National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for activity gas flux

  1. Gas flux and carbonate occurrence at a shallow seep of thermogenic natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    010-0184-0 ORIGINAL Gas flux and carbonate occurrence atof thermogenic natural gas Franklin S. Kinnaman & Justine B.comprehensive survey of gas flux at Brian Seep yielded a

  2. Variability of Gas Composition and Flux Intensity in Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, J F; Schwager, Katherine; Washburn, Libe

    2005-01-01

    of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marineof gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine

  3. Neutrino flux variations and solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikhsanov, R N

    2003-01-01

    We investigate temporal variations of the solar neutrino flux in 1970-1997. The periods of 11, 5 and 2 years have been found in the variations of the neutrino flux. The results indicate that a periodicity close to 5 years is the most significant in the data from both the Homestake and GALLEX experiments. Two groups of the solar activity indices have been distinguished regarding their interconnection with the neutrino flux series. The first group contains the indices showing predominantly 11-year period, while a periodicity at approximately 5 years is observed in the second group. The correlation coefficients between the neutrino flux and indices from the first group are negative, with their module not exceeding 0.5. The second group is characterized by positive correlation with the neutrino counting rates with coefficients not lower than 0.6. A discussion of findings is presented.

  4. Gas Flux Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Iovenitti...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the geothermal area. Ultimately for potential development of EGS. Notes A CO2 soil gas flux survey was conducted in areas recognized as geothermal upflow zones within the...

  5. Variability of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jordan F.; Washburn, Libe; Schwager Emery, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    was conducted using a flux buoy designed to simultaneouslybubbling gas flux and the buoy’s position with differentialgas flux using a flux buoy (Washburn et al. 2001) showed

  6. Development of a passive soil gas flux sampler 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuown, Brian C

    1991-01-01

    was also identical to the laboratory procedure except for the insulated housing. The stainless steel canister was left in place between sampling events without the flow system. Experimental Procedure ? Land Treatment Unit. Passive samplers were also...DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE SOIL GAS FLUX SAMPLER A Thesis by BRIAN C. McQUOWN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991...

  7. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lewicki...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) against available energy (net radiation, less soil heat flux). While incomplete (R2 0.77 for 1:1 line), the degree of energy balance...

  8. Variability of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jordan F.; Washburn, Libe; Schwager Emery, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    with the flux buoy, a ~3 m long spar buoy and associatedmounted on the top of the spar. In field operations, theline near the top of the spar. The vented gas was collected

  9. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Bergfeld...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 2006 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes "A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and...

  10. Gas flux and carbonate occurrence at a shallow seep of thermogenic natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    seep of thermogenic natural gas Franklin S. Kinnaman &small seep of thermogenic natural gas located near the Coalmicrobial oxidation of natural gas in the sediments (

  11. Category:Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMALFacebook iconFormationGas

  12. Origin and flux of a gas seep in the Northern Alps (Giswil, Switzerland)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Origin and flux of a gas seep in the Northern Alps (Giswil, Switzerland) G. ETIOPE1 , C. ZWAHLEN2 and Management, U¨ berlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Du¨bendorf, Switzerland; 3 EAWAG, Swiss Federal Institute-8600 Du¨bendorf, Switzerland; 4 EAWAG, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science & Technology

  13. Fluid origin, gas fluxes and plumbing system in the sediment-hosted Salton Sea Geothermal System (California, USA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Fluid origin, gas fluxes and plumbing system in the sediment-hosted Salton Sea Geothermal System Available online 12 June 2011 Keywords: Salton Sea Geothermal System hydrothermal seeps gas and water geochemistry flux measurements mantle The Salton Sea Geothermal System (California) is an easily accessible

  14. Simulation of tokamak SOL and divertor region including heat flux mitigation by gas puffing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jin Woo [Seoul National University, Seoul, S. Korea; Na, Y. S. [Seoul National University, Seoul, S. Korea; Hong, S. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon, South Korea; Ahn, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kim, D. K. [Agency Def Dev, Taejon, South Korea; Han, Hyunsun [National Fusion Research Institute, Taejon, South Korea; Shim, Seong Bo [Pusan National University, Busan, Korea; Lee, Hae June [Pusan National University, Busan, Korea

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D), scrape-off layer (SOL)-divertor transport simulations are performed using the integrated plasma-neutral-impurity code KTRAN developed at Seoul National University. Firstly, the code is applied to reproduce a National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) discharge by using the prescribed transport coefficients and the boundary conditions obtained from the experiment. The plasma density, the heat flux on the divertor plate, and the D (alpha) emission rate profiles from the numerical simulation are found to follow experimental trends qualitatively. Secondly, predictive simulations are carried out for the baseline operation mode in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) to predict the heat flux on the divertor target plates. The stationary peak heat flux in the KSTAR baseline operation mode is expected to be 6.5 MW/m(2) in the case of an orthogonal divertor. To study the mitigation of the heat flux, we investigated the puffing effects of deuterium and argon gases. The puffing position is assumed to be in front of the strike point at the outer lower divertor plate. In the simulations, mitigation of the peak heat flux at the divertor target plates is found to occur when the gas puffing rate exceeds certain values, similar to 1.0 x 10(20) /s and similar to 5.0 x 10(18) /s for deuterium and argon, respectively. Multi-charged impurity transport is also investigated for both NSTX and KSTAR SOL and divertor regions.

  15. Triggering an eruptive flare by emerging flux in a solar active-region complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Rohan E; Ravindra, B; Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    A flare and fast coronal mass ejection originated between solar active regions NOAA 11514 and 11515 on July 1, 2012 in response to flux emergence in front of the leading sunspot of the trailing region 11515. Analyzing the evolution of the photospheric magnetic flux and the coronal structure, we find that the flux emergence triggered the eruption by interaction with overlying flux in a non-standard way. The new flux neither had the opposite orientation nor a location near the polarity inversion line, which are favorable for strong reconnection with the arcade flux under which it emerged. Moreover, its flux content remained significantly smaller than that of the arcade (approximately 40 %). However, a loop system rooted in the trailing active region ran in part under the arcade between the active regions, passing over the site of flux emergence. The reconnection with the emerging flux, leading to a series of jet emissions into the loop system, caused a strong but confined rise of the loop system. This lifted th...

  16. Measuring radon flux across active faults: Relevance of excavating and possibility of satellite discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klinger, Yann

    Measuring radon flux across active faults: Relevance of excavating and possibility of satellite January 2010 Keywords: Exhalation flux Radon-222 Carbon dioxide Faults Earthquake Trench a b s t r a c on the Xidatan segment of the Kunlun Fault, Qinghai Province, China, using measurement of the radon- 222

  17. Gas flux and carbonate occurrence at a shallow seep of thermogenic natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    DL (2008) Disentangling oil weathering at a marine seepAbstract The Coal Oil Point seep field located offshorethe thermo- genic gas and oil seeps located near Coal Oil

  18. High Heat Flux Exposure Tests on 10mm Beryllium Tiles Brazed on Actively Cooled Vapotron made from CUCRZR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Heat Flux Exposure Tests on 10mm Beryllium Tiles Brazed on Actively Cooled Vapotron made from CUCRZR

  19. SOLAS Mid Term Strategy Initiative "Air-sea gas fluxes at Eastern boundary upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) systems"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 SOLAS Mid Term Strategy Initiative "Air-sea gas fluxes at Eastern boundary upwelling and Oxygen Lachkar, ETH Zurich, Suisse Parv Suntharalingam, UEA, UK Martin Hernandez Ayon, UABC, Mexico +of course of SOLAS and to the Workshop Véronique Garçon 09:50 Surface (energy and water) fluxes at the air

  20. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Xiang, Yongyuan E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST H? data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75 Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11 Mm, and the estimated twist is 1?. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in H? images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 Å, and as a bright structure in 171 Å and 131 Å images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux.

  1. Comparisons of diffusive and advective fluxes of gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones under natural conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    is traditionally treated as the dominant mechanism of gas transport in unsaturated zones under natural conditionsComparisons of diffusive and advective fluxes of gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones under natural conditions Kehua You a , Hongbin Zhan a,b, a Department of Geology

  2. Oil and Gas CDT Gas hydrate distribution on tectonically active continental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Gas hydrate distribution on tectonically active continental margins: Impact on gas. Gregory F. Moore, University of Hawaii (USA) http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/moore/ Key Words Gas Hydrates, Faults, Fluid Flow, gas prospectivity Overview Fig. 1. Research on gas hydrates is often undertaken

  3. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ting; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    We make a comparative analysis for two filaments that showed quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) are carried out to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17-20 and September 29. The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4*10^21 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed within 3 days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2*10^20 Mx, about one ...

  4. Fungal, bacterial, and archaeal communities mediating C cycling and trace gas flux in peatland ecosystems subject to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fungal, bacterial, and archaeal communities mediating C cycling and trace gas flux in peatland microbial community profiling in a network of natural peatland ecosystems spanning large-scale climate the drivers of microbial community composition via metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of samples from

  5. A Helium Gas-Scintillator Active Target for Photoreaction Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Al Jebali; J. R. M. Annand; J. -O. Adler; I. Akkurt; E. Buchanan; J. Brudvik; K. Fissum; S. Gardner; D. J. Hamilton; K. Hansen; L. Isaksson; K. Livingston; M. Lundin; J. C. McGeorge; I. J. D. MacGregor; R. MacRae; D. G. Middleton; A. J. H. Reiter; G. Rosner; B. Schröder; J. Sjögren; D. Sokhan; B. Strandberg

    2015-03-18

    A multi-cell He gas-scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 $\\mathrm{g/cm^{2}}$ at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of $\\mathrm{N}_{2}$ to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has good timing resolution and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in $^{4}\\mathrm{He}$, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response.

  6. Nutrient dynamics and nitrogen trace gas flux during ecosystem development in montane rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, R.H.; Vitousek, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Patterns of nitrogen trace gas emissions, soil nitrogen flux, and nutrient availability were evaluated at five sites that form a chronosequence in Hawaiian montane rain forest. The estimated age of basaltic parent material from which soils developed at the Kilauea site was 200 yr, 6000 yr at the Puu Makaala site, 185000 yr at the Kohala site, 1.65 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Molokai site, and 4.5 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Kauai site. Peak net N mineralization and nitrification values were found in soils from the 185000-yr-old Kohala site. Nitrogen content of foliage and leaf litter was highest in the intermediate age sites (Puu Makaala and Kohala) and N and P retranslocation was lowest at the Puu Makaala site. Soil cores fertilized with nitrogen had significantly higher rates of root ingrowth than control cores at the two youngest sites (200 and 6000 yr old) but not in older sites (185000 and 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old sites) and total fine root growth into control cores was greatest at the Kohala site. The highest N{sub 2}O emissions were found at the 185000-yr-old Kohala site, while the highest combined flux of N{sub 2}O + NO was observed at the 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old Kauai site. While overall N{sub 2}O emission rates were correlated with rates of N transformations, soil water content appeared to influence the magnitude of emissions of N{sub 2}O and the ratios of emissions of NO vs. N{sub 2}O. N{sub 2}O emissions occurred when water-filled pore space (WFPS) values were >40%, with highest emissions in at least two sites observed at WFPS values of 75%. Among sites, high N{sub 2}O emissions were associated with high soil N transformation rates. Large NO fluxes were observed only at the Kauai site when WFPS values were <60%. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal System- A Case Study Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  8. A Dynamic Solar Core Model: On the Activity-Related Changes of the Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attila Grandpierre

    1998-10-08

    The energy sources of the Sun may actually involve a thermonuclear runaway energy source present in stellar energy producing regions. I consider the conjectures of the derived model for the solar neutrino fluxes in case of a solar core allowed to vary in relation to the surface activity cycle. The observed neutrino flux data suggest a solar core possibly varying in time. In the dynamic solar model the quiet and runaway energy sources together may produce quasi-constant flux in the SuperKamiokande because it is sensitive to neutral currents, axions and anti-neutrinos, too. I calculate the contributions of the runaway source to the individual neutrino detectors. The results of the dynamic solar core model suggest that since the HOMESTAKE detects mostly the high energy electron neutrinos, therefore the HOMESTAKE data may aniticorrelate with the activity cycle. Activity correlated changes are expected to be present only marginally in the GALLEX and GNO data. The gallium detectors are sensitive mostly to the pp neutrinos, and the changes of the pp neutrinos arising from the SSM-like core is mostly compensated by the high-energy electron neutrinos produced by the hot bubbles of the dynamic energy source. The results suggest that the GALLEX data may show an anti-correlation, while the SuperKamiokande data may show a correlation with the activity cycle. Predictions of the dynamic solar model are presented for the SNO and Borexino experiments which can distinguish between the effects of the MSW mechanism and the consequences of the dynamic solar model. The results of the dynamic solar model are consistent with the present heioseismic measurements and can be checked with future heioseismic measurements as well. Keywords: solar neutrino problems - solar activity - thermonuclear runaways

  9. Photospheric Electric Fields and Energy Fluxes in the Eruptive Active Region NOAA 11158

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazachenko, Maria D; Welsch, Brian T; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    How much electromagnetic energy crosses the photosphere in evolving solar active regions? With the advent of high-cadence vector magnetic field observations, addressing this fundamental question has become tractable. In this paper, we apply the "PTD-Doppler-FLCT-Ideal" (PDFI) electric field inversion technique of Kazachenko et al. (2014) to a 6-day HMI/SDO vector magnetogram and Doppler velocity sequence, to find the electric field and Poynting flux evolution in NOAA active region 11158, which produced an X2.2 flare early on 2011 February 15. We find photospheric electric fields ranging up to $1.5$ V/cm. The Poynting fluxes range up to $2\\times10^{10}$ ergs$\\cdot$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with mean values around $10^8$-$10^9$ ergs$\\cdot$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. Integrating the instantaneous energy flux over space and time, we find that the total magnetic energy accumulated above the photosphere from emergence to the moment before the X2.2 flare to be $E=10.6\\times10^{32}$ ergs, which is partitioned as $2.0\\times10^{32}$ er...

  10. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, David B. (108 Tall Oaks Dr., Wayne, NJ 07470); Gelbein, Abraham P. (45 Headley Rd., Morristown, NJ 07960)

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  11. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Activity: Natural Gas Engine and Vehicle Research & Development (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the status of the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) activity, including goals, R&D progress, NGV implementation, and the transition to hydrogen.

  12. Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil Fertilization and Biochar Addition Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil) for long periods to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Forest fertilization can improve yield and C

  13. Emergence of a Helical Flux Rope Under an Active Region Prominence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takenori J. Okamoto; Saku Tsuneta; Bruce W. Lites; Masahito Kubo; Takaaki Yokoyama; Thomas E. Berger; Kiyoshi Ichimoto; Yukio Katsukawa; Shin'ichi Nagata; Kazunari Shibata; Toshifumi Shimizu; Richard A. Shine; Yoshinori Suematsu; Theodore D. Tarbell; Alan M. Title

    2008-01-13

    Continuous observations were obtained of active region 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the \\emph{Hinode} satellite during 2007 April 28 to May 9. A prominence was located over the polarity inversion line (PIL) in the south-east of the main sunspot. These observations provided us with a time series of vector magnetic fields on the photosphere under the prominence. We found four features: (1) The abutting opposite-polarity regions on the two sides along the PIL first grew laterally in size and then narrowed. (2) These abutting regions contained vertically-weak, but horizontally-strong magnetic fields. (3) The orientations of the horizontal magnetic fields along the PIL on the photosphere gradually changed with time from a normal-polarity configuration to a inverse-polarity one. (4) The horizontal-magnetic field region was blueshifted. These indicate that helical flux rope was emerging from below the photosphere into the corona along the PIL under the pre-existing prominence. We suggest that this supply of a helical magnetic flux into the corona is associated with evolution and maintenance of active-region prominences.

  14. EMERGENCE OF HELICAL FLUX AND THE FORMATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lites, B. W.; Kubo, M.; Berger, T.; Frank, Z.; Shine, R.; Tarbell, T.; Title, A.; Okamoto, T. J.; Otsuji, K.

    2010-07-20

    We present comprehensive observations of the formation and evolution of a filament channel within NOAA Active Region (AR) 10978 from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope and TRACE. We employ sequences of Hinode spectro-polarimeter maps of the AR, accompanying Hinode Narrowband Filter Instrument magnetograms in the Na I D1 line, Hinode Broadband Filter Instrument filtergrams in the Ca II H line and G-band, Hinode X-ray telescope X-ray images, and TRACE Fe IX 171 A image sequences. The development of the channel resembles qualitatively that presented by Okamoto et al. in that many indicators point to the emergence of a pre-existing sub-surface magnetic flux rope. The consolidation of the filament channel into a coherent structure takes place rapidly during the course of a few hours, and the filament form then gradually shrinks in width over the following two days. Particular to this filament channel is the observation of a segment along its length of horizontal, weak (500 G) flux that, unlike the rest of the filament channel, is not immediately flanked by strong vertical plage fields of opposite polarity on each side of the filament. Because this isolated horizontal field is observed in photospheric lines, we infer that it is unlikely that the channel formed as a result of reconnection in the corona, but the low values of inferred magnetic fill fraction along the entire length of the filament channel suggest that the bulk of the field resides somewhat above the low photosphere. Correlation tracking of granulation in the G band presents no evidence for either systematic flows toward the channel or systematic shear flows along it. The absence of these flows, along with other indications of these data from multiple sources, reinforces (but does not conclusively demonstrate) the picture of an emerging flux rope as the origin of this AR filament channel.

  15. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYearEnergyPresentationsWeekU.S.Changing3 Oil3B

  16. Compare All CBECS Activities: Natural Gas Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep3,118,592Number ofByFuel Oil

  17. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1 0 0 0 0 0 2013 2014

  18. Application of Crunch-Flow Routines to Constrain Present and Past Carbon Fluxes at Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, Marta

    2014-01-31

    In November 2012, Oregon State University initiated the project entitled: Application of Crunch-Flow routines to constrain present and past carbon fluxes at gas-hydrate bearing sites. Within this project we developed Crunch-Flow based modeling modules that include important biogeochemical processes that need to be considered in gas hydrate environments. Our modules were applied to quantify carbon cycling in present and past systems, using data collected during several DOE-supported drilling expeditions, which include the Cascadia margin in US, Ulleung Basin in South Korea, and several sites drilled offshore India on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Specifically, we completed modeling efforts that: 1) Reproduce the compositional and isotopic profiles observed at the eight drilled sites in the Ulleung Basin that constrain and contrast the carbon cycling pathways at chimney (high methane flux) and non-chimney sites (low methane, advective systems); 2) Simulate the Ba record in the sediments to quantify the past dynamics of methane flux in the southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin; and 3) Provide quantitative estimates of the thickness of individual mass transport deposits (MTDs), time elapsed after the MTD event, rate of sulfate reduction in the MTD, and time required to reach a new steady state at several sites drilled in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin off India. In addition we developed a hybrid model scheme by coupling a home-made MATLAB code with CrunchFlow to address the methane transport and chloride enrichment at the Ulleung Basins chimney sites, and contributed the modeling component to a study focusing on pore-scale controls on gas hydrate distribution in sediments from the Andaman Sea. These efforts resulted in two manuscripts currently under review, and contributed the modeling component of another pare, also under review. Lessons learned from these efforts are the basis of a mini-workshop to be held at Oregon State University (Feb 2014) to instruct graduate students (OSU and UW) as well as DOE staff from the NETL lab in Albany on the use of Crunch Flow for geochemical applications.

  19. Magnetic flux leakage inspection of gas pipelines: Experience with a collapsible tool. Final report, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scrivner, R.W.

    1996-07-01

    The Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) technique is the most commonly used method to inspect transmission pipelines for corrosion. A typical MFL tool operates in pipelines which have no restrictions. Reduced size valves, a 24 inch valve in a 30 inch pipeline, are one such restriction. A collapsible MFL tool was developed to allow pipelines with reduced size valves to be inspected without expensive valve replacement. The first use, in 1995, of a 30 inch tool succeeded in passing through the valves and inspecting the pipeline. The first use of a 36 inch tool railed due to a partially closed valve, damaging the tool. The tool was ultimately run after some repairs to the tool and most of the reduced size valves were replaced with full size valves. The results of the final run were very good. Additional use of the tools in 1996 has provided excellent results.

  20. Formation of a Double-decker Magnetic Flux Rope in the Sigmoidal Solar Active Region 11520

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, X; Zhang, J; Sun, X D; Guo, Y; Wang, Y M; Kliem, B; Deng, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the formation of a magnetic flux rope (MFR) that erupted on 2012 July 12 and caused a strong geomagnetic storm event on July 15. Through analyzing the long-term evolution of the associated active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, it is found that the twisted field of an MFR, indicated by a continuous S-shaped sigmoid, is built up from two groups of sheared arcades near the main polarity inversion line half day before the eruption. The temperature within the twisted field and sheared arcades is higher than that of the ambient volume, suggesting that magnetic reconnection most likely works there. The driver behind the reconnection is attributed to shearing and converging motions at magnetic footpoints with velocities in the range of 0.1--0.6 km s$^{-1}$. The rotation of the preceding sunspot also contributes to the MFR buildup. Extrapolated three-dimensional non-linear force-free field s...

  1. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    emissions from oil and gas production pads using mobileuxes over other oil and gas production regions using eddycompounds (VOCs) from oil and gas production may have large

  2. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of methane emissions from shale gas development, Proc. Natl.and northeastern Marcellus shale gas production regions, J.Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions, J.

  3. On the Parameters determining the Neutrino Flux from observed Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Bazo; A. M. Gago

    2005-04-25

    Extrapolating from a sample of 39 AGNs, we examine the impact on the total number of high energy muon-neutrino induced events (PeV-EeV) expected in IceCube (a 1Km^3 ``neutrino telescope''), due to variations in different parameters involved in the neutrino flux, such as the emission region geometry, the estimation models and distributions of the Doppler factor and the variability time. This work has been done taking into account different limits of the extragalactic neutrino flux. Among our conclusions, we find, in the case of the largest variability time, that the cylindrical geometry hypothesis for the emission region, produce a separation of 3 sigma in the total number of events relative to the spherical hypothesis. In addition, for similar choices of the burst time, spherical geometry and for the upper neutrino flux bound, we obtain a separation of 2.5 sigma in the total number of events, for some of the Doppler factor estimations. These differences are undistinguishable for other input values.

  4. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of methane emissions from oil and gas production pads using2015), In?uence of oil and gas ?eld operations on spatialux measurements over oil and gas extraction regions •

  5. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  6. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in the Haynesville Shale, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 44(24),of methane emissions from shale gas development, Proc. Natl.and northeastern Marcellus shale gas production regions, J.

  7. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    natural gas extraction can lead to signi?cant emissions of methane (CH 4 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen

  9. 40Ar-39Ar Geochronology Of Magmatic Activity, Magma Flux And...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    activity and hazard prediction. Authors John A. Gamble, Richard C. Price, Ian E. M. Smith, William C. McIntosh and Nelia W. Dunbar Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and...

  10. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    well sites of the Barnett shale gas play [Eastern Researchof well sites in the Barnett shale play accounted for 70% of

  11. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R.; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C.

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  12. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gasAnthropogenic emissions of methane in the United States,A. R. , et al. (2014), Methane leaks from North American

  13. Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena , Sigurd little attention. this paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process at all times. Keywords: Self-optimizing control, liquefied natural gas, LNG, PRICO, disturbances, optimal

  14. Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a , Sigurd Keywords: Self-optimizing control Liquefied natural gas LNG PRICO Disturbances Optimal operation a b s t r. This paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process e the PRICO process

  15. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  16. Natural Gas_v2 (9764 - Activated, Traditional).xps

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegionalMethodology forNYMEXUsed asnatural

  17. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by ?-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nault, Rance; Abdul-Fattah, Hiba; Mironov, Gleb G.; Berezovski, Maxim V.; Moon, Thomas W.

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist ?-naphthoflavone (?NF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 ?M ?NF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: • Energetic costs of AhR activation by ?NF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. • Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. • Exposure to ?NF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. • Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism.

  18. Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

    1988-01-01

    to new or existing conventional air-conditioning system via a duct. It consists of a triple integrated heat-exchanger combining (liquid) desiccant dehumidification with indirect evaporative cooling, a brine interchanger, and a gas-fired brine heater...

  19. Gas hydrates at two sites of an active continental margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-03-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart or the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m. Both sites are characterized by rates of sedimentation exceeding about 30 m/m.y. and organic carbon contents exceeding about 0.5%. The magnitudes and trends of gas compositions, residual gas concentrations and chlorinity variations are generally similar at both sites. The carbon isotopic compositions are significantly heavier at Site 568 than at Site 565. The isotopic compositions and trends at Site 565 are typical of biogenic methane generation. At Site 568, the isotopic compositions are very heavy. In spite of its heavy carbon isotopic composition, this methane is believed to have a biogenic source.

  20. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-12-31

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  1. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  2. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  3. NON-THERMAL RESPONSE OF THE CORONA TO THE MAGNETIC FLUX DISPERSAL IN THE PHOTOSPHERE OF A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harra, L. K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Abramenko, V. I. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We analyzed Solar Dynamics Observatory line-of-sight magnetograms for a decaying NOAA active region (AR) 11451 along with co-temporal Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data from the Hinode spacecraft. The photosphere was studied via time variations of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity coefficient, {eta}(t), and the magnetic power spectrum index, {alpha}, through analysis of magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). These measure the intensity of the random motions of magnetic elements and the state of turbulence of the magnetic field, respectively. The time changes of the non-thermal energy release in the corona was explored via histogram analysis of the non-thermal velocity, v {sub nt}, in order to highlight the largest values at each time, which may indicate an increase in energy release in the corona. We used the 10% upper range of the histogram of v {sub nt} (which we called V {sup upp} {sub nt}) of the coronal spectral line of Fe XII 195 A. A 2 day time interval was analyzed from HMI data, along with the EIS data for the same field of view. Our main findings are the following. (1) The magnetic turbulent diffusion coefficient, {eta}(t), precedes the upper range of the v {sub nt} with the time lag of approximately 2 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.76. (2) The power-law index, {alpha}, of the magnetic power spectrum precedes V {sup upp} {sub nt} with a time lag of approximately 3 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.5. The data show that the magnetic flux dispersal in the photosphere is relevant to non-thermal energy release dynamics in the above corona. The results are consistent with the nanoflare mechanism of the coronal heating, due to the time lags being consistent with the process of heating and cooling the loops heated by nanoflares.

  4. Ultraviolet Diagnostics for the Emission Line Gas in Active Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. G. Allen; M. A. Dopita; Z. I. Tsvetanov

    1998-01-06

    Optical diagnostic diagrams are frequently ambiguous as a test of the photoionization or fast shock models of the narrow line regions of active galaxies. Here, we present a set of UV line ratio diagrams which can discriminate between pure shock and photoionization modes of excitation, and to some extent, also discriminate shocks with ionized precursors from photoionization. These diagrams use relatively bright emission lines and reddening insensitive ratios and provide a practical observational test for separating the excitation mechanisms of the narrow line regions of active galaxies. The most useful diagrams are those involving the various ionization stages of Carbon, [OIII]5007/H-beta vs. CIV 1550/ HeII 1640 and the purely UV ratio pair CII] 2326 / CIII] 1909 vs. CIV 1550 / CIII]909. Temperature sensitive FUV lines CIII 977 and NIII 991 also provide good discriminants. The models are compared to observations of nearby AGN, and also to high redshift objects where the UV lines are shifted into the optical.

  5. Safety basis For activities in double-shell tanks with flammable gas concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlosser, R.L.

    1996-02-05

    This is full revision to Revision 0 of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of analyses done to support activities performed for double shell tanks. These activities are encompassed by the flammable gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). The basic controls required to perform these activities involve the identification, elimination and/or control of ignition sources and monitoring for flammable gases. Controls are implemented through the Interim Safety Basis (ISB), IOSRs, and OSDs. Since this report only provides a historical compendium of issues and activities, it is not to be used as a basis to perform USQ screenings and evaluations. Furthermore, these analyses and others in process will be used as the basis for developing the Flammable Gas Topical Report for the ISB Upgrade.

  6. Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Doug

    to as Combustion Turbine Generators (CTGs). Each unit is connected to a Rentech Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) which captures waste heat from combustion turbine exhaust to produce steam for the campus's heatingActive NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade

  7. Active microuidic mixer and gas bubble lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Active micro¯uidic mixer and gas bubble ®lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$ Jr-Hung Tsaia interface to increase the contact area of mixing ¯uids to accelerate the mixing process. The micro and successfully demonstrated in the micro¯uidic mixing system. A model based on the principle of threshold

  8. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. The AmeriFlux Data Activity and Data System: An Evolving Collection of Data Management Techniques, Tools, Products and Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, Thomas A; Krassovski, Misha B; Yang, Bai

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the U.S. Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Over this period, climate change science has expanded from research focusing on basic understanding of geochemical cycles, particularly the carbon cycle, to integrated research addressing climate change impacts, vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation. Interests in climate change data and information worldwide have grown remarkably and, as a result, so have demands and expectations for CDIAC s data systems. To meet the growing demands, CDIAC s strategy has been to design flexible data systems using proven technologies blended with new, evolving technologies and standards. CDIAC development teams are multidisciplinary and include computer science and information technology expertise, but also scientific expertise necessary to address data quality and documentation issues and to identify data products and system capabilities needed by climate change scientists. CDIAC has learned there is rarely a single commercial tool or product readily available to satisfy long-term scientific data system requirements (i.e., one size does not fit all and the breadth and diversity of environmental data are often too complex for easy use with commercial products) and typically deploys a variety of tools and data products in an effort to provide credible data freely to users worldwide. Like many scientific data management applications, CDIAC s data systems are highly customized to satisfy specific scientific usage requirements (e.g., developing data products specific for model use) but are also designed to be flexible and interoperable to take advantage of new software engineering techniques, standards (e.g., metadata standards) and tools and to support future Earth system data efforts (e.g., ocean acidification). CDIAC has provided data management support for numerous long-term measurement projects crucial to climate change science. One current example is the AmeriFlux measurement network. AmeriFlux provides continuous measurements from forests, grasslands, wetlands, and croplands in North, Central, and South America and offers important insight about carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We share our approaches in satisfying the challenges of delivering AmeriFlux data worldwide to benefit others with similar challenges handling climate change data, further heighten awareness and use of an outstanding ecological data resource, and highlight expanded software engineering applications being used for climate change measurement data.

  10. Optical activity in an isotropic gas of electrons with a preferred helicity D. B. Melrose and J. I. Weise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melrose, Don

    Optical activity in an isotropic gas of electrons with a preferred helicity D. B. Melrose and J. I; published 22 October 2003 An isotropic gas of electrons with a preferred spin helicity is shown response tensor is calculated for an electron gas described in terms of a spin-dependent occupation number

  11. Regional air quality impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale natural gas activity: Evidence from ambient VOC observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    Regional air quality impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale natural gas activity: Evidence from/Washington area. Shale natural gas operation emissions appear to be transported downwind. a r t i c l e i n f o to free and extract natural gas trapped within shale layers (USGS, 2014). According to the U.S. Energy

  12. OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg

    2007-05-01

    Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

  13. Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

  14. Active hurricane season expected to shut-in higher amount of oil and natural gas production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas ReservesAlabamaAbout EIA.gov Screen capture ofHelpActive

  15. Molecular and isotopic partitioning of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons during migration and gas hydrate precipitation in deposits of a high-flux seepage site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    and stable isotope compositions of natural gas hydrates: acarbon isotopic composition of methane from natural gases of

  16. Light Bridge in a Developing Active Region. II. Numerical Simulation of Flux Emergence and Light Bridge Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Light bridges, the bright structure dividing umbrae in sunspot regions, show various activity events. In Paper I, we reported on analysis of multi-wavelength observations of a light bridge in a developing active region (AR) and concluded that the activity events are caused by magnetic reconnection driven by magnetconvective evolution. The aim of this second paper is to investigate the detailed magnetic and velocity structures and the formation mechanism of light bridges. For this purpose, we analyze numerical simulation data from a radiative magnetohydrodynamics model of an emerging AR. We find that a weakly-magnetized plasma upflow in the near-surface layers of the convection zone is entrained between the emerging magnetic bundles that appear as pores at the solar surface. This convective upflow continuously transports horizontal fields to the surface layer and creates a light bridge structure. Due to the magnetic shear between the horizontal fields of the bridge and the vertical fields of the ambient pores,...

  17. Gas-phase CO2 emission toward Cepheus A East: the result of shock activity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sonnentrucker; E. González-Alfonso; D. A. Neufeld; E. A. Bergin; G. J. Melnick; W. J. Forrest; J. L. Pipher; D. M. Watson

    2006-09-05

    We report the first detection of gas-phase CO2 emission in the star-forming region Cepheus A East, obtained by spectral line mapping of the v2 bending mode at 14.98 micron with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The gaseous CO2 emission covers a region about 35'' x 25'' in extent, and results from radiative pumping by 15 micron continuum photons emanating predominantly from the HW2 protostellar region. The gaseous CO2 exhibits a temperature distribution ranging from 50 K to 200 K. A correlation between the gas-phase CO2 distribution and that of H2 S(2), a tracer of shock activity, indicates that the CO2 molecules originate in a cool post-shock gas component associated with the outflow powered by HW2. The presence of CO2 ice absorption features at 15.20 micron toward this region and the lack of correlation between the IR continuum emission and the CO2 gas emission distribution further suggest that the gaseous CO2 molecules are mainly sputtered off grain mantles -- by the passage of slow non-dissociative shocks with velocities of 15-30 km/s -- rather than sublimated through grain heating.

  18. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-01-01

    editor. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emission and sinks:Ishida. 2008. An integrated greenhouse gas assessment of anguidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume

  19. if it is a gas leak, do not activate building alarms, use mobile phones, hand held radios, electronic equipment or light flammable material!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    gas leak gas leak if it is a gas leak, do not activate building alarms, use mobile phones, hand held radios, electronic equipment or light flammable material! 1. If you discover a Gas Leak, shout and check that the nearest gas isolator switch is off. 4. Evacuate the building immediately, avoiding

  20. Lattice-gas model for active vesicle transport by molecular motors with opposite polarities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudipto Muhuri; Ignacio Pagonabarraga

    2010-09-09

    We introduce a multi-species lattice gas model for motor protein driven collective cargo transport on cellular filaments. We use this model to describe and analyze the collective motion of interacting vesicle cargoes being carried by oppositely directed molecular motors, moving on a single biofilament. Building on a totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) to characterize the motion of the interacting cargoes, we allow for mass exchange with the environment, input and output at filament boundaries and focus on the role of interconversion rates and how they affect the directionality of the net cargo transport. We quantify the effect of the various different competing processes in terms of non-equilibrium phase diagrams. The interplay of interconversion rates, which allow for flux reversal and evaporation/deposition processes introduce qualitatively new features in the phase diagrams. We observe regimes of three-phase coexistence, the possibility of phase re-entrance and a significant flexibility in how the different phase boundaries shift in response to changes in control parameters. The moving steady state solutions of this model allows for different possibilities for the spatial distribution of cargo vesicles, ranging from homogeneous distribution of vesicles to polarized distributions, characterized by inhomogeneities or {\\it shocks}. Current reversals due to internal regulation emerge naturally within the framework of this model. We believe this minimal model will clarify the understanding of many features of collective vesicle transport, apart from serving as the basis for building more exact quantitative models for vesicle transport relevant to various {\\it in-vivo} situations.

  1. Modeling hot gas flow in the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2014-02-20

    Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with ?{sup 2}/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ?}. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r {sub st} ? 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r{sub B} = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}. We find a shallow density profile n?r {sup –?} with ? ? 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r ? 1'', and (4) the outflow at r ? 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T{sub v} at any radius.

  2. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  3. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm{sup 2}-sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface.

  4. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  5. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  6. Fast flux locked loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  7. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  8. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  9. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  10. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  11. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXA Corp. (Delaware)GalvestonWind Jump2008) |

  13. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  14. PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION AND THE BUILD-UP OF SIGMOIDAL FLUX ROPES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Green, L. M.

    2012-11-10

    In this study we explore the scenario of photospheric flux cancellation being the primary formation mechanism of sigmoidal flux ropes in decaying active regions. We analyze magnetogram and X-ray observations together with data-driven non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models of observed sigmoidal regions to test this idea. We measure the total and canceled fluxes in the regions from MDI magnetograms, as well as the axial and poloidal flux content of the modeled NLFFF flux ropes for three sigmoids-2007 February, 2007 December, and 2010 February. We infer that the sum of the poloidal and axial flux in the flux ropes for most models amounts to about 60%-70% of the canceled flux and 30%-50% of the total flux in the regions. The flux measurements and the analysis of the magnetic field structure show that the sigmoids first develop a strong axial field manifested as a sheared arcade and then, as flux cancellation proceeds, form long S-shaped field lines that contribute to the poloidal flux. In addition, the dips in the S-shaped field lines are located at the sites of flux cancellation that have been identified from the MDI magnetograms. We find that the line-of-sight-integrated free energy is also concentrated at these locations for all three regions, which can be liberated in the process of eruption. Flare-associated brightenings and flare loops coincide with the location of the X-line topology that develops at the site of most vigorous flux cancellation.

  15. Energy flux density in a thermoacoustic couple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, N.; Chen, S. |; Olson, R.; Swift, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    The hydro- and thermodynamical processes near and within a thermoacoustic couple are simulated and analyzed by numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes, continuity, and energy equations for an ideal gas, concentrating on the time-averaged energy flux density in the gas. The numerical results show details of the heat sink at one end of the plates in the thermoacoustic couple. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities. Pacific update: August 1987 - November 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slitor, Douglas L.; Wiese, Jeffrey D.; Karpas, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    This Pacific Update focuses on the geology and petroleum potential of the Central California and Washington-Oregon OCS Planning Areas. This report discusses the following topics: offshore oil and gas resources of the Pacific region; project-specific developments and status; and magnitude and timing of offshore developments. (CBS)

  17. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  18. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well ...

  19. Self-potential, soil co2 flux, and temperature on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Connor, C.; St-Amand, K.; Stix, J.; Spinner, W.

    2003-07-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between self-potential (SP), soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature and the mechanisms that produce SP anomalies on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. We measured SP, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes (<1 to 5.0 x 10{sup 4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), and temperatures (26 to 80 C) within an area surrounding a normal fault, adjacent to Comalito cinder cone (2002-2003). These variables are well spatially correlated. Wavelengths of SP anomalies are {le}100 m, and high horizontal SP gradients flank the region of elevated flux and temperature. Carbon isotopic compositions of soil CO{sub 2} ({delta}{sup 13}C = -3.3 to -1.1{per_thousand}) indicate a deep gas origin. Given the presence of a deep water table (100 to 150 m), high gas flow rates, and subsurface temperatures above liquid boiling points, we suggest that rapid fluid disruption is primarily responsible for positive SP anomalies here. Concurrent measurement of SP, soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature may be a useful tool to monitor intrusive activity.

  20. Thermal instability in X-ray photoionized media in Active Galactic Nuclei: Influence on the gas structure and spectral features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Goncalves; S. Collin; A. -M. Dumont; L. Chevallier

    2006-12-01

    A photoionized gas in thermal equilibrium can display a thermal instability, with 3 or more solutions in the multi-branch region of the S-shape curve giving the temperature versus the radiation-to-gas-pressure ratio. Many studies have been devoted to this curve and to its dependence on different parameters, always in the optically thin case. The purpose of our study is the thermal instability in optically thick, stratified media, in total pressure equilibrium. We have developped a new algorithm to select the hot/cold stable solution, and thereof to compute a fully consistent photoionization model. We have implemented it in the TITAN code and computed a set of models encompassing the range of conditions valid for the Warm Absorber in Active Galactic Nuclei. We have demonstrated that the thermal instability problem is quite different in thin or thick media. In thick media the spectral distribution changes as the radiation progresses inside the ionized gas. This has observational implications in the emitted/absorbed spectra, ionization states, and variability. However impossible to know what solution the plasma will adopt when attaining the multi-solutions regime, we expect the emitted/absorbed spectrum to be intermediate between those resulting from pure cold and hot models. Large spectral fluctuations corresponding to the onset of a cold/hot solution could be observed in timescales of the order of the dynamical time. A strong turbulence implying supersonic velocities should permanently exist in the multi-branch region of thick, stratified, pressure equilibrium media.

  1. Gas Separation Using Membranes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koros, W. J.; Paul, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial membrane-based gas separator systems based upon high-flux, asymmetric polysulfone hollow fibers were first introduced in 1977 by Monsanto. These systems were packaged in compact modules containing large amounts of permeation surface area...

  2. Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2007-09-14

    Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

  3. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Information Program. Update 2, August 1981, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: a summary report, July 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In July 1980, the Office of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Information issued an initial report called Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: A Summary Report, July 1980. The purpose of this report was to provide State and local governments with current information about offshore oil and gas resources and onshore activity in the area extending from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Cape Canaveral, Florida. This information was designed to assist in socioeconomic planning for the onshore impacts of oil and gas development in the affected areas. This report, Update 2, discusses Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities and their onshore impacts for the period of February 1981 to August 1981. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the South Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Very little, if any, development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. Even though the South Atlantic OCS does contain large areas with hydrocarbon potential, little optimism has been generated by exploration associated with Lease Sale 43. Lease Sale 56 included tracts with geologic conditions more favorable to the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, especially the deepwatr tracts, but industry showed moderate interest in the first deepwater lease sale. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with Lease Sale 56. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of exploration efforts.

  4. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Active Well Service Rigs in operation

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Estimated Production2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

  5. FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

    2012-08-01

    Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

  6. Continuous process preparation of activated silica with low carbon dioxide content gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burdett, Joseph Walton

    1954-01-01

    , Systems. II. Water and Sodium Silicate Feed. Systems. III. Orifice Nixers and phase Separator IV. N, in lying Orifice for Pilot, Plant Sbstem V. Phase Separator Construction. 16 23 VI. Effect of' Gas Pressure at the Qri. fice on Percent..., s not reduced. The product, of the reaction between the ammonIum sulphate and sodium silicate i" srmrrrnium hydroxide which keeps the altmllnity of the sol at the same value ss the initially diluted silicate. The usual method of producing this sol is to mix...

  7. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Active Well Service Rigs in operation

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved ReservesCubicper ThousandFeet) and TableTop 100 Oil1.841SalesDecade Year-0

  8. U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug

  9. U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Withdraw (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

  10. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan FebBarrels)

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan FebBarrels)Decade Year-0

  12. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Withdraw (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan FebBarrels)Decade

  13. U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan Feb Mar

  14. U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Withdraw (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan Feb MarCubic Feet) Year Jan

  15. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan Feb MarCubic2009YearFeet)

  16. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan Feb

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Withdraw (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan FebFeet) Year Jan Feb Mar

  18. Final Report Independent Verification Survey of the High Flux Beam Reactor, Building 802 Fan House Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpeneau, Evan M.

    2011-06-24

    On May 9, 2011, ORISE conducted verification survey activities including scans, sampling, and the collection of smears of the remaining soils and off-gas pipe associated with the 802 Fan House within the HFBR (High Flux Beam Reactor) Complex at BNL. ORISE is of the opinion, based on independent scan and sample results obtained during verification activities at the HFBR 802 Fan House, that the FSS (final status survey) unit meets the applicable site cleanup objectives established for as left radiological conditions.

  19. Electric Flux Tube in Magnetic Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinfeng Liao; Edward Shuryak

    2007-12-06

    In this paper we study a methodical problem related to the magnetic scenario recently suggested and initiated by the authors \\cite{Liao_ES_mono} to understand the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP): the electric flux tube in monopole plasma. A macroscopic approach, interpolating between Bose condensed (dual superconductor) and classical gas medium is developed first. Then we work out a microscopic approach based on detailed quantum mechanical calculation of the monopole scattering on electric flux tube, evaluating induced currents for all partial waves. As expected, the flux tube looses its stability when particles can penetrate it: we make this condition precise by calculating the critical value for the product of the flux tube size times the particle momentum, above which the flux tube dissolves. Lattice static potentials indicate that flux tubes seem to dissolve at $T>T_{dissolution} \\approx 1.3 T_c$. Using our criterion one gets an estimate of the magnetic density $n\\approx 4.4 \\sim 6.6 fm^{-3}$ at this temperature.

  20. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  1. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

  2. Diffusional methane fluxes within continental margin sediments and depositional constraints on formation factor estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Goldberg, E.D. , 1976. Methane production and consumption inanaerobic oxidation of methane. Nature, 407 , 623-626.profiles indicate in situ methane flux from underlying gas

  3. The gas metallicity gradient and the star formation activity of disc galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tissera, Patricia B; Sillero, Emanuel; Vilchez, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    We study oxygen abundance profiles of the gaseous disc components in simulated galaxies in a hierarchical universe. We analyse the disc metallicity gradients in relation to the stellar masses and star formation rates of the simulated galaxies. We find a trend for galaxies with low stellar masses to have steeper metallicity gradients than galaxies with high stellar masses at z ~0. We also detect that the gas-phase metallicity slopes and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of our simulated disc galaxies are consistent with recently reported observations at z ~0. Simulated galaxies with high stellar masses reproduce the observed relationship at all analysed redshifts and have an increasing contribution of discs with positive metallicity slopes with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with low stellar masses a have larger fraction of negative metallicity gradients with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with positive or very negative metallicity slopes exhibit disturbed morphologies and/or have a clo...

  4. Outflowing Diffuse Gas in the Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC 1068

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geballe, T R; Oka, T

    2015-01-01

    Spectra of the archetypal Type II Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 in a narrow wavelength interval near 3.7 microns have revealed a weak absorption feature due to two lines of the molecular ion H3+. The observed wavelength of the feature corresponds to velocity of -70 km/s relative to the systemic velocity of the galaxy, implying an outward flow from the nucleus along the line of sight. The absorption by H3+ along with the previously known broad hydrocarbon absorption at 3.4~microns probably are formed in diffuse gas that is in close proximity to the continuum source, i.e. within a few tens of parsecs of the central engine. Based on that conclusion and the measured H3+ absorption velocity and with the assumption of a spherically symmetric wind we estimate a rate of mass outflow from the AGN of ~1 Msun/yr.

  5. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-26

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  6. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    oil-gas separator, and gas flux turbine. B. Image of oil-gasoil. Absent the oil-gas separator, the turbine would havelines connected the turbine to the oil-gas separator and

  7. Diagnostic Neutral Beam Injector for Active Plasma Spectroscopy at Gas-Dynamic Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korepanov, S.A.; Deichuli, P.O.; Ivanov, A.A.; Mishagin, V.V.

    2005-01-15

    A diagnostic beam system has been developed for the GDT. This injector is the modification of the diagnostic injector RFX-DNBI. The system is primarily used for magnetic field measurements via motional Stark effect (MSE). The ion source provides 50keV, 5A hydrogen beam. Ions are extracted from a plasma created by an arc-discharge source and, after accelerating and focusing, are neutralized in a gas target. A plasma emitter, which is formed by collisionless expansion of a plasma jet on to the grids, has low perpendicular ion temperature. These results in rather low (0.01 rad) angular divergence of the extracted ion beam. In the accelerator, there is a set of four nested grids with 421 circular apertures of 4 mm diameter configured in a hexagonal pattern. The geometry of the elementary cell was optimized by using 2D computer code PBGUNS to obtain small angular divergence of the beam. The grids of ion optical system are spherically curved providing geometric focusing of the beam at a distance 1.5 m. Arc-discharge plasma box provides highly ionized plasma, so that the extracted beam has about 90% of full energy specie. The injector provides up to 4 ms duration pulse.

  8. Kinematics of Arp 270: gas flows, nuclear activity, and two regimes of star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, J; Beckman, J E; Blasco-Herrera, J; García-Lorenzo, B; Camps, A; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Almeida, C Ramos; Loiseau, N; Gutiérrez, L

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the Arp 270 system (NGC 3395 & NGC 3396) in H{\\alpha} emission using the GH{\\alpha}FaS Fabry-Perot spectrometer on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma). In NGC 3396, which is edge-on to us, we detect gas inflow towards the centre, and also axially confined opposed outflows, characteristic of galactic superwinds, and we go on to examine the possibility that there is a shrouded AGN in the nucleus. The combination of surface brightness, velocity and velocity dispersion information enabled us to measure the radii, FWHM, and the masses of 108 HII regions in both galaxies. We find two distinct modes of physical behaviour, for high and lower luminosity regions. We note that the most luminous regions show especially high values for their velocity dispersions and hypothesize that these occur because the higher luminosity regions form from higher mass, gravitationally bound clouds while those at lower luminosity HII regions form within molecular clouds of lower mass, which are pressure co...

  9. The Flux Qubit Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Yan; S. Gustavsson; A. Kamal; J. Birenbaum; A. P. Sears; D. Hover; T. J. Gudmundsen; J. L. Yoder; T. P. Orlando; J. Clarke; A. J. Kerman; W. D. Oliver

    2015-08-25

    The scalable application of quantum information science will stand on reproducible and controllable high-coherence quantum bits (qubits). In this work, we revisit the design and fabrication of the superconducting flux qubit, achieving a planar device with broad frequency tunability, strong anharmonicity, high reproducibility, and coherence times in excess of 40 us at its flux-insensitive point. Qubit relaxation times across 21 qubits of widely varying designs are consistently matched with a single model involving ohmic charge noise, quasiparticle fluctuations, resonator loss, and 1/f flux noise, a noise source previously considered primarily in the context of dephasing. We furthermore demonstrate that qubit dephasing at the flux-insensitive point is dominated by residual thermal photons in the readout resonator. The resulting photon shot noise is mitigated using a dynamical decoupling protocol, reaching T2 ~ 80 us , approximately the 2T1 limit. In addition to realizing a dramatically improved flux qubit, our results uniquely identify photon shot noise as limiting T2 in contemporary state-of-art qubits based on transverse qubit-resonator interaction.

  10. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  11. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  12. Radiative Flux Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Chuck

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  13. COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE DECAY HEAT REMOVAL APPROACH FOR THE 24 MWt GAS-COOLED FAST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHENG,L.Y.; LUDEWIG, H.

    2007-06-01

    Decay heat removal at depressurized shutdown conditions has been regarded as one of the key areas where significant improvement in passive response was targeted for the GEN IV GFR over the GCFR designs of thirty years ago. It has been recognized that the poor heat transfer characteristics of gas coolant at lower pressures needed to be accommodated in the GEN IV design. The design envelope has therefore been extended to include a station blackout sequence simultaneous with a small break/leak. After an exploratory phase of scoping analysis in this project, together with CEA of France, it was decided that natural convection would be selected as the passive decay heat removal approach of preference. Furthermore, a double vessel/containment option, similar to the double vessel/guard vessel approach of the SFR, was selected as the means of design implementation to reduce the PRA risks of the depressurization accident. However additional calculations in conjunction with CEA showed that there was an economic penalty in terms of decay heat removal system heat exchanger size, elevation heights for thermal centers, and most of all in guard containment back pressure for complete reliance on natural convection only. The back pressure ranges complicated the design requirements for the guard containment. Recognizing that the definition of a loss-of-coolant-accident in the GFR is a misnomer, since gas coolant will always be present, and the availability of some driven blower would reduce fuel temperature transients significantly; it was decided instead to aim for a hybrid active/passive combination approach to the selected BDBA. Complete natural convection only would still be relied on for decay heat removal but only after the first twenty four hours after the initiation of the accident. During the first twenty four hour period an actively powered blower would be relied on to provide the emergency decay power removal. However the power requirements of the active blower/circulators would be kept low by maintaining a pressurized system coolant back pressure of {approx}7-8 bars through the design of the guard containment for such a design pressure. This approach is termed the medium pressure approach by both CEA and the US. Such a containment design pressure is in the range of the LWR experience, both PWRs and BWRs. Both metal containments and concrete guard containments are possible in this pressure range. This approach is then a time-at-risk approach as the power requirements should be low enough that battery/fuel cell banks without diesel generator start-up failure rate issues should be capable of providing the necessary power. Compressed gas sources are another possibility. A companion PRA study is being conducted to survey the reliability of such systems.

  14. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

  15. Heat flux splitter for near-field thermal radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Frechette, Luc; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility to efficiently split the near-field heat flux exchanged between graphene nano-disks by tuning their doping. This result paves the way for the developement of an active control of propagation directions for heat fluxes exchanged in near-field throughout integrated nanostructures networks.

  16. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  17. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

  18. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  19. Fast Flux Test Facility project plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Transition Project Plan, Revision 2, provides changes to the major elements and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  20. Testing of Gas Reactor Fuel and Materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Blaine Grover

    2006-10-01

    The recent growth in interest for high temperature gas reactors has resulted in an increased need for materials and fuel testing for this type of reactor. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, has long been involved in testing gas reactor fuel and materials, and has facilities and capabilities to provide the right environment for gas reactor irradiation experiments. These capabilities include both passive sealed capsule experiments, and instrumented/actively controlled experiments. The instrumented/actively controlled experiments typically contain thermocouples and control the irradiation temperature, but on-line measurements and controls for pressure and gas environment have also been performed in past irradiations. The ATR has an existing automated gas temperature control system that can maintain temperature in an irradiation experiment within very tight bounds, and has developed an on-line fission product monitoring system that is especially well suited for testing gas reactor particle fuel. The ATR’s control system, which consists primarily of vertical cylinders used to rotate neutron poisons/reflectors toward or away from the reactor core, provides a constant vertical flux profile over the duration of each operating cycle. This constant chopped cosine shaped axial flux profile, with a relatively flat peak at the vertical centre of the core, is more desirable for experiments than a constantly moving axial flux peak resulting from a control system of axially positioned control components which are vertically withdrawn from the core.

  1. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts. South Atlantic summary report update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havran, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    An update of the South Atlantic Summary Report 2, this report provides current information about Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil- and gas-related activities and their onshore impacts for the period June 1982 to February, 1983. The geographical area covered by the report extends from north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to Cape Canaveral, Florida. The information is designed to assist in planning for the onshore effects associated with offshore oil and gas development. It covers lease and transportation strategies and the nature and location of onshore facilities. An appendix summarizes related state and federal studies. 11 references, 2 tables.

  2. High flux reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lake, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heath, Russell L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Liebenthal, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R. (Summit, NJ); Leyse, Carl F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parsons, Kent (Idaho Falls, ID); Ryskamp, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wadkins, Robert P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harker, Yale D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fillmore, Gary N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Oh, Chang H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  3. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    fuel switching, and cogeneration. These measures can oftenthe installation of cogeneration natural gas plants. Cement:They also implemented cogeneration plants and have increased

  4. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    They also implemented cogeneration plants and have increasedinstallation of cogeneration natural gas plants. Cement: Therefineries, 27 power plants, and 5 cogeneration facilities (

  5. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 5. Neutron measurements. Part 2. External neutron- and gamma flux measurements by sample activation. Section 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggers, W.A.; Brown, L.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Greenhouse operation consisted of a series of four shots conducted at Eniwetok during the Srping of 1951. The external neutron threshold measurements consisted of the use of good samples to measure integrated thermal neutron fluxes and sulfur, iodine, and zirconium samples to measure fluxes of higher-energy neutrons. The iodine also measured high-energy gamma-ray intensity. Measurements were also made on slow- and fast-neutron intensities as a function of time.

  6. The role of global dynamics on gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Escape flux is inferred for each gas under given eddy coefficient Global winds can locally considerably affect gas distributions How would winds affect inferred escape fluxes? Tuesday, 28 February 12 #12 structure (from GCM) and zero winds (only molecular & eddy diffusion) Upper boundary condition: Lower

  7. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  8. Air-sea gas exchange of CO 2 and DMS in the North Atlantic by eddy covariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott D; Marandino, Christa A; De Bruyn, Warren; Saltzman, Eric S; McCormick, C.

    2009-01-01

    measurements of the air/sea flux of dimethylsulfide over the2008a), Open ocean DMS air/sea fluxes over the eastern SouthE. S. Saltzman (2008b), DMS air/sea flux and gas transfer

  9. Physics of String Flux Compactifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederik Denef; Michael R. Douglas; Shamit Kachru

    2007-01-06

    We provide a qualitative review of flux compactifications of string theory, focusing on broad physical implications and statistical methods of analysis.

  10. Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kataoka, I; Ishii, M

    1986-06-01

    A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs.

  11. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D

    2008-08-04

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  12. Plasma focus ion beam fluence and flux—For various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Saw, S. H. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    A recent paper derived benchmarks for deuteron beam fluence and flux in a plasma focus (PF) [S. Lee and S. H. Saw, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112703 (2012)]. In the present work we start from first principles, derive the flux equation of the ion beam of any gas; link to the Lee Model code and hence compute the ion beam properties of the PF. The results show that, for a given PF, the fluence, flux, ion number and ion current decrease from the lightest to the heaviest gas except for trend-breaking higher values for Ar fluence and flux. The energy fluence, energy flux, power flow, and damage factors are relatively constant from H{sub 2} to N{sub 2} but increase for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe due to radiative cooling and collapse effects. This paper provides much needed benchmark reference values and scaling trends for ion beams of a PF operated in any gas.

  13. Relativistic MHD simulations of poynting flux-driven jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Xiaoyue; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2014-01-20

    Relativistic, magnetized jets are observed to propagate to very large distances in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations to study the propagation of Poynting flux-driven jets in AGNs. These jets are already assumed to be being launched from the vicinity (?10{sup 3} gravitational radii) of supermassive black holes. Jet injections are characterized by a model described in Li et al., and we follow the propagation of these jets to ?parsec scales. We find that these current-carrying jets are always collimated and mildly relativistic. When ?, the ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal magnetic flux injection, is large the jet is subject to nonaxisymmetric current-driven instabilities (CDI) which lead to substantial dissipation and reduced jet speed. However, even with the presence of instabilities, the jet is not disrupted and will continue to propagate to large distances. We suggest that the relatively weak impact by the instability is due to the nature of the instability being convective and the fact that the jet magnetic fields are rapidly evolving on Alfvénic time scales. We present the detailed jet properties and show that far from the jet launching region, a substantial amount of magnetic energy has been transformed into kinetic energy and thermal energy, producing a jet magnetization number ? < 1. In addition, we have also studied the effects of a gas pressure supported 'disk' surrounding the injection region, and qualitatively similar global jet behaviors were observed. We stress that jet collimation, CDIs, and the subsequent energy transitions are intrinsic features of current-carrying jets.

  14. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

  15. Residual Magnetic Flux Leakage: A Possible Tool for Studying Pipeline Defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clapham, Lynann

    flux leakage (MFL) technique is frequently used for in-service monitoring of oil and gas steel of the pipeline mater- ial, and running conditions such as velocity and stress.(6) A typical peak-to-peak value

  16. Solar cycle prediction using precursors and flux transport models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Cameron; M. Schuessler

    2006-12-22

    We study the origin of the predictive skill of some methods to forecast the strength of solar activity cycles. A simple flux transport model for the azimuthally averaged radial magnetic field at the solar surface is used, which contains a source term describing the emergence of new flux based on observational sunspot data. We consider the magnetic flux diffusing over the equator as a predictor, since this quantity is directly related to the global dipole field from which a Babcock-Leighton dynamo generates the toroidal field for the next activity cycle. If the source is represented schematically by a narrow activity belt drifting with constant speed over a fixed range of latitudes between activity minima, our predictor shows considerable predictive skill with correlation coefficients up to 0.95 for past cycles. However, the predictive skill is completely lost when the actually observed emergence latitudes are used. This result originates from the fact that the precursor amplitude is determined by the sunspot activity a few years before solar minimum. Since stronger cycles tend to rise faster to their maximum activity (known as the Waldmeier effect), the temporal overlapping of cycles leads to a shift of the minimum epochs that depends on the strength of the following cycle. This information is picked up by precursor methods and also by our flux transport model with a schematic source. Therefore, their predictive skill does not require a memory, i.e., a physical connection between the surface manifestations of subsequent activity cycles.

  17. Gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    There is a definite need for the US government to provide leadership for research in gas hydrates and to coordinate its activities with academia, industry, private groups, federal agencies, and their foreign counterparts. In response to this need, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center implemented a gas hydrates R and D program. Understanding the resource will be achieved through: assessment of current technology; characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering; and development of diagnostic tools and methods. Research to date has focused on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for future detailed investigation. Initial research activities involved the development of the Geologic Analysis System (GAS); which will provide, through approximately 30 software packages, the capability to manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. Preliminary mapping of hydrate prospects for the Alaskan North Slope is underway. Geological research includes physical system characterization which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran, consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice base mixtures, and water base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by METC. More recently, a natural hydrate sample from the Gulf of Mexico was also acquired and testing of this sample is currently underway. In addition to the development of GAS, modeling and systems analysis work focused on the development of conceptual gas hydrate production models. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents information pertaining to the natural gas industry. Data are included on production, consumption, distribution, and pipeline activities.

  19. Natural gas monthly, August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    This report presents information on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  20. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Mid-Atlantic and their onshore impacts: a summary report, November 1979. Update 3, August 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    At the present, there are no operators drilling in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The prime targets for future exploration will be in areas of 3000 to 6000 feet (914 to 1829 m) depth of water, seaward of previously leased tracts. No commercial discoveries have been found during the 4-year drilling history of the area. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the Mid-Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Little development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with upcoming Lease Sale 59. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of future exploration efforts. After Lease Sale 59, the next sale is Lease Sale 76, which is tentatively scheduled for March 1983.

  1. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  5. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015"Monthly","10/2015" - Base Gas (MMcf)"Working

  6. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Withdraw (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015"Monthly","10/2015" - Base Gas

  7. Accidental Gas Emission From Shallow Pressurized Aquifers At...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    impervious cover. Gas consists mostly of CO2 with minor H2S and the diffuse CO2 soil flux is locally very high. Accidental gas blowouts, occurred during shallow well...

  8. Effects of HCl and SO{sub 2} concentration on mercury removal by activated carbon sorbents in coal-derived flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryota Ochiai; M. Azhar Uddin; Eiji Sasaoka; Shengji Wu [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology

    2009-09-15

    The effect of the presence of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the simulated coal combustion flue gas on the Hg{sup 0} removal by a commercial activated carbon (coconut shell AC) was investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor in a temperature range of 80-200{sup o}C. The characteristics (thermal stability) of the mercury species formed on the sorbents under various adsorption conditions were investigated by the temperature-programmed decomposition desorption (TPDD) technique. It was found that the presence of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the flue gas affected the mercury removal efficiency of the sorbents as well as the characteristics of the mercury adsorption species. The mercury removal rate of AC increased with the HCl concentration in the flue gas. In the presence of HCl and the absence of SO{sub 2} during Hg{sup 0} adsorption by AC, a single Hg{sup 0} desorption peak at around 300{sup o}C was observed in the TPDD spectra and intensity of this peak increased with the HCl concentration during mercury adsorption. The peak at around 300{sup o}C may be derived from the decomposition and desorption of mercury chloride species. The presence of SO{sub 2} during mercury adsorption had an adverse effect on the mercury removal by AC in the presence of HCl. In the presence of both HCl and SO{sub 2} during Hg{sup 0} adsorption by AC, the major TPDD peak temperatures changed drastically depending upon the concentration of HCl and SO{sub 2} in flue gas during Hg{sup 0} adsorption. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Initial activity of reduced chromia/alumina catalyst in n-butane dehydrogenation monitored by on-line FT-IR gas analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakuli, A.; Kytoekivi, A.; Suntola, T.

    1996-06-01

    The initial activity of chromia/alumina catalyst (13 wt% Cr) in n-butane dehydrogenation was studied in a flow reactor at 853 K. The initial activity was determined by on-line FT-IR gas analysis, which enabled sampling of the gaseous product mixture at a time resolution of seconds. The catalysts were processed in repeated cycles of oxidation, reduction, and dehydrogenation using n-butane, methane, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide as reducing agents. With n-butane, methane, and hydrogen and dehydrogenation activity was associated with Cr{sup 3+} species apparently formed in the reduction of high-valence Cr species. The catalyst reduced with carbon monoxide at 853 K showed poor initial selectivity for butenes and, relative to the other catalysts. Simultaneous data relating the initial activity, coke content, and some of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst indicated that the surfaces of all catalysts were modified to some extent by the successive reaction cycles. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. HOMOLOGOUS FLUX ROPES OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-12-01

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of four homologous flux ropes in the active region (AR) 11745 on 2013 May 20-22. The four flux ropes are all above the neutral line of the AR, with endpoints anchoring at the same region, and have a generally similar morphology. The first three flux ropes rose with a velocity of less than 30 km s{sup –1} after their appearance, and subsequently their intensities at 131 Å decreased and the flux ropes became obscure. The fourth flux rope erupted last, with a speed of about 130 km s{sup –1} and formed a coronal mass ejection (CME). The associated filament showed an obvious anti-clockwise twist motion at the initial stage, and the twist was estimated at 4?. This indicates that kink instability possibly triggers the early rise of the fourth flux rope. The activated filament material was spatially within the flux rope and showed consistent evolution in the early stages. Our findings provide new clues for understanding the characteristics of flux ropes. Firstly, multiple flux ropes are successively formed at the same location during an AR evolution process. Secondly, a slow-rise flux rope does not necessarily result in a CME, and a fast-eruption flux rope does result in a CME.

  11. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O'Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  13. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  14. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matt Visser

    2015-05-06

    Is the Hawking flux "thermal"? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word "thermal". The original 1850's notions of thermality --- based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized "black bodies" or "lamp black surfaces" --- when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900's, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but "without" any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, and quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only "approximately" Planck-shaped over a bounded frequency range. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is "approximately" Planck-shaped from both above and below --- the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  15. Self-potential, soil CO2 flux, and temperature on Masaya volcano, J. L. Lewicki,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Charles

    , soil CO2 flux, and temperature may be a useful tool to monitor intrusive activity. INDEX TERMS: 0925 monitoring. We present soil CO2 flux, temperature, and SP data measured concurrently on the flanks of MasayaSelf-potential, soil CO2 flux, and temperature on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua J. L. Lewicki,1,2 C

  16. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Is the Hawking flux "thermal"? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word "thermal". The original 1850's notions of thermality --- based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized "black bodies" or "lamp black surfaces" --- when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900's, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but "without" any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, and quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lum...

  17. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly: September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. Natural gas monthly, September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-27

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  9. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  10. Atmosphere-soil-stream greenhouse gas fluxes from peatlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinsmore, Kerry J.

    2009-01-01

    Peatlands cover approximately 2-3% of the world’s land area yet represent approximately a third of the worlds estimated total soil carbon pool. They therefore play an important role in regulating global atmospheric CO2 and ...

  11. Gas Flux Sampling (Evans, Et Al., 2001) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin County,Evans, Et Al.,

  12. Gas Flux Sampling (Klein, 2007) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin County,Evans, Et

  13. Gas Flux Sampling (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin County,Evans, EtLaney,

  14. Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin County,Evans,

  15. Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg, 2004) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin County,Evans,4) Jump

  16. Gas Flux Sampling (Lewicki & Oldenburg, 2005) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin County,Evans,4) Jump5)

  17. Section 2: Solar Energy Flux Variations H. S. Hudson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    from solar magnetic activity, as discussed by Fox. Never- theless we note that the power spectrumSection 2: Solar Energy Flux Variations H. S. Hudson Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley The chapters in this section of the monograph deal with the basic raw material of solar

  18. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  19. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  20. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  6. Quantum Fusion of Domain Walls with Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Bolognesi; M. Shifman; M. B. Voloshin

    2009-07-20

    We study how fluxes on the domain wall world volume modify quantum fusion of two distant parallel domain walls into a composite wall. The elementary wall fluxes can be separated into parallel and antiparallel components. The parallel component affects neither the binding energy nor the process of quantum merger. The antiparallel fluxes, instead, increase the binding energy and, against naive expectations, suppress quantum fusion. In the small flux limit we explicitly find the bounce solution and the fusion rate as a function of the flux. We argue that at large (antiparallel) fluxes there exists a critical value of the flux (versus the difference in the wall tensions), which switches off quantum fusion altogether. This phenomenon of flux-related wall stabilization is rather peculiar: it is unrelated to any conserved quantity. Our consideration of the flux-related all stabilization is based on substantiated arguments that fall short of complete proof.

  7. CO2 and CH4 Fluxes across Polygon Geomorphic Types, Barrow, Alaska, 2006-2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tweedie,Craig; Lara, Mark

    2014-09-17

    Carbon flux data are reported as Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE), Ecosystem Respiration (ER), and Methane (CH4) flux. Measurements were made at 82 plots across various polygon geomorphic classes at research sites on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), the Biocomplexity Experiment site on the BEO, and the International Biological Program (IBP) site a little west of the BEO. This product is a compilation of data from 27 plots as presented in Lara et al. (2012), data from six plots presented in Olivas et al. (2010); and from 49 plots described in (Lara et al. 2014). Measurements were made during the peak of the growing seasons during 2006 to 2010. At each of the measurement plots (except Olivas et al., 2010) four different thicknesses of shade cloth were used to generate CO2 light response curves. Light response curves were used to normalize photosynthetically active radiation that is diurnally variable to a peak growing season average ~400 umolm-2sec-1. At the Olivas et al. (2010) plots, diurnal patterns were characterized by repeated sampling. CO2 measurements were made using a closed-chamber photosynthesis system and CH4 measurements were made using a photo-acoustic multi-gas analyzer. In addition, plot-level measurements for thaw depth (TD), water table depth (WTD), leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are summarized by geomorphic polygon type.

  8. CO2 and CH4 Fluxes across Polygon Geomorphic Types, Barrow, Alaska, 2006-2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tweedie,Craig; Lara, Mark

    Carbon flux data are reported as Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE), Ecosystem Respiration (ER), and Methane (CH4) flux. Measurements were made at 82 plots across various polygon geomorphic classes at research sites on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), the Biocomplexity Experiment site on the BEO, and the International Biological Program (IBP) site a little west of the BEO. This product is a compilation of data from 27 plots as presented in Lara et al. (2012), data from six plots presented in Olivas et al. (2010); and from 49 plots described in (Lara et al. 2014). Measurements were made during the peak of the growing seasons during 2006 to 2010. At each of the measurement plots (except Olivas et al., 2010) four different thicknesses of shade cloth were used to generate CO2 light response curves. Light response curves were used to normalize photosynthetically active radiation that is diurnally variable to a peak growing season average ~400 umolm-2sec-1. At the Olivas et al. (2010) plots, diurnal patterns were characterized by repeated sampling. CO2 measurements were made using a closed-chamber photosynthesis system and CH4 measurements were made using a photo-acoustic multi-gas analyzer. In addition, plot-level measurements for thaw depth (TD), water table depth (WTD), leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are summarized by geomorphic polygon type.

  9. Environmental, Health and Safety Assessment: ATS 7H Program (Phase 3R) Test Activities at the GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Manufacturing Facility, Greenville, SC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-17

    International Technology Corporation (IT) was contracted by General Electric Company (GE) to assist in the preparation of an Environmental, Health and Safety (HI&3) assessment of the implementation of Phase 3R of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) 7H program at the GE Gas Turbines facility located in Greenville, South Carolina. The assessment was prepared in accordance with GE's contractual agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (GE/DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC3 1176) and supports compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970. This report provides a summary of the EH&S review and includes the following: General description of current site operations and EH&S status, Description of proposed ATS 7H-related activities and discussion of the resulting environmental, health, safety and other impacts to the site and surrounding area. Listing of permits and/or licenses required to comply with federal, state and local regulations for proposed 7H-related activities. Assessment of adequacy of current and required permits, licenses, programs and/or plans.

  10. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  11. Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities) Renewable Energy Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol (4 Activities) Below is information...

  12. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutart, Charles H. (Washington, IL); Choi, Cathy Y. (Morton, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  13. Third millenium ideal gas and condensed phase thermochemical database for combustion (with update from active thermochemical tables).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burcat, A.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.

    2005-07-29

    The thermochemical database of species involved in combustion processes is and has been available for free use for over 25 years. It was first published in print in 1984, approximately 8 years after it was first assembled, and contained 215 species at the time. This is the 7th printed edition and most likely will be the last one in print in the present format, which involves substantial manual labor. The database currently contains more than 1300 species, specifically organic molecules and radicals, but also inorganic species connected to combustion and air pollution. Since 1991 this database is freely available on the internet, at the Technion-IIT ftp server, and it is continuously expanded and corrected. The database is mirrored daily at an official mirror site, and at random at about a dozen unofficial mirror and 'finger' sites. The present edition contains numerous corrections and many recalculations of data of provisory type by the G3//B3LYP method, a high-accuracy composite ab initio calculation. About 300 species are newly calculated and are not yet published elsewhere. In anticipation of the full coupling, which is under development, the database started incorporating the available (as yet unpublished) values from Active Thermochemical Tables. The electronic version now also contains an XML file of the main database to allow transfer to other formats and ease finding specific information of interest. The database is used by scientists, educators, engineers and students at all levels, dealing primarily with combustion and air pollution, jet engines, rocket propulsion, fireworks, but also by researchers involved in upper atmosphere kinetics, astrophysics, abrasion metallurgy, etc. This introductory article contains explanations of the database and the means to use it, its sources, ways of calculation, and assessments of the accuracy of data.

  14. Generalized drift-flux correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.; Hochreiter, L.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A one-dimensional drift-flux model with five conservation equations is frequently employed in major computer codes, such as TRAC-PD2, and in simulator codes. In this method, the relative velocity between liquid and vapor phases, or slip ratio, is given by correlations, rather than by direct solution of the phasic momentum equations, as in the case of the two-fluid model used in TRAC-PF1. The correlations for churn-turbulent bubbly flow and slug flow regimes were given in terms of drift velocities by Zuber and Findlay. For the annular flow regime, the drift velocity correlations were developed by Ishii et al., using interphasic force balances. Another approach is to define the drift velocity so that flooding and liquid hold-up conditions are properly simulated, as reported here. The generalized correlation is used to reanalyze the MB-2 test data for two-phase flow in a large-diameter pipe. The results are applied to the generalized drift flux velocity, whose relationship to the other correlations is discussed. Finally, the generalized drift flux correlation is implemented in TRAC-PD2. Flow reversal from countercurrent to cocurrent flow is computed in small-diameter U-shaped tubes and is compared with the flooding curve.

  15. Physics potentials of pp and pep solar neutrino fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Calabresu; G. Fiorentini; M. Lissia

    1996-02-09

    Experimental determinations of the pp and pep fluxes have great potentialities. We briefly review the reasons that make such measurements privileged tests of neutrino properties. We discuss the predictions for these fluxes given by four good solutions to the solar neutrino problem: small- and large-angle MSW and Just-So oscillations into active neutrinos, and small-angle MSW oscillations into sterile neutrinos. In addition, we examine the impact of the planned Hellaz detector, which should measure separately the nu_e and nu_mu fluxes in the pp energy window and the signal from the pep neutrinos, for distinguishing among the different solutions and for determining the solar central temperature.

  16. Triggering of Remote Flares by Magnetic Flux Emergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yixing

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of new emerging solar active regions on the large-scale magnetic environment of existing regions. We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new and pre-existing regions as the difference between (i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and (ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and pre-existing magnetic flux, indicate the existence of "topological" free magnetic energy in the global coronal field that is independent of any "internal" free magnetic energy due to coronal electric currents flowing within the newly emerged and pre-existing flux systems. We then examine the interaction energy in two well-studied cases of flux emergence, but find that the predicted energetic perturbation is relatively small compared to energies released in large solar flares. Next, we present an observational study on the infl...

  17. South Atlantic summary report 2. Revision of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deis, J.L.; Kurz, F.N.; Porter, E.O.

    1982-05-01

    The search for oil and gas on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the South Atlantic Region began in 1960, when geophysical surveys of the area were initiated. In 1977, a Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well was drilled in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. In March 1978, the first lease sale, Sale 43, was held, resulting in the leasing of 43 tracts. Approximately a year later, in May 1979, the first exploratory drilling began, and by February 1980, six exploratory wells had been drilled by four companies. Hydrocarbons were not found in any of these wells. Lease Sale 56, the second lease sale in the South Atlantic Region, was held in August 1981. The sale resulted in the leasing of 47 tracts. Most of the leased tracts are in deep water along the Continental Slope off North Carolina. To date, no drilling has occurred on these tracts, but it is likely that two wells will be drilled or will be in the process of being drilled by the end of 1982. Reoffering Sale RS-2 is scheduled for July 1982, and it will include tracts offered in Lease Sale 56 that were not awarded leases. Lease Sale 78 is scheduled to be held in July 1983. The most recent (March 1982) estimates of risked resources for leased lands in the South Atlantic OCS are 27 million barrels of oil and 120 billion cubic feet of gas. To date, onshore impacts resulting from OCS exploration have been minimal, and they were associated with Lease Sale 43 exploratory activities. In June 1981, the South Atlantic Regional Technical Working Group prepared a Regional Transportation Management Plan for the South Atlantic OCS. The plan is principally an integration of regulatory frameworks, policies, and plans that are applicable to pipeline siting from each of the South Atlantic coastal States and Federal agencies with jurisdiction in the area.

  18. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic and their onshore impacts. Atlantic summary report, July 1, 1983-December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, R.W.; Havran, K.J.

    1984-12-01

    The search for oil and gas on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Atlantic continues. Hydrocarbon exploration efforts have been and probably will continue to be concentrated on four major sedimentary basins: the Georges Bank Basin, the Baltimore Canyon Trough, the Carolina Trough, and the Blake Plateau Basin. To date, 46 exploratory wells have been drilled in these areas, most of them in the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area where resource estimates indicate the hydrocarbon potential is the greatest of the three Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Currently, no operators are involved in exploration efforts in the Atlantic. No commercial discoveries have been announced. Since the first and most successful sale of Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf blocks in Lease Sale 40 in August 1976, there have been eight other sales bringing total revenues of almost $3 billion to the Federal Treasury. The current tentative milestone chart for the 5-year offshore leasing schedule calls for four additional lease sales to be held in the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. Although no firm plans have been made for the transportation of potential offshore hydrocarbons to onshore processing facilities, it is believed that oil would be transported by tanker or tug-barge system to existing refineries on the Raritan and Delaware Bays. Gas probably would be transported by pipeline to one of several onshore landfalls identifed by Atlantic Coast States and in Federal environmental impact documents. Recent onshore support for Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf exploration came from Davisville, Rhode Island, the only shore support base for the Atlantic that was active during 1984. Three maps are provided in the back pocket of this report for the North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic planning areas. 29 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  20. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang, E-mail: niudun12@126.com; Gao, Dong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2014-02-14

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  1. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)] [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom, E-mail: jlinsky@jilau1.colorado.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States)] [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  2. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  5. BIOLOGICAL OPINION ON ISSUANCE OF INCIDENTAL HARASSMENT AUTHORIZATIONS FOR OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION ACTIVITIES IN THE CHUKCHI AND BEAUFORT SEAS IN 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;BIOLOGICAL OPINION ON ISSUANCE OF INCIDENTAL HARASSMENT AUTHORIZATIONS FOR OIL AND GAS..............................................................................................................84 i #12;BIOLOGICAL OPINION ON ISSUANCE OF INCIDENTAL HARASSMENT AUTHORIZATIONS FOR OIL AND GAS" permits under section 101(a)(5) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act, as amended, for certain oil and gas

  6. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-24

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  8. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  9. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  15. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  16. Quantitative Comparison of Measured Plasma Sheet Electron Energy Flux and Remotely Sensed Auroral Electron Energy Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fillingim, Matthew

    Electron Energy Flux M. O. Fillingim1, (matt@ess.washington.edu), G. K. Parks2, D. Chua1, G. A. Germany3, R intensity ~ precipitating electron energy flux Peak energy flux "near" WIND fQuantitative Comparison of Measured Plasma Sheet Electron Energy Flux and Remotely Sensed Auroral

  17. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-24

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  2. ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwelling irradianceheat flux

  3. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 2000-2002

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates research and development (R&D) activity expanded significantly during the 2000-2002.

  4. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; et al

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis ofmore »the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.« less

  5. Large Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Temperate Peatland Pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Maggi

    Large Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Temperate Peatland Pasture Yit Arn Teh,1,2 * Whendee L, California 94702, USA ABSTRACT Agricultural drainage is thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from or global warming potential. We re- port greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, CO2, N2O) from a drained peatland

  6. Gas Heat Transfer in a Heated Vertical Channel under Deteriorated Turbulent Heat Transfer Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jeongik

    Passive cooling via natural circulation of gas after a loss of coolant (LOCA) accident is one of the major goals of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). Due to its high surface heat flux and low coolant velocities under ...

  7. Gas heat transfer in a heated vertical channel under deteriorated turbulent heat transfer regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jeongik

    2007-01-01

    Passive cooling via natural circulation of gas after a loss of coolant (LOCA) accident is one of the major goals of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). Due to its high surface heat flux and low coolant velocities under ...

  8. Fluid-inclusion gas composition from an active magmatic-hydrothermal system: a case study of The Geysers, California geothermal field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Joseph N.; Norman, David I.; Kennedy, B. Mack.

    2001-01-01

    Ed. . , Active geothermal systems and gold–mercury depositsEd. . , Active Geothermal Systems and Gold– Mercury Depositsassoci- ated geothermal systems, alteration, mineralization,

  9. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunkel, Ronald W. (Lower Burrell, PA); Podey, Larry L. (Greensburg, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  10. On solar neutrino fluxes in radiochemical experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. N. Ikhsanov; Yu. N. Gnedin; E. V. Miletsky

    2005-12-08

    We analyze fluctuations of the solar neutrino flux using data from the Homestake, GALLEX, GNO, SAGE and Super Kamiokande experiments. Spectral analysis and direct quantitative estimations show that the most stable variation of the solar neutrino flux is a quasi-five-year periodicity. The revised values of the mean solar neutrino flux are presented in Table 4. They were used to estimate the observed pp-flux of the solar electron neutrinos near the Earth. We consider two alternative explanations for the origin of a variable component of the solar neutrino deficit.

  11. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  13. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  14. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This chapter provides an assessment of the net carbon dioxide (CO2) flux caused by (1) changes in forest carbon in the form of forest and soil surveys. Carbon dioxide fluxes from forest carbon stocks and from nonInventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 1998 April 15, 2000 U.S. Environmental

  15. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURES OF FLUX ROPES TRACKED BY ERUPTING MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-06-20

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 4, respectively. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to 'peel off' the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are, respectively, composed of 85 {+-} 12 and 102 {+-} 15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1.''6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} Mx to 8.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller magnetic structures over 10 hr before the appearance of the flux rope. By calculating the magnetic fields of the FPs, we deduce that the two flux ropes occupy at least 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx and 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx magnetic fluxes, respectively.

  16. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Peter J; Rousculp, Christopher L; Reinovsky, Robert E; Reass, William A; Griego, Jeffrey R; Oro, David M; Merrill, Frank E

    2010-06-28

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  17. Today's Material Gauss' Law and Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashlock, Dan

    Field Lines' #12;© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Concept of Flux Consider a box surrounding a region;© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Concept of Flux Consider a box surrounding a region of space. We can.1 ­ 22.3 Next lecture · More on Gauss's law #12;Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing

  18. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao; Liu Yu

    2010-03-10

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10{sup 16} g with a momentum of 0.57x10{sup 22} g cm s{sup -1} by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  19. High Flux Ti Nanofiltration Membrane

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to TappingWORK BREAKDOWNEnergy how toEM&

  20. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  1. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  2. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1992-06-10

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

  3. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  4. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatfield, Kirk

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under controlled field conditions. In the third and fourth year a suite of larger field studies were conducted. For these studies, the uranium flux sensor was used with uranium speciation measurements and molecular-biological tools to characterize microbial community and active biomass at synonymous wells distributed in a large grid. These field efforts quantified spatial changes in uranium flux and field-scale rates of uranium attenuation (ambient and stimulated), uranium stability, and quantitatively assessed how fluxes and effective reaction rates were coupled to spatial variations in microbial community and active biomass. Analyses of data from these field experiments were used to generate estimates of Monod kinetic parameters that are ‘effective’ in nature and optimal for modeling uranium fate and transport at the field-scale. This project provided the opportunity to develop the first sensor that provides direct measures of both uranium (VI) and groundwater flux. A multidisciplinary team was assembled to include two geochemists, a microbiologist, and two quantitative contaminant hydrologists. Now that the project is complete, the sensor can be deployed at DOE sites to evaluate field-scale uranium attenuation, source behavior, the efficacy of remediation, and off-site risk. Because the sensor requires no power, it can be deployed at remote sites for periods of days to months. The fundamental science derived from this project can be used to advance the development of predictive models for various transport and attenuation processes in aquifers. Proper development of these models is critical for long-term stewardship of contaminated sites in the context of predicting uranium source behavior, remediation performance, and off-site risk.

  5. Applications of the DFLU flux to systems of conservation laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adimurthi, Adimurthi; Jaffré, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    The DFLU numerical flux was introduced in order to solve hyperbolic scalar conservation laws with a flux function discontinuous in space. We show how this flux can be used to solve systems of conservation laws. The obtained numerical flux is very close to a Godunov flux. As an example we consider a system modeling polymer flooding in oil reservoir engineering.

  6. Gas Mask 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The gas industry fostered more efficient energy utilization long before the idea of energy conservation became fashionable. It became apparent in the late '60's that misguided Federal Legislation was discouraging necessary search for new gas...

  7. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  8. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye (Newton, MA)

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  9. Water-Gas Samples At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water-Gas Samples At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Janik & Goff, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water-Gas...

  10. Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas...

  11. Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling...

  12. Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas...

  13. Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling At International Geothermal Area Mexico (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas...

  14. Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas...

  15. Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling...

  16. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency > Posts by term > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Combined Heat And Power...

  17. Slow Rise and Partial Eruption of a Double-Decker Filament. II. Modeling by a Double Flux Rope Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kliem, Bernhard; Titov, Viacheslav S; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A; Liu, Rui; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov & D\\'emoulin (1999) and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. If this component decreases sufficiently, then both flux ropes turn unstable for conditions typical of solar active regions, with the lower rope typically being unstable first. Either both flux ropes erupt upward, or only the upper rope erupts while the lower rope reconnects with the ambient flux low in the corona and is destroyed. However, for shear field strengths staying somewhat above the threshold...

  18. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  19. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  20. Slow rise and partial eruption of a double-decker filament. II. A double flux rope model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kliem, Bernhard; Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Liu, Rui; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2014-09-10

    Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov and Démoulin and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. If this component decreases sufficiently, then both flux ropes turn unstable for conditions typical of solar active regions, with the lower rope typically becoming unstable first. Either both flux ropes erupt upward, or only the upper rope erupts while the lower rope reconnects with the ambient flux low in the corona and is destroyed. However, for shear field strengths staying somewhat above the threshold value, the configuration also admits evolutions which lead to partial eruptions with only the upper flux rope becoming unstable and the lower one remaining in place. This can be triggered by a transfer of flux and current from the lower to the upper rope, as suggested by the observations of a split filament in Paper I. It can also result from tether-cutting reconnection with the ambient flux at the X-type structure between the flux ropes, which similarly influences their stability properties in opposite ways. This is demonstrated for the numerically constructed equilibrium.

  1. Hot-gas conditioning of biomass derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Litt, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Battelle has tested selected catalysts to evaluate the potential for hot-gas conditioning of biomass gasifier product gas to modify the product gas to produce a gas suitable for methanol synthesis. The Battelle Process Research Unit (PRU) gasifier was utilized as a source of a stable supply of product gas that contained all of the trace constituents that might be present in a commercial scale gasification system. One goal of alternate fuel generation with renewable biomass fuels is the production of a liquid transportation fuel such as methanol. The hot-gas conditioning tests run were planned to evaluate commercial catalysts that would crack hydrocarbons and provide water gas shift activity to adjust the product gas composition for methanol synthesis. During the test program, a novel, low cost catalyst, was identified that showed high levels of activity and stability. The composition of this catalyst is such that it has the potential to be a disposable catalyst and is free from hazardous materials. The initial tests with this catalyst showed high levels of water gas shift activity superior to, and hydrocarbon cracking activity nearly as high as, a commercial cracking catalyst tested.

  2. 3-D multichannel seismic reflection study of variable-flux hydrocarbon seeps, continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Ryan Douglas

    2004-11-15

    and geophysical indicators of hydrocarbons and correlate them with seafloor amplitude anomalies and fault traces in order to characterize seep activity level. The southern mud volcano in the Garden Banks site is characterized as an established high flux seep vent...

  3. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  4. A low cost high flux solar simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel S.

    A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

  5. Design, Installation, and Field Verification of Integrated Active Desiccant Hybrid Rooftop Systems Combined with a Natural Gas Driven Cogeneration Package, 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Report summary of a research/demonstration project involving a custom 230 kW cogeneration package with four integrated active desiccant rooftop (IADR) systems

  6. TRANSIENT BRIGHTENINGS ASSOCIATED WITH FLUX CANCELLATION ALONG A FILAMENT CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Muglach, K. E-mail: karin.muglach@nasa.gov

    2013-02-15

    Filament channels coincide with large-scale polarity inversion lines of the photospheric magnetic field, where flux cancellation continually takes place. High-cadence Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) images recorded in He II 30.4 nm and Fe IX 17.1 nm during 2010 August 22 reveal numerous transient brightenings occurring along the edge of a filament channel within a decaying active region, where SDO line-of-sight magnetograms show strong opposite-polarity flux in close contact. The brightenings are elongated along the direction of the filament channel, with linear extents of several arcseconds, and typically last a few minutes; they sometimes have the form of multiple two-sided ejections with speeds on the order of 100 km s{sup -1}. Remarkably, some of the brightenings rapidly develop into larger scale events, forming sheetlike structures that are eventually torn apart by the diverging flows in the filament channel and ejected in opposite directions. We interpret the brightenings as resulting from reconnections among filament-channel field lines having one footpoint located in the region of canceling flux. In some cases, the flow patterns that develop in the channel may bring successive horizontal loops together and cause a cascade to larger scales.

  7. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  8. Flux expulsion variation in SRF cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posen, S; Romanenko, A; Melnychuk, O; Sergatskov, D A; Martinello, M; Checchin, M; Crawford, A C

    2015-01-01

    Treating a cavity with nitrogen doping significantly increases $Q_0$ at medium fields, reducing cryogenic costs for high duty factor linear accelerators such as LCLS II. N-doping also makes cavities more sensitive to increased residual resistance due to trapped magnetic flux, making it critical to either have extremely effective magnetic shielding, or to prevent flux from being trapped in the cavity during cooldown. In this paper, we report on results of a study of flux expulsion. We discuss possible ways in which flux can be pinned in the inner surface, outer surface, or bulk of a cavity, and we present experimental results studying these mechanisms. We show that grain structure appears to play a key role and that a cavity that expelled flux poorly changed to expelling flux well after a high temperature furnace treatment. We further show that after furnace treatment, this cavity exhibited a significant improvement in quality factor when cooled in an external magnetic field. We conclude with implications for ...

  9. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. An empirical model of electron and ion fluxes derived from observations at geosynchronous orbit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Denton, M. H.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jordanova, V. K.; Henderson, M. G.; Borovsky, J. E.; Denton, J. S.; Pitchford, D.; Hartley, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit is important to both scientific and operational investigations. We present a new empirical model of the ion flux and the electron flux at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV. The model is based on a total of 82 satellite-years of observations from the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer instruments on Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites at GEO. These data are assigned to a fixed grid of 24 local-times and 40 energies, at all possible values of Kp. Bi-linear interpolation is used between grid points to provide the ionmore »flux and the electron flux values at any energy and local-time, and for given values of geomagnetic activity (proxied by the 3-hour Kp index), and also for given values of solar activity (proxied by the daily F10.7 index). Initial comparison of the electron flux from the model with data from a Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II (CEASE-II), also located at geosynchronous orbit, indicate a good match during both quiet and disturbed periods. The model is available for distribution as a FORTRAN code that can be modified to suit user-requirements.« less

  11. LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    LATERAL LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION: CHARACTERIZATION AND PRELIMINARY MODELING RESULTS O.BOUR*, E in the geological layer. Prior to drilling new boreholes on the site, a preliminary simplified model will be built with the numerical code TOUGH2-LGM. A description of the geological units, methane flux and the results

  12. Constraining UV continuum slopes of active galactic nuclei with cloudy models of broad-line region extreme-ultraviolet emission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moloney, Joshua [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Michael Shull, J., E-mail: joshua.moloney@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [Also at Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the composition and structure of the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is important for answering many outstanding questions in supermassive black hole evolution, galaxy evolution, and ionization of the intergalactic medium. We used single-epoch UV spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure EUV emission-line fluxes from four individual AGNs with 0.49 ? z ? 0.64, two AGNs with 0.32 ? z ? 0.40, and a composite of 159 AGNs. With the CLOUDY photoionization code, we calculated emission-line fluxes from BLR clouds with a range of density, hydrogen ionizing flux, and incident continuum spectral indices. The photoionization grids were fit to the observations using single-component and locally optimally emitting cloud (LOC) models. The LOC models provide good fits to the measured fluxes, while the single-component models do not. The UV spectral indices preferred by our LOC models are consistent with those measured from COS spectra. EUV emission lines such as N IV ?765, O II ?833, and O III ?834 originate primarily from gas with electron temperatures between 37,000 K and 55,000 K. This gas is found in BLR clouds with high hydrogen densities (n {sub H} ? 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}) and hydrogen ionizing photon fluxes (?{sub H} ? 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}).

  13. Evolution and Dynamics of a Solar Active Prominence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magara, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The life of a solar active prominence, one of the most remarkable objects on the Sun, is full of dynamics; after first appearing on the Sun the prominence continuously evolves with various internal motions and eventually produces a global eruption toward the interplane- tary space. Here we report that the whole life of an active prominence is successfully re- produced by performing as long-term a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a magnetized prominence plasma as was ever done. The simulation reveals underlying dynamic processes that give rise to observed properties of an active prominence: invisible subsurface flows self- consistently produce the cancellation of magnetic flux observed at the photosphere, while observed and somewhat counterintuitive strong upflows are driven against gravity by en- hanced gas pressure gradient force along a magnetic field line locally standing vertical. The most highlighted dynamic event, transition into an eruptive phase, occurs as a natural con- sequence of the self-consiste...

  14. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  16. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  17. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  18. Separation of gas mixtures by thermoacoustic waves.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G. W.; Geller, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Imposing sound on a binary gas mixture in a duct separates the two gases along the acoustic-propagation axis. Mole-fraction differences as large as 10% and separation fluxes as high as 0.001 M-squared c, where M is Mach number and c is sound speed, are easily observed. We describe the accidental discovery of this phenomenon in a helium-xenon mixture, subsequent experiments with a helium-argon mixture, and theoretical developments. The phenomenon occurs because a thin layer of the gas adjacent to the wall is immobilized by viscosity while the rest of the gas moves back and forth with the wave, and the heat capacity of the wall holds this thin layer of the gas at constant temperature while the rest of the gas experiences temperature oscillations due to the wave's oscillating pressure. The oscillating temperature gradient causes the light and heavy atoms in the gas to take turns diffusing into and out of the immobilized layer, so that the oscillating motion of the wave outside the immobilized layer tends to carry light-enriched gas in one direction and heavy-enriched gas in the opposite direction. Experiment and theory are in very good agreement for the initial separation fluxes and the saturation mole-fraction differences.

  19. SEPARATION OF GAS MIXTURES BY THERMOACOUSTIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.W. SWIFT; D.A. GELLER; P.S. SPOOR

    2001-06-01

    Imposing sound on a binary gas mixture in a duct separates the two gases along the acoustic-propagation axis. Mole-fraction differences as large as 10% and separation fluxes as high as 0.001 M-squared c, where M is Mach number and c is sound speed, are easily observed. We describe the accidental discovery of this phenomenon in a helium-xenon mixture, subsequent experiments with a helium-argon mixture, and theoretical developments. The phenomenon occurs because a thin layer of the gas adjacent to the wall is immobilized by viscosity while the rest of the gas moves back and forth with the wave, and the heat capacity of the wall holds this thin layer of the gas at constant temperature while the rest of the gas experiences temperature oscillations due to the wave's oscillating pressure. The oscillating temperature gradient causes the light and heavy atoms in the gas to take turns diffusing into and out of the immobilized layer, so that the oscillating motion of the wave outside the immobilized layer tends to carry light-enriched gas in one direction and heavy-enriched gas in the opposite direction. Experiment and theory are in very good agreement for the initial separation fluxes and the saturation mole-fraction differences.

  20. Molecular Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. M. Young

    2000-09-05

    The distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in elliptical galaxies give information on the origin and history of the gas and the rate of star formation activity in ellipticals. I describe some preliminary results of a survey which will more than double the number of elliptical galaxies with resolved molecular distributions.

  1. Energy flux of timeharmonic waves in anisotropic dissipative media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Energy flux of time­harmonic waves in anisotropic dissipative media Vlastislav Ÿ Cerven/transmission problem. Energy flux quantities related to the summary wavefield, composed of several waves, are derived in the summary energy flux in addition to the energy fluxes of the individual waves. The interaction energy

  2. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of trying to oppose it. It is robust and could be particularly useful for PM generators and electric vehicle drives. Recent efforts have introduced a brushless machine that transfers a magneto-motive force (MMF) generated by a stationary excitation coil to the rotor [4]. Although a conventional PM machine may be field weakened using vector control, the air-gap flux density cannot be effectively enhanced. In Hsu's new machine, the magnetic field generated by the rotor's PM may be augmented by the field from the stationery excitation coil and channeled with flux guides to its desired destination to enhance the air-gap flux that produces torque. The magnetic field can also be weakened by reversing the current in the stationary excitation winding. A patent for advanced technology in this area is pending. Several additional RTFC methods have been discussed in open literature. These include methods of changing the number of poles by magnetizing and demagnetizing the magnets poles with pulses of current corresponding to direct-axis (d-axis) current of vector control [5,6], changing the number of stator coils [7], and controlling the air gap [8]. Test experience has shown that the magnet strengths may vary and weaken naturally as rotor temperature increases suggesting that careful control of the rotor temperature, which is no easy task, could yield another method of RTFC. The purpose of this report is to (1) examine the interaction of rotor and stator flux with regard to RTFC, (2) review and summarize the status of RTFC technology, and (3) compare and evaluate methods for RTFC with respect to maturity, advantages and limitations, deployment difficulty and relative complexity.

  3. Freezing E3-brane instantons with fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimo Bianchi; Andres Collinucci; Luca Martucci

    2012-02-22

    E3-instantons that generate non-perturbative superpotentials in IIB N=1 compactifications are more frequent than currently believed. Worldvolume fluxes will typically lift the E3-brane geometric moduli and their fermionic superpartners, leaving only the two required universal fermionic zero-modes. We consistently incorporate SL(2, Z) monodromies and world-volume fluxes in the effective theory of the E3-brane fermions and study the resulting zero-mode spectrum, highlighting the relation between F-theory and perturbative IIB results. This leads us to a IIB derivation of the index for generation of superpotential terms, which reproduces and generalizes available results. Furthermore, we show how worldvolume fluxes can be explicitly constructed in a one-modulus compactification, such that an E3-instanton has exactly two fermonic zero-modes. This construction is readily applicable to numerous scenarios.

  4. Super-radiance and flux conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical foundations of the phenomenon known as super-radiance still continues to attract considerable attention. Despite many valiant attempts at pedagogically clear presentations, the effect nevertheless still continues to generate some significant confusion. Part of the confusion arises from the fact that super-radiance in a quantum field theory [QFT] context is not the same as super-radiance (super-fluorescence) in some condensed matter contexts; part of the confusion arises from traditional but sometimes awkward normalization conventions, and part is due to sometimes unnecessary confusion between fluxes and probabilities. We shall argue that the key point underlying the effect is flux conservation, (and, in the presence of dissipation, a controlled amount of flux non-conservation), and that attempting to phrase things in terms of reflection and transmission probabilities only works in the absence of super-radiance. To help clarify the situation we present a simple exactly solvable toy model exhibi...

  5. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio (Rome, IT); Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Bennett, Timothy (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

    1993-01-01

    Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

  6. Classical and quantum flux energy conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin-Moruno, Prado

    2013-01-01

    The classical energy conditions are known to not be fundamental physics -- they are typically violated by semiclassical quantum effects. Consequently, some effort has gone into finding possible semiclassical replacements for the classical energy conditions -- the most well developed being the Ford-Roman quantum inequalities. In the current article we shall instead develop classical and quantum versions of a "flux energy condition" (FEC and QFEC) based on the notion of constraining the possible fluxes measured by timelike observers. The classical FEC will be seen to be satisfied by some quantum states, while its quantum analogue (the QFEC) is satisfied under a rather wide range of conditions.

  7. Dynamical Horizons: Energy, Angular Momentum, Fluxes and Balance Laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhay Ashtekar; Badri Krishnan

    2002-11-03

    Dynamical horizons are considered in full, non-linear general relativity. Expressions of fluxes of energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves across these horizons are obtained. Fluxes are local, the energy flux is positive and change in the horizon area is related to these fluxes. The flux formulae also give rise to balance laws analogous to the ones obtained by Bondi and Sachs at null infinity and provide generalizations of the first and second laws of black hole mechanics.

  8. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leclerc, Monique Y.

    2014-11-17

    This final report presents the main activities and results of the project “A Carbon Flux Super Site: New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling” from 10/1/2006 to 9/30/2014. It describes the new AmeriFlux tower site (Aiken) at Savanna River Site (SC) and instrumentation, long term eddy-covariance, sodar, microbarograph, soil and other measurements at the site, and intensive field campaigns of tracer experiment at the Carbon Flux Super Site, SC, in 2009 and at ARM-CF site, Lamont, OK, and experiments in Plains, GA. The main results on tracer experiment and modeling, on low-level jet characteristics and their impact on fluxes, on gravity waves and their influence on eddy fluxes, and other results are briefly described in the report.

  9. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W. [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon, Kyonggi (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  10. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  11. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.

    1995-03-15

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.

  12. Solar flux variability of Mars' exosphere densities and temperatures Jeffrey M. Forbes,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbes, Jeffrey

    Solar flux variability of Mars' exosphere densities and temperatures Jeffrey M. Forbes,1 Frank G, the response of Mars' exosphere to long-term solar change is established and compared to that of Earth conditions) change only 36­50% as much as those at Earth as solar activity increases from solar minimum

  13. Near-Surface Eddy Heat and Momentum Fluxes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprintall, Janet

    Near-Surface Eddy Heat and Momentum Fluxes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) momentum balance. The observations span 7 yr and are compared to eddy Current (ACC) pathway is marked by exceptionally high mesoscale eddy activity (e.g., Stammer 1998; Hughes

  14. Optimal Control of a Magnetic Bearing without Bias Flux Using Finite Voltage Charles Yang *, Research Assistant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knospe, Carl

    Optimal Control of a Magnetic Bearing without Bias Flux Using Finite Voltage Charles Yang, Sterling Heights, MI 48314 SUMMARY Conventional Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB) are operated using a bias. In this paper, optimal control of a magnetic bearing without bias is investigated. A single degree

  15. Compressed natural gas measurement issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Freeman, P.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement of compressed natural gas when sold as a motor vehicle fuel. This paper briefly discusses the activities of the MMTG and its interaction with NIST. The paper also discusses the Institute of Gas Technology`s (IGT) support of the MMTG in the area of natural gas composition, their impact on metering technology applicable to high pressure fueling stations as well as conversion factors for the establishment of ``gallon gasoline equivalent`` of natural gas. The final portion of this paper discusses IGT`s meter research activities and its meter test facility.

  16. Flux tubes in the SU(3) vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario S. Cardaci; Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai; Rossella Falcone; Alessandro Papa

    2011-09-30

    We analyze the distribution of the chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum. We find that the transverse profile of the flux tube resembles the dual version of the Abrikosov vortex field distribution and give an estimate of the London penetration length in the confined vacuum.

  17. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  18. Diagnosis of Ocean Mesoscale Eddy Tracer Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    Diagnosis of Ocean Mesoscale Eddy Tracer Fluxes Baylor Fox-Kemper U. Colorado-Boulder, with Scott - 10,000 km, yrs->centuries) => resolved · Mesoscale variability (10 - 100 km, mo -> yrs) => resolved) => parameterized Boundary Layer Models Mesoscale resolving models Climate models Submesoscale variability Coupling

  19. Engineering Notes Microgravity Demonstrations of Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, Mason A.

    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 DOI: 10.2514/1.50343 I. Introduction MAGNETIC flux pinning, a noncontacting interaction between Type II superconductors and magnetic fields, has been studied at length by the scientific community for its applications to levitating objects in a 1g environment [1­3]. However, due

  20. Orientation of eddy fluxes in geostrophic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. "Balu"

    of potential vorticity (PV) in geostrophic turbulence. We take two different points of view, a classical of the eddy flux of PV with the appropriate mean gradient or the large-scale gradient of PV is required-temporal characteristics of the flow. One way to improve on this is to adopt unsteady RA. In this case, averages

  1. Adaptive Representation of Specular Light Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montréal, Université de

    Adaptive Representation of Specular Light Flux Normand Bri`ere Pierre Poulin D´epartement d in all but the simplest con- figurations. To capture their appearance, we present an adaptive approach based upon light beams. The coher- ence between light rays forming a light beam greatly re- duces

  2. Energies of Quantum QED Flux Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H Weigel

    2006-01-26

    In this talk I present recent studies on vacuum polarization energies and energy densities induced by QED flux tubes. I focus on comparing three and four dimensional scenarios and the discussion of various approximation schemes in view of the exact treatment.

  3. URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÑON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium

  4. SYNOPTIC MAPPING OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, C. L.; Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A. E-mail: jharvey@nso.edu

    2013-03-10

    We used daily full-disk Ca II 854.2 nm magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility to study the chromospheric magnetic field from 2006 April through 2009 November. We determined and corrected previously unidentified zero offsets in the SOLIS magnetograms. By tracking the disk passages of stable unipolar regions, the measured net flux densities were found to systematically decrease from the disk center to the limb by a factor of about two. This decrease was modeled using a thin flux tube model with a difference in signal formation height between the center and limb sides. Comparison of photospheric and chromospheric observations shows that their differences are largely due to horizontal spreading of magnetic flux with increasing height. The north polar magnetic field decreased nearly linearly with time during our study period while the south polar field was nearly constant. We used the annual change in the viewing angle of the polar regions to estimate the radial and meridional components of the polar fields and found that the south polar fields were tilted away from the pole. Synoptic maps of the chromospheric radial flux density distribution were used as boundary conditions for extrapolation of the field from the chromosphere into the corona. A comparison of modeled and observed coronal hole boundaries and coronal streamer positions showed better agreement when using the chromospheric rather than the photospheric synoptic maps.

  5. Muon Flux at the Geographical South Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Bai; T. K. Gaisser; A. Karle; K. Rawlins; G. M. Spiczak; Todor Stanev

    2006-02-17

    The muon flux at the South-Pole was measured for five zenith angles, $0^{\\circ}$, $15^{\\circ}$, $35^{\\circ}$, $82.13^{\\circ}$ and $85.15^{\\circ}$ with a scintillator muon telescope incorporating ice Cherenkov tank detectors as the absorber. We compare the measurements with other data and with calculations.

  6. Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Koros, William J. (Austin, TX)

    1990-01-01

    Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

  7. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  8. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  9. Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes

  10. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  11. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  12. The effect of nonuniform axial heat flux distribution on the critical heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todreas, Neil E.

    1965-01-01

    A systematic experimental and analytic investigation of the effect of nonuniform axial heat flux distribution on critical heat rilux was performed with water in the quality condition. Utilizing a model which ascribes the ...

  13. Electrostatic activation of prebiotic chemistry in substellar atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Craig R; Diver, Declan A; Rimmer, Paul B

    2013-01-01

    Charged dust grains in the atmospheres of exoplanets may play a key role in the formation of prebiotic molecules, necessary to the origin of life. Dust grains submerged in an atmospheric plasma become negatively charged and attract a flux of ions that are accelerated from the plasma. The energy of the ions upon reaching the grain surface may be sufficient to overcome the activation energy of particular chemical reactions that would be unattainable via ion and neutral bombardment from classical, thermal excitation. As a result, prebiotic molecules or their precursors could be synthesised on the surface of dust grains that form clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. This paper investigates the energization of the plasma ions, and the dependence on the plasma electron temperature, in the atmospheres of substellar objects such as gas giant planets. Calculations show that modest electron temperatures of $\\approx 1$ eV ($\\approx 10^{4}$ K) are enough to accelerate ions to sufficient energies that exceed the activation...

  14. What are the likely roles of fossil fuels in the next 15, 50, and 100 years, with or without active controls on greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the production and utilization of fossil fuels have been an engine driving economic and industrial development in many countries worldwide. However, future reliance on fossil fuels has been questioned due to emerging concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and its potential contribution to global climate change (GCC). While substantial uncertainties exist regarding the ability to accurately predict climate change and the role of various greenhouse gases, some scientists and policymakers have called for immediate action. As a result, there have been many proposals and worldwide initiatives to address the perceived problem. In many of these proposals, the premise is that CO{sub 2} emissions constitute the principal problem, and, correspondingly, that fossil-fuel combustion must be curtailed to resolve this problem. This paper demonstrates that the worldwide fossil fuel resource base and infrastructure are extensive and thus, will continue to be relied on in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, in the electric generating sector (the focus of this paper), numerous clean coal technologies (CCTs) are currently being demonstrated (or are under development) that have higher conversion efficiencies, and thus lower CO{sub 2} emission rates than conventional coal-based technologies. As these technologies are deployed in new power plant or repowering applications to meet electrical load growth, CO{sub 2} (and other GHG) emission levels per unit of electricity generated will be lower than that produced by conventional fossil-fuel technologies. 37 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Recovery of Information from the Fast Flux Test Facility for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, Deborah L.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2009-09-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor to operate in the United States. Information from the design, construction, and operation of this reactor was at risk as the facilities associated with the reactor are being shut down. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is a program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy with a mission to develop new fuel cycle technologies to support both current and advanced reactors. Securing and preserving the knowledge gained from operation and testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility is an important part of the Knowledge Preservation activity in this program.

  16. Sunspot rotation. I. A consequence of flux emergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sturrock, Z; Archontis, V; McNeill, C M

    2015-01-01

    Context. Solar eruptions and high flare activity often accompany the rapid rotation of sunspots. The study of sunspot rotation and the mechanisms driving this motion are therefore key to our understanding of how the solar atmosphere attains the conditions necessary for large energy release. Aims. We aim to demonstrate and investigate the rotation of sunspots in a 3D numerical experiment of the emergence of a magnetic flux tube as it rises through the solar interior and emerges into the atmosphere. Furthermore, we seek to show that the sub-photospheric twist stored in the interior is injected into the solar atmosphere by means of a definitive rotation of the sunspots. Methods. A numerical experiment is performed to solve the 3D resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations using a Lagrangian-Remap code. We track the emergence of a toroidal flux tube as it rises through the solar interior and emerges into the atmosphere investigating various quantities related to both the magnetic field and plasma. Results. Thr...

  17. Flow instabilities of magnetic flux tubes IV. Flux storage in the solar overshoot region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isik, Emre

    2009-01-01

    We consider the effects of material flows on the dynamics of toroidal magnetic flux tubes located close to the base of the solar convection zone, initially within the overshoot region. The problem is to find the physical conditions in which magnetic flux can be stored for periods comparable to the dynamo amplification time, which is of the order of a few years. We carry out nonlinear numerical simulations to investigate the stability and dynamics of thin flux tubes subject to perpendicular and longitudinal flows. We compare the simulations with the results of simplified analytical approximations. We determine ranges of the flow parameters for which a linearly Parker-stable magnetic flux tube is stored in the middle of the overshoot region for a period comparable to the dynamo amplification time. The residence time for magnetic flux tubes with fluxes of 2x10^{21} Mx in the convective overshoot layer is comparable to the dynamo amplification time, provided that the average speed and the duration of the downflow...

  18. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Eric Bonebrake

    2010-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University /Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRC’s current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational protocols and in-core instrumentation under the ATR Modeling, Simulation and V&V Upgrade initiative, as well as the work to replace nuclear instrumentation under the ATR Life Extension Project (LEP) and provide support to the ATR NSUF.

  19. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - October 2013 October 2013 Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Melter and Melter Off-gas Process System Hazards Analysis Activities...

  20. MAGNETIC FLUX CONSERVATION IN THE HELIOSHEATH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J. D. [Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Decker, R. B. [Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Drake, J. F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ness, N. F. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Opher, M., E-mail: jdr@space.mit.edu, E-mail: lburlagahsp@verizon.net, E-mail: robert.decker@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: drake@umd.edu, E-mail: nfnudel@yahoo.com, E-mail: mopher@bu.edu [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Voyager 1(V1) and Voyager 2(V2) have observed heliosheath plasma since 2005 December and 2007 August, respectively. The observed speed profiles are very different at the two spacecrafts. Speeds at V1 decreased to zero in 2010 while the average speed at V2 is a constant 150 km s{sup -1} with the direction rotating tailward. The magnetic flux is expected to be constant in these heliosheath flows. We show that the flux is constant at V2 but decreases by an order of magnitude at V1, even after accounting for divergence of the flows and changes in the solar field. If reconnection were responsible for this decrease, the magnetic field would lose 70% of its free energy to reconnection and the energy density released would be 0.6 eV cm{sup -3}.

  1. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  2. The Cosmic Ray Muon Flux at WIPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esch, E I; Hime, A; Pichlmaier, A; Reifarth, R; Wollnik, H

    2005-01-01

    In this work a measurement of the muon intensity at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, USA is presented. WIPP is a salt mine with a depth of 655 m. The vertical muon flux was measured with a two panels scintillator coincidence setup to Phi_{vert}=3.10(+0.05/-0.07)*10^(-7)s^(-1)cm^(-2)sr^(-1).

  3. The Cosmic Ray Muon Flux at WIPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. -I. Esch; T. J. Bowles; A. Hime; A. Pichlmaier; R. Reifarth; H. Wollnik

    2004-08-25

    In this work a measurement of the muon intensity at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, USA is presented. WIPP is a salt mine with a depth of 655 m. The vertical muon flux was measured with a two panels scintillator coincidence setup to Phi_{vert}=3.10(+0.05/-0.07)*10^(-7)s^(-1)cm^(-2)sr^(-1).

  4. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  5. EPA Update: NESHAP Subpart W Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPA Update: NESHAP Subpart W Activities Reid J. Rosnick Environmental Protection Agency Radiation also requested that ISL facilities provide radon flux data from their evaporation ponds #12;5 Status be employed for monitoring and analysis of radon flux · We are planning to work with all stakeholders

  6. Gas Drill 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    .C. Wang, B.T. Lovell, Program, Summary Report TE4258-5-84, J. McCrank, "Topping of a Combined Gas DOE/ET/11292, Oct. 1984. and Steam Turbine Powerplant using a TAM Combustor," Thermo Electron [4J Final Report: "Thermionic Energy Report No. 4258... for each Btu fired in the burners has been cal culated with the process gas temperature as a variable. It was shown [2 ] that the maximum thermionic power produced is 18 kW per million Btu fired per hour. All com bustors are similar but progressively...

  7. Heat flux dynamics in dissipative cascaded systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvatore Lorenzo; Alessandro Farace; Francesco Ciccarello; G. Massimo Palma; Vittorio Giovannetti

    2015-03-24

    We study the dynamics of heat flux in the thermalization process of a pair of identical quantum system that interact dissipatively with a reservoir in a {\\it cascaded} fashion. Despite the open dynamics of the bipartite system S is globally Lindbladian, one of the subsystems "sees" the reservoir in a state modified by the interaction with the other subsystem and hence it undergoes a non-Markovian dynamics. As a consequence, the heat flow exhibits a non-exponential time behaviour which can greatly deviate from the case where each party is independently coupled to the reservoir. We investigate both thermal and correlated initial states of $S$ and show that the presence of correlations at the beginning can considerably affect the heat flux rate. We carry out our study in two paradigmatic cases -- a pair of harmonic oscillators with a reservoir of bosonic modes and two qubits with a reservoir of fermionic modes -- and compare the corresponding behaviours. In the case of qubits and for initial thermal states, we find that the trace distance discord is at any time interpretable as the correlated contribution to the total heat flux.

  8. Surface Magnetic Flux Maintenance In Quiet Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Iida

    2012-12-27

    We investigate surface processes of magnetic patches, namely merging, splitting, emergence, and cancellation, by using an auto-detection technique. We find that merging and splitting are locally predominant in the surface level, while the frequencies of the other two are less by one or two orders of magnitude. The frequency dependences on flux con- tent of surface processes are further investigated. Based on these observations, we discuss a possible whole picture of the maintenance. Our conclusion is that the photospheric magnetic field structure, especially its power-law nature, is maintained by the processes locally in the surface not by the interactions between different altitudes. We suggest a scenario of the flux maintenance as follows: The splitting and merging play a crucial role for the generation of the power-law distribution, not the emergence nor cancellation do. This power-law distribution results in another power-law one of the cancellation with an idea of the random convective transport. The cancellation and emergence have a common value for the power-law indices in their frequency distributions, which may suggest a "recycle of fluxes by submergence and re-emergence".

  9. Photo-electron momentum spectra from minimal volumes: the time-dependent surface flux method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    The time-dependent surface flux (t-SURFF) method is introduced for computing of strong-field infrared photo-ionization spectra of atoms by numerically solving the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation on minimal simulation volumes. The volumes only need to accommodate the electron quiver motion and the relevant range of the atomic binding potential. Spectra are computed from the electron flux through a surface, beyond which the outgoing flux is absorbed by infinite range exterior complex scaling (irECS). Highly accurate infrared photo-electron spectra are calculated in single active electron approximation and compared to literature results. Detailed numerical evidence for performance and accuracy is given. Extensions to multi-electron systems and double ionization are discussed.

  10. Supergranular-scale magnetic flux emergence beneath an unstable filament

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palacios, J; Guerrero, A; Saiz, E; Cerrato, Y

    2015-01-01

    Here we report evidence of a large solar filament eruption on 2013, September 29. This smooth eruption, which passed without any previous flare, formed after a two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection towards Earth. The coronal mass ejection generated a moderate geomagnetic storm on 2013, October 2 with very serious localized effects. The whole event passed unnoticed to flare-warning systems. We have conducted multi-wavelength analyses of the Solar Dynamics Observatory through Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. The AIA data on 304, 193, 211, and 94 \\AA sample the transition region and the corona, respectively, while HMI provides photospheric magnetograms, continuum, and linear polarization data, in addition to the fully inverted data provided by HMI. [...] We have observed a supergranular-sized emergence close to a large filament in the boundary of the active region NOAA11850. Filament dynamics and magnetogram results suggest that the magnetic flux emergenc...

  11. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  12. Habitat reclamation plan to mitigate for the loss of habitat due to oil and gas production activities under maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D.C.

    1994-11-01

    Activities associated with oil and gas development under the Maximum Efficiency Rate (MER) from 1975 to 2025 will disturb approximately 3,354 acres. Based on 1976 aerial photographs and using a dot grid methodology, the amount of land disturbed prior to MER is estimated to be 3,603 acres. Disturbances on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) were mapped using 1988 aerial photography and a geographical information system. A total of 6,079 acres were classified as disturbed as of June, 1988. The overall objective of this document is to provide specific information relating to the on-site habitat restoration program at NPRC. The specific objectives, which relate to the terms and conditions that must be met by DOE as a means of protecting the San Joaquin kit fox from incidental take are to: (1) determine the amount and location of disturbed lands on NPR-1 and the number of acres disturbed as a result of MER activities, (2) develop a long term (10 year) program to restore an equivalent on-site acres to that lost from prior project-related actions, and (3) examine alternative means to offset kit fox habitat loss.

  13. MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Shunlin

    Chapter 6 MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS: ALGORITHMS.1007/978-1-4419-0050-0_6, #12;142 Mapping Radiative Fluxes There are several global radiative flux data sets derived from either. For example, the CERES team uses the predefined albedo and emissivity maps to calculate surface radiative

  14. The Complete Flux Scheme for Spherically Symmetric Conservation Laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    and M.J.H. Anthonissen Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Mathematics and Computer Science for computing the numerical fluxes. The approximation for the flux is based on the complete differential to a spherically symmet- ric conservation law of advection-diffusion-reaction type. For the numer- ical flux we use

  15. The Ability of MM5 to Simulate Ice Clouds: Systematic Comparison between Simulated and Measured Fluxes and Lidar/Radar Profiles at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protat, Alain

    -term meteorological measurements by active (radar and lidar) and passive (infrared and visible fluxes) remote sensing effect is governed primarily by the equi- librium between their albedo effect and their green- house

  16. Torsional Alfven Waves in Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes of Axial Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E; Srivastava, A K; Kraskiewicz, J

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Propagation and energy transfer of torsional Alfv\\'en waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry is studied. Methods: An analytical model of a solar magnetic flux tube of axial symmetry is developed by specifying a magnetic flux and deriving general analytical formulae for the equilibrium mass density and a gas pressure. The main advantage of this model is that it can be easily adopted to any axisymmetric magnetic structure. The model is used to simulate numerically the propagation of nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves in such 2D flux tubes of axial symmetry embedded in the solar atmosphere. The waves are excited by a localized pulse in the azimuthal component of velocity and launched at the top of the solar photosphere, and they propagate through the solar chromosphere, transition region, and into the solar corona. Results: The results of our numerical simulations reveal a complex scenario of twisted magnetic field lines and flows associated with torsional Alfv\\'en waves as well as energy transfer to t...

  17. Passive gas separator and accumulator device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choe, H.; Fallas, T.T.

    1994-08-02

    A separation device employing a gas separation filter and swirler vanes for separating gas from a gas-liquid mixture is provided. The cylindrical filter utilizes the principle that surface tension in the pores of the filter prevents gas bubbles from passing through. As a result, the gas collects in the interior region of the filter and coalesces to form larger bubbles in the center of the device. The device is particularly suited for use in microgravity conditions since the swirlers induce a centrifugal force which causes liquid to move from the inner region of the filter, pass the pores, and flow through the outlet of the device while the entrained gas is trapped by the filter. The device includes a cylindrical gas storage screen which is enclosed by the cylindrical gas separation filter. The screen has pores that are larger than those of the filters. The screen prevents larger bubbles that have been formed from reaching and interfering with the pores of the gas separation filter. The device is initially filled with a gas other than that which is to be separated. This technique results in separation of the gas even before gas bubbles are present in the mixture. Initially filling the device with the dissimilar gas and preventing the gas from escaping before operation can be accomplished by sealing the dissimilar gas in the inner region of the separation device with a ruptured disc which can be ruptured when the device is activated for use. 3 figs.

  18. Field studies of beach cones as coastal erosion control/reversal devices for areas with significant oil and gas activities. Final report, February 24, 1992--September 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, V.J.

    1995-09-18

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the utility of a device called the {open_quotes}beach cone{close_quotes} in combating coastal erosion. Seven initial sites were selected for testing beach cones in a variety of geometric configurations. Permits were obtained from the State of Louisiana and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to perform the work associated with this study. Six hundred beach cones were actually installed at six of the sites in late July and early August, 1992. Findings indicate that beach cones accreted significant amounts of materials along the beach of a barrier island, and they might have been instrumental in repairing an approximately 200 meter gap in the island. At the eighth installation the amount of accreted material was measured by surveys to be 2200 cubic meters (2900 cubic yards) in February of 1993, when the cones were found to have been completely covered by the material. At other test sites, accretion rates have been less dramatic but importantly, no significant additional erosion has occurred, which is a positive result. The cost of sediment accretion using beach cones was found to be about $13.72 per cubic yard, which would be much lower if the cones were mass produced (on the order of $3.00 per cubic yard). The survival of the cones through the fringes of Hurricane Andrew indicates that they can be anchored sufficiently to survive significant storms. The measurements of the cones settling rates indicate that this effect is not significant enough to hinder their effectiveness. A subcontract to Xavier University to assess the ecological quality of the experimental sites involved the study of the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals. The highest concentration of heavy metals were near a fishing camp while the lowest levels were in the beach sand of a barrier island. This suggests that the metals do not occur naturally in these areas, but have been placed in the sediments by man`s activities.

  19. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts: a summary report, July 1980. Update 1, February 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havran, K.J.

    1981-02-01

    Lease Sale 43, in the Southeast Georgia Embayment, was the first lease sale to be held in the South Atlantic. Two additional sales are scheduled between now and 1985: Sale 56 is scheduled for August 1981 and Sale 78, for January 1984. All leases from Sale 43 remain active, but no drilling has taken place since the last of six dry holes was plugged and abandoned. There are no additional plans for drilling on Sale 43 leases in the immediate future. Future exploration may shift away from previous Sale 43 leased tracts to deep-water areas after Sale 56. One hundred thirty of the 286 proposed Sale 56 tracts are in deep-water. The geologic conditions in the deep-water areas are more favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation than those under shallower waters. Structures that may provide trapping mechanisms have been shown to exist in the area. Because leases in deep-water areas take longer and are more costly to explore and develop than those in areas of shallower water, industry consensus is that longer primary lease terms may be required and some delays in acquiring rigs may be experienced. The Sale 43 area appears to be a region of relatively low hydrocarbon-bearing potential. However, the Bureau of Land Management's Intergovernmental Planning Program is preparing the necessary Regional Transportation Management Plan for the entire South Atlantic OCS Region. Nearly all the support facilities associated with Sale 43 have been removed or converted to other uses. Temporary support facilities are likely to be reactivated only if Sale 56 results in further exploration of the South Atlantic OCS.

  20. AmeriFlux Network Data from the ORNL AmeriFlux Website

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996 to provide continuous observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. It is fed by sites from North America, Central America, and South America. DOE's CDIAC stores and maintains AmeriFlux data, and this web site explains the different levels of data available there, with links to the CDIAC ftp site. A separate web-based data interface is also provided; it allows users to graph, query, and download Level 2 data for up to four sites at a time. Data may be queried by site, measurement period, or parameter. More than 550 site-years of level 2 data are available from AmeriFlux sites through the interface.

  1. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2010 Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in2007), Comparison of carbon dioxide fluxes over three borealharvest influence carbon dioxide fluxes of black spruce

  2. Analysis of formaldehyde fluxes above a Ponderosa Pine forest measured via eddy-covariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Digangi, FABCDE

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of formaldehyde fluxes above a Ponderosa Pine Go To Analysis of formaldehyde fluxes above a Ponderosa 2011: Analysis of formaldehyde fluxes above a Ponderosa 

  3. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.; Lambert, J.B.; Herzog, J.P.

    1997-02-11

    A method and system are disclosed for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod. 12 figs.

  4. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Laug, Matthew T. (Idaho Fall, ID); Lambert, John D. B. (Wheaton, IL); Herzog, James P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod.

  5. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Poon, Siu-Joe (Palo Alto, CA); Duwez, Pol E. (Pasadena, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  6. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  7. ARM - VAP Product - lblch1flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeTheProductswacrarsclarsclwacrbnd1kolliasuth DocumentationProductslbllblch1flux

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - ISDAC - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01)govCampaignsFIRE-Arctic- Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer ARM

  9. Flux Power Incorporated | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskey flatsInformationFlintInformationFlux Power

  10. MiniBooNE Flux Data Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 Assessment ofLana7,MimickingThe Neutrino Flux

  11. Water-Gas Samples At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water-Gas Samples At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water-Gas Samples...

  12. Water-Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Janik...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water-Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Janik & Goff, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water-Gas Sampling At...

  13. Undergraduate Activities Fund

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Undergraduate Activities Fund Brought to you by the Undergraduate Finance Committee #12;General UAF industry representatives informed students on the current state of the mining and oil and gas industries

  14. Noise-Produced Patterns in Images Constructed from Magnetic Flux Leakage Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V; Levesley, Jeremy; Elkington, Peter; Bacciarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage measurements help identify the position, size and shape of corrosion-related defects in steel casings used to protect boreholes drilled into oil and gas reservoirs. Images constructed from magnetic flux leakage data contain patterns related to noise inherent in the method. We investigate the patterns and their scaling properties for the case of delta-correlated input noise, and consider the implications for the method's ability to resolve defects. The analytical evaluation of the noise-produced patterns is made possible by model reduction facilitated by large-scale approximation. With appropriate modification, the approach can be employed to analyze noise-produced patterns in other situations where the data of interest are not measured directly, but are related to the measured data by a complex linear transform involving integrations with respect to spatial coordinates.

  15. Striation pattern of target particle and heat fluxes in three dimensional simulations for DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Reiter, D. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany)] [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany); Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations results in a non-axisymmetric striation pattern of magnetic field lines from the plasma interior which intersect the divertor targets. The impact on related particle and heat fluxes is investigated by three dimensional computer simulations for two different recycling conditions (controlled via neutral gas pumping). It is demonstrated that a mismatch between the particle and heat flux striation pattern (splitting vs. no splitting), as is repeatedly observed in ITER similar shape H-mode plasmas at DIII-D, can be reproduced by the simulations for high recycling conditions at the onset of partial detachment. These results indicate that a detailed knowledge of the particle and energy balance is at least as important for realistic simulations as the consideration of a change in the magnetic field structure by plasma response effects.

  16. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: Flux variability analysis in relation to 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior 13C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH4+ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO2 efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the 13C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  17. Passive gas separator and accumulator device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choe, Hwang (Saratoga, CA); Fallas, Thomas T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A separation device employing a gas separation filter and swirler vanes for separating gas from a gasliquid mixture is provided. The cylindrical filter utilizes the principle that surface tension in the pores of the filter prevents gas bubbles from passing through. As a result, the gas collects in the interior region of the filter and coalesces to form larger bubbles in the center of the device. The device is particularly suited for use in microgravity conditions since the swirlers induce a centrifugal force which causes liquid to move from the inner region of the filter, pass the pores, and flow through the outlet of the device while the entrained gas is trapped by the filter. The device includes a cylindrical gas storage screen which is enclosed by the cylindrical gas separation filter. The screen has pores that are larger than those of the filters. The screen prevents larger bubbles that have been formed from reaching and interfering with the pores of the gas separation filter. The device is initially filled with a gas other than that which is to be separated. This technique results in separation of the gas even before gas bubbles are present in the mixture. Initially filling the device with the dissimilar gas and preventing the gas from escaping before operation can be accomplished by sealing the dissimilar gas in the inner region of the separation device with a ruptured disc which can be ruptured when the device is activated for use.

  18. Supersymmetric branes on curved spaces and fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triendl, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss general supersymmetric brane configurations in flux backgrounds of string and M-theory and derive a necessary condition for the worldvolume theory to be supersymmetric on a given curved manifold. This condition resembles very much the conditions found from coupling a supersymmetric field theory to off-shell supergravity but can be derived in any dimension and for up to sixteen supercharges. Apart from the topological twist, all couplings appearing in the supersymmetry condition are linked to fluxes in the bulk. We explicitly derive the condition for D3-, M2- and M5-branes, in which case the results are also useful for constructing holographic duals to the corresponding field theories. In $N=1$ setups we compare the supersymmetry conditions to those that arise by coupling the field theory to off-shell supergravity. We find that the couplings of both old and new minimal supergravity are simultaneously realized, indicating that off-shell supergravity should be coupled via the S-multiplet of 16/16 supe...

  19. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  20. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  1. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  2. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  5. Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYear Jan Feb MarNGPL Production,Energy Office

  6. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  7. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed fluxmore »continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.« less

  8. The solar internetwork. I. Contribution to the network magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goši?, M.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.

    2014-12-10

    The magnetic network (NE) observed on the solar surface harbors a sizable fraction of the total quiet Sun flux. However, its origin and maintenance are not well known. Here we investigate the contribution of internetwork (IN) magnetic fields to the NE flux. IN fields permeate the interior of supergranular cells and show large emergence rates. We use long-duration sequences of magnetograms acquired by Hinode and an automatic feature tracking algorithm to follow the evolution of NE and IN flux elements. We find that 14% of the quiet Sun (QS) flux is in the form of IN fields with little temporal variations. IN elements interact with NE patches and modify the flux budget of the NE either by adding flux (through merging processes) or by removing it (through cancellation events). Mergings appear to be dominant, so the net flux contribution of the IN is positive. The observed rate of flux transfer to the NE is 1.5 × 10{sup 24} Mx day{sup –1} over the entire solar surface. Thus, the IN supplies as much flux as is present in the NE in only 9-13 hr. Taking into account that not all the transferred flux is incorporated into the NE, we find that the IN would be able to replace the entire NE flux in approximately 18-24 hr. This renders the IN the most important contributor to the NE, challenging the view that ephemeral regions are the main source of flux in the QS. About 40% of the total IN flux eventually ends up in the NE.

  9. Six-week time series of eddy covariance CO2 flux at Mammoth Mountain, California: performance evaluation and role of meteorological forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer; Lewicki, J.L.; Fischer, M.L.; Hilley, G.E.

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} and heat fluxes were measured over a six-week period (09/08/2006 to 10/24/2006) by the eddy covariance (EC) technique at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK), Mammoth Mountain, CA, a site with complex terrain and high, spatially heterogeneous CO{sub 2} emission rates. EC CO{sub 2} fluxes ranged from 218 to 3500 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (mean = 1346 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}). Using footprint modeling, EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were compared to CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by the chamber method on a grid repeatedly over a 10-day period. Half-hour EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were moderately correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.42) with chamber fluxes, whereas average-daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were well correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.70) with chamber measurements. Average daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were correlated with both average daily wind speed and atmospheric pressure; relationships were similar to those observed between chamber CO{sub 2} fluxes and the atmospheric parameters over a comparable time period. Energy balance closure was assessed by statistical regression of EC energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) against available energy (net radiation, less soil heat flux). While incomplete (R{sup 2} = 0.77 for 1:1 line), the degree of energy balance closure fell within the range observed in many investigations conducted in contrasting ecosystems and climates. Results indicate that despite complexities presented by the HLTK, EC can be reliably used to monitor background variations in volcanic CO{sub 2} fluxes associated with meteorological forcing, and presumably changes related to deeply derived processes such as volcanic activity.

  10. Confined partial filament eruption and its reformation within a stable magnetic flux rope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Kayshap, Pradeep; Uddin, Wahab; Srivastava, Abhishek K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Filippov, Boris; Chandra, Ramesh; Choudhary, Debi Prasad E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com

    2014-05-20

    We present observations of a confined partial eruption of a filament on 2012 August 4, which restores its initial shape within ?2 hr after eruption. From the Global Oscillation Network Group H? observations, we find that the filament plasma turns into dynamic motion at around 11:20 UT from the middle part of the filament toward the northwest direction with an average speed of ?105 km s{sup –1}. A little brightening underneath the filament possibly shows the signature of low-altitude reconnection below the filament eruptive part. In Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å images, we observe an activation of right-handed helically twisted magnetic flux rope that contains the filament material and confines it during its dynamical motion. The motion of cool filament plasma stops after traveling a distance of ?215 Mm toward the northwest from the point of eruption. The plasma moves partly toward the right foot point of the flux rope, while most of the plasma returns after 12:20 UT toward the left foot point with an average speed of ?60 km s{sup –1} to reform the filament within the same stable magnetic structure. On the basis of the filament internal fine structure and its position relative to the photospheric magnetic fields, we find filament chirality to be sinistral, while the activated enveloping flux rope shows a clear right-handed twist. Thus, this dynamic event is an apparent example of one-to-one correspondence between the filament chirality (sinistral) and the enveloping flux rope helicity (positive). From the coronal magnetic field decay index, n, calculation near the flux rope axis, it is evident that the whole filament axis lies within the domain of stability (i.e., n < 1), which provides the filament stability despite strong disturbances at its eastern foot point.

  11. Lisa C. Tracy Acting Director Division of Natural Gas Regulatory...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    November 17, 2014 Lisa C. Tracy Acting Director Division of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities U.S. Department of Energy (FE-34) Office of Oil and Gas Global Security Office of...

  12. Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

  13. Modeling of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Methane Release in Response to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew; Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.

    2008-04-15

    Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating global climate, implicating global oceanic deposits of methane gas hydrate as the main culprit in instances of rapid climate change that have occurred in the past. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those predicted under future climate change scenarios, is poorly understood. To determine the fate of the carbon stored in these hydrates, we performed simulations of oceanic gas hydrate accumulations subjected to temperature changes at the seafloor and assessed the potential for methane release into the ocean. Our modeling analysis considered the properties of benthic sediments, the saturation and distribution of the hydrates, the ocean depth, the initial seafloor temperature, and for the first time, estimated the effect of benthic biogeochemical activity. The results show that shallow deposits--such as those found in arctic regions or in the Gulf of Mexico--can undergo rapid dissociation and produce significant methane fluxes of 2 to 13 mol/yr/m{sup 2} over a period of decades, and release up to 1,100 mol of methane per m{sup 2} of seafloor in a century. These fluxes may exceed the ability of the seafloor environment (via anaerobic oxidation of methane) to consume the released methane or sequester the carbon. These results will provide a source term to regional or global climate models in order to assess the coupling of gas hydrate deposits to changes in the global climate.

  14. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  15. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed. Similarly, if a fire were to break out anywhere in the D-ZERO Hall, fire sensors would stop the output of all flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed, by unpowering electrically controlled solenoid valves that are normally closed in the event of a power failure. Fire sensor contacts have not yet been installed.

  16. Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godazgar, Hadi; Krueger, Olaf; Nicolai, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.

  17. Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadi Godazgar; Mahdi Godazgar; Olaf Krueger; Hermann Nicolai

    2015-07-28

    We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.

  18. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  19. HFBR handbook, 1992: High flux beam reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axe, J.D.; Greenberg, R.

    1992-10-01

    Welcome to the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), one of the world premier neutron research facilities. This manual is intended primarily to acquaint outside users (and new Brookhaven staff members) with (almost) everything they need to know to work at the HFBR and to help make the stay at Brookhaven pleasant as well as profitable. Safety Training Programs to comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) mandates are in progress at BNL. There are several safety training requirements which must be met before users can obtain unescorted access to the HFBR. The Reactor Division has prepared specific safety training manuals which are to be sent to experimenters well in advance of their expected arrival at BNL to conduct experiments. Please familiarize yourself with this material and carefully pay strict attention to all the safety and security procedures that are in force at the HFBR. Not only your safety, but the continued operation of the facility, depends upon compliance.

  20. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2012-02-21

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  1. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  2. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  3. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  4. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  5. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  6. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  7. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnets - U Machine Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  8. Magnetic pinning of flux lattice in superconducting-nanomagnet hybrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    of flux lattice in superconducting-nanomagnet hybrids D.This plays a key role in superconductor properties such as ?ingre- dients in superconductor based applications. The

  9. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current Source Inverters for HEVs and FCVs Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wireless Charging Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

  10. Ising interaction between capacitively-coupled superconducting flux qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiko Satoh; Yuichiro Matsuzaki; Kosuke Kakuyanagi; Koichi Semba; Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Shiro Saito

    2015-01-30

    Here, we propose a scheme to generate a controllable Ising interaction between superconducting flux qubits. Existing schemes rely on inducting couplings to realize Ising interactions between flux qubits, and the interaction strength is controlled by an applied magnetic field On the other hand, we have found a way to generate an interaction between the flux qubits via capacitive couplings. This has an advantage in individual addressability, because we can control the interaction strength by changing an applied voltage that can be easily localized. This is a crucial step toward the realizing superconducting flux qubit quantum computation.

  11. Developing the Theory of Flux Limits from $?$-Ray Cascades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John A. Cairns

    2007-05-18

    Dark matter annihilation and other processes may precipitate a flux of diffuse ultra-high energy $\\gamma$-rays. These $\\gamma$-rays may be observable in present day experiments which observe diffuse fluxes at the GeV scale. Yet the universe is presently opaque to $\\gamma$-rays above 10 TeV. It is generally assumed that cascade radiation is observable at all high energies, however the disparity in energy from production to observation has important consequences for theoretical flux limits. We detail the physics of cascade radiation development and consider the influence of energy and redshift scale on arbitrary flux limits that result from electromagnetic cascade.

  12. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Machine without Permanent Magnets John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles...

  13. Limits on the Transient Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Flux from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) Derived from RICE Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Besson; S. Razzaque; J. Adams; P. Harris

    2006-07-24

    We present limits on ultra-high energy (UHE; E(nu)>1 PeV) neutrino fluxes from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), based on recently presented data, limits, and simulations from the RICE experiment. We use data from five recorded transients with sufficient photon spectral shape and redshift information to derive an expected neutrino flux, assuming that the observed photons are linked to neutrino production through pion decay via the well-known 'Waxman-Bahcall' prescription. Knowing the declination of the observed burst, as well as the RICE sensitivity as a function of polar angle and the previously published non-observation of any neutrino events allows an estimate of the sensitivity to a given neutrino flux. Although several orders of magnitude weaker than the expected fluxes, our GRB neutrino flux limits are nevertheless the first in the PeV--EeV energy regime. For completeness, we also provide a listing of other bursts, recorded at times when the RICE experiment was active, but requiring some assumptions regarding luminosity and redshift to permit estimates of the neutrino flux.

  14. Natural Gas Discovery and Development Impacts on Rio Vista and Its Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gbedema, Tometi Koku

    2006-01-01

    rich in such resources, like oil and gas, have encounteredDivision of Oil and Gas, Geothermal Resources, Sacramento,and natural resource commission on oil and gas activity

  15. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    in unconventional production. Estimates of methane emissions from activities on producing oil and gas sites in unconventional oil and gas production is beinDirect measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania Mary

  16. Formation of tungsten coatings by gas tunnel type plasma spraying Akira Kobayashia,*, Shahram Sharafatb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Formation of tungsten coatings by gas tunnel type plasma spraying Akira Kobayashia,*, Shahram deposited as a coating, it can protect the substrate surface from high heat flux. In this study, tungsten (W) sprayed coatings were formed on stainless steel substrates by gas tunnel type plasma spraying at a short

  17. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy and Fuels, 17(RECOVERY AND NATURAL GAS STORAGE Curtis M. Oldenburg Eartheffective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at

  18. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  19. Infinite volume limit for the dipole gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Dimock

    2009-04-28

    We consider a classical dipole gas in with low activity and show that the pressure has a limit as the volume goes to infinity. The result is obtained by a renormalization group analysis of the model.

  20. Separative power of an optimised concurrent gas centrifuge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogovalov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The problem of separation of uranium isotopes in a concurrent gas centrifuge is solved analytically. Separative power of the optimized concurrent gas centrifuges equals to $\\delta U=12.7(V/700~{\\rm m/s})^2 (300 ~{\\rm K}/T)L, ~{\\rm kg ~SWU/yr}$, where $L$ and $V$ are the length and linear velocity of the rotor of the gas centrifuge, $T$ is the temperature. This formula well agrees with an empirical separative power of counter current gas centrifuges. The optimal value of the separative power is not unique on the plane $(p_w,v_z)$, where $p_w$ is pressure at the wall of the rotor and $v_z$ is axial velocity of the gas. This value is constant on a line defined by the equation $p_wv_z=constant$. Equations defining the mass flux and the electric power necessary to support the rotation of the gas centrifuge are obtained.

  1. Heat-flux measurements for the rotor of a full-stage turbine: Part I - Time-averaged results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, M.G.

    1986-07-01

    This paper describes time-average heat-flux distributions obtained for the blade of a Garrett TFE 731-2 hp full stage rotating turbine. Blade measurements were obtained both with and without injection. The injected gas was supplied from a separate reservoir and was directed into the turbine gas path via nozzle guide vane (NGV) pressure surface slots located at approximately 63 percent of the wetted distance. Blade heat-flux measurements were performed fro two different injection gas temperatures, T/sub c/T/sub o/ = 0.53 and T/sub c/T/sub o/ - 0.82. A shock tube is used as a short-duration source of heated air to which the turbine is subjected and thin-film gages are used to obtain the heat-flux measurements. Results are presented along the blade in the flow direction at 10, 50, and 90 percent span for both the pressure and suction surfaces. A sufficient number of measurements were obtained to also present spanwise distributions. At approximately the 50 percent span location, two contoured inserts containing closely spaced gages were installed in the blade so that the leading-edge region distribution could be resolved in detail. The blade results are compared with predictions obtained using a flat-plate technique and with predictions obtained using a version of STAN 5.

  2. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  3. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  4. Wood density in forests of Brazil's `arc of deforestation': Implications for biomass and flux of carbon from land-use change in Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camara, Gilberto

    Wood density in forests of Brazil's `arc of deforestation': Implications for biomass and flux form 25 April 2007; accepted 29 April 2007 Abstract Wood density is an important variable in estimates of forest biomass and greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. The mean wood density used in estimates

  5. Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 49, No. 322, pp. 871878, May 1998 Responses of sap flux and stomatal conductance of Pinus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Ram

    March 1997; Accepted 3 December 1997 Abstract and other hydraulic parameters. Increased gas exchange-intolerant, pioneer species common in studied (Welter, 1989). Transpiration rate per unit leaf the south-eastern USA. Sap flux was measured with area and g s have generally been found to increase with constant heat sap

  6. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  7. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Welhan, Et Al., 1988) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  8. Upgrading scientific capabilities at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, C.D.; Farrar, M.B.

    1997-07-14

    Following termination of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project, a program of upgrades to the Department of Energy`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was devised by a team of researchers and reactor operators and has been proposed to the department. HFIR is a multipurpose research reactor, commissioned in 1965, with missions in four nationally important areas: isotope production, especially transuranic isotopes; neutron scattering; neutron activation analysis; and irradiation testing of materials. For neutron scattering, there are two major enhancements and several smaller ones. The first is the installation of a small, hydrogen cold neutron source in one of the four existing beam tubes: because of the high reactor power, and the use of new design concepts developed for ANS, the cold source will be as bright as, or brighter than, the Institute Laue Langevin liquid deuterium vertical cold source, although space limitations mean that there will be far fewer cold beams and instruments at HFIR. This project is underway, and the cold source is expected to come on line following an extended shutdown in 1999 to replace the reactor`s beryllium reflector. The second major change proposed would put five thermal neutron guides at an existing beam port and construct a new guide hall to accommodate instruments on these very intense beams.

  9. Planet Hunters X. KIC 8462852 - Where's the Flux?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyajian, T S; Rappaport, S A; Fabrycky, D; Fischer, D A; Gandolfi, D; Kennedy, G M; Liu, M C; Moor, A; Olah, K; Vida, K; Wyatt, M C; Best, W M J; Ciesla, F; Csak, B; Dupuy, T J; Handler, G; Heng, K; Korhonen, H; Kovacs, J; Kozakis, T; Kriskovics, L; Schmitt, J R; Szabo, Gy; Szabo, R; Wang, J; Goodman, S; Hoekstra, A; Jek, K J

    2015-01-01

    Over the duration of the Kepler mission, KIC 8462852 was observed to undergo irregularly shaped, aperiodic dips in flux down to below the 20% level. The dipping activity can last for between 5 and 80 days. We characterize the object with high-resolution spectroscopy, spectral energy distribution fitting, and Fourier analyses of the Kepler light curve. We determine thatKIC 8462852 is a main-sequence F3 V/IV star, with a rotation period ~0.88 d, that exhibits no significant IR excess. In this paper, we describe various scenarios to explain the mysterious events in the Kepler light curve, most of which have problems explaining the data in hand. By considering the observational constraints on dust clumps orbiting a normal main-sequence star, we conclude that the scenario most consistent with the data is the passage of a family of exocomet fragments, all of which are associated with a single previous breakup event. We discuss the necessity of future observations to help interpret the system.

  10. Hydrocarbon anomaly in soil gas as near-surface expressions of upflows and outflows in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, H.L.; Higashihara, M.; Klusman, R.W.; Voorhees, K.J.; Pudjianto, R.; Ong, J

    1996-01-24

    A variety of hydrocarbons, C1 - C12, have been found in volcanic gases (fumarolic) and in geothermal waters and gases. The hydrocarbons are thought to have come from products of pyrolysis of kerogen in sedimentary rocks or they could be fed into the geothermal system by the recharging waters which may contain dissolved hydrocarbons or hydrocarbons extracted by the waters from the rocks. In the hot geothermal zone, 300°+ C, many of these hydrocarbons are in their critical state. It is thought that they move upwards due to buoyancy and flux up with the upflowing geothermal fluids in the upflow zones together with the magmatic gases. Permeability which could be provided by faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures are thought to provide pathways for the upward flux. A sensitive technique (Petrex) utilizing passive integrative adsorption of the hydrocarbons in soil gas on activated charcoal followed by desorption and analysis of the hydrocarbons by direct introduction mass spectrometry allows mapping of the anomalous areas. Surveys for geothermal resources conducted in Japan and in Indonesia show that the hydrocarbon anomaly occur over known fields and over areas strongly suspected of geothermal potential. The hydrocarbons found and identified were n-paraffins (C7-C9) and aromatics (C7-C8). Detection of permeable, i.e. active or open faults, parts of older faults which have been reactivated, e.g. by younger intersecting faults, and the area surrounding these faulted and permeable region is possible. The mechanism leading to the appearance of the hydrocarbon in the soil gas over upflow zones of the geothermal reservoir is proposed. The paraffins seems to be better pathfinders for the location of upflows than the aromatics. However the aromatics may, under certain circumstances, give better indications of the direction of the outflow of the geothermal system. It is thought that an upflow zone can be defined when conditions exist where the recharging waters containing the hydrocarbons feed into the geothermal kitchen. The existence of open and active faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures allow sufficient permeability for the gases to flux up and express themselves at the surface as hydrocarbon anomaly in the soil gas. When any of the requirements is absent, i.e. in the absence of the recharging waters, hydrocarbons, temperature, or permeability, no anomaly can be expected. It assumes a dynamic convective system, i.e. recharging waters, upflow and outflow. The anomalies however can define to a certain extent, regions of geothermal upflow, buoyant transport of gases, and frequently down-gradient of cooling waters.

  11. Magnetic flux concentrations from turbulent stratified convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Käpylä, P J; Kleeorin, N; Käpylä, M J; Rogachevskii, I

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) Context: The mechanisms that cause the formation of sunspots are still unclear. Aims: We study the self-organisation of initially uniform sub-equipartition magnetic fields by highly stratified turbulent convection. Methods: We perform simulations of magnetoconvection in Cartesian domains that are $8.5$-$24$ Mm deep and $34$-$96$ Mm wide. We impose either a vertical or a horizontal uniform magnetic field in a convection-driven turbulent flow. Results: We find that super-equipartition magnetic flux concentrations are formed near the surface with domain depths of $12.5$ and $24$ Mm. The size of the concentrations increases as the box size increases and the largest structures ($20$ Mm horizontally) are obtained in the 24 Mm deep models. The field strength in the concentrations is in the range of $3$-$5$ kG. The concentrations grow approximately linearly in time. The effective magnetic pressure measured in the simulations is positive near the surface and negative in the bulk of the convection zone. Its ...

  12. Wave momentum flux parameter: a descriptor for nearshore waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Wave momentum flux parameter: a descriptor for nearshore waves Steven A. Hughes* US Army Engineer Available online 7 October 2004 Abstract A new parameter representing the maximum depth-integrated wave momentum flux occurring over a wave length is proposed for characterizing the wave contribution

  13. Heat flux carried by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current mean flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    Heat flux carried by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current mean flow Che Sun Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA Received 18 of historical hydrographic data is applied to study the heat flux problem in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

  14. Definitions of Clear-sky Fluxes and Implications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, Abhishek

    2012-02-14

    .2 Clear-sky Fluxes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2. SATELLITE-INFERRED CLEAR-SKY FLUXES : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 2.1 CERES Instrument : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 2.1.1 CERES... observation systems such as satellite system, radiosonde, solar panels etc. and simulation results from model generated scenarios including climate-model, reanalysis with assimilation system, radiative transfer models, to name a few, have helped...

  15. SpecNet Revisited: Bridging Flux and Remote Sensing Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coburn, Craig

    as a Working Group in 2003 with the goals of integrating remote sensing with biosphere-atmosphere carbon flux-effective technologies, improving the light-use efficiency model of carbon dioxide flux, consideration of view gases in addition to carbon dioxide, adoption of standardized and automated field sensors and sampling

  16. High flux heat transfer in a target environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Valid for: Consider turbulent heat transfer in a 1.5mm diameter pipe ­ Dittus Boelter correlationHigh flux heat transfer in a target environment T. Davenne High Power Targets Group Rutherford · Radiation Cooling · Forced Convection · Nucleate Boiling · Critical Heat Flux · Other ideas · Summary #12

  17. Flux-induced Isometry Gauging in Heterotic Strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Gao, Peng

    2007-01-05

    We study the effect of flux-induced isometry gauging of the scalar manifold in N = 2 heterotic string compactification with gauge fluxes. We show that a vanishing theorem by Witten provides the protection mechanism. The other ungauged isometries in hyper moduli space could also be protected, depending on the gauge bundle structure. We also discuss the related issue in IIB setting.

  18. www.sfei.org/rmp SEDIMENT FLUX to and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    www.sfei.org/rmp SEDIMENT FLUX to and from LOWER SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO BAY Sediment enters South San, the first to examine flux of suspended- sediment between the main basin of South Bay and Lower South Bay from other Bay segments could be a significant source of sediment for the salt-marsh restoration

  19. Carbon fluxes and storage in forests and landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    , as they store 45 % of the terrestrial carbon and account for ~50 % of soil calbon sequestration (Bonan 2008Chapter 6 Carbon fluxes and storage in forests and landscapes Jiquan Chen, Ranjeet John, Ge Sun this chapter with a discussion of the major carbon fluxes (e.g., gross primary ploductlon, ecosystem

  20. EVALUATION OF PARAMETERIZED SURFACE FLUXES WITH ARM OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EVALUATION OF PARAMETERIZED SURFACE FLUXES WITH ARM OBSERVATIONS G. Liu, Y. Liu, T. Toto, M. Jensen advantage of the long-term observations of surface fluxes collected by the DOE ARM program at the Great the ARM measurements based on the EC (Eddy- Correlation) and EBBR (Energy Balance Bowen Ratio) methods

  1. Anomaly-free representations of the holonomy-flux algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SangChul Yoon

    2008-09-07

    We work on the uniqueness, gr-qc/0504147, of representations of the holonomy-flux algebra in loop quantum gravity. We argue that for analytic diffeomorphisms, the flux operators can be only constants as functions on the configuration space in representations with no anomaly, which are zero in the standard representation.

  2. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, K.L. (ed.)

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  3. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  4. Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall sales to commercial and industrial customers ­ Natural gas, power, oil · Power generation ­ FossilMMBtuEquivalent Wellhead Gas Price, $/MMBtu Monthly US Spot Oil Price, $/MMBtu* U.S. Crude Oil vs. Natural Gas Prices, 2005

  5. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  6. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian MacDonald

    2011-05-31

    A multi-disciplinary investigation of distribution and magnitude of methane fluxes from seafloor gas hydrate deposits in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted based on results obtained from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and from sampling conducted during a research expedition to three sites where gas hydrate occurs (MC118, GC600, and GC185). Samples of sediments, water, and air were collected from the ship and from an ROV submersible using sediments cores, niskin bottles attached to the ROV and to a rosette, and an automated sea-air interface collector. The SAR images were used to quantify the magnitude and distribution of natural oil and gas seeps that produced perennial oil slicks on the ocean surface. A total of 176 SAR images were processed using a texture classifying neural network algorithm, which segmented the ocean surface into oil-free and oil-covered water. Geostatistical analysis indicates that there are a total of 1081 seep formations distributed over the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Oil-covered water comprised an average of 780.0 sq. km (sd 86.03) distributed with an area of 147,370 sq. km. Persistent oil and gas seeps were also detected with SAR sampling on other ocean margins located in the Black Sea, western coast of Africa, and offshore Pakistan. Analysis of sediment cores from all three sites show profiles of sulfate, sulfide, calcium and alkalinity that indicated anaerobic oxidation of methane with precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Difference among the three sampling sites may reflect the relative magnitude of methane flux. Methane concentrations in water column samples collected by ROV and rosette deployments from MC118 ranged from {approx}33,000 nM at the seafloor to {approx}12 nM in the mixed layer with isolated peaks up to {approx}13,670 nM coincident with the top of the gas hydrate stability field. Average plume methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the mixed layer are 7, 630, and 9,540 times saturation, respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, ?){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting ?{sup ?} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of ?–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known ?–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of ?{sup ?} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  8. Buoyancy flux, turbulence, and the gas transfer coefficient in a stratified lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    covariance estimates of k600 compare well with predictions of k600 using a surface renewal model based, is associated with a positive b, and is not considered in windbased models. The surface renewal model, which can the importance of lakes in carbon budgets [Cole et al., 2007], the surface renewal model has rarely been applied

  9. Variability of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jordan F.; Washburn, Libe; Schwager Emery, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    and Yayanos 1992). The Coal Oil Point seep field has beenfive large seeps from the Coal Oil Point seep field (Santahydrocarbons including oil, to the atmosphere and ocean. How

  10. Variability of Gas Composition and Flux Intensity in Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, J F; Schwager, Katherine; Washburn, Libe

    2005-01-01

    Observations from the Coal Oil Point Seep Field. Geo- MarineSeeps Offshore of Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California.Master Thesis. Fischer, P. J. 1978. Oil and tar seeps, Santa

  11. Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (CHsub 4), nitrous oxide (Nsub 2O), ammonia (NHsub 3) and nitric oxide (NO). Global climate models predict that future climatic change is likely to alter the frequency and...

  12. ``Designing Lagrangian experiments to measure regional-scale trace gas fluxes''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, John Chun-Han

    are incorporated into planning of Lagrangian experiments using statistics of wind errors derived by comparison]. Evaporation controls the Earth's surface energy and hydrological balance, as well as the dynamics to resource limitations and logistical difficulties. Spaceborne sensors cover regional to global scales

  13. Variability of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jordan F.; Washburn, Libe; Schwager Emery, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    and the fallout plume of heavy oil from strong petroleumCH 4 ) and other heavy hydrocarbons including oil, to the

  14. Variability of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jordan F.; Washburn, Libe; Schwager Emery, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    in natural marine hydrocarbon seeps Jordan F. Clark & Libeenters, and CO 2 and hydrocarbon gases leave the bubbles.Introduction Natural hydrocarbon seeps are important

  15. Gas Flux Sampling At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kolker, Et Al., 2010) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin County,Evans,4)

  16. Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin County,Evans,4)Black

  17. Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin

  18. Gas Flux Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Iovenitti, Et Al., 2013)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin| Open Energy

  19. Gas Flux Sampling At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin| Open

  20. Gas Flux Sampling At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin| OpenEnergy

  1. Gas Flux Sampling At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin| OpenEnergyKawaihae

  2. Gas Flux Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin|

  3. Gas Flux Sampling At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin|Information

  4. Gas Flux Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources JumpGarfieldGarvin|InformationEnergy

  5. Gas Flux Sampling At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy Resources

  6. Gas Flux Sampling At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation,

  7. Gas Flux Sampling At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to:

  8. Gas Flux Sampling At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP) Jump

  9. Gas Flux Sampling At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP) JumpInformation

  10. Gas Flux Sampling At Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP)

  11. Gas Flux Sampling At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP)Energy Information

  12. Gas Flux Sampling At Steamboat Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: Energy ResourcesMaui Area (DOE GTP)Energy

  13. Gas Flux Sampling At Brady Hot Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXA Corp. (Delaware)GalvestonWind Jump to:GaryOpen

  14. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Bergfeld, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXA Corp. (Delaware)GalvestonWind Jump

  15. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lewicki, Et Al.,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXA Corp. (Delaware)GalvestonWind Jump2008) | Open

  16. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  17. EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC Why it Matters: Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is considered to be...

  18. The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

    2003-05-20

    A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

  19. Thermal Evaporation of Gas from X-ray Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham Loeb

    2006-09-18

    A fraction of the thermal protons in the outer envelope of an X-ray cluster have velocities that exceed the local escape speed from the cluster gravitational potential. The Coulomb mean-free-path of these protons is larger than the virial radius of the cluster at temperatures >2.5 keV. The resulting leakage of suprathermal particles generates a collisionless shock in neighboring voids and fills them with heat and magnetic fields. The momentum flux of suprathermal particles cannot be confined by magnetic tension at the typical field strength in the periphery of cluster halos (heat is deposited into the gas by cluster mergers, active galactic nuclei or supernovae. Thermal evaporation is not included in existing cosmological simulations since they are based on the fluid approximation. Measurements of the baryon mass fraction in the outer envelopes of hot clusters (through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or X-ray emission) can be used to empirically constrain their evaporation rate.

  20. Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...

  1. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  2. Future of Natural Gas

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts *...

  3. Gas Kick Mechanistic Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubairy, Raheel

    2014-04-18

    Gas kicks occur during drilling when the formation pressure is greater than the wellbore pressure causing influx of gas into the wellbore. Uncontrolled gas kicks could result in blowout of the rig causing major financial ...

  4. Gas-phase chemistry dominates O3 loss to a forest, implying a source of aerosols and hydroxyl radicals to the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Gas-phase chemistry dominates O3 loss to a forest, implying a source of aerosols and hydroxyl into its major loss pathways; stomatal uptake, non-stomatal surface deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. Total O3 flux was dominated by gas-phase chemistry during the summer and by stomatal uptake during

  5. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  6. Benchmarking gyrokinetic simulations in a toroidal flux-tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Parker, S. E.; Wan, W. [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Bravenec, R. [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)] [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A flux-tube model is implemented in the global turbulence code GEM [Y. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 220, 839 (2007)] in order to facilitate benchmarking with Eulerian codes. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. The initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ?B, etc.) to be equal to the values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. This implementation shows disagreement with Eulerian codes in linear simulations. An alternative flux-tube model based on a complete local equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation [J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 105009 (2009)] is then implemented. This results in better agreement between Eulerian codes and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The PIC algorithm based on the v{sub ||}-formalism [J. Reynders, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1992] and the gyrokinetic ion/fluid electron hybrid model with kinetic electron closure [Y. Chan and S. E. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 18, 055703 (2011)] are also implemented in the flux-tube geometry and compared with the direct method for both the ion temperature gradient driven modes and the kinetic ballooning modes.

  7. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, B/252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Shimizu, Toshifumi [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp

    2009-05-20

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  8. Colour flux-tubes in static Pentaquark systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Bicudo; Nuno Cardoso; Marco Cardoso

    2011-11-01

    The colour fields created by the static tetraquark and pentaquark systems are computed in quenched SU(3) lattice QCD, with gauge invariant lattice operators, in a 24^3 x 48 lattice at beta=6.2 . We generate our quenched configurations with GPUs, and detail the respective benchmanrks in different SU(N) groups. While at smaller distances the coulomb potential is expected to dominate, at larger distances it is expected that fundamental flux tubes, similar to the flux-tube between a quark and an antiquark, emerge and confine the quarks. In order to minimize the potential the fundamental flux tubes should connect at 120o angles. We compute the square of the colour fields utilizing plaquettes, and locate the static sources with generalized Wilson loops and with APE smearing. The tetraquark system is well described by a double-Y-shaped flux-tube, with two Steiner points, but when quark-antiquark pairs are close enough the two junctions collapse and we have an X-shaped flux-tube, with one Steiner point. The pentaquark system is well described by a three-Y-shaped flux-tube where the three flux the junctions are Steiner points.

  9. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  10. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  11. Materials Compatibility and Aging for Flux and Cleaner Combinations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, Kim; Piatt, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

  12. Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, Clark L. (Greeley, CO); Pitts, John Roland (Lakewood, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Hale, Mary Jane (Golden, CO); Bingham, Carl E. (Denver, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

  13. RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

  14. Gas & Galaxy Evolution ASP Conference Series, Vol. **VOLUME**, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Andrew J.

    Gas & Galaxy Evolution ASP Conference Series, Vol. **VOLUME**, 2000 J. E. Hibbard, M. P. Rupen and J. H. van Gorkom, eds. Molecular Gas Kinematics in Nearby Active Galaxies Andrew J. Baker MPI f the OVRO millimeter array, we have mapped the molecular gas in eight nearby Seyfert and LINER galaxies at 1

  15. Energy flux fluctuations in a finite volume of turbulent flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh Bandi; Walter Goldburg; John Cressman Jr.; Alain Pumir

    2006-07-19

    The flux of turbulent kinetic energy from large to small spatial scales is measured in a small domain B of varying size R. The probability distribution function of the flux is obtained using a time-local version of Kolmogorov's four-fifths law. The measurements, made at a moderate Reynolds number, show frequent events where the flux is backscattered from small to large scales, their frequency increasing as R is decreased. The observations are corroborated by a numerical simulation based on the motion of many particles and on an explicit form of the eddy damping.

  16. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  17. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  18. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen production from natural gas, sequestration ofunderground storage of natural gas, Jour. Petrol. Tech. 943,dioxide as cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy and

  19. Observations of Diurnal to Weekly Variations of Monoterpene-Dominated Fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds from Mediterranean Forests: Implications for Regional Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fares, Silvano; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Xiaoyan, Jiang; Guenther, Alex B.; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco

    2013-09-04

    Most vascular plants species, especially trees, emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Global estimates of BVOC emissions from plants range from 1 to 1.5 Pg C yr?1.1 Mediterranean forest trees have been described as high BVOC emitters, with emission depending primarily on light and temperature, and therefore being promoted by the warm Mediterranean climate. In the presence of sufficient sunlight and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the oxidation of BVOCs can lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas with detrimental effects on plant health, crop yields, and human health. BVOCs are also precursors for aerosol formation, accounting for a significant fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in the atmosphere. The presidential Estate of Castelporziano covers an area of about 6000 ha located 25 km SW from the center of Rome, Italy (Figure 1) and hosts representative forest ecosystems typical of Mediterranean areas: holm oak forests, pine forests, dune vegetation, mixed oak and pine forests. Between 1995 and 2011, three intensive field campaigns were carried out on Mediterranean-type ecosystems inside the Estate. These campaigns were aimed at measuring BVOC emissions and environmental parameters, to improve formulation of basal emission factors (BEFs), that is, standardized emissions at 30 °C and 1000 ?mol m?2s?1 of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). BEFs are key input parameters of emission models. The first campaign in Castelporziano was a pioneering integrated study on biogenic emissions (1993? 19964). BVOC fluxes from different forest ecosystems were mainly investigated using plant- and leaf enclosures connected to adsorption tubes followed by GC?MS analysis in the laboratory. This allowed a first screening of Mediterranean species with respect to their BVOC emission potential, environmental control, and emission algorithms. In particular, deciduous oak species revealed high isoprene emissions (Quercus f rainetto, Quercus petrea, Quercus pubescens), while evergreen oaks emitted monoterpenes only, for example, Quercus ilex = holm oak. Differences in constitutive emission patterns discovered in Castelporziano supplied basic information to discriminate oak biodiversity in following studies.Ten years later, a second experimental campaign took place in spring and summer 2007 on a dune-shrubland experimental site. In this campaign, the use of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS14) provided the fast BVOC observations necessary for quasi-real-time flux measurements using Disjunct Eddy Covariance. This allowed for the first time continuous measurements and BEFs calculation at canopy level. Finally, in September 2011 a third campaign was performed with the aim of further characterizing and improving estimates of BVOC fluxes from mixed Mediterranean forests dominated by a mixed holm oak and stone pine forest, using for the first time a proton transfer reaction?time-of-flight?mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). In contrast to the standard quadrupole PTR-MS, which can only measure one m/z ratio at a discrete time, thus being inadequate to quantify fluxes of more than a handful of compounds simultaneously, PTR-TOF-MS allowed simultaneous measurements (10 Hz) of fluxes of all BVOCs at the canopy level by Eddy Covariance.17?20, 50 In this work, we reviewed BEFs from previous campaigns in Castelporziano and calculated new BEFs from the campaign based on PTR-TOF-MS analysis. The new BEFs were used to parametrize the model of emissions of gases and aerosols from nature (MEGAN v2.11).

  20. Model of critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiori, Mario P.

    1968-01-01

    The physical phenomenon occurring before and at the critical heat flux (CHF) for subcooled flow boiling has been investigated. The first phase of this study established the basic nature of the flow structure at CHF. A ...