Sample records for activity cost benefit

  1. WVU Personal Rapid Transit Benefit Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    WVU Personal Rapid Transit Benefit Cost Analysis Morgantown, West Virginia Prepared For: West.......................................................................................... 15 Travel Time Value - Understanding Travel Time Costs................................................. 15 Travel Time Value - Understanding Travel Time Costs

  2. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  3. The Practice of Cost Benefit Analysis in the Transport Sector...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Practice of Cost Benefit Analysis in the Transport Sector a Mexican Perspective Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Practice of Cost Benefit Analysis in...

  4. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  5. NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs and Benefits Comments of the NW Energy Coalition October 31, 2014 Introduction: Applying (Council) to include a methodology for determining quantifiable environmental costs and benefits in its

  6. Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits and Costs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies" Workshop Now Available Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits...

  7. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  8. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6476E 1 Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses, Lin, G, Piette, MA. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefits, and best practice

  9. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation J.M.Logue1,P Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation LBNL-4945E Disclaimer This document.H. Sherman, B.C. Singer, Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

  10. THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF A PUBLIC OPTION IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF A PUBLIC OPTION IN HEALTH CARE REFORM: An Economic Analysis Ethan Kaplan on Health, Economic & Family Security #12;i Berkeley Center on Health, Economic & Family Security|The Costs Security|The Costs and Benefits of a Public Option in Health Care Reform: An Economic Analysis EXECUTIVE

  11. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Carl Imhoff, PNNL More Documents & Publications Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Day 1 Presentations Estimating the...

  12. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Presentations Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Day 1 Presentations On September 30 and October 1, 2014, the Department of Energy...

  13. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2014, the Department of Energy hosted a 2-day workshop on "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies." The purpose of the workshop was to foster...

  14. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program Presentation Superior Energy Performance logo Nine companies certified under the U.S....

  15. Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  16. Measuring the Costs and Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Costs and Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat Pump Deployment and The Potential Employment, Energy, and Environmental Impacts of...

  17. Measuring the Costs and Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Costs and Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat Pump Deployment and The Potential Employment, Energy, and Environmental Impacts of Direct...

  18. Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posner, Eric; Masur, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Eric A. Posner, Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-effects of environmental regulations for other industries.Paper Collection.   Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-

  19. Measuring the Costs & Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measuring the Costs & Benefits of Nationwide Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP) Deployment ­ A Progress to measure the costs and benefits of nationwide geothermal heat pump (GHP) deployment. · First market study to quantify the entire GHP chain ­ Manufacturing ­ Design ­ Installation · GHPsRUS is short for "geothermal

  20. Real time sensors in geothermal fluids: their costs and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, G.A.; Shannon, D.W.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A summary of the PNL effort, a background discussion on geothermal power plants, and a discussion of several cases where problems were identified and in some cases prevented are included. Cost factors, savings, and benefits-costs to the sponsor are summarized and brief conclusions concerning the benefits of having real time instrumentation installed in the power plant are characterized.

  1. Costs and benefits of robust optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    result concerning costs for robust linear optimization under convex uncertainty. In ... In [3], a stability analysis of robust optimization for linear problems under ...

  2. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granderson, Jessica

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practicesystems (EIS): Technology costs, benefits, and best practicesystems: 1. What are the technology costs of an EIS? 2. What

  3. Cost and benefit of energy efficient buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wenying, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A common misconception among developers and policy-makers is that "sustainable buildings" may not be financially justified. However, this report strives to show that building green is cost-effective and does make financial ...

  4. Benefit-cost assessment of aviation environmental policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Christopher K. (Christopher Kenneth)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis aids in the development of a framework in which to conduct global benefit-cost assessments of aviation policies. Current policy analysis tools, such as the aviation environmental portfolio management tool (APMT), ...

  5. Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    ]. And understanding benefits--``ecosystem services'' such as flood control from wetlands and carbon sequestration from, existence value, and carbon storage in aboveground biomass) and compared them to estimates over this relatively small (;3,000 km2 ) landscape. Benefits exceeded costs in some areas, with carbon

  6. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  7. Stakeholders and their respective costs-benefits in IR evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Paul

    on investment, and productivity). Delone and McLean (1992) attempted to consolidate the work on evaluation that both benefits and costs have to be taken into account to decide on the success of an information system. In this position paper, we advocate a consumers' guide to systems that aim at supporting information seeking tasks

  8. Crafting Platform Strategy based on Anticipated Benefits and Costs1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Chapter 2 Crafting Platform Strategy based on Anticipated Benefits and Costs1 Bruce G. Cameron, with a view to creating long-term competitive advantage for the firm. 2.1 Introduction Platforming industrial products. Example include Volkswagen's MQB platform (including VW Golf, Audi A3, and Seat Octavia

  9. Costs and benefits of railway urban logistics: a prospective social cost benefit analysis Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - economic cost benefit analysis. Firstly, we propose an overview on the basic notions of CBA and SCBA researchers and practitioners and incite them to develop such practices (usage of SCBA in urban logistics of this paper is to propose a SCBA-based analysis framework for strategic scenario assessment in the context

  10. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment.

  11. Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis ­ Congestion Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute congestion is considered one of the most significant transportation problems. The capacity of a road depends, Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering, 13th Edition, Institute of Transportation Studies, UBC (Berkeley; www

  12. Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approval of Its Amended Renewable Energy Plan. June 3, 2013.Benefits of Complying with Renewable Portfolio Standards:The Costs and Benefits of Renewable Resource Procurement in

  13. Depth of manual dismantling analysis: A cost–benefit approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achillas, Ch., E-mail: c.achillas@ihu.edu.gr [School of Economics and Business Administration, International Hellenic University, 14th km Thessaloniki-Moudania, 57001 Thermi (Greece); Aidonis, D. [Department of Logistics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Branch of Katerini, 60100 Katerini (Greece); Vlachokostas, Ch.; Karagiannidis, A.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Loulos, V. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Box 483, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? A mathematical modeling tool for OEMs. ? The tool can be used by OEMs, recyclers of electr(on)ic equipment or WEEE management systems’ regulators. ? The tool makes use of cost–benefit analysis in order to determine the optimal depth of product disassembly. ? The reusable materials and the quantity of metals and plastics recycled can be quantified in an easy-to-comprehend manner. - Abstract: This paper presents a decision support tool for manufacturers and recyclers towards end-of-life strategies for waste electrical and electronic equipment. A mathematical formulation based on the cost benefit analysis concept is herein analytically described in order to determine the parts and/or components of an obsolete product that should be either non-destructively recovered for reuse or be recycled. The framework optimally determines the depth of disassembly for a given product, taking into account economic considerations. On this basis, it embeds all relevant cost elements to be included in the decision-making process, such as recovered materials and (depreciated) parts/components, labor costs, energy consumption, equipment depreciation, quality control and warehousing. This tool can be part of the strategic decision-making process in order to maximize profitability or minimize end-of-life management costs. A case study to demonstrate the models’ applicability is presented for a typical electronic product in terms of structure and material composition. Taking into account the market values of the pilot product’s components, the manual disassembly is proven profitable with the marginal revenues from recovered reusable materials to be estimated at 2.93–23.06 €, depending on the level of disassembly.

  14. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  15. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents a cost-benefit of analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology, including potential petroleum use reduction.

  16. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

    2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

  17. A cost/benefit model for insertion of technological innovation into a total quality management program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratliff, William L

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    justify quality improvement. The results of this study provide process-level engineers with a cost/benefit model template, which can be used to cost justify technological improvement based upon total quality costs....

  18. The Intangible Costs and Benefits of Computer Investments: Evidence from the Financial Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Intangible Costs and Benefits of Computer Investments: Evidence from the Financial Markets Erik for computer capital in firm-level productivity studies. Costly investments in software, training the intangible costs and benefits of computer capital and we present several new empirical results based

  19. Intangible Value Page 1 The Intangible Benefits and Costs of Computer Investments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intangible Value Page 1 The Intangible Benefits and Costs of Computer Investments: Evidence from the financial market valuation of firms can be used to estimate the intangible costs and benefits of computer for computers in this study as well as the excess returns found for computer capital in other studies. Costly

  20. HIGH SPEED RAIL COSTS, BENEFITS, AND FINANCING RAYMOND H. ELLIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Corridor PHASE 1 ­ TAMPA TO ORLANDO #12;FLORIDA TAMPA ­ ORLANDO (PHASE 1) HSR CAPITAL COST · Estimated Incremental Capital Cost Capital Cost Year of (Billions (Billions Completion Expenditure Section 2010$) 2010$) of Section Capital Cost #12;CALIFORNIA HIGH SPEED RAIL PHASE 1 CAPITAL COSTS SECTION INCREMENTAL CAPITAL

  1. Benefits to BPA will equal or exceed costs for the Extended Block...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to BPA associated with the DSI Service. Tangible benefits include avoided transmission costs to BPA's power marketing function that would otherwise be incurred absent the sales to...

  2. Environmental Constraints on Hydropower: An Ex Post Benefit-Cost Analysis of Dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    Environmental Constraints on Hydropower: An Ex Post Benefit-Cost Analysis of Dam Relicensing Consumers Protection Act (1986), which instructs federal regulators to ``balance'' hydropower

  3. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  4. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  5. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  6. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  7. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee; Sabouini, Ridah; Evans, Tracy

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial companies are seeking to manage energy consumption and costs, mitigate risks associated with energy, and introduce transparency into reports of their energy performance achievements. Forty industrial facilities are participating in the U.S. DOE supported Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program in which facilities implement an energy management system based on the ISO 50001 standard, and pursue third-party verification of their energy performance improvements. SEP certification provides industrial facilities recognition for implementing a consistent, rigorous, internationally recognized business process for continually improving energy performance and achievement of established energy performance improvement targets. This paper focuses on the business value of SEP and ISO 50001, providing an assessment of the costs and benefits associated with SEP implementation at nine SEP-certified facilities across a variety of industrial sectors. These cost-benefit analyses are part of the U.S. DOE?s contribution to the Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP) partnership, a multi-country effort to demonstrate, using facility data, that energy management system implementation enables companies to improve their energy performance with a greater return on investment than business-as-usual (BAU) activity. To examine the business value of SEP certification, interviews were conducted with SEP-certified facilities. The costs of implementing the SEP program, including internal facility staff time, are described and a marginal payback of SEP certification has been determined. Additionally, more qualitative factors with regard to the business value and challenges related to SEP and ISO 50001 implementation are summarized.

  8. ACADEMIC RESEARCH: A HIGH-COST, LOW-BENEFITS BUSINESS Denis Besnard & Lindsay Marshall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACADEMIC RESEARCH: A HIGH-COST, LOW-BENEFITS BUSINESS Denis Besnard & Lindsay Marshall School is a critical insider's look at the world of academic research. It has been written by one researcher and one, to the benefit of whom, and at what cost. 1. The absurdity of scientific publications Writing articles and having

  9. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  10. Optimization Online - Costs and benefits of robust optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralf Werner

    2010-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 13, 2010 ... Abstract: In this exposition the robust counterpart approach by Ben-Tal, El Ghaoui and Nemirovski is investigated with respect to its costs and ...

  11. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Policy Impacts Website: eetd.lbl.goveaempreportslbnl-3833e.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentbenefits-and-costs-aggressiv...

  12. Quality Cost Analysis: Benefits and Risks Copyright Cem Kaner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    managers."1 Joseph Juran, one of the world's leading quality theorists, has been advocating the analysis. "Quality Costs" in Juran, J.M. & Gryna, F. M. (1988, 4th Ed.), Juran's Quality Control Handbook, Mc Gryna, F. M. "Quality Costs" in Juran, J.M. & Gryna, F. M. (1988, 4th Ed.), Juran's Quality Control

  13. On the Benefits of Transparent Compression for Cost-Effective Cloud Data Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On the Benefits of Transparent Compression for Cost-Effective Cloud Data Storage Bogdan Nicolae of IaaS middleware: excessive storage costs associated with both user data and VM images might make-off resulting from transparently applying data compression to conserve storage space and bandwidth at the cost

  14. Economics of Online Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbines: Cost Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Economics of Online Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbines: Cost Benefit Analysis Jeremy Van monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O cost of energy (LCOE) [1]. The costs required to keep wind turbines working in extreme temperatures

  15. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  16. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  17. Costs and benefits of maternally derived immunity in a game bird system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the costs and benefits of maternal allocation to both mother and offspring in gamebirds, specifically ring necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) and the Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis). ...

  18. Evaluating the costs and benefits of increased funding for public transportation in Chicago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Mark L., 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) off-peak ridership, is at or slightly below break-even with respect to net benefits if the CTA cost structure and tax source of subsidy remains unchanged. In order to justify any significant additional long-term ...

  19. A practical method for incorporating Real Options analysis into US federal benefit-cost analysis procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivey, Darren

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research identifies how Real Options (RO) thinking might acceptably and effectively complement the current mandates for Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in Circular A-94. ...

  20. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Geothermal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technologies R&D Program Investments Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies R&D Program Investments: Impacts of a Cluster of Energy...

  1. Distributed Generation versus Centralised Supply: a Social Cost-Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulli, Francesco

    2004-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation versus Centralised Supply: a Social Cost-Benefit Analysis Francesco Gullě* Istituto di Economia e Politica dell’Energia e dell’Ambiente (Iefe). Universitŕ Bocconi, Milano July 2003 1. Introduction #1; The restructuring and privatisation...

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, A.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comparison of vehicle purchase and energy costs, and fuel-saving benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles relative to hybrid electric and conventional vehicles.

  3. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT FOR MONTEVIDEO; AND WASTE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,000 hours per year), that is, a total of 640,000 tons of solid wastes per year. Montevideo, in 20101 COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT FOR MONTEVIDEO; AND WASTE TO ENERGY IN SMALL-benefit analysis by the author of a waste to energy (WTE) plant in Montevideo, Uruguay; the second part

  4. Hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.D.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen fuel and vehicles are assessed and compared to other alternative fuels and vehicles. The cost, efficiency, and emissions of hydrogen storage, delivery, and use in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are estimated. Hydrogen made thermochemically from natural gas and electrolytically from a range of electricity mixes is examined. Hydrogen produced at central plants and delivered by truck is compared to hydrogen produced on-site at filling stations, fleet refueling centers, and residences. The impacts of hydrogen HEVs, fueled using these pathways, are compared to ultra-low emissions gasoline internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs), advanced battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and HEVs using gasoline or natural gas.

  5. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Indexing Big Data with Map-Reduce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arampatzis, Avi

    proposed implementation of inverted index construction using Map-Reduce. In Section V we attempt a costA Cost-Benefit Analysis of Indexing Big Data with Map-Reduce Dimitrios Siafarikas Argyrios. We consider the problem of Inverted Index construction which is widely used in Information Retrieval

  6. Defining groundwater remediation objectives with cost-1 benefit analysis: does it work?2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Defining groundwater remediation objectives with cost-1 benefit analysis: does it work?2 3 J at the local (site) level. This paper questions whether12 CBA is relevant for evaluating groundwater management the cost of groundwater14 protection and remediation measures at the regional (water body) level. It also

  7. A Framework for the Evaluation of the Cost and Benefits of Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Greg Young; Abbey, Chad; Joos, Geza; Marnay, Chris

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Microgrid is recognized as an innovative technology to help integrate renewables into distribution systems and to provide additional benefits to a variety of stakeholders, such as offsetting infrastructure investments and improving the reliability of the local system. However, these systems require additional investments for control infrastructure, and as such, additional costs and the anticipated benefits need to be quantified in order to determine whether the investment is economically feasible. This paper proposes a methodology for systematizing and representing benefits and their interrelationships based on the UML Use Case paradigm, which allows complex systems to be represented in a concise, elegant format. This methodology is demonstrated by determining the economic feasibility of a Microgrid and Distributed Generation installed on a typical Canadian rural distribution system model as a case study. The study attempts to minimize the cost of energy served to the community, considering the fixed costs associated with Microgrids and Distributed Generation, and suggests benefits to a variety of stakeholders.

  8. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, Jenny; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Weaver, Samantha; Flores, Francisco; Kuskova-Burns, Ksenia; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    More than half of U.S. states have renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in place and have collectively deployed approximately 46,000 MW of new renewable energy capacity through year-end 2012. Most of these policies have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS benefits and costs is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. A key aspect of this study is the comprehensive review of existing RPS cost and benefit estimates, in addition to an examination of the variety of methods used to calculate such estimates. Based on available data and estimates reported by utilities and regulators, this study summarizes RPS costs to date. The study considers how those costs may evolve going forward, given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms incorporated into existing policies. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states, and discusses key methodological considerations.

  9. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs, and benefits of EIS, many of these descriptions are idealized and often insufficient for potential users to evaluate cost, benefit and operational usefulness. LBNL has conducted a series of case studies of existing EIS and related technology installations. This study explored the following questions: (1) How is the EIS used in day-to-day operation? (2) What are the costs and benefits of an EIS? (3) Where do the energy savings come from? This paper reviews the process of these technologies from installation through energy management practice. The study is based on interviews with operators and energy managers who use EIS. Analysis of energy data trended by EIS and utility bills was also conducted to measure the benefit. This paper explores common uses and findings to identify energy savings attributable to EIS, and discusses non-energy benefits as well. This paper also addresses technologies related to EIS that have been demonstrated and evaluated by LBNL.

  10. Prioritizing JUnit Test Cases: An Empirical Assessment and Cost-Benefits Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothermel, Gregg

    Prioritizing JUnit Test Cases: An Empirical Assessment and Cost-Benefits Analysis Hyunsook Do - Lincoln {dohy,grother,akinneer}@cse.unl.edu August 2, 2005 Abstract Test case prioritization provides a way to run test cases with the highest priority earliest. Numerous empirical studies have shown

  11. Costs and Benefits of Flexibility in Spatial Division Circuit Switched Networks-on-Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jantsch, Axel

    Costs and Benefits of Flexibility in Spatial Division Circuit Switched Networks-on-Chip Ahsen Ejaz of flexibility based on SDM, on the performance of a CS networks. A network evaluation platform has been random bandwidth (BW) requirement, a less flexible network outperforms a network with higher flexibility

  12. Estimating costs and benefits of advanced control for wastewater treatment plants the MAgIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benchmarking; cost­benefit analysis; full-scale plant control; on-line process control; sensors Introduction plants. The effective coupling of the sensors to on-line control algorithms is now operational in 10 al., 2004). The methodology is designed such that the evaluation should be possible from existing

  13. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  14. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Data Processing Architectures for the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Data Processing Architectures for the Smart Grid Akshay Uttama Nambi S the full poten- tial of Smart Grid applications. Smart grids utilize ICT entities to enhance efficiency certain infor- mation management requirements has hindered large scale smart grid deployments

  15. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels Jason for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain inputs and more efficient conversion of feed- stocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum

  16. Costs and benefits of logistics pooling for urban freight distribution: scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Costs and benefits of logistics pooling for urban freight distribution: scenario simulation Collaborative transportation and logistics pooling are relatively new concepts in research, but are very popular in practice. In the last years, collaborative transportation seems a good city logistics alternative

  17. Examining the Costs and Benefits of Technology Pathways for Reducing Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Examining the Costs and Benefits of Technology Pathways for Reducing Fuel Use and Emissions from On policy harmonized Tax credits Anti-idling Low Carbon Fuel Standard #12;Lifecycle Emissions Modeled in TOP-HDV 5 Fuel production, refining, and distribution Material acquisition, processing, and vehicle assembly

  18. Methodological Approaches for Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Smart Grid Demonstration Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a comprehensive framework for estimating the benefits and costs of Smart Grid projects and a step-by-step approach for making these estimates. The framework identifies the basic categories of benefits, the beneficiaries of these benefits, and the Smart Grid functionalities that lead to different benefits and proposes ways to estimate these benefits, including their monetization. The report covers cost-effectiveness evaluation, uncertainty, and issues in estimating baseline conditions against which a project would be compared. The report also suggests metrics suitable for describing principal characteristics of a modern Smart Grid to which a project can contribute. This first section of the report presents background information on the motivation for the report and its purpose. Section 2 introduces the methodological framework, focusing on the definition of benefits and a sequential, logical process for estimating them. Beginning with the Smart Grid technologies and functions of a project, it maps these functions to the benefits they produce. Section 3 provides a hypothetical example to illustrate the approach. Section 4 describes each of the 10 steps in the approach. Section 5 covers issues related to estimating benefits of the Smart Grid. Section 6 summarizes the next steps. The methods developed in this study will help improve future estimates - both retrospective and prospective - of the benefits of Smart Grid investments. These benefits, including those to consumers, society in general, and utilities, can then be weighed against the investments. Such methods would be useful in total resource cost tests and in societal versions of such tests. As such, the report will be of interest not only to electric utilities, but also to a broad constituency of stakeholders. Significant aspects of the methodology were used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop its methods for estimating the benefits and costs of its renewable and distributed systems integration demonstration projects as well as its Smart Grid Investment Grant projects and demonstration projects funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The goal of this report, which was cofunded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and DOE, is to present a comprehensive set of methods for estimating the benefits and costs of Smart Grid projects. By publishing this report, EPRI seeks to contribute to the development of methods that will establish the benefits associated with investments in Smart Grid technologies. EPRI does not endorse the contents of this report or make any representations as to the accuracy and appropriateness of its contents. The purpose of this report is to present a methodological framework that will provide a standardized approach for estimating the benefits and costs of Smart Grid demonstration projects. The framework also has broader application to larger projects, such as those funded under the ARRA. Moreover, with additional development, it will provide the means for extrapolating the results of pilots and trials to at-scale investments in Smart Grid technologies. The framework was developed by a panel whose members provided a broad range of expertise.

  19. Benefits and Costs of Improved IEQ in U.S. Offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Black, Douglas; Brunner, Gregory

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper estimates some of the benefits and costs of implementing scenarios that improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in the stock of U.S. office buildings. The scenarios include increasing ventilation rates when they are below 10 or 15 L/s per person, adding outdoor-air economizers and controls when absent, eliminating winter indoor temperatures greater than 23 oC, and reducing dampness and mold problems. The estimated benefits of the scenarios analyzed are substantial in magnitude, including increased work performance, reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, reduced absence, and improved thermal comfort for millions of office workers. The combined potential annual economic benefit of a set ofnon-overlapping scenarios is approximately $20 billion. While the quantitative estimates have a high uncertainty, the opportunity for substantial benefits is clear. Some IEQ improvement measures will save energy while improving health or productivity, and implementing these measures should be the highest priority.

  20. Benefits and costs of load management: a technical assistance and resource material handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Ronald; Ackerman, Gary; Lau, Ronald; Patmore, James; Ma, Fred; Sechan, Neil; Schoor, Alan; Simon, Lois; Bleiweis, Bruce; Lloyd, Kevin

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This handbook will assist state regulatory authorities and electric utilities in complying with the Load Management Standard of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The handbook has two major sections. The first discusses load-management techniques in terms of equipment, customer applications, combinations of techniques, etc. Key steps for evaluating the costs and benefits of load management options also are presented. These steps are intended to sequentially eliminate ineffective load-management options as the cost-benefit calculation becomes more detailed. The second section includes up-to-date information on available load-management technologies, models for utility costing, load-management data transfer, prescreening of load-management options, and the load-management literature.

  1. Benefits and costs of brine extraction for increasing injection efficiency in geologic CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additional wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in injection rate over the no-extraction base case. However, the practical impacts on capital costs suggest that this strategy is fiscally ineffective when evaluated solely on this metric, with extraction reducing injection well needs by only one per 56 (1x case) or one per 13 (4x case).

  2. Ownership Unbuilding in Electricity Markets - A Social Cost Benefit Analysis of the German TSO'S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunekreeft, Gert

    system operators in electricity and gas is proposed.2 This paper presents a comprehensive social cost benefit analysis (SCBA) of ownership unbundling of electricity TSOs in Germany. We restrict the analysis to the German case for two reasons; firstly... this seems to be the current focus of the European debate and secondly simply to constrain the calculations and data requirement. The main insights are more general, however, and with due caution, may be carried over to other countries as well. The SCBA...

  3. The Welfare Implications of Oil Privatisation: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Norway's Statoil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, C; Pollitt, Michael G.

    of corporate performance and efficiency, and to consider the welfare of all relevant stakeholders including consumers, government and employees. To do so, SCBA contrasts t he factual scenario (what happened?) with a plausible counterfactual (what would have... in 2001, and to investigate the distribution of costs and benefits among government, producers and consumers. Statoil is a suitable case study within the oil and gas industry – its corporate performance improvement during privatisation was below...

  4. To Apply or Not to Apply: A Survey Analysis of Grant Writing Costs and Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Hippel, Ted

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants a...

  5. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak Load Shifting & Spinning Reserves: Cost Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract In this paper, we present the results of an analytical cost-benefit study of residential smart appliances in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the EPA and DOE to provide a 5% credit to meet ENERGY STAR eligibility criteria for products that meet the definition of a smart appliance. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the challenges associated with increased electricity demand, and increased penetration of renewable sources of power. Our analytical model utilizes current annual appliance electricity consumption data, and estimates what the wholesale grid operating cost savings would be if some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads serve power system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. Historical wholesale market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States are used to estimate savings. The savings are then compared with the five percent credit, to determine if the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as the credit (cost) if not higher.

  6. Costs and benefits from utility-funded commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the costs and savings of commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings. A total of 46 EEMs were commissioned for all 16 buildings and 73 deficiencies were corrected. On average, commissioning was marginally cost effective on energy savings alone, although the results were mixed among all 16 buildings. When considered as a stand-alone measure, the median simple payback time of 6.5 years under the low energy prices in the Pacific Northwest. Under national average prices the median payback time is about three years. In estimating the present value of the energy savings from commissioning we considered low and high lifetimes for the persistence of savings from deficiency corrections. Under the low- lifetime case the average present value of the energy savings ($0. 21/ft{sup 2}) were about equal to the average commissioning costs ($0. 23/ft{sup 2}). Under the high-lifetime case the savings ($0.51/ft{sup 2}) were about twice the costs. Again, the savings would be about twice as large under national average prices. The results are subject to significant uncertainty because of the small sample size and lack of metered data in the evaluation. However, the findings suggest that investments in commissioning pay off. Building owners want buildings that work as intended, and are comfortable, healthy, and efficient. It is likely that the non-energy benefits, which are difficult to quantify, are larger than the energy-savings benefits.

  7. To appear in the Journal of Engineering Education, October 2001 Teaching with ALN Technology: Benefits and Costs *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Benefits and Costs * * Supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation educational and cost effectiveness are presented. Even with higher course standards for success, student, with mostly positive (but some negative) effects. Data concerning cost effectiveness indicate

  8. A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

  9. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  10. Estimation of Highway Maintenance Marginal Cost under Multiple Maintenance Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anani, Shadi B.; Madanat, Samer M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marginal costs for road maintenance and operation - a cost2010-01) Estimation of Highway Maintenance Marginal Costunder Multiple Maintenance Activities Shadi B. Anani and

  11. A cost-benefit approach to youth vocational training schemes in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuanyin, Emmanuel Bol

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capital Formation 1n Africa III YOUTH VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHEMES IV COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS: AS A TOOL Formalae for Project Choice Net Present Value Internal Rate of Return (IRR) The IRR Versus the Present Value The Social Rate of Discount Risk... for evalu- at1ng both public and private investments. It is a tool for accessing quantitatively the economic merits of alternat1ve courses of action. The mer1ts are defined in terms of the relationship between the economic bene- fits obtained...

  12. Benefit-cost analysis of water importation to the Texas High Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Brenda Richardson

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Texas Canal. Because of the physical and engineer- ing feasibility of this canal, it would be used for diversion from either the Mississippi or Arkansas water surplus areas (U. S. Army Corps of Engineers). As shown in table 4, 80 percent (or 823, 726, 800... of Department) December 1979 ABSTRACT Benefit-Cost Analysis of Water Importation to the Texas High Plains (December 1979) Brenda Richardson Wilson, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of the Advisory Committee: Dr. Bruce Beattie The political...

  13. The Children’s Hospital X Project: A Case Study in Benefit and Cost Analysis of a Lean-IPD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ai, Di

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean processes have been utilized in healthcare design and construction, bringing both benefits and costs to the owners of healthcare projects. It is important to understand and detect the benefits and costs associated with lean processes, because...

  14. Examining Mentor Enactment Theory from the Mentor's Perspective: Creating Cost and Benefit Scales to Predict Maintenance Usage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grill, Kristine Marie

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to advance theory concerning the mentor's perspective as well as theory concerning how communication is used to maintain mentoring relationships, this research created relationship-focused scales to measure the costs and benefits...

  15. activity based costing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 5 Le Time Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC): "New Wine, or Just New Bottles?" Physics Websites Summary: Le Time Driven Activity Based...

  16. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  17. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granderson, Jessica

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Case Investigations Technology Costs Up-front Costs:in the study to address technology costs EIS Energy and CostAppendix C: EIS Technology Costs This appendix contains a

  18. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  19. A reliability cost-benefit analysis for HVDC transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuruganty, P.R.S. (Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, Manitoba (CA)); Woodford, D.A. (Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba (CA))

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major portion of Manitoba Hydro's generation is located in the North on the Nelson River. The lower Nelson River generation is brought into the load centre in Southern Manitoba through an HVDC transmission system consisting of two bipoles, the first rated at 1680 MW at the rectifier and the second at 2000 MW. This paper presents the methodology used in arriving at the optimum Bipole 3 size using a reliability cost-benefit analysis. The analysis considers the forced outages of the generation and transmission systems using system outage statistics. The generator and valve group maintenance and the reduction in capability of thyristor valve groups during the summer season were also incorporated in the analysis. The load model used in the study was based on system data for the period 1980-1984. The criterion used in choosing the Bipole 3 size is to optimize the present worth value of the annual energy curtailment due to the HVDC system forced outages and the incremental installation cost of the transmission as the capacity of Bipole 3 is increased. The optimum Bipole 3 size based on the study is 2200 MW. This value is significantly lower than that based on a pole spare criterion used in the earlier development of the HVDC system. Finally, the need for validation of the outage data in evaluating future HVDC projects and the need for data collection and classification is indicated.

  20. Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon (2013).Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatorytechnical-update-social-cost-of-carbon-for-regulator-

  1. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heeter, Jenny

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon (2013).Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatorytechnical-update-social-cost-of-carbon- for-regulator-

  2. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compares the relative costs, benefits, and implications of capturing the value of renewable energy tax benefits in these three different ways – applying them against outside income , carrying them forward in time until they can be fully absorbed internally, or monetizing them through third-party tax equity investors – to see which method is most competitive under various scenarios. It finds that under current law and late-2013 market conditions, monetization makes sense for all but the most tax-efficient project sponsors. In other words, for most project sponsors, bringing in third-party tax equity currently provides net benefits to a project.

  3. A cost and benefit analysis of future end-of-life vehicle glazing recycling in France: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and aluminum, and not minor wastes such as glazing (Gerrard and Kandlikar 2007). The new recycling target (95 and polluted with organic material. The treatment and recycling of glass does however become difficult1 A cost and benefit analysis of future end-of- life vehicle glazing recycling in France

  4. Toward More Comprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity Restructuring Policies: A Review of Recent Benefit-Cost Studies of RTOs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Hale, Douglas R.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Definitive assessment of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission policies on regional transmission organizations is not currently possible because of uncertainties in the data and methods used in recent benefit-cost studies as well as lack of investigation of key impacts of the formation of RTOs. (author)

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O'Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  6. Valuing Rail Transit: Comparing Capital and Operating Costs to Consumer Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years gives an annual capital cost estimate of $321 million,further adjust the capital cost estimates for these systemscosts. In order to estimate capital costs for five systems

  7. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, given the higher cost per KWh for electricity, aaverage cost of electrical energy per kilowatt-hour (kWh) is

  8. Energy cost and muscular activity required for propulsion during walking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kram, Rodger

    Energy cost and muscular activity required for propulsion during walking Jinger S. Gottschall Kram. Energy cost and muscular activity required for propulsion during walk- ing. J Appl Physiol 94 there was a positive linear relationship between a horizontal impeding force and energy expen- diture. Using a wind

  9. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost Effectiveness Investment cost Demonstration in salad2015 Cost Effectiveness Investment cost Type of cost Change2015 Cost Effectiveness Investment cost Type of cost Change

  10. Performance and cost benefits associated with nonimaging secondary concentrators used in point-focus dish solar thermal applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using nonimaging secondary concentrators in point-focus applications may permit the development of more cost-effective concentrator systems by either improving performance or reducing costs. Secondaries may also increase design flexibility. The major objective of this study was to develop as complete an understanding as possible of the quantitative performance and cost effects associated with deploying nonimaging secondary concentrators at the focal zone of point-focus solar thermal concentrators. A performance model was developed that uses a Monte Carlo ray-trace procedure to determine the focal plane distribution of a paraboloidal primary as a function of optical parameters. It then calculates the corresponding optimized concentration and thermal efficiency as a function of temperature with and without the secondary. To examine the potential cost benefits associated with secondaries, a preliminary model for the rational optimization of performance versus cost trade-offs was developed. This model suggests a possible 10% to 20% reduction in the cost of delivered energy when secondaries are used. This is a lower limit, and the benefits may even be greater if using a secondary permits the development of inexpensive primary technologies for which the performance would not otherwise be viable. 20 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The Costs And Benefits Of Telecommuting: An Evaluation Of Macro-scale Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafizadeh, K.; Niemeier, D.; Mokhtarian, P.; Salomon, I.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public Sector Public Infrastructure Environmental Impacts Energy Consumptionpublic-sector benefits are clearly the focus. Public infrastructure, environmental impacts, and energy consumption

  12. A cost/benefit model for insertion of technological innovation into a total quality management program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratliff, William L

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for measuring quality improvement is the cost of quality. Traditionally, comprehensive quality cost reports have regularly been issued in a fixed format to identify opportunities for improvement and provide guidelines for improvement over time. However, current...

  13. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report compares the costs, benefits, and implications of capturing the value of renewable energy tax incentives in three different ways – applying them against outside income, carrying them forward in time until they can be absorbed internally, or monetizing them through third-party tax equity investors – to see which method is most competitive under various scenarios. It finds that under late-2013 market conditions, monetization makes sense for all but the most tax-efficient project sponsors. Under a variety of plausible future policy scenarios relevant to wind and solar projects, however, the benefit of monetization no longer outweighs the high cost of tax equity, and it makes more sense for sponsors – even those without tax appetite – to use tax benefits internally rather than to monetize them. These findings have implications for how wind and solar projects are likely to be financed in the future, which, in turn, influences their LCOE. For example, under these scenarios, many wind and solar projects would likely forego tax equity in favor of cheaper sources of capital. This shift to lower-cost capital would, in turn, partially mitigate any negative impact on LCOE resulting from the policy change itself (e.g., in the case of tax credit expiration).

  14. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation KEMA-XENERGY.2004.Offermann, F. J.2009. Ventilation and indoor air quality intowards meeting residential ventilation needs. Berkeley, CA,

  15. Plug-in Hybrid Modeling and Application: Cost/Benefit Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, A.

    2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents data from a simulation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle efficiency and cost, including baseline vehicle assumptions, powertrain technology scenarios, and component modeling.

  16. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  17. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heeter, Jenny

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the inception of this RPS, black liquor gasification hasprimary source of RECs; black liquor typically costs lesspart of the main tier, black liquor represented 33% of the

  18. Activity Based Costing - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC. g4301-1chp24.pdf -- PDF Document, 11 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

  19. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of aircraft design for environment using a fleet perspective and real options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hynes, Christopher Dennis

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) approaches do not examine the costs associated with damage due to environmental factors and are usually implemented to examine one aircraft. The Environmental Design ...

  1. Utilizing an encroachment probability benefit-cost model to estimate accident reduction factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Carolyn A

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving safety on Texas roadways is a major public concern. Over the years, the Texas Department of Transportation and other highway agencies have become interested in reducing society's accident cost while maximizing returns on accident...

  2. Case Studies of Energy Information Systems and Related Technology: Operational Practices, Costs, and Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motegi, N.; Piette, M. A.; Kinney, S.; Dewey, J.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs...

  3. Copyright C 2009 by J. Nickel, A.M. Ross, and D.H. Rhodes Trading Project Costs and Benefits in Multi-Attribute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    1 Copyright C 2009 by J. Nickel, A.M. Ross, and D.H. Rhodes Trading Project Costs and Benefits in Multi-Attribute Tradespace Exploration Julia Nickel1 , Adam M. Ross2 and Donna H. Rhodes3 1

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis to Address Runaway Health Care Expenditures Through Lifestyle Modification Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the United States has been increasing at an annual rate of 9.8%, faster than the cost of living, since 1970 classify as being overweight or obese, representing 68% of the United States population. This creates through establishing and maintaining the proper energy balance between caloric intake and physical

  5. Review of Conservation Costs and Benefits: Five Years of Experience under the Northwest Power Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheets, E.

    as a resource and that all resources be evaluated against uniform criteria to determine the lowest cost mix of resources to meet the Northwest’s energy needs. Since the passage of the Act, the total regional expenditure on conservation by the federal...

  6. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  7. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  8. Benefits to BPA will equal or exceed costs for the Extended Block Contract with Port Townsend

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like3.3Benefits of Participating inFive-Month

  9. National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use inCost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculating the benefits and costs of water conservation orefficiency programs requires knowing the marginal cost of the water andwastewater saved by those programs. Developing an accurate picture of thepotential cost savings from water conservation requires knowing the costof the last few units of water consumed or wastewater released, becausethose are the units that would be saved by increased water efficiency.This report describes the data we obtained on water and wastewater ratesand costs, data gaps we identified, and other issues related to using thedata to estimate the cost savings that might accrue from waterconservation programs. We identified three water and wastewater ratesources. Of these, we recommend using Raftelis Financial Corporation(RFC) because it: a) has the most comprehensive national coverage; and b)provides greatest detail on rates to calculate marginal rates. The figurebelow shows the regional variation in water rates for a range ofconsumption blocks. Figure 1A Marginal Rates of Water Blocks by Regionfrom RFC 2004Water and wastewater rates are rising faster than the rateof inflation. For example, from 1996 to 2004 the average water rateincreased 39.5 percent, average wastewater rate increased 37.8 percent,the CPI (All Urban) increased 20.1 percent, and the CPI (Water andSewerage Maintenance) increased 31.1 percent. On average, annualincreases were 4.3 percent for water and 4.1 percent for wastewater,compared to 2.3 percent for the All Urban CPI and 3.7 percent for the CPIfor water and sewerage maintenance. If trends in rates for water andwastewater rates continue, water-efficient products will become morevaluable and more cost-effective.

  10. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads served power-system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. The rationale is that appliance loads can be curtailed for about ten minutes or less in response to a grid contingency without any diminution in the quality of service to the consumer. We then estimate the wholesale grid operating-cost savings based on historical wholesale-market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States. The savings derived from the smart grid capabilities of an appliance are then compared to the savings derived from a five percent increase in traditional operational machine efficiencies, referred to as cost in this report, to determine whether the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as or higher than the operational machine efficiency credit (cost).

  11. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  12. A critical evaluation of benefit-cost analysis of population control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purba, Oloan Hasiholan Saur

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of any income redistribu- tion effect [11]. Dr. Simons questions the adequacy of Enke's approach because it does not treat private and public costs appropriately [57]. The most interesting polemics arise between Professor Enke and Professor... market, and capital market are perfect. There is no risk or uncertainty about the future, so that social discount rate (time preference) perfectly reflects peoples' desires. 6. Buyers and sellers must be aware of prices throughout the economy. 7...

  13. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-494), Section 400EE, states that the Secretary of Energy ...shall study methanol plants, including the costs and practicability of such plants that are (A) capable of utilizing current domestic supplies of unutilized natural gas; (B) relocatable; or (C) suitable for natural gas to methanol conversion by natural gas distribution companies...'' The purpose of this report is to characterize unutilized gas within the lower 48 states and to perform an economic analysis of methanol plants required by the act. The approach with regard to unutilized lower 48 gas is to (1) compare the costs of converting such gas to methanol against the expected price of gasoline over the next 20 years, and (2) compare the economics of converting such gas to methanol against the economics of using the gas as a pipeline-transported fuel. This study concludes that remote gas and low-Btu gas generally cannot be converted to methanol at costs near the expected competitive value of gasoline because of the poor economies of scale of small methanol plants.

  14. A cost-benefit analysis of rural-urban migration decisions in less developed countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aste-Salazar, Juan Gerardo

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A COST-Bier'vlT ANAL&&! q O, ' RUR&M -URBAN M1 G -'-', ". ' !ON DECISIONS IN LESS DEUDLOl'ED COUNTRIES A. Thesis By JUAN GERARDO ASTL'-SALAZAR Submitted to the Graduate College of Tezas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...] suggests a method to obtain information on rural-urban dr:ift which xcay b. . used in government planning. TJ;ia thcois follows the format of Tha Azericen J:conom'~o B 0, '& . '. s;. '. migration has been examined by economists in the past, g and it has...

  15. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

  16. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by California Energy Commission (CEC) and managed by California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE). The project purpose is to characterize energy savings, technology costs, market potential, and economic viability of newly selected technologies applicable to California. In this report, LBNL first performed technology reviews to identify new or under-utilized technologies that could offer potential in improving energy efficiency and additional benefits to California industries as well as in the U.S. industries, followed by detailed technology assessment on each targeted technology, with a focus on California applications. A total of eleven emerging or underutilized technologies applicable to California were selected and characterized with detailed information in this report. The outcomes essentially include a multi-page summary profile for each of the 11 emerging or underutilized technologies applicable to California industries, based on the formats used in the technology characterization reports (Xu et al. 2010; Martin et al. 2000).

  17. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    projections of renewable technology cost, fossil fuel priceboth renewable technology costs and avoided fuel costs. Theof future renewable technology cost and performance would

  18. The independent verification process in decommissioning, decontamination, and reutilization activities - description, benefits, and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Technology Section has been performing Independent Verification (IV) activities for U.S. DOE sites since 1986. DOE has successfully used IV in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Decontamination and Decommissioning projects, and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Projects/Surplus Facilities Management Program. Projects that have undergone IV range from small residential properties to large, industrial sites. The IV process provides a third-party review conducted by an independent organization. The purpose is to verify accuracy and completeness of contractor field measurements and final documentation, evaluate the credibility of procedures, and independently assess post-cleanup conditions versus decommissioning project plans and release criteria. Document reviews of plans, dose models, procedures, and reports are some IV activities undertaken. Independent measurements are also collected during field visits to confirm the contractor`s findings. Corrective actions for discrepancies are suggested if necessary. Finally, archival and reporting of the final site environmental conditions for project closeout and certification are completed. The IV contractor reports to DOE headquarters and acts as a quality assurance feedback mechanism. An IV also provides additional assurance that projects are planned, carried out, and documented properly. Decommissioning projects benefit from the IV process by: (1) cost and time savings from early identification of potential problems, (2) assurance that cleanup meets regulatory guidelines, and (3) technical reviews and consultation with experts in field instrumentation, sampling strategy, etc. Some lessons learned from the IV process include avoiding: (1) improper survey techniques, (2) reporting data in units not comparable with guideline values, (3) premature release of surfaces, (4) poor decommissioning project planning, (5) misapplication of release guidelines. 20 refs.

  19. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  20. SOM ARRA Grant Activity Proposals Submitted as of 7-15-2010 Project Costs*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    SOM ARRA Grant Activity Proposals Submitted as of 7-15-2010 Project Costs* Total # of Proposals 1,264 Total Project Costs $1,093,036,719 Total Direct Costs $803,739,425 Total Indirects $290,408,131 Awards Received as of 2-11-2011 Project Costs* Year 1 Costs Total # of Awards 333 Total Project Costs $186

  1. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Benefits of Alternative Energy Efficiency Portfolios (and Benefits of Alternative Energy Efficiency Portfolios (Figure 7. Effects of Alternative Energy Efficiency Business

  2. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 7. Effects of Alternative Energy Efficiency Businessand Benefits of Alternative Energy Efficiency Portfolios (and Benefits of Alternative Energy Efficiency Portfolios (

  3. Benefit/cost framework for evaluating modular energy storage : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA)

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work documented in this report represents another step in the ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study uses updated cost and performance information for modular energy storage (MES) developed for this study to evaluate four prospective value propositions for MES. The four potentially attractive value propositions are defined by a combination of well-known benefits that are associated with electricity generation, delivery, and use. The value propositions evaluated are: (1) transportable MES for electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment upgrade deferral and for improving local power quality, each in alternating years, (2) improving local power quality only, in all years, (3) electric utility T&D deferral in year 1, followed by electricity price arbitrage in following years; plus a generation capacity credit in all years, and (4) electric utility end-user cost management during times when peak and critical peak pricing prevail.

  4. Examples of Benefits from the NEPA process for ARRA funded activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efforts to implement the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) include ensuring, and reporting on, timely NEPA reviews prepared in support of projects and activities funded under major provisions of ARRA. In addition to reporting on the status of the NEPA environmental reviews, agencies also report on the benefits of NEPA.

  5. Is it Worth it? A Comparative Analysis of Cost-Benefit Projections for State Renewables Portfolio Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to RPS generation requirements, wind cost assumptions arethe sudden leap in wind costs over the past two years, theespecially if higher wind costs persist. However, most, if

  6. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy savings, technology costs, market potential, andenergy savings, technology costs, market potential, andin this study. Normally, technology cost is quantified using

  7. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM{sub 2.5}). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO{sub x} and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles.

  8. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the cases examined in the study, the IRR lies between 14% and 18%, assuming a 25-year levelized world oil price of $50/bbl--the US Department of Energy's 2006 reference oil price projection. The IRRs would rise to as high as 35% if positive incremental environmental benefits associated with biorefinery products are monetized (e.g., if an excise tax credit for the liquid fuel is available comparable to the one that exists for ethanol in the United States today). Moreover, if future crude oil prices are higher ($78/bbl levelized price, the US Department of Energy's 2006 high oil price scenario projection, representing an extrapolation of mid-2006 price levels), the calculated IRR exceeds 45% in some cases when environmental attributes are also monetized. In addition to the economic benefits to kraft pulp/paper producers, biorefineries widely implemented at pulp mills in the U.S. would result in nationally-significant liquid fuel production levels, petroleum savings, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and criteria-pollutant reductions. These are quantified in this study. A fully-developed pulpmill biorefinery industry could be double or more the size of the current corn-ethanol industry in the United States in terms of annual liquid fuel production. Forest biomass resources are sufficient in the United States to sustainably support such a scale of forest biorefining in addition to the projected growth in pulp and paper production.

  9. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Heavy Haul Railway Track Upgrade for Safety and Efficiency X. Liu, M.R. Saat, C.P.L. Barkan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    1 Benefit-Cost Analysis of Heavy Haul Railway Track Upgrade for Safety and Efficiency X. Liu, M of train accident on North American heavy-haul railroads and reducing their occurrence and severity is an ongoing objective of both industry and government. Upgrading track quality is one possible derailment

  10. The value of a Pavement Management System (PMS) and the planning and cost-benefit tools it provides for decision making have long been recognized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    The value of a Pavement Management System (PMS) and the planning and cost-benefit tools it provides this scenario: as a DOT pavement and main- tenance engineer, you are faced with budgeting the maintenance to the Rutgers' Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) for help. Teams from CAIT's Pavement

  11. A Cost Benefit Analysis of a V2G-Capable Electric School Bus Compared to a Traditional Diesel School Bus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    A Cost Benefit Analysis of a V2G-Capable Electric School Bus Compared to a Traditional Diesel analysis of a V2G-capable electric school bus compared to a traditional diesel school bus. Applied Energy 19716 Abstract Fuel expenses, diesel exhaust health externalities, and climate change are concerns

  12. G. J. Lee, G. T. Heydt, "An interactive -dynamic mechanism conceptualizing the cost and benefit of electric power quality," Journal of Electric Power Components and Sys-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the proposed infrastructure. 1. Introduction With the deregulation of the electric power energy market of electric power quality," Journal of Electric Power Components and Sys- tems, accepted for publication, 2003. #12;An Interactive - Dynamic Mechanism Conceptualizing the Cost and Benefit of Electric Power Quality

  13. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impacts We converted other cost metrics to ˘/kWh retail ratePower System Operating Costs: Summary and Perspective onA. Bibliography of RPS Cost Studies Studies listed in

  14. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind Power Capital Cost Assumptions (Base-Case Analysis).27. Wind Power Capital Cost Assumptions (Base-Case Analysis)wind cost assumptions employed in most of the RPS analyses

  15. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    data, the highest capital cost estimate in the 2010-2015multiply initial capital cost estimates by up to a factor ofand projected wind capital cost estimates from EPRI/DOE

  16. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    levelized cost of energy (“LCOE”). Tax Equity Yield (after-power closer to achieving LCOE goals (and at no additionallevelized cost of energy (“LCOE”). 3. Model Descriptions and

  17. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or $100- 400 per kWh) at an installed cost of approximatelyinstalled cost of about $400 - $500 per kWh (approximately

  18. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Busbar Cost Data 47 Windanalysis. energy (wind, in particular), as well as the costrenewable energy (wind, in particular), as well as the cost

  19. activity-based cost analysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 6 Le Time Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC): "New Wine, or Just New Bottles?" Physics Websites Summary: Le Time Driven Activity Based...

  20. activity-based costing evaluation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 5 Le Time Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC): "New Wine, or Just New Bottles?" Physics Websites Summary: Le Time Driven Activity Based...

  1. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Benefits of Alternative Energy Efficiency Portfolios (Figure 7. Effects of Alternative Energy Efficiency BusinessMassachusetts pursues alternative energy efficiency goals: ~

  2. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  3. Environmental benefits and cost savings through market-based instruments : an application using state-level data from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Shreekant

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a methodology for estimating potential cost savings from the use of market-based instruments (MBIs) when local emissions and abatement cost data are not available. The paper provides estimates of the ...

  4. Is it Worth it? A Comparative Analysis of Cost-Benefit Projections for State Renewables Portfolio Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wind costs; the uncertainties involved with predicting these two inputs highlight the importance of performing scenario analysis.

  5. A Model and Case Study of the Impacts of Stochastic Capacity on Freeway Traffic Flow Benefits and Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    and Costs Alexander Bigazzi1 and Dr. Miguel Figliozzi2 1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering conditions with the accompanying heavy congestion costs. As the traffic volume at which flow breaks down is uncertain, this research utilizes a stochastic capacity model to estimate congestion costs in terms

  6. Project Functions and Activities Definitions for Total Project Cost

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides guidelines developed to define the obvious disparity of opinions and practices with regard to what exactly is included in total estimated cost (TEC) and total project cost (TPC).

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of the deep-draft dredging of coal ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, S.C.; Horwitch, M.; Bowman, E.H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study deals with the question of whether US society as a whole should invest in large-scale coal-port development. The analysis takes a total-system perspective with regard to costs and benefits. The analysis does not try to attribute the costs or benefits of dredging to the various parties involved in the coal trade. Rather, the analysis assumes that society, as a whole, will both pay the costs and receive the benefits from dredging. The study lends support to those recommending caution in approaching coal-port development. There was no justification for dredging all deep-draft options simultaneously. In fact, what is very clear is that the concurrent dredging of more than one port is unwise unless one supports the most-optimistic projections for coal-export demand or relatively low real interest rates over the long run. Moreover, under no condition examined does it make sense to dredge either of the Gulf ports - Mobile or New Orleans - before dredging Hampton Roads or Baltimore. 35 references, 30 tables.

  8. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula [Cogentus Consulting (United States)] [Cogentus Consulting (United States); Mathieson, John [NDA United Kingdom (United Kingdom)] [NDA United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Judd, Laurie [NuVision Engineering, Inc. (United States)] [NuVision Engineering, Inc. (United States); Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana [US DOE (United States)] [US DOE (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and the effective pooling and exchange of knowledge and experience can only be of benefit to all participants to help complete the cleanup mission more quickly and more cost effectively. This paper examines in detail the tools and processes used to promote information exchange and the progress made to date. It also discusses the challenges and issues involved and proposes recommendations to others who are involved in similar activities. (authors)

  9. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and maintenance support. Each product is briefly described in Appendix A. Selection of the most appropriate software package for a particular application will depend on the chosen component, system, or structure. Ongoing research will determine the most appropriate choices for a successful demonstration of PHM systems in aging NPPs.

  10. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wholesale electricity price projections as a model output.in natural gas prices projections over the past severalprojections of renewable technology cost, fossil fuel price

  11. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detailed wholesale electricity price projections as a modelelectricity bills, and renewable energy certificate (REC) prices. Developing a consistent set of metrics for comparing cost projections

  12. Extensive English Summary CPB Special Publication 57: Wind energy at the North Sea: A social Cost-benefit analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    uncertainties, such as developments in the price of CO2 emission rights through the climate policy, the supply of more favourable hypotheses with regard to cost reductions over time, higher fuel prices, higher CO2 production to (1) based on cost effectiveness in renewable electricity 3. Phased construction of 6,000 MW

  13. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Average Retail Electricity Rates.. 14 Projected RPS Electricity Rate Impacts by RPS Costaverage residential consumer’s monthly electricity bill. Figure 9 presents projected costaverage residential monthly electricity consumption figures from EIA (2004). 95 We converted annual cost

  14. Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faletti, D.W.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

  15. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies R&D Program Investments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 <Department of ii iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study has benefitted

  16. Wind Energy Benefits (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet outlines the top 10 benefits of wind energy, including cost, water savings, job creation, indigenous resource, and low operating costs.

  17. Cost, time, and benefit measures for personal use fuel-wood collection in Colorado. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betters, D.R.; Markstrom, D.C.; Aukerman, R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average fuel-wood collector is willing to pay, beyond current perceived costs, an additional $21 to $29 per cord in order to continue collecting fuel-wood. The difference between willingness-to-pay estimates for fuel-wood collection and for wood purchased from a commercial vendor is assumed to present recreational value of fuel-wood collection. On that basis, the recreation values for the average collection is estimated to be between $6 and $12 per cord.

  18. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased interest by state (and federal) policymakers and regulatory agencies in pursuing aggressive energy efficiency efforts could deliver significant utility bill savings for customers while having long-term implications for ratepayers (e.g. potential rate impacts). Equity and distributional concerns associated with the authorized recovery of energy efficiency program costs may necessitate the pursuit of alternative program funding approaches. In 2008, Massachusetts passed the Green Communities Act which directed its energy efficiency (EE) program administrators to obtain all cost-effective EE resources. This goal has translated into achieving annual electric energy savings equivalent to a 2.4% reduction in retail sales from energy efficiency programs in 2012. Representatives of electricity consumer groups supported the new portfolio of EE programs (and the projected bill savings) but raised concerns about the potential rate impacts associated with achieving such aggressive EE goals, leading policymakers to seek out alternative funding sources which can potentially mitigate these effects. Utility administrators have also raised concerns about under-recovery of fixed costs when aggressive energy efficiency programs are pursued and have proposed ratemaking policies (e.g. decoupling) and business models that better align the utility's financial interests with the state's energy efficiency public policy goals. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other states looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. We use a pro-forma utility financial model to quantify the bill and rate impacts on electricity customers when very aggressive annual energy efficiency savings goals ({approx}2.4%) are achieved over the long-term and also assess the impact of different cost recovery approaches that integrate alternative revenue sources. We also analyze alternative lost fixed cost recovery approaches to better understand how to mitigate the erosion of utility shareholder returns in states that have adopted (and achieved) very aggressive savings targets.

  19. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and their potential significance to energy use in the industries, and new evaluation of additional seven technologies. The re-assessments were essentially updated with recent information that we searched and collected from literature to the extent possible. The progress of selected technologies as they diffused into the marketplace from 2000 to 2010 was then discussed in this report. The report also includes updated detailed characterizations of 15 technologies studied in 2000, with comparisons noted.

  20. Sun Life Financial (Sun Life) Benefit Adjudication Effective December 1, 2008, Sun Life became the health and dental benefits carrier for active

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun Life Financial (Sun Life) Benefit Adjudication Effective December 1, 2008, Sun Life became to maintain the level of benefits coverage with Sun Life. Sun Life has identified a number of GWL practices not been processed by Sun Life The Pension & Benefits office was advised by GWL that they would process all

  1. To provide national and international leadership in research, outreach and education activities which enhances cost effective-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    activities which enhances cost effective- ness, construction productivity, environmental improvement Pipeline Performance Forecasting Using Neural Network Models · Analysis and Comparison of Traffic-Based Decision Matrix for Selection of Trenchless Technology Methods OBJECTIVES · Promote research in design

  2. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would stimulate wind technology cost reductions on theprojections of renewable technology costs, fossil fuel priceavailability. Renewable technology cost: Reflects changes to

  3. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New Jersey “high technology cost” scenario, which exceedsthan-expected solar technology costs would probably causeAvailability Renew able Technology Cost Fossil Fuel Price

  4. NHA-DOE Cost Shared Activities: Hydrogen Codes and Standards Outreach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    laboratories, code officials and code organizations to bring experts together in a focused activity to develop industry, academia, national and government laboratories, code officials, code organizations, and otherNHA-DOE Cost Shared Activities: Hydrogen Codes and Standards Outreach Karen Miller, Vice President

  5. Benefits at a Glance 2014 Benefit Year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    OF OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY BASIC BENEFITS OSU PAYS (Cost Per Month) EMPLOYEE PAYS (Cost Per Month) WHAT literature for detailed information. VISION PLAN VSP, Primary Vision Care, United Health Care, SuperiorStar Life OSU pays Basic Employee Life and Accidental Death & Dismemberment. Employee-Paid Supplemental

  6. UHF Solar Powered Active Oscillator Antenna on Low Cost Flexible Substrate for Wireless Identification Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    UHF Solar Powered Active Oscillator Antenna on Low Cost Flexible Substrate for Wireless nature of the circuit and providing operational autonomy by harvesting solar power without affecting, solar power harvesting. I. INTRODUCTION The increasing use of RFIDs and wireless sensor networks

  7. Measuring the bioenergetic cost of fish activity in situ using a globally dispersed radiotracer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, Joseph

    Measuring the bioenergetic cost of fish activity in situ using a globally dispersed radiotracer is an important component of the bioenergetic budget of fish, yet this parameter has rarely been quantified for wild populations. Using a 137 Cs mass balance approach, we estimated the annual bioenergetic budgets

  8. Breakthrough in platinum structures maintains high catalytic activity and could lead to reduced costs for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    costs for hydrogen fuel cells, which hold the promise of powering vehicles and buildings. Hydrogen fuel cells could power the vehicles of tomorrow. With platinum an essential catalyst in fuel cells-specific-activity catalysts that have shown good durability under potential cycling conditions. The NREL Fuel Cell Team starts

  9. Rights and Benefits of Reservists Called to Active Duty | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR -DepartmentRetail DemandEnergy RewardingKing

  10. IFMIF, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity cost report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rennich, M.J. [comp.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the cost estimate for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) at the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The estimate corresponds to the design documented in the Final IFMIF CDA Report. In order to effectively involve all the collaborating parties in the development of the estimate, a preparatory meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1996 to jointly establish guidelines to insure that the estimate was uniformly prepared while still permitting each country to use customary costing techniques. These guidelines are described in Section 4. A preliminary cost estimate was issued in July 1996 based on the results of the Second Design Integration Meeting, May 20--27, 1996 at JAERI, Tokai, Japan. This document served as the basis for the final costing and review efforts culminating in a final review during the Third IFMIF Design Integration Meeting, October 14--25, 1996, ENEA, Frascati, Italy. The present estimate is a baseline cost estimate which does not apply to a specific site. A revised cost estimate will be prepared following the assignment of both the site and all the facility responsibilities.

  11. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity due to Self-selection.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Paul T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    activity levels. The 95th percentile of BMI current showedlevels than the 5th percentile of BMI current in men (i.e. ,the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6- fold greater

  12. Quantitative Assessment of Distributed Energy Resource Benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, S.W.

    2003-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources (DER) offer many benefits, some of which are readily quantified. Other benefits, however, are less easily quantifiable because they may require site-specific information about the DER project or analysis of the electrical system to which the DER is connected. The purpose of this study is to provide analytical insight into several of the more difficult calculations, using the PJM power pool as an example. This power pool contains most of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware. The techniques used here could be applied elsewhere, and the insights from this work may encourage various stakeholders to more actively pursue DER markets or to reduce obstacles that prevent the full realization of its benefits. This report describes methodologies used to quantify each of the benefits listed in Table ES-1. These methodologies include bulk power pool analyses, regional and national marginal cost evaluations, as well as a more traditional cost-benefit approach for DER owners. The methodologies cannot however determine which stakeholder will receive the benefits; that must be determined by regulators and legislators, and can vary from one location to another.

  13. RAID0.5: Active Data Replication for Low Cost Disk Array Data Protection John A. Chandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    RAID0.5: Active Data Replication for Low Cost Disk Array Data Protection John A. Chandy Department-performance disk subsystems. However, reliability in RAID systems comes at the cost of extra disks. In this paper, we describe a mechanism that we have termed RAID0.5 that enables striped disks with very high data

  14. An abrupt stochastic damage function to analyse climate policy benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , such as the quantification of impacts at the local level, the effects of adaptation and mitigation activities, the definition-efficiency analysis to stochastic cost-benefit analysis. Early assessments highlighted that if the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) con- centration is to be stabilised at a level of 450 ppmv or below, economically optim

  15. Critical analysis of the Hanford spent nuclear fuel project activity based cost estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.N.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1997, the SNFP developed a baseline change request (BCR) and submitted it to DOE-RL for approval. The schedule was formally evaluated to have a 19% probability of success [Williams, 1998]. In December 1997, DOE-RL Manager John Wagoner approved the BCR contingent upon a subsequent independent review of the new baseline. The SNFP took several actions during the first quarter of 1998 to prepare for the independent review. The project developed the Estimating Requirements and Implementation Guide [DESH, 1998] and trained cost account managers (CAMS) and other personnel involved in the estimating process in activity-based cost (ABC) estimating techniques. The SNFP then applied ABC estimating techniques to develop the basis for the December Baseline (DB) and documented that basis in Basis of Estimate (BOE) books. These BOEs were provided to DOE in April 1998. DOE commissioned Professional Analysis, Inc. (PAI) to perform a critical analysis (CA) of the DB. PAI`s review formally began on April 13. PAI performed the CA, provided three sets of findings to the SNFP contractor, and initiated reconciliation meetings. During the course of PAI`s review, DOE directed the SNFP to develop a new baseline with a higher probability of success. The contractor transmitted the new baseline, which is referred to as the High Probability Baseline (HPB), to DOE on April 15, 1998 [Williams, 1998]. The HPB was estimated to approach a 90% confidence level on the start of fuel movement [Williams, 1998]. This high probability resulted in an increased cost and a schedule extension. To implement the new baseline, the contractor initiated 26 BCRs with supporting BOES. PAI`s scope was revised on April 28 to add reviewing the HPB and the associated BCRs and BOES.

  16. Understanding the complexity of the Lvy-walk nature of human mobility with a multi-scale cost/benefit model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    are searched in the urban area of the city of residence or in the urban area of specific nearby cities. We also by the American Institute of Physics. Related Articles A theory of energy cost and speed of climbing AIP Advances Stokesian Dynamics to swim Phys. Fluids 23, 071901 (2011) Stride-to-stride energy regulation for robust self

  17. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 Second Prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James H. Wilson, Jr.; Maureen A. Mullen; Andrew D. Bollman (and others) [E.H. Pechan & Associates, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission reductions attributable to the CAAA are 5, 12, and 17 million t in 2000, 2010, and 2020, respectively. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission benefits during the study period are dominated by electricity-generating unit (EGU) SO{sub 2} emission reductions. These EGU emission benefits go from 7.5 million t reduced in 2000 to 15 million t reduced in 2020. 16 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arizona Corporation Commission requires electric utilities to conduct a cost/benefit analysis to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)...

  19. Wind Energy Benefits, Wind Powering America (WPA) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet outlines the top 10 benefits of wind energy, including cost, water savings, job creation, indigenous resource, and low operating costs.

  20. Dates Days Activity Location Deadline Cost June 9 Sun. Kayaking Harpeth River, TN (KS to GT) 5/31 $33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenstein, Seth

    Dates Days Activity Location Deadline Cost June 9 Sun. Kayaking Harpeth River, TN (KS to GT) 5/31 $33 15 Sat. Canoeing * Families welcome * Harpeth River, TN (The Narrows) 6/7 $22 16 Sun. Hike, TN 6/14 $22 21-23 Fri. - Sun. Backpacking Great Smoky Mountain National Park, TN 6/14 $97 30 Sun

  1. activity-based cost calculations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johnson Undergraduate Research Conference April 24 energy inventory tool (Excel spreadsheet) Decision relevant information Energy cost Carbon dioxide with these sectors Carbon...

  2. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. The impact of crew mix on productivity and labor cost of a construction work activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosskopf, Mark Westly

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conduct of construction, situations may arise where a shortage of craftsmen forces crew compositions with a larger than desirable proportion of unskilled workers to do the work that must be done. The net effect on total labor cost...

  4. Activity-based costing simulation as a tool for construction process optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Junghye

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to develop the scope of time-cost optimization in this research. Optimization tools, such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, and simulation methods were analyzed to determine an effective tool for the optimization based on the planning and execution...

  5. Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

  6. Cost vs. benefit: the dietetic internship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikorski, Susan Michele

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exam. The internship requires that professionals employed by the hospital train the dietetic interns in the various areas appropriate foz the interns by providing both hands-on experience and reference materials. Candidates are selected... to participate in dietetic internship programs based on academic performance. in the required bachelor's degree and other criteria, such as letters of recommendation (2). Once selected, in general, except for living expenses, the internship is free...

  7. Environmental costs and benefits of urban forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    regulation Nutrient regulation Supporting service Regulating service Energy use Water use Pollutant emissions water · Fuelwood · Fiber · Biochemicals · Genetic Resources Regulating Services · Climate regulation · Disease regulation · Water regulation · Water purification · Pollination Cultural Services · Spiritual

  8. Benefit-cost in a Benevolent Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergstrom, Ted

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the contingent valuation method. In J. A. Hausman,of contingent valuation methods, Milgrom [25] main- tained

  9. Air Emissions and Oil Displacement Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    might eventually offer the greatest benefits at competitive costs if gasoline prices and battery life gasoline prices, low- emiss may (1) produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions when powered by electricity instead of gasoline

  10. ACTUARIAL VALUATION OF BENEFITS PROVIDED UNDER THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotze, Heike K.

    .........................................................................................................................................6 Section 5. ACTUARIAL VALUATION METHODS AND ASSUMPTIONS - PENSION PLAN LIABILITIES.......................................................................................9 Table 6 ­ ACTUARIAL ASSUMPTIONS AND COST METHOD ADOPTED IN CONDUCTING THE VALUATION OF THE DALHOUSIEACTUARIAL VALUATION OF BENEFITS PROVIDED UNDER THE DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY STAFF PENSION PLAN

  11. Wider benefits of Space Science & Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Mahesh

    academia who build subsystems) · Platforms and platform systems, solar panels etc. · Propulsion ­ electric systems #12;Benefits summary Better solar panels CFRP construction Techniques Electric propulsion New · Drivers: ­ Lowest cost systems ­ Robust supply chain ­ Reliability/Quality ­ Speed of build · Willing

  12. Cost-Effectiveness: Implication for Bonneville and Utility Programs Council document 2007-23 August 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on a "Utility Cost Test" (UCT). That is, only those costs paid by utility rate revenues and only those benefits

  13. CIGNA Study Uncovers Relationship of Disabilities to Total Benefits...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    findings of a new study reveal an interesting trend. Integrating disability programs with health care programs can potentially lower employers' total benefits costs and help...

  14. Health and productivity benefits of improved indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorgan, C.B. [Dorgan Associates, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Dorgan, C.E.; Kanarek, M.S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Willman, A.J. [Quantum Technology, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a summary of two studies completed for a national contractor`s association on the health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The original study documented the general health costs and productivity benefits of improved IAQ. The second study expanded the scope to include medical cost reductions for specific illnesses from improved IAQ. General information on the objectives, assumptions, definitions, and results of the studies are presented, followed by detailed information on research methodology, building inventory and wellness categories, health and medical effects of poor IAQ, health cost benefits, productivity benefits, recommended improvements, and conclusions and future improvements.

  15. Wind Energy Benefits, Wind Powering America (WPA) (Fact Sheet), Wind And Water Power Program (WWPP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet outlines the top 10 benefits of wind energy, including cost, water savings, job creation, indigenous resource, and low operating costs.

  16. Desiccants: Benefits for the Second Century of Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGahey, K.; Harriman, L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desiccant technology now stands where mechanical cooling stood in the 1930's. Desiccant systems have been used by industrial engineers to achieve productivity and energy benefits which far outweigh their installed cost. Now, with lower cost...

  17. Workers' Compensation Costs Rising Across the Nation | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Workers' Compensation Costs Rising Across the Nation Workers' Compensation Costs Rising Across the Nation For the first time since 1992, benefits paid to workers and employers'...

  18. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Břgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Monitor Technology functions each consists of two costinfluence, the fewer costs. Monitor Technology depends onCost Critical Activities Monitor community Report on monitoring Monitor technology

  19. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  20. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  1. Transportation Agency Tool to Analyze Benefits of Living Snow Fences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Transportation Agency Tool to Analyze Benefits of Living Snow Fences 5/31/12 Transportation Agency/31/12 Transportation Agency Tool to Analyze Benefits of Living Snow Fences Center for Integrated Natural Resources, Mobility, & Transportation Authority Benefits, Farmer Costs, & Carbon Impacts Focus Groups and Surveys

  2. Retirement Benefits Scheme Benefiting from membership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mumby, Peter J.

    7 Temporary absence 8 Part-time employment 8 Normal retirement 8 Late retirement 9 Early retirementRetirement Benefits Scheme Benefiting from membership: Your guide to the Scheme www 9 Incapacity retirement 10 Cash sum options 10 Pension increases 10 Paymeny of pension 10 Leaving

  3. Balancing Cost and Risk by Optimizing the High-Level Waste and Low-Activity Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.

    2000-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the currently used melters, the waste loading for nearly all high-level waste (HLW) is limited by crystallization. Above a certain level of waste loading, precipitation, settling, and accumulation of crystalline phases can cause severe processing problems and shorten the melter lifetime. To decrease the cost without putting the vitrification process at an unreasonable risk, several options, such as developing melters that operate above the liquidus temperature of glass, can be considered. Alternatively, if the melter is stirred, either mechanically, by bubbling, or by temperature gradients in induction heating, the melt can contain a substantial fraction of a crystalline phase that would not settle because it would be removed from the melter with glass. In addition, an induction melter can be nearly completely drained. For current melters that operate at a fixed temperature of 1150C, optimized glass formulation within currently accepted constaints has been developed. This approach is based on mathematically formulated relationships between glass properties and glass composition. Finally, re-evaluating the liquidus-temperature constraint, which may be unnecessarily restrictive for some HLWs, has recently been investigated. An attempt is being made to assess the rate of settling of crystalline phases in the melter and evaluate the risk for melter operation. Based on a reliable estimate of such a risk, waste loading could be increased, and a substantial saving can accrue. For low-activity waste (LAW), the waste loading in glass is limited either by the product quality or by segregation of sulfate during melting. The formulation of constraints on LAW glass in terms of relevant properties has not been completed, and no property-composition relationships have been established so far for this type of waste glass.

  4. Benefits of Commisioning New & Existing Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meline, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of * Data from Whole Building Design Guide ? a program of National Institute of Building Sciences (06-21-2010) 5 $4.00 $1.00 WHY ARE OWNERS USING THE CX PROCESS? Data obtained from ?Costs and Benefits of Commissioning New and Existing Commercial... Buildings? ? June 21, 2005. LBNL, PECI, TAMU-ESL Data obtained from ?Costs and Benefits of Commissioning New and Existing Commercial Buildings? ? June 21, 2005. LBNL, PECI, TAMU-ESL WHAT HAPPENS WHEN NEW BUILDINGS AREN?T PROPERLY COMMISSIONED...

  5. Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    to update costs of specific equipment, raw material or labor or CAPEX and OPEX of entire plants Cost Indices

  6. SIMULTANEOUS MECHANICAL AND HEAT ACTIVATION: A NEW ROUTE TO ENHANCE SERPENTINE CARBONATION REACTIVITY AND LOWER CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McKelvy; J. Diefenbacher; R. Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal can support a large fraction of global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other candidate technologies, which propose long-term storage (e.g., ocean and geological sequestration), mineral sequestration permanently disposes of CO{sub 2} as geologically stable mineral carbonates. Only benign, naturally occurring materials are formed, eliminating long-term storage and liability issues. Serpentine carbonation is a leading mineral sequestration process candidate, which offers large scale, permanent sequestration. Deposits exceed those needed to carbonate all the CO{sub 2} that could be generated from global coal reserves, and mining and milling costs are reasonable ({approx}$4 to $5/ton). Carbonation is exothermic, providing exciting low-cost process potential. The remaining goal is to develop an economically viable process. An essential step in this development is increasing the carbonation reaction rate and degree of completion, without substantially impacting other process costs. Recently, the Albany Research Center (ARC) has accelerated serpentine carbonation, which occurs naturally over geological time, to near completion in less than an hour. While reaction rates for natural serpentine have been found to be too slow for practical application, both heat and mechanical (attrition grinding) pretreatment were found to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity. Unfortunately, these processes are too energy intensive to be cost-effective in their present form. In this project we explored the potential that utilizing power plant waste heat (e.g., available up to {approx}200-250 C) during mechanical activation (i.e., thermomechanical activation) offers to enhance serpentine mineral carbonation, while reducing pretreatment energy consumption and process cost. This project was carried out in collaboration with the Albany Research Center (ARC) to maximize the insight into the potential thermomechanical activation offers. Lizardite was selected as the model serpentine material for investigation, due to the relative structural simplicity of its lamellar structure when compared with the corrugated and spiral structures of antigorite and chrysotile, respectively. Hot-ground materials were prepared as a function of grinding temperature, time, and intensity. Carbonation reactivity was explored using the standard ARC serpentine carbonation test (155 C, 150 atm CO{sub 2}, and 1 hr). The product feedstock and carbonation materials were investigated via a battery of techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal, BET, elemental, and infrared analysis. The incorporation of low-level heat with moderate mechanical activation (i.e., thermomechanical activation) was found to be able to substantially enhance serpentine carbonation reactivity in comparison with moderate mechanical activation alone. Increases in the extent of carbonation of over 70% have been observed in this feasibility study, indicating thermomechanical activation offers substantial potential to lower process cost. Investigations of the thermomechanically activated materials that formed indicate adding low-level heat during moderately intense lizardite mechanical activation promotes (1) energy absorption during activation, (2) structural disorder, and (3) dehydroxylation, as well as carbonation reactivity, with the level of energy absorption, structural disorder and dehydroxylation generally increasing with increasing activation temperature. Increasing activation temperatures were also associated with decreasing surface areas and water absorptive capacities for the activated product materials. The above decreases in surface area and water absorption capacity can be directly correlated with enhanced particle sintering during thermomechanical activation, as evidenced by electron microscopy observation. The level of induced structural disorder appears to be a key parameter in enhancing carbonation reactivity. However, p

  7. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economic benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to operate fans cost 0.10 € per kWh, the daily energy costdata, and energy costs of 0.04 € per kWh for heat and 0.1 €0.05 and 0.15 € per kWh, the benefit-cost ratios are 80 and

  8. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. Technical report twelve: Economic analysis of alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options.

  9. Contractor Employee Pension and Medical Benefits Policy

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    To ensure that reimbursement of costs incurred by Department of Energy (DOE) contractors' pension and medical benefits are reasonable in accordance with applicable laws, regulations and contract requirements and reflect prudent business practices. This directive has been suspended as of June 19, 2006, for 1 year. For more information, see DOE N 251.66.

  10. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by ?-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nault, Rance, E-mail: naultran@msu.edu [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Abdul-Fattah, Hiba [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mironov, Gleb G.; Berezovski, Maxim V. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Moon, Thomas W. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist ?-naphthoflavone (?NF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 ?M ?NF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: • Energetic costs of AhR activation by ?NF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. • Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. • Exposure to ?NF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. • Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism.

  11. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  12. Abstract--This paper examines the impact of a biomimetic active knee prosthesis on the metabolic costs associated with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, Hugh

    Abstract--This paper examines the impact of a biomimetic active knee prosthesis on the metabolic compare the antagonistic active knee prosthesis developed at MIT to an electronically controlled, variable-damping commercial knee prosthesis, the Otto Bock C-leg. Use of the active knee prosthesis resulted in both, a 17

  13. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  14. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  15. Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU F&A costs at NIU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU #12;F&A costs at NIU What are Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs? F&A Costs (aka "indirect costs" or "overhead") are real institutional costs project, instructional or public service activity. Such costs include utilities, buildings and facilities

  16. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom) [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [Integral Sustainability (Australia) [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (Australia); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa) [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa)] [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Gunn, Jill A.E., E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning and School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  17. Draft Fourth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan, Appendix I ENVIRONMENTAL COST METHODOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I-1 Draft Fourth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan, Appendix I APPENDIX I ENVIRONMENTAL COST METHODOLOGY METHOD FOR DETERMINING QUANTIFIABLE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS AND BENEFITS Priority or measure is cost-effective. Quantifiable environmental costs and benefits are among the direct costs

  18. M i C tMeasuring Costs presented bypresented by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M i C tMeasuring Costs presented bypresented by Arlee Reno, Senior Vice PresidentArlee Reno, Senior leadership you can trust. #12;Measuring Costs Objective of presentation: cover all aspects of costs Costs are generally considered to be the costs of the transportation facilitytransportation facility Most "benefits

  19. Retirement Benefits Jeff Houser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vacant Retirement Benefits Specialist Jeff Houser Director, Recruiting & Staffing Services for Early Education Kimberly Abel Director, Professional Development Heather Wainer Information Baker Retirement Administration Manager Lisa Vaccaro Compensation Manager Jeff Houser Interim

  20. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  1. A Self-Consistent Method to Assess Air Quality Co-Benefits from US Climate Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saari, R.

    Air quality co-benefits can potentially reduce the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. However, while many studies of the cost of greenhouse gas mitigation model the full macroeconomic welfare impacts, most studies of air ...

  2. Executive Service Benefits The benefits associated with the Executive Service Class are as follows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Management Service Class instead of Regular Class. The retirement percentage value for calculating the annual information. UCF currently covers the full cost of Group Term Life Insurance coverage valued at $25 retirement benefit is 2.0% instead of 1.60 ­ 1.68%. Annual leave is earned at 9.195 hours per pay period

  3. Quality Guidline for Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20111455 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Program Performance and Benefits 2 Power Plant Cost Estimation Methodology Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies...

  4. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Office of Program Performance and Benefits 2 Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies May 2014...

  5. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  6. USA oilgas production cost : recent changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1984-1989, oil development investment cost in the USA fell, but only because of lower activity. The whole cost curve shifted unfavorably (leftward). In contrast, natural gas cost substantially decreased, the curve ...

  7. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  8. Benefits of Sustainable Building Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The application of sustainable building design not only helps Federal facilities meet laws and regulations, it also provides them with many other benefits. These benefits include:

  9. Quantifying the cost uncertainty of climate stabilization policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck, Travis Read

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change researchers are often asked to evaluate potential economic effects of climate stabilization policies. Policy costs are particularly important because policymakers use a cost/benefit framework to analyze ...

  10. Student Health Benefit Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    and programs tailored to the needs of students. The SHBP coordinates care with University Health Services (UHS), UMass Amherst's fully accredited health center. UHS provides comprehensive primary care, walk-in care2 2013-2014 Student Health Benefit Plan (SHBP) Designed for the Students of Policy Period: August 1

  11. Benefits Overview Faculty / Staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lichtarge, Olivier

    , marital problems, alcohol/drug abuse, and interpersonal and family problems. Emeriti Retirement Health Benefits Bright Horizons Backup Advantage Care Bright Horizons provides backup care for well children and mildly ill or recuperating children and adults. Eighty hours of center-based or in-home care

  12. Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, James R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reading Costs, Competition, and ContractReading Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. EquilibriumUnconscionability A?ect Reading Costs . . . . . . . . . .

  13. Community Wind Benefits (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet explores the benefits of community wind projects, including citations to published research.

  14. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  15. NREL Sheds Light on Integration Costs of Variable Generation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as wind and solar energy, provide benefits such as reduced environmental impact, lack of fuel consumptionNREL Sheds Light on Integration Costs of Variable Generation and Cost-Causation Integration costs are generally manageable, but calculating costs is challenging. Renewable energy generation sources

  16. An evaluation of the cost/benefits of concrete biodecontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorschboth, F.F.; Hamilton, M.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two candidate technologies for decontamination of extensive areas of radioactively contaminated concrete, a biological technology and electro-hydraulic scabbling, that had been rated as highly useful in an earlier study were assessed more precisely. These technologies were compared to a base technology, scarification. The evaluation method was an adaptation of the Multi-Attribute Utility Technique (MAUT), a formal quantitative approach for analyzing decisions with regard to multiple objectives. The advantages of the biodecontamination technology were confirmed by this more precise quantitative analysis.

  17. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Performance SEP and ISO 50001 Certification Process The Business Case for SEP Case Studies Certified Facilities Toolbox and Expertise About SEP About ISO 50001 Contact...

  18. Microsoft Word - Smart Grid Benefits Outway Costs_open.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been a lot of claims about the value of smart grid," said Lee Hall, BPA Smart Grid and Demand Response manager. "When we looked under the hood, there often wasn't enough...

  19. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2000, December, 1999.trends from EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AE02000) were

  20. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Energy-Energy Information Administration, A Look atof Energy-Energy Information Administration, 1995 Commercialof Energy-Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy

  1. Cost-benefit analysis for commissioning decisions in GEO600

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Adams; J. R. Leong; J. Slutsky; M. Was; C. Affeldt; J. Degallaix; K. L. Dooley; H. Grote; S. Hild; H. Lueck; D. M. Macleod; L. K. Nuttall; M. Prijatelj; E. Schreiber; B. Sorazu; K. A. Strain; P. J. Sutton; H. Vahlbruch; H. Witte; K. Danzmann

    2015-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational wave interferometers are complex instruments, requiring years of commissioning to achieve the required sensitivities for the detection of gravitational waves, of order 10^-21 in dimensionless detector strain, in the tens of Hz to several kHz frequency band. Investigations carried out by the GEO600 detector characterisation group have shown that detector characterisation techniques are useful when planning for commissioning work. At the time of writing, GEO600 is the only large scale laser interferometer currently in operation running with a high duty factor, 70%, limited chiefly by the time spent commissioning the detector. The number of observable gravitational wave sources scales as the product of the volume of space to which the detector is sensitive and the observation time, so the goal of commissioning is to improve the detector sensitivity with the least possible detector down time. We demonstrate a method for increasing the number of sources observable by such a detector, by assessing the severity of non-astrophysical noise contaminations to efficiently guide commissioning. This method will be particularly useful in the early stages and during the initial science runs of the aLIGO and adVirgo detectors, as they are brought up to design performance.

  2. Benefits and Costs for California from Water Transfers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazdarich, Michael; Thornberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    economic losses from a lack of water markets are clear. Manyseparate factors: the lack of water caused by the droughtprograms. The lack of available water during the drought

  3. Benefits and Costs for California from Water Transfers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazdarich, Michael; Thornberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ways to avoid serious water shortages in the future. Droughtperiods of extreme water shortage, such as the Water Bankurban water conservation efforts during times of shortage

  4. The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, a fixed cooling concept is used in the design of evaporative heat rejection systems for process and power plants. In the fixed cooling mode, a plant is designed for maximum output at the design summer wet bulb temperature...

  5. SUMA K4020 Cost Benefit Analysis Instructor: Satyajit Bose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    will be required and posted to the course website. These include academic articles and public filings

  6. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltai...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation with Leakage Currents...

  7. Cost-benefit analysis conducted for nutrition education in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Block Joy, Amy; Goldman, George; Pradhan, Vijay

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    colorectal cancer and osteoporosis. † Source: Lambur et al.on colorectal cancer, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, obesitycriteria simultaneously Osteoporosis Drink milk Improve food

  8. Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2012. Status: 50% complete. Budget FY12 390K (Vehicle System) 50K (Fuel Cell Specific runs) 75K (link with market analysis) Barriers Evaluate the...

  9. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineers, Inc. , Energy Efficient Design of New BuildingsStandard 90.1, Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Smart Grid Technologies Through System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Simulations Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Spain Installed Wind Capacity Website Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Market Analysis Website:...

  11. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analyze, the energy price projection, and the start year (uncertainty of projections offuture energy prices, the LCC

  12. The Costs and Benefits of Home-Based Telecommuting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafizadeh, Kevan R.; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Niemeier, Debbie A.; Salomon, Ilan

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of fuel economy and retail gasoline prices. Avoided TravelFuel Economy Average Retail Gasoline Price Average Gasoline3. U.S. Retail Gasoline (Pump) Prices Source: American

  13. Benefits and Costs for California from Water Transfers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazdarich, Michael; Thornberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Sweet corn Land in vegetables Potatoes Lettuce and romaine Orchards, berries, nuts Tomatoes Sugar beets for sugar All cotton Beans,

  14. The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, a fixed cooling concept is used in the design of evaporative heat rejection systems for process and power plants. In the fixed cooling mode, a plant is designed for maximum output at the design summer wet bulb temperature...

  15. Cost benefit analysis for the implementation of smart metering...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Smart Grid Projects Smart Grid Projects in Europe Smart Grid Projects - Smart Meter and AMI Smart Grid Projects - Home application Smart Grid Projects - Customer Behavior...

  16. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Products: Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energyof Improved Central Air Conditioner Efficiencies Authorsresidential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency

  17. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department of Energy Establishing the

  18. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department of Energy Establishing theWorkshop -

  19. Microsoft Word - Smart Grid Benefits Outway Costs_open.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL328InMUIR

  20. Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overviewgreen h y d r oEmissions

  1. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof1-SCORECARD-09-21-11 Page 1

  2. Evaluating Public Transit Benefits and Costs: Best Practices Guidebook |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazelPennsylvania: Energy Resources(RECP) inEurico FerreiraEurostarEvader

  3. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 <Department of

  4. Measuring the Costs and Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122Technologies |Measurements of

  5. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandardGeneration |10 DOEGoals During NRELHighTitle,Workshop -

  6. Economy: Clean Energy and the Assessing the Many Benefits of State and Local Clean Energy Initiatives Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Reducing energy demand and increasing renewable energy generation from state and local clean energy initiatives—such as goals, standards, codes, funds, and programs—generate many benefits including: ••Security, diversity, and overall reliability improvements for the electric system. ••Improved environmental quality, human health, and quality of life. ••Increased economic prosperity. This brochure is part of a series and focuses on economic benefits. What are the economic benefits of clean energy? Clean energy initiatives, including those that advance energy efficiency, renewable energy and clean distributed generation can: ?Lower ? energy costs. ?Increase ? personal disposable income. ?Increase ? revenue for businesses. ?Increase ? income, employment, and output. ?Reduce ? fuel costs and new electric power plant construction costs. ?Reduce ? health care costs as a result of better air quality and public health. How do clean energy initiatives benefit the economy? ?Direct ? Economic Benefits: Companies that provide the equipment, technologies, and services needed to implement an initiative benefit from increased demand, which increases their revenue and their ability to hire more people. In the case of energy efficiency, consumers and companies both benefit by spending less money on electricity. ?Indirect ? Economic Benefits: Suppliers to clean energy equipment and service providers benefit as demand for their inputs and revenues increase. With higher demand, these suppliers may also hire more workers. ?Induced ? Economic Benefits: Income generated from the direct and indirect effects is spent in the regional economy, such as when employees use their paychecks to buy groceries, eat out, and entertain themselves, all of which support jobs in those sectors. What’s Inside: • Why assess the economic benefits of clean energy? • How can policy makers estimate the macroeconomic benefits of clean energy? • A Benefits Flash with quantitative examples of how clean energy initiatives result in economic, air quality, and public health benefits. • Where to go for more information. Direct economic benefits of a wind initiative could increase: • Sales of wind turbines. • Revenue of local turbine manufacturers.

  7. Benefits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWind SitingVerificationCombined Heat &Benefits

  8. The Cost of Debt Jules H. van Binsbergen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    § This version: January 2008 Abstract We estimate firm-specific cost of corporate debt functions for thousands of debt benefit curves. By integrating the area between the benefit and cost functions we estimate in capital structure policies by studying the signs of estimated slope coefficients for factors such as firm

  9. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  10. Employee Benefit Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasRelease Date:researchEmerging Threats and OpportunitiesBenefit

  11. Employee Benefits | Careers | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseCElizabethTwo States CARLSBAD,EmilioRonBenefits

  12. Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research Concordia University defines "Indirect Costs" as costs which cannot be associated specifically with a particular research program or other activity. Indirect costs include the provision and maintenance of physical space

  13. BENEFITS BULLETIN April 30, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are eligible for benefits as early as age 62 Full retirement age is staggered Payroll deduction is 6BENEFITS BULLETIN April 30, 2012 BULLETIN NO: 12-05 SUBJECT: FERS Retirement Basics TO: All Employees FROM: Kathy Shearman, Benefits Officer Are you under the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS

  14. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or

  15. FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Participant Support Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Policy on Participant Support Costs Effective: May 15, 2006 Purpose costs are separately accounted for, and expended for appropriate and intended objectives. Background in the conference, workshop or training activity. Participant supports costs are defined as direct costs for items

  16. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  17. Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 1 #12;OverviewOverview · Cost components · Estimation of costsEstimation of costs · Examples ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 2 #12;Cost

  18. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: · Investment allocated

  19. 3DEP in Oregon by the Numbers Expected annual benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    total cost (quality level 2) $32.41 million Payback 0.7 years Quality level 1 buy-up estimate $203DEP in Oregon by the Numbers Expected annual benefits (quality level 2) $45.73 million Estimated resource management; forest resources management; water supply and quality; infrastructure and construction

  20. Benefits of Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Benefits of Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora" includes: Daily automatic backups Business Server Code Name "Aurora" provides an easy-to-use solution ideal for first server small businesses with up to 25 users, Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora" provides a cost-effective and easy

  1. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deokjin-dong 150, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  2. Potential Benefits of Commissioning California Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matson, Nance; Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commissioning California's houses can result in better performing systems and houses. In turn, this will result in more efficient use of energy, carbon emission reductions, and improved occupant comfort. In particular, commissioning houses can save a significant amount of HVAC-related energy (15 to 30% in existing houses, 10 to 20% in new conventional houses, and up to 8% in advanced energy efficiency houses). The process that we considered includes corrective measures that could be implemented together during construction or during a single site visit (e.g., air tightening, duct sealing, and refrigerant and air handler airflow corrections in a new or existing house). Taking advantage of additional, more complex opportunities (e.g., installing new windows in an existing house, replacing the heating and air conditioning system in a new or existing house) can result in additional HVAC-related energy savings (60 to 75% in existing houses, and 50 to 60% in new conventional houses). The commissioning-related system and house performance improvements and energy savings translate to additional benefits throughout California and beyond. By applying commissioning principles to their work, the building community (builders and contractors) benefit from reduced callbacks and lower warranty costs. HERS raters and inspectors will have access to an expanded market sector. As the commissioning process rectifies construction defects and code problems, building code officials benefit from better compliance with codes. The utilities benefit from reduced peak demand, which can translate into lower energy acquisition costs. As houses perform closer to expectations, governmental bodies (e.g., the California Energy Commission and the Air Resources Board) benefit from greater assurance that actual energy consumption and carbon emissions are closer to the levels mandated in codes and standards, resulting in better achievement of state energy conservation and environmental goals. California residents' quality of life is improved through better indoor environmental comfort and lower energy bills. Lower energy bills free up money for residents to spend on other needs or goals, such as additional education and health and welfare. With an expansion of existing industries and the development of new commissioning-related industries, related jobs and tax revenues will increase, further increasing the quality of life for California.

  3. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  4. Economic Benefits of Advanced Materials in Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the key obstacles for the commercial deployment of advanced fast reactors (for either transuranic element burning or power generation) is the capital cost. There is a perception of higher capital cost for fast reactor systems than advanced light water reactors (ALWR). However, the cost estimates for a fast reactor come with a large uncertainty due to the fact that far fewer fast reactors have been built than LWR facilities. Furthermore, the large variability of industrial cost estimates complicates accurate comparisons. For example, under the Gen IV program, the Japanese Sodium Fast Reactor (JSFR) has a capital cost estimate that is lower than current LWR s, and considerably lower than that for the PRISM design (which is arguably among the most mature of today s fast reactor designs). Further reductions in capital cost must be made in US fast reactor systems to be considered economically viable. Three key approaches for cost reduction can be pursued. These include design simplifications, new technologies that allow reduced capital costs, and simulation techniques that help optimize system design. While it is plausible that improved materials will provide opportunities for both simplified design and reduced capital cost, the economic benefit of advanced materials has not been quantitatively analyzed. The objective of this work is to examine the potential impact of advanced materials on the capital investment costs of fast nuclear reactors.

  5. Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits of the UC San Diego Campus Forest 10 February 2009 #12;2 #12;3 Ecosystem Services and Environmental Benefits of the UC San Diego Campus Forest 10 buildings. By consuming solar energy in the process of evapotranspiration and blocking winter winds

  6. Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    sharing using various data fields (bin, fund, PI, index, etc.) x Create a Bin Generate a bin where cost;3 Cost Sharing Steps Search for & Create a Bin Search Results Display Select AWARD Type the correct data1 Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing? x Cost sharing is a commitment to use university resources

  7. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  8. The Productivity Benefits of IT Outsourcing Christopher R. Knittel and Victor Stango

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    The Productivity Benefits of IT Outsourcing Christopher R. Knittel and Victor Stango Abstract We examine the productivity benefits of IT outsourcing in the credit union industry, using data IT reduces operating costs by roughly 30%, once we control for the endogeneity of switches. Less productive

  9. External Costs of Transport in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark A.; McCubbin, Donald R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007). Estimating the Energy Security Benefits of Reduced U.water pollution, and energy-security costs. However, we wereNoise Water pollution Energy security good good good good

  10. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samuel Schenker, “The Costs of Hir- u ing Skilled Workers”,Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andof employee replacement costs, using a panel survey of

  11. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andproperties of employee replacement costs, using a panel2008. We establish that replacement costs are sub- stantial

  12. Adoption of Voluntary Environmental Standards: The Role of Signaling and Intrinsic Benefits in the Diffusion of the LEED Green Building Standards.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbett, C.J.; Muthulingam, S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Diffusion of Green Building Practices. ” AppliedCosts and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings: A Report toDiffusion of the LEED Green Building Standards August 17,

  13. Marginal Abatement Costs and Marginal Welfare Costs for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Results from the EPPA Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer

    Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, relationships between tons of emissions abated and the CO2 (or GHG) price, have been widely used as pedagogic devices to illustrate simple economic concepts such as the benefits of ...

  14. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, Rick [ICF International

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  15. Department of the Navy Civilian Benefits Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of the Navy Civilian Benefits Center Date: 28 November 2011 From: DON Benefits Officer and Flexible Spending Account. The Department of the Navy Benefit Civilian Human Resources Web site at http://www.public.navy.mil/donhr/Benefits/Pages/BenefitsOpenSeason.aspx is an excellent source of Open Season

  16. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric; Hand, Maureen

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.

  17. Policy Name: Indirect Costs of Research Originating/Responsible Department: Vice-President (Research and International)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    Policy Name: Indirect Costs of Research Originating/Responsible Department: Vice: Associate Vice-President (Research Planning and Operations Policy: Indirect costs of research are real costs that benefit and support research. These costs must be included in budget requests to external sponsors

  18. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  19. Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

  20. Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish October 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge scientists Kelly Roy, left, and Trent Jett...

  1. Benefits | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about their benefits, including FMLA coverage, on their internal Benefits website. Health Care Options Medical Plans, which include Vision Care and Prescription Drug Plans...

  2. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Environmental Benefits of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Benefits of Bioenergy Corn Can Save the Earth BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Environmental Benefits of Bioenergy Corn Can Save the Earth BIOENERGIZEME...

  3. Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

  4. Smog Check II Evaluation Part IV: Smog Check Costs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    be in the range of $50 million to $100 million per year (given current gasoline prices). Direct Costs to Motorists if their vehicles fail. Gasoline savings offset some of the costs to owners of failing vehicles. Owners of older of pollution reductions. This estimate includes estimates of non-tailpipe hydrocarbon benefits and gasoline

  5. Clean Energy and the Electric System: Assessing the Many Benefits of State and Local Clean Energy Initiatives Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Reducing energy demand and/ or increasing renewable energy generation from state and local clean energy initiatives—such as goals, standards, codes, funds and programs—can generate many benefits including: • Security, diversity, and overall reliability improvements for the electric system. ••Improved environmental quality, human health, and quality of life. ••Positive economic gains through energy costs saved, avoided medical costs, higher disposable incomes, increased labor productivity, and more jobs. This brochure is part of a series and focuses on electric system benefits. What’s Inside: • Why assess electric system benefits? • How can state and local governments estimate potential electric system benefits? • Quantitative examples of how clean energy initiatives result in direct energy benefits. • How to find more information. What are clean energy initiatives? Clean energy initiatives are policies and programs that state and local governments are using to save energy, improve air quality, reduce carbon emissions, support electric system reliability and security, and improve economic development. Examples include: Energy efficiency policies that reduce demand for energy, such as: Building codes for energy efficiency in both commercial and residential buildings; energy efficiency portfolio standards; public benefit funds for energy efficiency; and appliance efficiency standards. Energy supply policies that increase the use of renewables and clean sources, such as: Clean distributed generation and net metering interconnection standards; output-based environmental regulations; public benefit funds for clean energy supply; combined heat and power; and renewable portfolio standards. Clean energy initiatives reduce demand for fossil-fuel powered electricity and increase electricity generated with clean, renewable energy, contributing to a less polluting, more reliable and affordable electric system. Specifically, energy efficiency and/or renewable energy are resources that can: Avoid costs typically associated with conventional generation, including: Fuel, variable operation, and maintenance costs; emissions allowances; costs of emission Greenhouse gas (GHG) related policies that measure or limit emissions, such as: GHG registries, mandatory GHG reporting; CO offset requirements;

  6. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  7. Duke University Benefits Overview: Exempt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    and Affordable Care Act (otherwise known as National Health Care Reform). You have the benefit of paying premiums is an open access Health Maintenance Organization, or HMO. If you choose this plan you must receive care from if you choose a provider outside of the network. Blue Care is an open access Health Maintenance

  8. Economic benefits of greenspace Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic benefits of greenspace Research Report #12;#12;Research Report Economic benefits of greenspace A critical assessment of evidence of net economic benefits Forestry Commission: Edinburgh Vadim. ISBN 978-0-85538-865-2 Saraev, V. (2012) Economic benefits of greenspace: a critical assessment

  9. Department of the Navy Civilian Benefits Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of the Navy Civilian Benefits Center Date: 26 June 2012 From: DON Benefits Officer To of the Navy systems are now ready to accept employee's Roth TSP transactions (regular and catch-up). The TSP available at http://www.public.navy.mil/donhr/Benefits/resources/Documents/Benefits%20Bulletin%2020 12

  10. Air, Health, Clean Energy, and Related Economic Impacts: Assessing the Many Benefits of State and Local Clean Energy Initiatives Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Reducing energy demand and/or increasing renewable energy generation from state and local clean energy initiatives—such as goals, standards, codes, funds, and programs—can generate many benefits, including: ••Security, diversity, and overall reliability improvements for the electric system. ••Improved environmental quality, human health, and quality of life. ••Positive economic gains through energy costs saved, avoided medical costs, higher disposable incomes, increased labor productivity, and more jobs. This brief is part of a series and focuses on environmental and human health benefits. State and local governments can analyze their clean energy initiatives using methods and tools described in EPA’s Assessing the

  11. Department of the Navy Civilian Benefits Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of the Navy Civilian Benefits Center Benefits Line 888-320-2917 M - F, 7:30 a.m. ­ 7:30 p.m. ET TTY: 866-359-5277 Email: navybenefits@navy.mil http://www.public.navy.mil/donhr/Benefits Department of the Navy Civilian Benefits Center Benefits Line 888-320-2917 M - F, 7:30 a.m. ­ 7:30 p.m. ET

  12. Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For a particular class of supermodular cost cooperative games that arises from a scheduling ... the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents.

  13. Operations Cost Allocation Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms...

  14. Full efficiency benefits and implementation considerations for cruise altitude and speed optimization in the National Airspace system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Luke L

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the potential fuel burn benefits of altitude and speed optimization in the cruise phase of flight for domestic airlines in the United States. Airlines can achieve cost reductions and reduce environmental ...

  15. Fuel Efficiency Benefits and Implementation Consideration for Cruise Altitude and Speed Optimization in the National Airspace System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Luke

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the potential fuel burn benefits of altitude and speed optimization in the cruise phase of flight for domestic airlines in the United States. Airlines can achieve cost reductions and reduce environmental ...

  16. USE OF DRUG ELUTING STENTS AS A FUNCTION OF PREDICTED BENEFIT: CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF CURRENT PRACTICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Amit P.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Benefits of drug-eluting stents (DES) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are greatest in those at the highest risk of target vessel revascularization (TVR). While DES reduce restenosis, they cost more than bare metal stents (BMS...

  17. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  18. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  19. Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook.

  20. Waste segregation procedures and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, J.D.; Massey, C.D.; Ward, S.J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Segregation is a critical first step in handling hazardous and radioactive materials to minimize the generation of regulated wastes. In addition, segregation can significantly reduce the complexity and the total cost of managing waste. Procedures at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque require that wastes be segregated, first, by waste type (acids, solvents, low level radioactive, mixed, classified, etc.). Higher level segregation requirements, currently under development, are aimed at enhancing the possibilities for recovery, recycle and reapplication; reducing waste volumes; reducing waste disposal costs, and facilitating packaging storage, shipping and disposal. 2 tabs.

  1. A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFITS OF SMART ORDER ROUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ' services. Keywords: Electronic Markets, Process Optimisation, Smart Order Router. 1 INTRODUCTION European states. Thus, nearly all trading activity in a security was conducted in its home market [1A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE BENEFITS OF SMART ORDER ROUTING Bartholomäus Ende, Peter Gomber, Marco

  2. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  3. Systems Engineering Cost Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    on project, human capital impact. 7 How to estimate Cost? Difficult to know what we are building early on1 Systems Engineering Lecture 3 Cost Estimation Dr. Joanna Bryson Dr. Leon Watts University of Bath: Contrast approaches for estimating software project cost, and identify the main sources of cost

  4. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  5. Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed.

  6. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  7. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elec Del Cali: Del Investment Cost Delivery Cost OperatingCost Feedstock Cost Investment Cost Delivery Cost Operatingcosts Annualized investment cost, 1000$/yr Total annualized

  8. Improving urban public transport performances by tendering lots: a cost function panel data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Improving urban public transport performances by tendering lots: a cost function panel data costs, some cities want to multiply the number of call for tender they organise, by dividing their network in sev- eral lots ("allotment"). In terms of costs-benefit analysis, gains obtained by in

  9. Benefit Forms | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:WhetherNovember 13, 2009OakDepartment ofThe employment and benefits

  10. Member Benefits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & GasTechnicalMeeting with EarthJustice RegardingMember Benefits

  11. Benefits of a Miniaturized Approach

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BESFor41BeforeAllenBenefits of a

  12. Benefits Forms & Required Notices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BESFor41BeforeAllenBenefits of

  13. Benefits Plan Reports & Notices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BESFor41BeforeAllenBenefits

  14. Benefits | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations GuideAlternate WatchBenefits | National

  15. Methodologies for Determining Persistence of Commissioning Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, D. E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies on the persistence of commissioning benefits to date have used a variety of methods to evaluate this persistence. This paper proposes a consistent framework for describing and evaluating the persistence of commissioning benefits. It begins...

  16. Quantifying the benefits of hybrid vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Delucchi, Mark; Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Sun, Yongling

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Emergence of Hybrid Vehicles: Ending oil’s strangleholdthe benefits of hybrid vehicles Dr. Thomas Turrentine Dr.the benefits of hybrid vehicles Report prepared for CSAA Dr.

  17. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Enviromental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  18. Optimizing procurement and handling costs in a utility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genser, Bradley Philip

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a novel method to quantify the cost of activities involved in the picking portion of order fulfillment. We adapt the general method of picking cost quantification to the specific situation of TP&G, a publicly ...

  19. Department of the Navy Civilian Benefits Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of the Navy Civilian Benefits Center Benefits Bulletin 2010-2 DON Civilian Human Resources Web Site: Benefits Information The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Civilian Human Resources) launched a new Web site at http://www.public.navy.mil/donhr that provides Department of the Navy

  20. Duke University Benefits Overview: Non-Exempt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    Protection and Affordable Care Act (otherwise known as National Health Care Reform). You have the benefit Health Maintenance Organization, or HMO. If you choose this plan you must receive care from of some of the benefits that Duke offers: I. HEALTH BENEFITS Medical Insurance Duke offers four options

  1. The University of Oklahoma Benefits Guide 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    The University of Oklahoma Benefits Guide 2012 Norman ­ Oklahoma City ­ Tulsa #12;2 The University of Oklahoma Benefits Guide Norman - Oklahoma City - Tulsa Table of Contents Introduction NOTICE: The Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma reserves the right to change any benefit plans

  2. The University of Oklahoma Benefits Guide 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    The University of Oklahoma Benefits Guide 2013 Norman ­ Oklahoma City ­ Tulsa #12;2 The University of Oklahoma Benefits Guide Norman - Oklahoma City - Tulsa Table of Contents Introduction NOTICE: The Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma reserves the right to change any benefit plans

  3. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  4. Excitation energies with cost-reduced variant of the active-space EOMCCSDT method: the EOMCCSDt-(3) over-bar approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Hanshi; Kowalski, Karol

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the performance of the several simplified variants of equation-of-motion coupled cluster method (EOMCC) with iterative inclusion of singles, doubles and active-space triples (EOMCCSDt). In particular, we explore simplified EOMCCSDt approaches which enable one to generate the triply excited amplitudes in on-the-fly manner. The original EOMCCSDt formulation has already demonstrated a great success in encapsulating the most important excited-state correlation effects due to triples. In analogy to the original EOMCCSDT formulation, the proposed approach can by-pass the typical bottlenecks associated with the need for storing triply-excited amplitudes. In this paper, we illustrate the performance of several approximate EOMCCSDt methods, named EOMCCSDt-3 and EOMCCSdt-3x, on typical benchmark systems including C2, N2, and the ozone molecules. These new methods yield excitation energies close to the EOMCCSDt ones. The extrapolation of excitation energies for basis sets ranging from cc-pVDZ to cc-pV6Z for N2 and C2 shows very good convergence to the experimental results for states dominated by single excitations.

  5. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  6. About Cost Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the university, fee-for-service contracts, as well as establishing CAMD as a cost center. We know that our users are reluctant to see CAMD become a cost center, however...

  7. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  8. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  9. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  10. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  11. Modeling Electric Vehicle Benefits Connected to Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Kloess, Maximillian; Cardoso, Goncalo; Mégel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Connecting electric storage technologies to smartgrids will have substantial implications in building energy systems. Local storage will enable demand response. Mobile storage devices in electric vehicles (EVs) are in direct competition with conventional stationary sources at the building. EVs will change the financial as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g. PV, or fuel cells). In order to examine the impact of EVs on building energy costs and CO2 emissions in 2020, a distributed-energy-resources adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program with minimization of annual building energy costs or CO2 emissions. The mixed-integer linear program is applied to a set of 139 different commercial buildings in California and example results as well as the aggregated economic and environmental benefits are reported. The research shows that considering second life of EV batteries might be very beneficial for commercial buildings.

  12. Chapter Five Assessing the Economic Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Given the strong link between economic performance and energy use, it is important for states to account for the macroeconomic effects of potential clean energy policies and programs during the process of selecting and designing these policies. Many studies have shown that when a state makes cost-effective investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy, the state’s entire economy will benefit. For example, Wisconsin’s Focus on Energy Program was created to manage rising energy costs, promote in-state economic development, protect the environment, and control the state’s growing demand for electricity. An analysis conducted by the Wisconsin Department of Administration anticipates that it will meet these objectives while creating more than 60,000 job years, generating more than eight billion dollars in sales for Wisconsin businesses, increasing value added or gross state product by more than five billion dollars, and increasing disposable income for residents by more than four billion dollars

  13. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  14. Carbon calculator tracks the climate benefits of managed private forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, William C; Sharma, Benktesh D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    forests provide more carbon sequestration benefits than let-the relative carbon sequestration benefits of let-growlife cycle carbon sequestration benefits, averaged over 120,

  15. Post-Closure Benefits: DOE Complex vs Closure Sites | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Post-Closure Benefits: DOE Complex vs Closure Sites Status of Contractor Pension and PRB Benefit Programs - September 30, 2013 DOE Wide Closure Sites Defined Benefit Pension...

  16. BioenergizeME Virtual Science Fair: The Environmental Benefit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Environmental Benefit of Bioenergy BioenergizeME Virtual Science Fair: The Environmental Benefit of Bioenergy BioenergizeME Virtual Science Fair: The Environmental Benefit of...

  17. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Břgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    notes that comparisons of cost data remain difficult becausethese resources into cost data, and a description of themigrations), the cost of processing the data may rise

  18. Cost Analysis Procedures for Use in Promoting Fine Filtration Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renfert, David A.

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    to run a compressor in standby mode (unloaded) or in reserve. (2) Many plants are limited in compressed air capacity and any reduction in compressed air demand will have benefits around the plant. ii) Controlling the cleaning cycle based... to estimate the percentage of time a compressor runs unloaded, so the calculation determines the theoretical costs to produce the volume of compressed air used for cleaning media. Motor efficiency (? motor ) = 0.9. {Company name} 27 Cost Analysis...

  19. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs Annualized Investment Cost, 1000$/yr Total AnnualizedH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/yr) OperatingH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/kg) Operating

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Cost Effective Real Time Wave Assessment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Effective Real Time Wave Assessment Tool ARPAe: Innovation Activities On November 25, 2013, in Technology Showcase Nominees Partnering with Sandia Research Facilities Current...

  1. On Benefits of Network Coding in Bidirected Networks and Hyper-networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zongpeng

    . It was shown that network coding helps increase the throughput and reduce the cost of data transmission to study the coding advantage in two types of parameterized networks, with richer modeling power. The firstOn Benefits of Network Coding in Bidirected Networks and Hyper-networks Xunrui Yin, Xin Wang, Jin

  2. Financing U.S. Renewable Energy Projects Through Public Capital Vehicles: Qualitative and Quantitative Benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Feldman, D.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the possibility of financing renewable energy projects through raising capital in the public markets. It gives an overview of the size, structure, and benefits of public capital markets, as well as showing how renewable energy projects might take advantage of this source of new funds to lower the cost of electricity.

  3. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must gaso- line consumption, helping to diminish dependency on imported oil. Recognizing these benefits, US

  4. Benefits Summary - Temporary Job Classification | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temporary Job Classification Download a summary of benefits offered to employees in the temporary job classification (at least 6 months term and 20 hoursweek). 2015 Long Term...

  5. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  6. Pension costs and liabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, Harley Macon

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be to charge the cost over the current and subsequent years on the assumption that the cost, even though measured by past services, is incurred in contemplation of present and future 1 services. 1'he development of accounting thought concerning retire...? present liabilities are under- stated and owner's equity is overstated by a corresponding amount. It seems, however, that charging retained earnings with the past service cost does not, represent the true picture. Pension payments based solely on past...

  7. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  8. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    experience - as needed - in project management, scheduling, cost estimatingcost engineering, risk management, as well as subject matter experts (SMEs) with knowledge of...

  9. Target Cost Management Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okano, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

  10. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  11. Mann LED Elevator Ligh ng: ECI Savings Table Cost (billed)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipson, Michal

    the elevators, deter mined an LED replace ment lamp for the ex is ng halogen lamps, cal culated a cost benefitMann LED Elevator Ligh ng: ECI Savings Table Utility Historical Energy Use (MMBtu) Est. FY 2012,000 2 Energy Conservation Initiative (ECI) Project Summary Mann LED Elevator Ligh ng, Facility 1027 Mann

  12. Solar energy and job creation benefits of photovoltaics in times of high unemployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohmeyer, O.H. [Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energy is normally discussed under the aspects of its medium to long term contribution to the global energy supply and its present cost. The situation is characterized by the benefits of an abundant renewable energy supply option o the one side and comparatively high internal energy production costs of solar energy on the other. Besides the environmental and health benefits of renewables not taken into account in cost comparisons, solar energy has a significantly higher job creation potential as conventional energy supply options. The paper gives an introduction into the basic methodological aspects of comparing job creation effects of different energy technologies and reports on the latest results of ongoing research on the specific effects of photovoltaics as compared to conventional electricity generation.

  13. Cost of documenting the NISC project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R. A. (Roger Alan)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project team selected a computer-based approach for the NISC project record management system. The team is convinced that this approach did cut direct costs . The major advantage, that the team believes did help the project, comes in the area of having just one central point for all design and construction information related to the project . The other benefit to the project will come over the thirty-year design life of the project through reduced costs to design changes to the facility . The team estimates that a reasonable saving for the project (including future modifications) will be about $2,OOOK or about 3% of the project construction costs . The cost increase of scanning non-electric documents will decrease for other projects in the future as more project related information is computer generated . Many the subcontractors on the NISC project had not completely converted to computer based systems for there own internal operation during the life of the NISC project. However, as more project related documents are generated in electronic form this type of cost will reduce .

  14. Duke University Health System Benefits Overview: Exempt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    Protection and Affordable Care Act (otherwise known as National Health Care Reform). You have the benefit Health Maintenance Organization, or HMO. If you choose this plan you must receive care fromDuke University Health System Benefits Overview: Exempt 2014 We are pleased to provide you

  15. The University of Oklahoma Benefits Guide 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    The University of Oklahoma Benefits Guide 2014 Norman ­ Oklahoma City ­ Tulsa #12;2 The University of Oklahoma Benefits Guide Norman - Oklahoma City - Tulsa Table of Contents Introduction A IMPORTANT NOTICE: The Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma reserves the right to change any

  16. New cost structure approach in green buildings : cost-benefit analysis for widespread acceptance and long-term practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhiyong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Engineering Systems Division

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the concepts of sustainable building have been widely accepted in the market, there are unavoidable challenges toward widespread acceptance and long-term practice. Crossing green building development, there is ...

  17. Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Evaluating Economic andEvaluating Economic and Environmental BenefitsEnvironmental Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluating Economic andEvaluating Economic and Environmental BenefitsEnvironmental Benefits of Soil@missouri.edu) Coordinator Publications & Communications, FAPRI­MU. #12;Evaluating Economic and Environmental Benefits a combination of methods to evaluate the value of Missouri's Department of Natural Resources (MODNR

  19. FIRE Vacuum Vessel Cost estimate and R&D needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    primary shell and port cost est. Includes: Torus shell · Internal shielding · Active coils · Passive for: - Octant - Midplane port - Aux port - Vertical port - Active coil segment - IB passive plate Does not include: · Internal hdwe supports cost category hours $k hours $k In-house design 24680 2468 7380 738 R

  20. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  1. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  2. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

  3. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  4. Integration of Variable Generation and Cost-Causation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable renewable energy generation sources, such as wind and solar energy, provide benefits such as reduced environmental impact, zero fuel consumption, and low and stable costs. Advances in both technologies can reduce capital costs and provide significant control capabilities. However, their variability and uncertainty - which change with weather conditions, time of day, and season - can cause an increase in power system operating costs compared to a fully controllable power plant. Although a number of studies have assessed integration costs, calculating them correctly is challenging because it is difficult to accurately develop a baseline scenario without variable generation that properly accounts for the energy value. It is also difficult to appropriately allocate costs given the complex, nonlinear interactions between resources and loads.

  5. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    identify particularly useful cost data and cost models thatcontaining hydrogen cost data for production, storage,Volume Validates cost data with Industry Operating Costs

  6. Performance benefits of telerobotics and teleoperation - enhancements for an arm-based tank waste retrieval system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horschel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibbons, P.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates telerobotic and teleoperational arm-based retrieval systems that require advanced robotic controls. These systems will be deployed in waste retrieval activities in Hanford`s Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The report assumes that arm-based, retrieval systems will combine a teleoperational arm and control system enhanced by a number of advanced and telerobotic controls. The report describes many possible enhancements, spanning the full range of the control spectrum with the potential for technical maturation. The enhancements considered present a variety of choices and factors including: the enhancements to be included in the actual control system, safety, detailed task analyses, human factors, cost-benefit ratios, and availability and maturity of technology. Because the actual system will be designed by an offsite vendor, the procurement specifications must have the flexibility to allow bidders to propose a broad range of ideas, yet build in enough restrictions to filter out infeasible and undesirable approaches. At the same time they must allow selection of a technically promising proposal. Based on a preliminary analysis of the waste retrieval task, and considering factors such as operator limitations and the current state of robotics technology, the authors recommend a set of enhancements that will (1) allow the system to complete its waste retrieval mission, and (2) enable future upgrades in response to changing mission needs and technological advances.

  7. A Mobility Model for Cost Analysis in Integrated Cellular/WLANs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Nirmala

    A Mobility Model for Cost Analysis in Integrated Cellular/WLANs Nirmala Shenoy, Bruce Hartpence, Information Technology Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester NY 14623, USA Rafael Mantilla that can be used to study the costs and benefits of integrating cellular and Wireless LANs, from a vendor

  8. Scaling of economic benefits from Green Roof implementation in Washington, DC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, H.; Clark, C. E.; Zhou, J.; Adriaens, P.; Environmental Science Division; Dalian Univ. of Technology; Univ. of Michigan

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as a test bed because of the proposed targets in the 20-20-20 vision (20 million ft{sup 2} by 2020) articulated by Casey Trees, a nonprofit organization. Building-specific stormwater benefits were analyzed assuming two proposed policy scenarios for stormwater fees ranging from 35 to 50% reduction for green roof implementation. Heat flux calculations were used to estimate building-specific energy savings for commercial buildings. To assess benefits at the city scale, stormwater infrastructure savings were based on operational savings and size reduction due to reduced stormwater volume generation. Scaled energy infrastructure benefits were calculated using two size reductions methods for air conditioners. Avoided carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and sulfur dioxide emissions were based on reductions in electricity and natural gas consumption. Lastly, experimental and fugacity-based estimates were used to quantify the NOx uptake by green roofs, which was translated to health benefits using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency models. The results of the net present value (NPV) analysis showed that stormwater infrastructure benefits totaled $1.04 million (M), while fee-based stormwater benefits were $0.22-0.32 M/y. Energy savings were $0.87 M/y, while air conditioner resizing benefits were estimated at $0.02 to $0.04 M/y and avoided emissions benefits (based on current emission trading values) were $0.09 M-0.41 M/y. Over the lifetime of the green roof (40 years), the NPV is about 30-40% less than that of conventional roofs (not including green roof maintenance costs). These considerable benefits, in concert with current and emerging policy frameworks, may facilitate future adoption of this technology.

  9. DTC DATA MINING CONSORTIUM MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    DTC DATA MINING CONSORTIUM MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS I Collaboration with leading companies I BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY DRUG DISCOVERY BUSINESS SALES & MARKETING AUTOMOTIVE CRM GOVERNMENT CYBER SECURITY Creation Analysis Optimization Scalable Database Mining Auto-Mining Agents CUTTING-EDGE CAPABILITIES

  10. The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia Alexander P. Miller Hang T. Nguyen Samantha D, and the recycling contacts from the participating Solid Waste Planning Units discussed in this study. #12;3 Table Determinants of Recycling_______________________________ 12 State Reports

  11. Benefits of Thermoelectric Technology for the Automobile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses improved fuel efficiency and other benefits of automotive application of thermoelectric (power generation and heating/cooling) and the need for production quantities of high-efficiency thermoelectric modules

  12. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  13. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  14. Investments of uncertain cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I study irreversible investment decisions when projects take time to complete, and are subject to two types of uncertainty over the cost of completion. The first is technical uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty over the amount ...

  15. Standard costs for labor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STANDARD COSTS FOR LABOR A Thesis By MD. NURUL ABSAR KHAN Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texms in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... January 1960 Ma/or Sub)acts Accounting STANOAHD COSTS FOR LABOR ND, NURUL ABSAR KHAN Approved as t style and content bys Chairman of Committee Head of Hepartment January 1960 The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. T. M. Leland, Mr. T. D...

  16. A conceptual model to estimate cost effectiveness of the indoor environment improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Macroeconomic analyses indicate a high cost to society of a deteriorated indoor climate. The few example calculations performed to date indicate that measures taken to improve IEQ are highly cost-effective when health and productivity benefits are considered. We believe that cost-benefit analyses of building designs and operations should routinely incorporate health and productivity impacts. As an initial step, we developed a conceptual model that shows the links between improvements in IEQ and the financial gains from reductions in medical care and sick leave, improved work performance, lower employee turn over, and reduced maintenance due to fewer complaints.

  17. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  18. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD TW

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  19. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin goals.

  20. A comprehensive study of Superfund program benefits in the Denver and Tampa Bay metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Held, K.; Casper, B.; Siddhanti, S.K. [Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Smith, E.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the benefits of the Superfund program in selected geographic areas. The study demonstrates how the cleanup of Superfund sites has improved the overall quality of life of those in the affected communities. The study presents findings on the benefits of Superfund cleanup activity in the Denver, Colorado and Tampa Bay, Florida metropolitan areas. Denver and Tampa Bay were chosen from several areas that the EPA evaluated and screened during the initial phase of the study. These locations were chosen because of a substantial presence of Superfund activities, making it possible to assess the efficacy of the program. Several features make this study unique in terms of its overall goal. The study examines a broad range of benefit categories related to human health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects of Superfund cleanup activities. The study is also designed to assess benefits due to completed, current, and future planned activity at Superfund sites. This assessment covers Federal remedial activities at National Priorities List (NPL) sites, as well as relevant Federal removal actions in the study areas. These benefits are investigated from an area-wide perspective, as opposed to site-by-site, to determine Superfund`s overall effect on the communities in each area. The study consists of two major phases: Phase 1: Screening and ranking 16 prospective geographic areas and selecting Denver and Tampa Bay as the most appropriate areas for in-depth analysis; and Phase 2: Developing methodologies for assessing benefits, collecting relevant data, and analyzing the benefits from Superfund cleanup activity.

  1. Active Classification: Theory and Application to Underwater Inspection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollinger, Geoffrey A; Sukhatme, Gaurav S

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the problem in which an autonomous vehicle must classify an object based on multiple views. We focus on the active classification setting, where the vehicle controls which views to select to best perform the classification. The problem is formulated as an extension to Bayesian active learning, and we show connections to recent theoretical guarantees in this area. We formally analyze the benefit of acting adaptively as new information becomes available. The analysis leads to a probabilistic algorithm for determining the best views to observe based on information theoretic costs. We validate our approach in two ways, both related to underwater inspection: 3D polyhedra recognition in synthetic depth maps and ship hull inspection with imaging sonar. These tasks encompass both the planning and recognition aspects of the active classification problem. The results demonstrate that actively planning for informative views can reduce the number of necessary views by up to 80% when compared to passive methods...

  2. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a pinhole. (4) Improvements have also been made to the overall product to enhance the appearance and market acceptability. These include: (i) increasing the active electrochromic area to enable window manufacturers to install the SageGlass{reg_sign} IGU's into a variety of different framing systems, (ii) implementing a Pb free solder system for the electrical interconnections, (iii) development of a wire routing scheme to allow installation of SageGlass{reg_sign} units into a variety of different framing systems. This project has advanced the development of electrochromic glazing significantly, thereby advancing the introduction of the product and all the benefits of such a technology.

  3. Capital, labor, and energy cost prediction in timber harvesting: a microcomputer solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusmertz, Timothy Jon

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organization Capital. 17 17 Labor 22 Energy. III. CAPITAL COST CALCULATION. 22 25 Depreciation. Taxes, Insurance, and Interest. 25 30 IV. LABOR COST CALCULATION. 36 Nages and Salaries. Fringe Benefits. 36 38 Chapter Page V. ENERGY COST... Summary for Champion International Corporation's Harvesting Unit g2 60 15 List of Equipment in Champion's Harvesting Unit N2 61 Table page 16 Breakdown of Workers in Champion's Harvesting Unit 42 and Their Respective Salary or Wage. . 62 17 Monthly...

  4. program and benefits | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed to bring the technology to its potential as a near-zero emission clean coal technology by developing advanced technologies to reduce the cost and increase the...

  5. Hidden Benefits of Electric Vehicles for Addressing Climate Change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Canbing; Cao, Yijia; Zhang, Mi; Wang, Jianhui; Liu, Jianguo; Shi, Haiqing; Geng, Yinghui

    2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an increasingly hot debate on whether the replacement of conventional vehicles (CVs) by electric vehicles (EVs) should be delayed or accelerated since EVs require higher cost and cause more pollution than CVs in the manufacturing process. Here we reveal two hidden benefits of EVs for addressing climate change to support the imperative acceleration of replacing CVs with EVs. As EVs emit much less heat than CVs within the same mileage, the replacement can mitigate urban heat island effect (UHIE) to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioners, benefitting local and global climates. To demonstrate these effects brought bymore »the replacement of CVs by EVs, we take Beijing, China, as an example. EVs emit only 19.8% of the total heat emitted by CVs per mile. The replacement of CVs by EVs in 2012 could have mitigated the summer heat island intensity (HII) by about 0.946C, reduced the amount of electricity consumed daily by air conditioners in buildings by 14.44 million kilowatt-hours (kWh), and reduced daily CO2 emissions by 10,686 tonnes.« less

  6. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  7. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available publicly through the Department of Energy or by visiting the links listed in Appendix 1. More

  8. Cost Benefit Analysis Modeling Tool for Electric vs. ICE Airport Ground Support Equipment – Development and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Francfort; Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents efforts to develop a computer tool for modeling the economic payback for comparative airport ground support equipment (GSE) that are propelled by either electric motors or gasoline and diesel engines. The types of GSE modeled are pushback tractors, baggage tractors, and belt loaders. The GSE modeling tool includes an emissions module that estimates the amount of tailpipe emissions saved by replacing internal combustion engine GSE with electric GSE. This report contains modeling assumptions, methodology, a user’s manual, and modeling results. The model was developed based on the operations of two airlines at four United States airports.

  9. Decision matrix for liquid loading in gas wells for cost/benefit analyses of lifting options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Han-Young

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    consists of a decision algorithm built around a decision tree. Unlike other data mining techniques, decision trees quickly allow for subdividing large initial datasets into successively smaller sets by a series of decision rules. The rules are based... Page 4.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 41 4.2 Decision Tree & Preliminary Screening [Round 1].............. 43 4.3 Technical Evaluation of Lifting Options [Round 2...

  10. PLANT-INSECT INTERACTIONS Costs and Benefits of Jasmonic Acid Induced Responses in Soybean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, James T.

    2002, Go´mez et al. 2007, Bjo¨rkman et al. 2008), but not all (Brown 1988, Karban 1993), have found (Agrawal 1998, 2000; Heil 2004; Go´mez et al. 2007), others have not (Karban 1993, Thaler 1999), and still

  11. A Framework for the Evaluation of the Cost and Benefits of Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Greg Young

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power–CHP) [4]. It has been suggested thatCombined Heat and Power (CHP) [9],[16]. Participation ofParameter Description CHP Integration Whether Combined Heat

  12. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heeter, Jenny

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. (2007). Can deployment of renewable energy put downwardXcel Energy. (2011). Renewable Energy Standard Rate Impact2010. ” Alpena. (2012). “Renewable Energy Annual Report for

  13. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact on the advanced hybrid heating use. Initially, in thenot be operating. The advanced hybrid heating data indicatedegrees F) Avg Hybrid Heating 70.1 Hybrid Cooling 70.2 HPAC

  14. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HPAC IDEC HPAC IDEC Davis Energy Group Page B-1 November 24,supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiencyand Renewable Energy, Office of Technology Development,

  15. A cost benefit analysis of employee assistance programs and health promotion programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sykora, Ellen M

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    For many years business has been searching for ways to make companies more profitable. Some programs that many businesses have implemented in order to increase profits are Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) and Health Promotion Programs (HPPs...

  16. Modelling the Human and Technological Costs and Benefits of USB Memory Stick Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasse, Angela

    to the organizations satisfaction, people (e.g., CEOs, CIOs, CISOs, security managers) with responsibility

  17. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  18. Energy Savings Estimates and Cost Benefit Calculations for High Performance Relocatable Classrooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ............................................................................................................... 2 3.2 DESCRIPTION OF HVAC SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................. 8 4.1 HVAC CONTROLS ISSUES: HVAC System Operating Characteristics ..........................................................7 Table

  19. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heeter, Jenny

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maryland enacted an offshore wind carve-out of up to 2.5% ofaddition to a 1,100 MW offshore wind resource requirement (

  20. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Melaleuca Management in South Florida1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    and Resource Economics Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals

  1. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the analysis, most importantly acrolein, NO 2 , and PM 2.5 .concentrations found that acrolein concentrations were onof PM 2.5 , NO 2 , and acrolein requires a substantially

  2. Valuing Rail Transit: Comparing Capital and Operating Costs to Consumer Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Allegheny County Tri-County Metropolitan Transportationof Allegheny County Tri-County Metropolitan Transportationof Allegheny County Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation

  3. A Framework for the Evaluation of the Cost and Benefits of Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Greg Young

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Generation (DG) used in the Microgrid, the end-use Microgrid Customers (MGCs), the Distribution Network Operator (DNO), and possibly the generation utilities

  4. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heeter, Jenny

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power & Light Company is 1% for solar, which includesService Companies in 2011 Category Ohio Solar Other Solarsolar- rebates/article_3a39257d-3607-5e7d-9d2d-2e8b9e153e9a.html. Toledo Edison Company. (

  5. A Cost Benefit Analysis of the Application of Biochar in the Scottish Whisky Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Simon P

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biochar is a carbon-negative process (Mathews, 2008) with large environmental credentials which is capable of sequestering vast amounts of carbon into the soil pool. Under the Kyoto Protocol, Biochar could one day be ...

  6. Economic Costs and Benefits of the Trans Mountain Expansion Project (TMX)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .................................................................................................................33 3.6.3 Increased Revenues for Crude Producers .................................................................................................................41 3.7.3 Increased Revenues for Crude Producers

  7. Aqueous-stream uranium-removal technology cost/benefit and market analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information that was gathered by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. (KEI) in order to help the Department of Energy (DOE) determine the merit of continued biosorption research funding. However, in the event that funding is continued, it is also intended to help the researchers in their efforts to develop a better uranium-removal process. This report (1) provides a comparison of DOE sites that may utilize aqueous-stream, uranium-removal biosorption technology, (2) presents a comparison of the biosorption and ion exchange processes, and (3) establishes performance criteria by which the project can be measured. It also attempts to provide focus for biosorbent ground-water-remediation research and to ask questions that need to be answered. This report is primarily a study of the US market for technologies that remove uranium from aqueous streams, but it also addresses the international market-particularly for Germany. Because KEI`s access to international market information is extremely limited, the material presented in this report represents a best effort to obtain this data. Although uranium-contaminated aqueous streams are a problem in other countries as well, the scope of this report is primarily limited to the US and Germany for two reasons: (1) Germany is the country of the biosorbent-CRADA partner and (2) time constraints.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

  9. Commissioning of energy-efficiency measures: Costs and benefits for 16 buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.; Greenberg, S.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building systems and energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) often don`t perform as well in practice as expected at the design stage. This fact has become clear to many organizations concerned with ensuring building performance. What to do about these problems is less clear. Several electric utilities around the U.S. have begun to take action to address the start-up, control, and operational problems that are found in nearly every building. One of the most beneficial periods to intervene in the building life cycle is during the start-up phase of a now building. Building commissioning during start up is such an intervention. Commissioning can be defined as: a set of procedures, responsibilities, and methods to advance a system from static installation to full working order in accordance with design intent. In broad terms, commissioning can extend from design reviews through operations and maintenance planning and training. With such a broad scope aimed at the entire building life cycle, commissioning is often likened to {open_quotes}Total Quality Management{close_quotes} Yet the heart of commissioning are the procedures developed and executed to ensure that all building systems function as intended. The incorporation of energy-efficiency criteria into building commissioning is a new development.

  10. The ABCD's of Texas Education: Assessing the Benefits and Costs of Reducing the Dropout Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Roman; Brennan, Stephanie; Carter, Narietha; Dong, Hsiang-Kai; Eldridge, Amanda; Fratto, Joseph; Harrison, Erin; Ryder, Eleanor; Sanderson, Kathleen; Thorburn, Pamela

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , by State: School Year 2002-03 State or jurisd ictio n Averag ed fresh man gradu a tio n rate Regular diplo ma s , scho o l year 2002- 03 Estimated first-time 9th grad ers in 1999-2000 1 Grade 10 member sh ip , schoo l year... 2000-01 1 Grade 9 memb er sh ip , schoo l year 1999-2000 1 Grade 8 memb er sh ip , schoo l year 1998-99 1 United States (51 state s ) 73.9 2,719,947 3,682,202 3,529,652 3,986,992 3,529,963 Alabama 64.7 36,741 56,749 51,991 61,150 57...

  11. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Archive Tool Diagnostics PACRAT CMMS Maximo Tenant Interfacetesting a diagnostic tool, PACRAT, a database software tooloperations and planning. PACRAT diagnoses system problems

  12. GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G: The safety of genetically modified foods produced throughHealth risks of genetically modified foods. Crit Rev Foodof food and feed from genetically modified plants. EFSA J

  13. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  14. Strategic philanthropy for cyber security : an extended cost-benefit analysis framework to study cybersecurity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yiseul

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The international climate of cyber security is dramatically changing and thus unpredictable. As such, agile yet sustainable solutions are needed, along with an effective and a pragmatic evaluation framework to assess and ...

  15. Privacy in context : the costs and benefits of a new deidentification method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trepetin, Stanley

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The American public continues to be concerned about medical privacy. Policy research continues to show people's demand for health organizations to protect patient-specific data. Health organizations need personally ...

  16. Valuing Rail Transit: Comparing Capital and Operating Costs to Consumer Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D.C. , 1994; Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. Light rail transitD.C. , 2003; Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. , Managing Capital

  17. Economics of Forest Fire Management: Spatial Accounting of Costs and Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Jose Julio

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    study uses a non-market valuation method to investigate theas the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) (Loomis et al. ,software with nonmarket valuation methods to assist land and

  18. Spoilt for Choice? The Costs and Benefits of Opening UK Residential Energy Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    022250206. The Electricity Association funded the project under which the survey of low income consumers Waddams Price* Centre for Competition and Regulation and School of Management University of East Anglia constraints on prices in these markets, even though incumbents continue to supply more than 60% of consumers

  19. CSEM WP 123 Spoilt for Choice? The Costs and Benefits of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    . The Electricity Association funded the project under which the survey of low income consumers was conducted Catherine Waddams Price, Centre for Competition and Regulation and School of Management, University of East Energy Markets Catherine Waddams Price* Centre for Competition and Regulation and School of Management

  20. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    connected to the home’s central heating and cooling system.homes. For homes with electric heating, given the higher

  1. Assessing environmental benefits and economic costs of aviation environmental policy measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahashabde, Anuja (Anuja Anil)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the recent global economic downturn, longer term growth is anticipated for aviation with an increasing environmental impact, specifically in the areas of noise, air quality, and climate change. To ensure sustainable ...

  2. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    environmental sustainability and rising energy supply costsfound that energy tops the list of sustainability issues forenergy savings claims and made the local community aware of sustainability

  3. Brownfield financing in the United States : from social benefit-cost perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Rongtao

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1995, the government has launched brownfield financing programs to promote brownfield cleanup and redevelopment in the United States. These programs have lowered financial barriers for brownfield developers and ...

  4. Economics of Forest Fire Management: Spatial Accounting of Costs and Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Jose Julio

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the fractional factorial design for the hypothetical burnburn scenarios. A full factorial design was not implementedInstead, a fractional factorial design (Montgomery, 2005)

  5. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granderson, Jessica

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total ( left) and size of EIS install base in each259 million square feet of EIS install base in total (A-2: Distribution of size of EIS install base in millions of

  6. GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2012. 44th edition. Ithaca,in genetically modified (gm) crops: 20 years of research. Jeffects of genetically modified (GM) crops on health and the

  7. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic Energy Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated

  8. Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,Zaleski -Blueprint | DepartmentExcellenceGuidanceS EM Pr ETRMayOctober

  9. Improving the Practice of Cost Benefit Analysis in Transport | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty,Jump to: navigation, searchInformation Mexico Jump

  10. Cost benefit analysis for the implementation of smart metering with pilot

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentratingEnergyCoosa ValleyCorsicanaproject (Smart Grid

  11. Measuring the Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence and the Benefits of Reducing It

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & GasTechnical Publications

  12. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS September 9,Award RecipientsActMission toResearchResolve toInitiativesR&D

  13. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1AResearchStudy of theAAAA A

  14. Measuring the Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence and the Benefits of Reducing It

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122Technologies |Measurements ofMeasuring the

  15. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from Tarasa U.S.LLC |AquionMr. EdwardArticleoftheLBNL-6349E

  16. The Practice of Cost Benefit Analysis in the Transport Sector a Mexican

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC Jump to:Uncertainty of1801 -Plains,The

  17. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat 1PowerofSystems |As Electric2:Presentation |

  18. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat 1PowerofSystems |As Electric2:Presentation ||

  19. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.pngRoofs and Heat Islands2007) | OpenCity,Cosmos

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Smart Grid Technologies Through System Simulations

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.pngRoofs and Heat Islands2007) | OpenCity,Cosmos| Open Energy

  1. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbonof Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of

  2. OPTIONS - ALLOCATION FUNDS - TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Admin

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    One first problem to overcome is the impact of transaction costs. ... They entail a reduction of transaction costs and improve the investor's economic welfare.

  3. Optimization Online - Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas S. Schulz

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 28, 2007 ... Abstract: We study cooperative games with supermodular costs. We show that supermodular costs arise in a variety of situations: in particular, ...

  4. Preemptive scheduling with position costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In most scheduling models presented in the literature [3, 10], the cost for ... Preemptive scheduling in order to minimize the total position costs also stems.

  5. Price/Cost Proposal Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS PriceCost Proposal: Provide complete, current, and accurate cost or pricing data in accordance with Federal and Department of Energy Acquisition...

  6. Cost Quality Management Assessment for the Idaho Operations Office. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Engineering and Cost Management (EM-24) conducted a Cost Quality Management Assessment of EM-30 and EM-40 activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on Feb. 3--19, 1992 (Round I). The CQMA team assessed the cost and cost-related management activities at INEL. The Round II CQMA, conducted at INEL Sept. 19--29, 1994, reviewed EM-30, EM-40, EM-50, and EM-60 cost and cost-related management practices against performance objectives and criteria. Round II did not address indirect cost analysis. INEL has made measurable progress since Round I.

  7. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  8. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  9. General Dynamics and Nissan Case Studies Highlight Benefits of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Dynamics and Nissan Case Studies Highlight Benefits of Superior Energy Performance General Dynamics and Nissan Case Studies Highlight Benefits of Superior Energy...

  10. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related...

  11. DOE Releases EPRI Report on Benefits of Regional Coordination...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Releases EPRI Report on Benefits of Regional Coordination in Wind Energy Transfers DOE Releases EPRI Report on Benefits of Regional Coordination in Wind Energy Transfers February...

  12. Wind Energy Benefits, Wind Powering America (WPA) (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Benefits, Wind Powering America (WPA) (Fact Sheet), Wind And Water Power Program (WWPP) Wind Energy Benefits, Wind Powering America (WPA) (Fact Sheet), Wind And Water Power...

  13. POLICY ON INDIRECT COSTS RECOVERY FROM RESEARCH FUNDING AGENCIES NOT ACCREDITED BY SIRU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    POLICY ON INDIRECT COSTS RECOVERY FROM RESEARCH FUNDING AGENCIES NOT ACCREDITED BY SIRU Effective of this policy is to appropriately recognize and recover the costs incurred by the University in supporting research grant activity. DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this policy: Direct costs means costs that can

  14. Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    . Equipment access charges Service contracts, running costs, materials and consumables and staff time

  15. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  16. Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood III, David L [ORNL; Li, Jianlin [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  17. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  18. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs ­ direct costs and facilities and administrative costs (F&A), also known as indirect costs. Direct

  19. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  20. Austrian refiner benefits from advanced control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, L.A.; Spencer, M. [Setpoint Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Schuster, R.; Tuppinger, D.M.; Wilmsen, W.F. [OeMV-AG Energy, Schwechat (Austria)

    1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    OeMV-AG Energy implemented advanced process controls on 27 units at its refinery in Schwechat, Austria. A variety of controls were implemented on the butadiene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) units in January 1993. After more than 1 year of operation, the butadiene/MTBE project has shown a number of benefits, including reduced energy consumption and increased capacity in both units. The paper discusses the process, advanced control, the simple model predictive controller, control objectives, the butadiene unit, the MTBE unit, and benefits of the advanced controllers.