They may result from nonlinear interactions of the solar wind MHD turbulence or are the boundaries of flux tubes that originate from the solar surface. Some current sheets appear in pairs and are the boundaries of transient structures such as magnetic holes and reconnection exhausts or the edges of pulsed Alfven waves. For an individual current sheet, discerning whether it is a flux-tube boundary or due to nonlinear interactions or the boundary of a transient structure is difficult. In this work, using data from the Wind spacecraft, we identify two three-current-sheet events. Detailed examination of these two events suggests that they are best explained by the flux-tube-crossing scenario. Our study provides convincing evidence supporting the scenario that the solar wind consists of flux tubes where distinct plasmas reside.

  1. Updated flux information for neutron scattering and irradiation facilities at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Sengupta, S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Farrell, K.

    1997-08-01

    The HFBR is a heavy water, D{sub 2}O, cooled and moderated reactor with twenty-eight fuel elements containing a maximum of 9.8 kilograms of {sup 235}U. While most reactors attempt to minimize the escape of neutrons from the core, the HFBR`s D{sub 2}O design allows the thermal neutron flux to peak in the reflector region and maximizes the number of thermal neutrons available to nine horizontal external beams, H-1 to H-9, used for neutron scattering and capture reactions, supporting physics, chemistry and biology experiments. All horizontal beam tubes were built tangential to the direction of the emerging neutrons, except for the H-2 beam tube, which looks directly at the core and has been used for neutron cross section measurements utilizing fast neutrons and for the TRISTAN fission product studies. In recent years, there have been some beam modifications and new instrumentation introduced at the HFBR. A high resolution neutron powder diffractometer instrument is now operating with a resolution of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at horizontal beam line H-1. To study scattering from liquid surfaces, a neutron reflection spectrometer was introduced on the CNF beam line at H-9. In the past year, a fourth beam line has been added to the CNF line at H-9. The existing beam plug at the H-6 beam line has recently been removed and a new plug, which will feature super mirrored surfaces, is now being installed. Last year, the vertical beam thimble, V-13, a fixed port filled with thirty year old samples used for HFBR material surveillance studies was replaced by a new thimble and charging station at the core edge creating an irradiation facility to substitute for the original V-13. A neutron dosimetry program has begun to measure and calculate the energy dependent neutron and gamma ray flux densities and/or dose rates at horizontal beam lines and vertical irradiation thimbles.

  2. Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, T. B. Zhuravleva, and S. Y. Popov Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Introduction Generally, radiation codes for general circulation models (GCMs) include, together with other procedures, calculations of vertical profiles of upward and downward radiation fluxes which are needed to calculate radiant heat influxes. These last radiative characteristics

  3. Neutron flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occured. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  4. High Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control | Department of Energy Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow Control High Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow Control This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_drost.pdf More Documents & Publications Microchannel Receiver Development - FY12 Q4 Microchannel Receiver Development - FY13 Q2

  5. Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmonic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin-film silicon solar cells (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmonic thin-film silicon solar cells « Prev Next » Title: Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmonic thin-film silicon solar cells Authors: Chung, H. ; Jung, K-Y ; Bermel, P. Publication Date: 2015-08-31 OSTI Identifier: 1222228 Grant/Contract Number: EE0004946 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Optical Materials Express Additional

  6. Project Profile: High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Project Profile: High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Oregon logo Oregon State University and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are working to develop an advanced heat exchanger for use in CSP receivers. The heat exchanger has the potential to significantly increase heat transfer and reduce the size of the receiver. Approach Illustration of a tower with a square-shaped

  7. Transition metal catalysis in the generation of natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mango, F.D.

    1995-12-31

    The view that natural gas is thermolytic, coming from decomposing organic debris, has remained almost unchallenged for nearly half a century. Disturbing contradictions exist, however: Oil is found at great depth, at temperatures where only gas should exist and oil and gas deposits show no evidence of the thermolytic debris indicative of oil decomposing to gas. Moreover, laboratory attempts to duplicate the composition of natural gas, which is typically between 60 and 95+ wt% methane in C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}, have produced insufficient amounts of methane (10 to 60%). It has been suggested that natural gas may be generated catalytically, promoted by the transition metals in carbonaceous sedimentary rocks. This talk will discuss experimental results that support this hypothesis. Various transition metals, as pure compounds and in source rocks, will be shown to generate a catalytic gas that is identical to natural gas. Kinetic results suggest robust catalytic activity under moderate catagenetic conditions.

  8. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  9. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities.

  10. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H. (Lisle, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  11. Simulation of atmospheric temperature effects on cosmic ray muon flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tognini, Stefano Castro; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2015-05-15

    The collision between a cosmic ray and an atmosphere nucleus produces a set of secondary particles, which will decay or interact with other atmosphere elements. This set of events produced a primary particle is known as an extensive air shower (EAS) and is composed by a muonic, a hadronic and an electromagnetic component. The muonic flux, produced mainly by pions and kaons decays, has a dependency with the atmospheres effective temperature: an increase in the effective temperature results in a lower density profile, which decreases the probability of pions and kaons to interact with the atmosphere and, consequently, resulting in a major number of meson decays. Such correlation between the muon flux and the atmospheres effective temperature was measured by a set of experiments, such as AMANDA, Borexino, MACRO and MINOS. This phenomena can be investigated by simulating the final muon flux produced by two different parameterizations of the isothermal atmospheric model in CORSIKA, where each parameterization is described by a depth function which can be related to the muon flux in the same way that the muon flux is related to the temperature. This research checks the agreement among different high energy hadronic interactions models and the physical expected behavior of the atmosphere temperature effect by analyzing a set of variables, such as the height of the primary interaction and the difference in the muon flux.

  12. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campergue, A.-L.; Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Milanesio, D.; Colas, L.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  13. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  14. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  15. Observations of Diurnal to Weekly Variations of Monoterpene-Dominated Fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds from Mediterranean Forests: Implications for Regional Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fares, Silvano; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Xiaoyan, Jiang; Guenther, Alex B.; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco

    2013-09-04

    Most vascular plants species, especially trees, emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Global estimates of BVOC emissions from plants range from 1 to 1.5 Pg C yr?1.1 Mediterranean forest trees have been described as high BVOC emitters, with emission depending primarily on light and temperature, and therefore being promoted by the warm Mediterranean climate. In the presence of sufficient sunlight and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the oxidation of BVOCs can lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas with detrimental effects on plant health, crop yields, and human health. BVOCs are also precursors for aerosol formation, accounting for a significant fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in the atmosphere. The presidential Estate of Castelporziano covers an area of about 6000 ha located 25 km SW from the center of Rome, Italy (Figure 1) and hosts representative forest ecosystems typical of Mediterranean areas: holm oak forests, pine forests, dune vegetation, mixed oak and pine forests. Between 1995 and 2011, three intensive field campaigns were carried out on Mediterranean-type ecosystems inside the Estate. These campaigns were aimed at measuring BVOC emissions and environmental parameters, to improve formulation of basal emission factors (BEFs), that is, standardized emissions at 30 C and 1000 ?mol m?2s?1 of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). BEFs are key input parameters of emission models. The first campaign in Castelporziano was a pioneering integrated study on biogenic emissions (1993? 19964). BVOC fluxes from different forest ecosystems were mainly investigated using plant- and leaf enclosures connected to adsorption tubes followed by GC?MS analysis in the laboratory. This allowed a first screening of Mediterranean species with respect to their BVOC emission potential, environmental control, and emission algorithms. In particular, deciduous oak species revealed high isoprene emissions (Quercus f rainetto, Quercus petrea, Quercus pubescens), while evergreen oaks emitted monoterpenes only, for example, Quercus ilex = holm oak. Differences in constitutive emission patterns discovered in Castelporziano supplied basic information to discriminate oak biodiversity in following studies.Ten years later, a second experimental campaign took place in spring and summer 2007 on a dune-shrubland experimental site. In this campaign, the use of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS14) provided the fast BVOC observations necessary for quasi-real-time flux measurements using Disjunct Eddy Covariance. This allowed for the first time continuous measurements and BEFs calculation at canopy level. Finally, in September 2011 a third campaign was performed with the aim of further characterizing and improving estimates of BVOC fluxes from mixed Mediterranean forests dominated by a mixed holm oak and stone pine forest, using for the first time a proton transfer reaction?time-of-flight?mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). In contrast to the standard quadrupole PTR-MS, which can only measure one m/z ratio at a discrete time, thus being inadequate to quantify fluxes of more than a handful of compounds simultaneously, PTR-TOF-MS allowed simultaneous measurements (10 Hz) of fluxes of all BVOCs at the canopy level by Eddy Covariance.17?20, 50 In this work, we reviewed BEFs from previous campaigns in Castelporziano and calculated new BEFs from the campaign based on PTR-TOF-MS analysis. The new BEFs were used to parametrize the model of emissions of gases and aerosols from nature (MEGAN v2.11).

  16. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  17. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  18. ac response of thin superconductors in the flux-creep regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurevich, A. [Applied Superconductivity Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Applied Superconductivity Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Brandt, E.H. [Max Planck Institute fuer Metallforschung, D-70506 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute fuer Metallforschung, D-70506 Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    We calculate both analytically and numerically the ac susceptibility {chi}({omega}) and the nonlinear electromagnetic response of thin superconductor strips and disks of constant thickness in a perpendicular time-dependent magnetic field B{sub a}(t)=B{sub 0}cos{omega}t, taking account of the strong nonlinearity of the voltage-current characteristics below the irreversibility line. We consider integral equations of nonlinear nonlocal flux diffusion for a wide class of thermally activated creep models. It is shown that thin superconductors, despite being fully in the critical state, exhibit a universal Meissner-like electromagnetic response in the dissipative flux-creep regime. The expression for the linear ac susceptibility during flux creep appears to be similar to the susceptibility of Ohmic conductors, but with the relaxation time constant replaced by the time t elapsed after flux creep has started. This result is independent of any material parameter or temperature or dc field. For {omega}t{gt}1, we obtain {chi}({omega}){approx}{minus}1+pln(qi{omega}t)/(i{omega}t), where p and q are constants. Above a critical ac amplitude B{sub 0}=B{sub l}, the local response of the electric field becomes nonlinear, and there are two distinctive nonlinear regimes at B{sub 0}{gt}B{sub l}, where B{sub l}{approximately}s(d/a){sup 1/2}B{sub p}, B{sub p} is a characteristic field of full flux penetration, s(T,B)={vert_bar}dlnj/dlnt{vert_bar} is the dimensionless flux-creep rate and d and a are the sample thickness and width, respectively. For B{sub l}{lt}B{sub 0}{lt}B{sub h}({omega}) the response of the electric field is strongly nonlinear but nonhysteretic, since the ac field B{sub a}(t) does not cause a periodic inversion of the critical state. As a result, the magnetic moment exhibits a Meissner-like {ital nondissipative} response, in stark contrast to the Bean model. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Advanced Multiphysics Thermal-Hydraulics Models for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Prashant K; Freels, James D

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design studies to determine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This work is part of an effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Reactor Conversion Program. HFIR is a very high flux pressurized light-water-cooled and moderated flux-trap type research reactor. HFIR s current missions are to support neutron scattering experiments, isotope production, and materials irradiation, including neutron activation analysis. Advanced three-dimensional multiphysics models of HFIR fuel were developed in COMSOL software for safety basis (worst case) operating conditions. Several types of physics including multilayer heat conduction, conjugate heat transfer, turbulent flows (RANS model) and structural mechanics were combined and solved for HFIR s inner and outer fuel elements. Alternate design features of the new LEU fuel were evaluated using these multiphysics models. This work led to a new, preliminary reference LEU design that combines a permanent absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, a burnable absorber in the inner element side plates, and a relocated and reshaped (but still radially contoured) fuel zone. Preliminary results of estimated thermal safety margins are presented. Fuel design studies and model enhancement continue.

  20. Closure of the Fast Flux Test Facility: Current Status and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farabee, O.A.; Witherspoon, W.V.

    2008-01-15

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400 MWt sodium cooled fast reactor designed and constructed in the 1970's. The original purpose of the facility was to develop and test advanced fuels and materials for the liquid metal fast breeder reactor program. The facility operated very successfully from 1982 through 1992, fulfilling its original mission as well as other identified missions. However, in 1993 the Department of Energy concluded that there was no longer a need for the FFTF and thus ordered that it be shut down. Following eight years of additional study of potential new missions, the final decision to shut down the facility was made in 2001. (During this eight year period the plant was maintained in a condition to allow safe and efficient shut down or restart). The complete closure of the FFTF consists of the following phases: - Deactivation - removal/stabilization of hazards to allow long-term storage (2001-2009); - Surveillance and maintenance - minimum cost compliant storage (2010-2015); - Decontamination and decommissioning (2016-2024). All of the FFTF fuel has been removed from the site except the sodium-bonded fuel that is destined for transportation to Idaho National Laboratory for final disposition. The sodium-bonded fuel had metallic sodium inside of the fuel pin to increase the heat transfer from the fuel pellet to the clad in order to reduce pellet centerline temperature. Three hundred and seventy-six (376) fuel assemblies have been washed (sodium removed) and transferred to storage at other Hanford locations. The majority of the spent fuel is stored in interim storage casks designed for a 50 year storage life, holding seven assemblies each. All sodium systems have been drained and the sodium stored under an inert gas blanket at ambient temperature in a Sodium Storage Facility at the FFTF site. This facility consists of four large tanks and associated piping. The main contaminants are sodium-22, cesium-137 and tritium. The sodium-potassium (NaK) that was used as an intermediate cooling fluid in several FFTF systems has been drained and removed or flushed to sodium systems where it became mixed with the sodium. The in-containment hot cell has minimal sodium contamination, is currently inerted with argon and is being used for loading of the T-3 transportation cask with the sodium-bonded fuel for transportation to Idaho National Laboratory. The majority of the fuel handling machines are still operational and being used for loading the sodium-bonded fuel into the T-3 casks. This equipment will be shut down immediately following completion of shipment of the sodium-bonded fuel. The majority of hotel systems are still operating. Four of the eight 400-ton chillers have been shut down and four of the cooling towers have been shut down. The argon system is operational and supplying gas for sodium systems cover gas, in-containment hot cell atmosphere and fuel handling systems. The nitrogen system remains in service supplying cover gas to the demineralized water system and fire suppression systems. Eleven of the facilities nineteen transformers containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been removed and significant re-routing of power has been performed to support the long term minimum cost surveillance mode. Future plans include the complete deactivation, the long-term surveillance and maintenance, the sodium disposition and the decontamination and decommissioning The most complex and costly activity during the decontamination and decommissioning phase will be the removal of the 'residual sodium' in the sodium systems. It was impractical to remove the residual sodium during the systems draining evolution. It is estimated that approximately 24,000 liters (6,400 gallons) remain within the systems. The complexity of design of the FFTF exceeds any sodium facility in the United States in which sodium removal has occurred. There are a total of 21 miles of sodium piping in the FFTF as well as three large vessels (the reactor vessel and two spent fuel pool vessels) that will require partial disassembly and drilling in order react/remove remaining sodium.

  1. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from the United States | Department of Energy Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States This analysis calculates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for regional coal and imported natural gas power in Europe and Asia. The primary research questions are as follows: *How does exported liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the U.S. compare

  2. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  3. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1985-12-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

  4. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  5. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  6. Pulsed gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Louis W.; Fitzsimmons, William A.

    1978-01-01

    A pulsed gas laser is constituted by Blumlein circuits wherein space metal plates function both as capacitors and transmission lines coupling high frequency oscillations to a gas filled laser tube. The tube itself is formed by spaced metal side walls which function as connections to the electrodes to provide for a high frequency, high voltage discharge in the tube to cause the gas to lase. Also shown is a spark gap switch having structural features permitting a long life.

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  8. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  9. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  10. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  11. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  12. Rerouting Carbon Flux To Enhance Photosynthetic Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Avelar-Rivas, JA; Way, JC; Silver, PA

    2012-03-23

    The bioindustrial production of fuels, chemicals, and therapeutics typically relies upon carbohydrate inputs derived from agricultural plants, resulting in the entanglement of food and chemical commodity markets. We demonstrate the efficient production of sucrose from a cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus, heterologously expressing a symporter of protons and sucrose (cscB). cscB-expressing cyanobacteria export sucrose irreversibly to concentrations of >10 mM without culture toxicity. Moreover, sucrose-exporting cyanobacteria exhibit increased biomass production rates relative to wild-type strains, accompanied by enhanced photosystem II activity, carbon fixation, and chlorophyll content. The genetic modification of sucrose biosynthesis pathways to minimize competing glucose-or sucrose-consuming reactions can further improve sucrose production, allowing the export of sucrose at rates of up to 36.1 mg liter(-1) h illumination(-1). This rate of production exceeds that of previous reports of targeted, photobiological production from microbes. Engineered S. elongatus produces sucrose in sufficient quantities (up to similar to 80% of total biomass) such that it may be a viable alternative to sugar synthesis from terrestrial plants, including sugarcane.

  13. QUANTIFICATION OF HEAT FLUX FROM A REACTING THERMITE SPRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Nixon; Michelle Pantoya

    2009-07-01

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors can not survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite spray conditions are reported. Results indicate that this newly developed energetic material heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability.

  14. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    over the next few days. To avoid penalties, Northwest requested that customers stay within their scheduled volumes, and asked customers who owe gas to Northwest north of...

  16. Breathable gas distribution apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Elmer D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for safely supplying breathable gas or air through individual respirators to personnel working in a contaminated area.

  17. Unconventional Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 4.2.1.1 Shale Gas Drilling and Fracturing Fluids ......86 4.2.1.2 Coalbed Methane Drilling and Fracturing ...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    kept up significant downward pressure on both cash and futures prices. Lower prices may eventually lead to fewer rigs exploring for gas, thereby stemming the growth in production....

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2009 Next Release: August 13, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, August 5, 2009) Natural...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.M. Next Release: Thursday, July 1, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 23, 2010)...