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Sample records for active solid-waste management

  1. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  3. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  4. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  5. Managing America`s solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  6. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkey, D.; Hill, K.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  7. Hawaii Permit Application for Solid Waste Management Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permit Application for Solid Waste Management Facility Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Hawaii Permit Application for Solid Waste Management...

  8. Nevada Washoe County Solid Waste Management Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Washoe County Solid Waste Management Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Washoe County Solid Waste Management Webpage Author...

  9. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  10. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  11. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  12. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  13. ITEP Developing Tribal Integrated Solid Waste Management Plans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) is offering a two-day training course providing the tools tribes needs to develop and implement a successful tribal integrated solid waste management plan.

  14. Title 18 Alaska Administrative Code Chapter 60 Solid Waste Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    60 Solid Waste Management Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 18 Alaska Administrative Code Chapter 60...

  15. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  18. An environmentally sustainable decision model for urban solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costi, P.; Minciardi, R.; Robba, M.; Rovatti, M.; Sacile, R

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present the structure and the application of a decision support system (DSS) designed to help decision makers of a municipality in the development of incineration, disposal, treatment and recycling integrated programs. Specifically, within a MSW management system, several treatment plants and facilities can generally be found: separators, plants for production of refuse derived fuel (RDF), incinerators with energy recovery, plants for treatment of organic material, and sanitary landfills. The main goal of the DSS is to plan the MSW management, defining the refuse flows that have to be sent to recycling or to different treatment or disposal plants, and suggesting the optimal number, the kinds, and the localization of the plants that have to be active. The DSS is based on a decision model that requires the solution of a constrained non-linear optimization problem, where some decision variables are binary and other ones are continuous. The objective function takes into account all possible economic costs, whereas constraints arise from technical, normative, and environmental issues. Specifically, pollution and impacts, induced by the overall solid waste management system, are considered through the formalization of constraints on incineration emissions and on negative effects produced by disposal or other particular treatments.

  19. IDAPA 58.01.06 - Solid Waste Management Rules and Standards ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6 - Solid Waste Management Rules and Standards Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: IDAPA 58.01.06 - Solid Waste...

  20. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ? Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ? Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ? High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ? Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  1. Solid waste management in Kolkata, India: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, Tumpa; Goel, Sudha

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents an overview of current solid waste management (SWM) practices in Kolkata, India and suggests solutions to some of the major problems. More than 2920 ton/d of solid waste are generated in the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area and the budget allocation for 2007-2008 was Rs. 1590 million (US$40 million), which amounts to Rs. 265/cap-y (US$6.7/cap-d) on SWM. This expenditure is insufficient to provide adequate SWM services. Major deficiencies were found in all elements of SWM. Despite 70% of the SWM budget being allocated for collection, collection efficiency is around 60-70% for the registered residents and less than 20% for unregistered residents (slum dwellers). The collection process is deficient in terms of manpower and vehicle availability. Bin capacity provided is adequate but locations were found to be inappropriate, thus contributing to the inefficiency of the system. At this time, no treatment is provided to the waste and waste is dumped on open land at Dhapa after collection. Lack of suitable facilities (equipment and infrastructure) and underestimates of waste generation rates, inadequate management and technical skills, improper bin collection, and route planning are responsible for poor collection and transportation of municipal solid wastes.

  2. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-08-01

    This study was initiated to compile publicly available data on the five major options commonly used for municipal solid waste MSW management today: Landfilling, mass burning for energy recovery, production and combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and composting. The report also provides some data on energy, environmental releases, and economics for the following less commonly used options: Anaerobic digestion, coining of RDF with coal, gasification/pyrolysis. Because no commercial anaerobic digestion and gasification/pyrolysis facilities have operated in the United States, the data for these options are based on pilot plant results.

  4. USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management: Theory vs. practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matar, G. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper will address USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management (MSWM), which places source reduction and recycling above combustion and landfilling. Many have read this to mean that combustion and landfilling should only be considered after all recycling and reduction efforts have been explored. This mentality has not only left many communities in a MSWM capacity crisis, but also created planning problems for many others. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, it will be shown that the last two methods on the hierarchy should be considered from the beginning when planning for MSWM. It will also be shown that these methods are not antithetical to the first two methods, but are actually complimentary.

  5. An overview of municipal solid waste management in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xudong; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2010-04-15

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in China warrants particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world and the total amount of MSW it produces continues to increase. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve MSWM in China. New regulations and policies have been issued, urban infrastructure has been improved, and commercialization and international cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new opportunities and challenges regarding MSWM in China. This paper shows that since the late 1990s, the amount of MSW collected has been largely decoupled from economic growth and incineration has become an increasingly widespread treatment method for MSW. We identify and discuss four major challenges and barriers related to China's MSWM, and propose an integrated management framework to improve the overall eco-efficiency of MSWM.

  6. Integrated solid waste management of Palm Beach County, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the Palm Beach County, Florida integrated municipal solid waste management system (IMSWMS), the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWMS.

  7. Solid waste information and tracking system server conversion project management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAY, D.L.

    1999-04-12

    The Project Management Plan governing the conversion of Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) to a client-server architecture. The Solid Waste Information and Tracking System Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the background, planning and management of the SWITS conversion. Requirements and specification documentation needed for the SWITS conversion will be released as supporting documents.

  8. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-02-25

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  9. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities.

  10. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hauschild, Michael Z.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • Studies mainly concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. • Assessments of relevant waste types apart from household waste have been overlooked. • Local specificities of systems prevent a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results. • LCA should support recommendations representative of the local conditions. - Abstract: The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of capturing the local specific conditions in the modelling of environmental impacts and benefits of a SWMS, allows identifying critical problems and proposing improvement options adapted to the local specificities.

  11. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-02-14

    This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The NMED accepted that the Permittees are using the ACAA in a letter dated April 20, 2000.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting's contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  13. NAC 444.731 - Class III Solid Waste Management Systems | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .731 - Class III Solid Waste Management Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NAC 444.731 - Class III...

  14. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ? The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ? The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ? The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ? Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  18. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Johannes G.

    2012-11-15

    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  20. Cost estimation for solid waste management in industrialising regions - Precedents, problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parthan, Shantha R.; Milke, Mark W.; Wilson, David C.; Cocks, John H.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review cost estimation approaches for solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unit cost method and benchmarking techniques used in industrialising regions (IR). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variety in scope, quality and stakeholders makes cost estimation challenging in IR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrate waste flow and cost models using cost functions to improve cost planning. - Abstract: The importance of cost planning for solid waste management (SWM) in industrialising regions (IR) is not well recognised. The approaches used to estimate costs of SWM can broadly be classified into three categories - the unit cost method, benchmarking techniques and developing cost models using sub-approaches such as cost and production function analysis. These methods have been developed into computer programmes with varying functionality and utility. IR mostly use the unit cost and benchmarking approach to estimate their SWM costs. The models for cost estimation, on the other hand, are used at times in industrialised countries, but not in IR. Taken together, these approaches could be viewed as precedents that can be modified appropriately to suit waste management systems in IR. The main challenges (or problems) one might face while attempting to do so are a lack of cost data, and a lack of quality for what data do exist. There are practical benefits to planners in IR where solid waste problems are critical and budgets are limited.

  1. Progress and Status of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant's New Solid Waste Management and Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rausch, J.; Henderson, R.W.; Penkov, V.

    2008-07-01

    A considerable amount of dry radioactive waste from former NPP operation has accumulated up to date and is presently stored at the Ignalina NPP site, Lithuania. Current storage capacities are nearly exhausted and more waste is to come from future decommissioning of the two RMBKtype reactors. Additionally, the existing storage facilities does not comply to the state-of-the-art technology for handling and storage of radioactive waste. In 2005, INPP faced this situation of a need for waste processing and subsequent interim storage of these wastes by contracting NUKEM with the design, construction, installation and commissioning of new waste management and storage facilities. The subject of this paper is to describe the scope and the status of the new solid waste management and storage facilities at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. In summary: The turnkey contract for the design, supply and commission of the SWMSF was awarded in December 2005. The realisation of the project was initially planned within 48 month. The basic design was finished in August 2007 and the Technical Design Documentation and Preliminary Safety Analyses Report was provided to Authorities in October 2007. The construction license is expected in July 2008. The procurement phase was started in August 2007, start of onsite activities is expected in November 2007. The start of operation of the SWMSF is scheduled for end of 2009. (authors)

  2. Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management - The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurbruegg, Christian; Gfrerer, Margareth; Ashadi, Henki; Brenner, Werner; Kueper, David

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our assessment tool helps evaluate success factors in solid waste projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success of the composting plant in Indonesia is linked to its community integration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate technology is not a main determining success factor for sustainability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structured assessment of 'best practices' can enhance replication in other cities. - Abstract: According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction.

  3. An economic evaluation of waste flow control policies in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greco, J.

    1995-12-01

    The transport of municipal solid waste through legal means is commonly known as waste flow control. Flow control ordinances prohibit the export of locally generated solid waste to disposal sites outside of a jurisdiction, requiring delivery to a locally designated facility for disposal or processing. Local governments use flow control to support public facilities and to comply with federal and state mandates. A decision by Supreme Court in May, 1994 invalidated the use of flow control by local governments raising important policy questions concerning balances between providing low-cost service to rate-payers, the value of conserving disposal capacity be developing expensive waste management programs, and the protection of the environment from the dangers of poor solid waste management. Since Congress is currently considering passage of federal legislation which would restore flow control authority to local government, there is a need to evaluate waste flow control from economic, environmental, political and social perspectives. This analysis attempts to evaluate flow control policies within an interdisciplinary framework. It examines not only the economic consequences of flow control policies, but also the social and environmental objectives that local governments claim are achieved via use of flow control. The analysis reveals that flow control introduces economic distortions into a highly competitive market for solid waste services, a market which consistently produces lower costs than flow-controlled, publicly-sponsored facilities. Important questions are raised concerning the allocation of risk in capital investments made by municipalities that use flow control to insulate investors and themselves from financial liability. Controlling waste flow helps local governments fulfill regulatory responsibilities that may not be met by reliance on competitive market forces.

  4. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C.; Dibari, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  6. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-03-15

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

  7. An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, S.; Shore, J.; Worden, H.; Jain, R.

    2009-08-15

    Sustainable municipal solid waste management at military solutions necessitates a combined approach that includes waste reduction, alternative disposal techniques, and increased recycling. Military installations are unique because they often represent large employers in the region in which they are located, thereby making any practices they employ impact overall waste management strategies of the region. Solutions for waste sustainability will be dependent on operational directives and base location, availability of resources such as water and energy, and size of population. Presented in this paper are descriptions of available waste strategies that can be used to support sustainable waste management. Results presented indicate source reduction and recycling to be the most sustainable solutions. However, new waste-to-energy plants and composting have potential to improve on these well proven techniques and allow military installations to achieve sustainable waste management.

  8. Low tipping at the gate: Solid waste management in St. Louis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, K.A.

    1997-10-01

    With the largest solid waste management district in the state of Missouri, St. Louis offers low tipping fees and plenty of capacity for waste and recyclables at virtually no cost to the city`s nearly 400,000 residents. The city of St. Louis has its own refuse collection and is doing curbside pickup on a pilot basis for about 3,500 homes, says Lee Fox, president of the Missouri Recycling Association (St. Louis). Also for waste management, there is blue-bag drop-off and a series of drop-off sites at different fire stations throughout the city. The central-west side has once-a-week curbside service. There are 92 separate municipalities and 35% of the area is unincorporated. It really depends on where one lives and the service. St. Louis has twice-a-week trash service, with a once-a-week curbside and yard waste pickup. The city collects all residential trash, which is financed by the city`s general revenue fund, with no direct user fees to residents. Solid waste is shipped to an Illinois landfill owned by Allied Waste Industries, Inc. (Scottsdale, Ariz.). With no current citywide curbside recycling program, private recyclers provide collection to a small percentage of homes throughout the metropolitan area.

  9. Backyard waste management - problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid waste at home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, M.

    1995-05-01

    The problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid wastes at home are surveyed. The survey indicates that as the population rises people tend to burn only the combustible portions of their waste. Some communities have limited ordinances that ban the burning of raw garbage, but other municipalities allow residents to burn all of their wastestream, even though some materials are not combustible and cannot be burned. Potential environmental effects involve both the ash residue and the air emissions. While selected burning can reduce some of the environmental hazards these would probably only be marginally less than the impacts of burning it all. The study clearly indicates that the environmental problems of burn barrels are not insignificant. However, the attitudes and motivations of those who burn waste will have to be addressed by the communities that attempt or should attempt to control this problem. These include: avoidance of waste collection costs; availability of trash cartage services; and habit. Habit is probably as strong a motivation as cost avoidance and ease of collection combined. Residents have often burned trash for several generations and regard the practice as a {open_quotes}god-given right.{close_quotes}

  10. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management – Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented.

  11. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yimei; Huang, Guo He; He, Li

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well.

  12. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-05-23

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  13. Solid waste information and tracking system client-server conversion project management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, D.L.

    1998-04-15

    This Project Management Plan is the lead planning document governing the proposed conversion of the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) to a client-server architecture. This plan presents the content specified by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards for software development, with additional information categories deemed to be necessary to describe the conversion fully. This plan is a living document that will be reviewed on a periodic basis and revised when necessary to reflect changes in baseline design concepts and schedules. This PMP describes the background, planning and management of the SWITS conversion. It does not constitute a statement of product requirements. Requirements and specification documentation needed for the SWITS conversion will be released as supporting documents.

  14. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume I: report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  17. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} of MSWM.

  18. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, P.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

  19. A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dongqing; Keat, Tan Soon; Gersberg, Richard M.

    2010-05-15

    A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Yan; Christensen, Thomas H.; Lu Wenjing; Wu Huayong; Wang Hongtao

    2011-04-15

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery. The current system, mainly involving the use of landfills, has manifested significant adverse environmental impacts caused by methane emissions from landfills and many other emissions from transfer stations. A short-term future scenario, where some of the landfills (which soon will reach their capacity because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts of auxiliary fuels to support combustion of wet waste. As for the long-term future scenario, efficient source separation of food waste could result in significant environmental improvements, primarily because of increase in calorific value of remaining waste incinerated with energy recovery. Sensitivity analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City.

  1. Integrated municipal solid waste management: Six case studies of system cost and energy use. A summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    Report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of integrated municipal solid waste management systems in six cities: Minneapolis, NW; Springfield, MA; Seattle, WA; Scottsdale, AZ; Palm Beach County, CA; and Sevierville, TN. The primary objective of these case studies was to develop and present consistent cost, resource use (especially energy), and environmental regulator information on each operating IMSWM system. The process is defined as using two or more alternative waste management techniques. Detailed reports on each system are available.

  2. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-05

    This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The NMED accepted that the Permittees are using the ACAA in a letter dated April 20, 2000.

  3. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-05

    his 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received onDecember 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the program-matic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the mostrecent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may beused for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used toreplace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The NMED accepted that the Permittees are using the ACAA in a letter dated April 20, 2000.

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrot, Laurent Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia

    2009-02-15

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance.

  5. Interface control document between PUREX Plant Transition and Solid Waste Disposal Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1995-09-01

    The interfacing responsibilities regarding solid waste management are described for the Solid Waste Disposal Division and the PUREX Transition Organization.

  6. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  7. One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broitman, Dani; Ayalon, Ofira; Kan, Iddo

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste management schemes are generally implemented at national or regional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local conditions characteristics and constraints are often neglected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed an economic model able to compare multi-level waste management options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A detailed test case with real economic data and a best-fit scenario is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most efficient schemes combine clear National directives with local level flexibility. - Abstract: As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly influence WM costs, and therefore the optimal scheme is one under which each local authority is able to implement its best-fitting mechanism, given that national guidelines are kept. The main result is that strict national/regional WM policies may be less efficient, unless some type of local flexibility is implemented. Our model is designed both for top-down and bottom-up assessment, and can be easily adapted for a wide range of WM option comparisons at different levels.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 6, Appendix D, Pyrolysis and gasification of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This Appendix summarizes information available in the open literature describing the technology and operating experierice of pyrolysis technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The literature search, which emphasized the time frame of greatest activity in MSW pyrolysis (i.e., the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s), focused on the scale of application, material feedstock, technical limitations and economic considerations. Smaller scale facilities, either laboratory/research scale (< I TPD) or process development/pilot scale plants (1-20 TPD) for municipal waste and related materials (agricultural, forest residues, industrial wastes, etc.), are mentioned in the literature (275, 495). However, such data are sparse, dated, and often have limited applicability to MSW in general, and for design scale-up in particular. Therefore, greatest emphasis was placed on identifying demonstration scale (20--150 TPD) will commercial seals (> 150 TPD) studies which could be expected to provide economic, environmental, and energy data that can be scaled with possibly less risk. While the promise of pyrolysis of MSW lies in its ability to transform municipal waste into gaseous and liquid chemicals and fuel products, the major limitation is the unproven technical and economic feasibility of a large scale facility.

  9. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-02-15

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L{sup -1} and a concentration of CO{sub 2} of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} MPN mL{sup -1}). The acetogenic population was (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH{sub 4} (70%) were higher than CO{sub 2} (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L{sup -1}. Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) and methanogenic bacteria (10{sup 5} MPN mL{sup -1}) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} VSS{sup -1} day{sup -1}) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified.

  10. Municipal solid waste management: Identification and analysis of engineering indexes representing demand and costs generated in virtuous Italian communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamberini, R. Del Buono, D.; Lolli, F.; Rimini, B.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Collection and analysis of real life data in the field of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and costs for management. • Study of 92 virtuous Italian communities. • Elaboration of trends of engineering indexes useful during design and evaluation of MSWM systems. - Abstract: The definition and utilisation of engineering indexes in the field of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is an issue of interest for technicians and scientists, which is widely discussed in literature. Specifically, the availability of consolidated engineering indexes is useful when new waste collection services are designed, along with when their performance is evaluated after a warm-up period. However, most published works in the field of MSWM complete their study with an analysis of isolated case studies. Conversely, decision makers require tools for information collection and exchange in order to trace the trends of these engineering indexes in large experiments. In this paper, common engineering indexes are presented and their values analysed in virtuous Italian communities, with the aim of contributing to the creation of a useful database whose data could be used during experiments, by indicating examples of MSWM demand profiles and the costs required to manage them.

  11. Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Gioannis, G.; Diaz, L.F.; Muntoni, A. Pisanu, A.

    2008-07-01

    A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  13. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management alternatives with consideration of uncertainty: SIWMS development and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Hanandeh, Ali; El-Zein, Abbas

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes the development and application of the Stochastic Integrated Waste Management Simulator (SIWMS) model. SIWMS provides a detailed view of the environmental impacts and associated costs of municipal solid waste (MSW) management alternatives under conditions of uncertainty. The model follows a life-cycle inventory approach extended with compensatory systems to provide more equitable bases for comparing different alternatives. Economic performance is measured by the net present value. The model is verified against four publicly available models under deterministic conditions and then used to study the impact of uncertainty on Sydney's MSW management 'best practices'. Uncertainty has a significant effect on all impact categories. The greatest effect is observed in the global warming category where a reversal of impact direction is predicted. The reliability of the system is most sensitive to uncertainties in the waste processing and disposal. The results highlight the importance of incorporating uncertainty at all stages to better understand the behaviour of the MSW system.

  14. A system dynamic modeling approach for evaluating municipal solid waste generation, landfill capacity and related cost management issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng Huan; Yu Danlin

    2010-11-15

    As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework for Newark urban region in the US, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-processes that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity of the state, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by different waste processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.

  15. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part II: Methodological guidance for a better practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Bakas, Ioannis; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • We analyse the past LCA practice against the ISO standard and ILCD Handbook guidance. • Malpractices exist in many methodological aspects with large variations among studies. • Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. • We provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper conduct of the LCA. How has LCA been applied until now? Are there any inconsistencies in the past practice? To answer these questions, we draw on a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of solid waste management systems. We analyse the past practice against the ISO standard requirements and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste compositions into the inventory, and a frequent lack of essential sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. For each of them, we therefore provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs.

  16. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of U.S. Department of Energy contractor reports through 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports Through 1994 (NREL/TP-430-7886). The original bibliography, entitled Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, was published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes--an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update.

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  18. Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong Jinglan; Li Xiangzhi; Zhaojie Cui

    2010-11-15

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  20. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  1. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Wei; Huppes, Gjalt; Voet, Ester van der

    2011-06-15

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

  2. Solid-waste contracting: Questions and answers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The increasing complexity of local government responsibilities is nowhere better illustrated than in solid waste management. In the past, when the adverse effects of waste disposal were less recognized, garbage was simply taken to local public dumps, or burned in backyard barrels or apartment building incinerators. Local governments must modernize their solid waste programs and operate within growing federal and state regulations. The changing regulatory environment of solid waste management presents a golden opportunity to contract with the private sector if interest of the community can be protected.

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  4. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  5. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

  6. Networks of recyclable material waste-picker’s cooperatives: An alternative for the solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tirado-Soto, Magda Martina; Zamberlan, Fabio Luiz

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? In the marketing of recyclable materials, the waste-pickers are the least wins. ? It is proposed creating a network of recycling cooperatives to achieve viability. ? The waste-pickers contribute to waste management to the city. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to discuss the role of networks formed of waste-picker cooperatives in ameliorating problems of final disposal of solid waste in the city of Rio de Janeiro, since the city’s main landfill will soon have to close because of exhausted capacity. However, it is estimated that in the city of Rio de Janeiro there are around five thousand waste-pickers working in poor conditions, with lack of physical infrastructure and training, but contributing significantly by diverting solid waste from landfills. According to the Sustainable Development Indicators (IBGE, 2010a,b) in Brazil, recycling rates hover between 45% and 55%. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, only 1% of the waste produced is collected selectively by the government (COMLURB, 2010), demonstrating that recycling is mainly performed by waste-pickers. Furthermore, since the recycling market is an oligopsony that requires economies of scale to negotiate directly with industries, the idea of working in networks of cooperatives meets the demands for joint marketing of recyclable materials. Thus, this work presents a method for creating and structuring a network of recycling cooperatives, with prior training for working in networks, so that the expected synergies and joint efforts can lead to concrete results. We intend to demonstrate that it is first essential to strengthen the waste-pickers’ cooperatives in terms of infrastructure, governance and training so that solid waste management can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  7. Solid Waste Assurance Program Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irons, L.G.

    1995-06-19

    On June 6, 1995, a waiver to Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, was approved by the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) to replace the low-level, mixed, and transuranic (TRU) generator assessment programs with the Solid Waste Assurance Program (SWAP). This is associated with a waiver that was approved on March 16, 1995 to replace the Storage/Disposal Approval Record (SDAR) requirements with the Waste Specification System (WSS). This implementation plan and the SWAP applies to Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) functions, facilities, and personnel who perform waste acceptance, verification, receipt, and management functions of dangerous, radioactive, and mixed waste from on- and off-site generators who ship to or within the Hanford Site for treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) at SWD TSD facilities.

  8. Microsoft Word - Solid Waste at Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Funds on Solid Waste Project Activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site OAS-RA-L-11-08 May 2011 DOE F 1325.8 (08-93) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: May19, 2011 Audit Report Number: OAS-RA-L-11-08 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-34 (A10RA041) SUBJECT: Report on "Use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Funds on Solid Waste Project Activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site" TO:

  9. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehtinen, Jenni; Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ? VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ? 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ? Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most problematic factor was endotoxins whose average measured concentrations was 4853 EU/m{sup 3}.

  10. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-15

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  11. Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSo...

  12. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  13. Application of multi-criteria decision-making on strategic municipal solid waste management in Dalmatia, Croatia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vego, Goran Kucar-Dragicevic, Savka Koprivanac, Natalija

    2008-11-15

    The efficiency of providing a waste management system in the coastal part of Croatia consisting of four Dalmatian counties has been modelled. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to assist with the systematic analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. The analysis covered two levels; first, the potential number of waste management centres resulting from possible inter-county cooperation; and second, the relative merits of siting of waste management centres in the coastal or hinterland zone was evaluated. The problem was analysed according to several criteria; and ecological, economic, social and functional criteria sets were identified as relevant to the decision-making process. The PROMETHEE and GAIA methods were shown to be efficient tools for analysing the problem considered. Such an approach provided new insights to waste management planning at the strategic level, and gave a reason for rethinking some of the existing strategic waste management documents in Croatia.

  14. Scalable, Efficient Solid Waste Burner System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Scalable, Efficient Solid Waste Burner System Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A system that effectively burns solid human waste where traditional waste management practices are not viable, such as forward-operation military bases. Description This innovation is a semi-gasifier, burner device to process solid waste, particularly solid human waste. Developed by

  15. H. R. 3737: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose an excise tax on certain uses of virgin materials and to establish a trust fund for recycling assistance and solid waste management planning. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, November 19, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 3737 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose an excise tax on certain uses of virgin materials and to establish a trust fund for recycling assistance and solid waste management planning.

  16. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  17. International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Association (ISWA) Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) Address: ISWA - International Solid Waste Association General...

  18. Idaho Solid Waste Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Idaho Solid Waste Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an overview of regulation...

  19. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD TW

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  20. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Solid waste programs updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The module focuses on EPA`s efforts in two areas: municipal and industrial solid waste. The garbage that is managed by the local governments is known as municipal solid waste (MSW). Garbage excluded from hazardous waste regulation but not typically collected by local governments is commonly known as industrial solid waste. This category includes domestic sewage and other wastewater treatment sludge, demolition and construction wastes, agricultural and mining residues, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes.

  1. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford`s past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D&D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers.

  2. Solid Waste Program Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Program Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Solid Waste Program Website Author Alaska Division of Environmental Health...

  3. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  4. Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Maximum and Minimum Forecast for SRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, L.C.

    1994-10-01

    This report is the third phase (Phase III) of the Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Phase I of the forecast, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast for Facilities at SRS, forecasts the yearly quantities of low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste, mixed waste, and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated over the next 30 years by operations, decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site. The Phase II report, Thirty-Year Solid Waste Generation Forecast by Treatability Group (U), provides a 30-year forecast by waste treatability group for operations, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities. In addition, a 30-year forecast by waste stream has been provided for operations in Appendix A of the Phase II report. The solid wastes stored or generated at SRS must be treated and disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local laws and regulations. To evaluate, select, and justify the use of promising treatment technologies and to evaluate the potential impact to the environment, the generic waste categories described in the Phase I report were divided into smaller classifications with similar physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics. These smaller classifications, defined within the Phase II report as treatability groups, can then be used in the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement process to evaluate treatment options. The waste generation forecasts in the Phase II report includes existing waste inventories. Existing waste inventories, which include waste streams from continuing operations and stored wastes from discontinued operations, were not included in the Phase I report. Maximum and minimum forecasts serve as upper and lower boundaries for waste generation. This report provides the maximum and minimum forecast by waste treatability group for operation, decontamination and decommissioning, and ER activities.

  5. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWEFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070 - Document number changed to HNF-0918 at revision 1 - 1/7/97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-10-03

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed at Hanford`s Solid Waste (SW) Program from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the SW Program; program- level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and Li comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. The focus of this web site is on low- level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this site is reporting data current as of 9/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program`s life cycle.

  6. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  7. Report of the Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Statement regarding Data Quality Control and Management Issues | Department of Energy of the Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement regarding Data Quality Control and Management Issues Report of the Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement regarding Data Quality Control and Management Issues As part of the litigation involving receipt of offsite waste and the HSW EIS, the Court allowed the State of Washington a limited amount of discovery

  8. Nevada Industrial Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Industrial Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit Application Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Nevada Industrial Solid Waste Disposal Site...

  9. Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement January 9, 2006 - 9:43am Addthis Richland, WA - ...

  10. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

  11. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  12. Solid waste integrated forecast technical (SWIFT) report: FY1997 to FY 2070, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Morgan, J.

    1997-01-07

    This web site provides an up-to-date report on the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons with previous forecasts and with other national data sources. This web site does not include: liquid waste (current or future generation); waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); or waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste). The focus of this web site is on low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). Some details on low-level waste and hazardous waste are also provided. Currently, this web site is reporting data th at was requested on 10/14/96 and submitted on 10/25/96. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY97 through the end of each program's life cycle. Therefore, these data represent revisions from the previous FY97.0 Data Version, due primarily to revised estimates from PNNL. There is some useful information about the structure of this report in the SWIFT Report Web Site Overview.

  13. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  14. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  15. Nevada Solid Waste Forms and Guidance Documents Webpage | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Forms and Guidance Documents Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Solid Waste Forms and Guidance Documents...

  16. Hawaii DOH Solid Waste Section Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Section Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii DOH Solid Waste Section Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an...

  17. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PROPOSED PLAN FOR DESIGNATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SOUTHWEST GROUNDWATER PLUME AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Amidon, M.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.

    2011-05-31

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing a Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation of designated sources of chlorinated solvents that contribute contamination to the Southwest (SW) Groundwater Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, KY. The principal contaminants in the SW Plume are trichloroethene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); these industrial solvents were used and disposed in various facilities and locations at PGDP. In the SW plume area, residual TCE sources are primarily in the fine-grained sediments of the Upper Continental Recharge System (UCRS), a partially saturated zone that delivers contaminants downward into the coarse-grained Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). The RGA serves as the significant lateral groundwater transport pathway for the plume. In the SW Plume area, the four main contributing TCE source units are: (1) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 / Oil Landfarm; (2) C-720 Building TCE Northeast Spill Site (SWMU 211A); (3) C-720 Building TCE Southeast Spill Site (SWMU 211B); and (4) C-747 Contaminated Burial Yard (SWMU 4). The PP presents the Preferred Alternatives for remediation of VOCs in the UCRS at the Oil Landfarm and the C-720 Building spill sites. The basis for the PP is documented in a Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) (DOE, 2011) and a Site Investigation Report (SI) (DOE, 2007). The SW plume is currently within the boundaries of PGDP (i.e., does not extend off-site). Nonetheless, reasonable mitigation of the multiple contaminant sources contributing to the SW plume is one of the necessary components identified in the PGDP End State Vision (DOE, 2005). Because of the importance of the proposed actions DOE assembled an Independent Technical Review (ITR) team to provide input and assistance in finalizing the PP.

  18. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bari, Quazi H.; Mahbub Hassan, K.; Haque, R.

    2012-12-15

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  19. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  20. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  1. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutch Jr, R. D.; Mahony, J. D.

    2008-07-15

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  2. Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keser, Saniye; Duzgun, Sebnem; Aksoy, Aysegul

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global scale, the MSW generation rates in Turkey are significantly related to unemployment rate and asphalt-paved roads ratio. Yet, significances of these variables may diminish at local scale for some provinces. At local scale, different factors may be important in affecting MSW generation rates.

  3. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  4. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J.; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  5. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.-W.; Chang, N.-B.; Chen, J.-C.; Tsai, S.-J.

    2010-07-15

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) - a production economics tool - to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world.

  6. Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Agreement | Department of Energy Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement January 9, 2006 - 9:43am Addthis Richland, WA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Washington have entered into a settlement agreement that will lead to a final order and the dismissal of the challenge to Hanford's Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement

  7. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Availability of Feedstock and Technology | Department of Energy 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the potential to provide a significant amount of energy to meet US liquid fuel requirements. MSW is defined as household waste, commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt, small quantity hazardous

  8. Report of the Review of the Hanford Solid Waste Environmental...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... the preparation of the Hanford Solid Waste EIS." The ... The project organization chart contained in the Battelle ... BHI-01570, Rev 0, Bechtel Hanford, Inc., Richland, ...

  9. IGES GHG Calculator For Solid Waste | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assessment to Protect the Environment (GRAPE) Electricity Markets Analysis (EMA) Model Gold Standard Program Model ... further results The GHG Calculator for Solid Waste is a...

  10. Geothermal Power Plants — Minimizing Solid Waste and Recovering Minerals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although many geothermal power plants generate no appreciable solid waste, the unique characteristics of some geothermal fluids require special attention to handle entrained solid byproducts.

  11. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  12. SOLID WASTE INTEGRATED FORECAST TECHNICAL (SWIFT) REPORT FY2005 THRU FY2035 2005.0 VOLUME 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2005-08-17

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: (1) an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; (2) multi-level and waste class-specific estimates; (3) background information on waste sources; and (4) comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. The focus of this report is low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and transuranic waste, both non-mixed and mixed (TRU(M)). Some details on hazardous waste are also provided, however, this information is not considered comprehensive. This report includes data requested in December, 2004 with updates through March 31,2005. The data represent a life cycle forecast covering all reported activities from FY2005 through the end of each program's life cycle and are an update of the previous FY2004.1 data version.

  13. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  14. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  15. Solid waste recycling programs at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millette, R.L.; Blackman, T.E.; Shepard, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Flats (RFP) recycling programs for solid waste materials have been in place for over ten years. Within the last three years, the programs were centralized under the direction of the Rocky Flats Waste Minimization department, with the assistance of various plant organizations (e.g., Trucking, Building Services, Regulated Waste Operations, property Utilization and Disposal and Security). Waste Minimization designs collection and transportation systems for recyclable materials and evaluates recycling markets for opportunities to add new commodities to the existing programs. The Waste Minimization department also promotes employee participation in the Rocky Flats Recycling Programs, and collects all recycling data for publication. A description of the program status as of January 1994 is given.

  16. Municipal solid waste (garbage): problems and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, G.I.

    1983-05-01

    The average person in the USA generates from 3 1/2 to 7 lb of garbage/day. The combustible portion of garbage consists primarily of paper products, plastics, textiles, and wood. Problems connected with energy production from municipal solid waste (garbage), and the social, economic, and environmental factors associated with this technology are discussed. The methods for using garbage as a fuel for a combustion process are discussed. One method processes the garbage to produce a fuel that is superior to raw garbage, the other method of using garbage as a fuel is to burn it directly - the mass burning approach. The involvement of the Power Authority of the State of New York in garbage-to-energy technology is discussed.

  17. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford`s SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TW{underscore}TRUM).

  18. Bases for solid waste volume estimates for tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddick, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This document presents the background and basis for the Tank Waste Remediation System forecast for solid waste submitted in June 1996. The forecast was generated for single-shell tank and double-shell tank activities including operations through retrieval and disposal of chemical tank waste.

  19. Solid Waste Integrated Forecast Technical (SWIFT) Report FY2001 to FY2046 Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2000-08-31

    This report provides up-to-date life cycle information about the radioactive solid waste expected to be managed by Hanford's Waste Management (WM) Project from onsite and offsite generators. It includes: an overview of Hanford-wide solid waste to be managed by the WM Project; program-level and waste class-specific estimates; background information on waste sources; and comparisons to previous forecasts and other national data sources. This report does not include: waste to be managed by the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) contractor (i.e., waste that will be disposed of at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF)); waste that has been received by the WM Project to date (i.e., inventory waste); mixed low-level waste that will be processed and disposed by the River Protection Program; and liquid waste (current or future generation). Although this report currently does not include liquid wastes, they may be added as information becomes available.

  20. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  1. Web-GIS oriented systems viability for municipal solid waste selective collection optimization in developed and transient economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, E.C.; Ragazzi, M.; Fedrizzi, P.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? As an appropriate solution for MSW management in developed and transient countries. ? As an option to increase the efficiency of MSW selective collection. ? As an opportunity to integrate MSW management needs and services inventories. ? As a tool to develop Urban Mining actions. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste management is a multidisciplinary activity that includes generation, source separation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery, and, last but not least, disposal. The optimization of waste collection, through source separation, is compulsory where a landfill based management must be overcome. In this paper, a few aspects related to the implementation of a Web-GIS based system are analyzed. This approach is critically analyzed referring to the experience of two Italian case studies and two additional extra-European case studies. The first case is one of the best examples of selective collection optimization in Italy. The obtained efficiency is very high: 80% of waste is source separated for recycling purposes. In the second reference case, the local administration is going to be faced with the optimization of waste collection through Web-GIS oriented technologies for the first time. The starting scenario is far from an optimized management of municipal solid waste. The last two case studies concern pilot experiences in China and Malaysia. Each step of the Web-GIS oriented strategy is comparatively discussed referring to typical scenarios of developed and transient economies. The main result is that transient economies are ready to move toward Web oriented tools for MSW management, but this opportunity is not yet well exploited in the sector.

  2. Geothermal Direct-Use — Minimizing Solid Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Aquaculture and horticulture businesses, and other industries that use geothermal direct-use systems typically don't generate any more solid waste than those that use other energy resources.

  3. Solid waste landfills under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    This document provides guidance for meeting: (1) Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste (40 CFR 241); (2) Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257); and (3) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) (40 CFR Part 258). Revisions to 40 CFR 257 and a new Part 258 were published in the Federal Register (56 FR 50978, 10/9/91). The Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste set requirements and recommended procedures to ensure that the design, construction, and operation of land disposal sites is done in a manner that will protect human health and the environment. These regulations are applicable to MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs (e.g., landfills used only for the disposal of demolition debris, commercial waste, and/or industrial waste). These guidelines are not applicable to the, land disposal of hazardous, agricultural, and/or mining wastes. These criteria are to be used under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in determining which solid waste disposal facilities pose a reasonable possibility of adversely affecting human health or the environment. Facilities failing to satisfy these criteria will be considered to be open dumps which are prohibited under Section 4005 of RCRA. The Criteria for MSWLFs are applicable only to MSWLFs, including those MSWLFs in which sewage sludge is co-disposed with household waste. Based on specific criteria, certain MSWLFs are exempt from some, or all, of the regulations of 40 CFR 258. MSWLFs that fail to satisfy the criteria specified in 40 CFR 258 are also considered open dumps for the purposes of Section 4005 of RCRA. Through the use of a series of interrelated flow diagrams, this guidance document directs the reader to each design, operation, maintenance, and closure activity that must be performed for MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs.

  4. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from 231-Z

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Berkwitz, D.E.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium Metallurgy Laboratory (231-Z) Facility. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by 231-Z using process knowledge, existing records and oral history interviews. Since 1944 research and development programs utilizing plutonium have been conducted at 231-Z in the fields of physical metallurgy, property determination, alloy development, and process development. The following are sources of solid waste generation at the 231-Z Facility: (1) General Weapons Development Program, (2) process waste from gloveboxes, (3) numerous classified research and development programs, (4) advanced decontamination and decommissioning technologies, including sectioning, vibratory finishing, electropolishing, solution process, and small bench-scale work, (5) general laboratory procedures, (6) foundry area, (7) housekeeping activities, and (8) four cleanout campaigns. All solid wastes originating at 231-Z were packaged for onsite-offsite storage or disposal. Waste packaging and reporting requirements have undergone significant changes throughout the history of 231-Z. Current and historical procedures are provided in Section 4.0. Information on the radioactive wastes generated at 231-Z can be found in a number of documents and databases, most importantly the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System database and Solid Waste Burial Records. Facility personnel also provide excellent information about past waste generation and the procedures used to handle that waste. Section 5.0 was compiled using these sources.

  5. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  6. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Program - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Program What's New Acceptance Criteria Acceptance Process Tools Points of Contact Contact Us Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Program Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size The Hanford Site operates waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities for the various types of radioactive waste onsite and from elsewhere in the U.S.

  7. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  8. The Solid Waste Authority: {open_quotes}This place is for the birds{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalik, M.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County (SWA) manages a waste-to-energy facility and landfill adjacent to a site which, during the 1985 Florida drought, served as the largest communal Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) roost documented in the United States. Listed as an endangered species, the Snail Kite initiated a Section 7 consulation process as a USCOAE Dredge & Fill permit was sought for construction in 1987. In response to environmental permit requirements, SWA developed and implemented a Wildlife Conservation & Management Program which evaluated the roost`s response to activities associated with site development. Specifically, a seven-year bird monitoring program was conducted on kite usage of this roost from 1987-1993. Impact assessment was expanded to include monitoring the mixed-species wading bird colony which inhabits the same roosting area. Monitoring at the community level serves as a better environmental indicator because Snail Kites are nomadic and respond to regional water level changes. This paper gives an overview of the environmental concerns and approach taken to monitor the roost, describes the different components of the bird monitoring program, and summarizes the findings of the 7-year data collection. An evaluation of the SWA project with regards to impacts on Snail Kite and wading bird usage of the area is also discussed.

  9. Solid waste bin detection and classification using Dynamic Time Warping and MLP classifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Hannan, M.A.; Basri, Hassan; Hussain, Aini; Arebey, Maher

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Solid waste bin level detection using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW). • Gabor wavelet filter is used to extract the solid waste image features. • Multi-Layer Perceptron classifier network is used for bin image classification. • The classification performance evaluated by ROC curve analysis. - Abstract: The increasing requirement for Solid Waste Management (SWM) has become a significant challenge for municipal authorities. A number of integrated systems and methods have introduced to overcome this challenge. Many researchers have aimed to develop an ideal SWM system, including approaches involving software-based routing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Radio-frequency Identification (RFID), or sensor intelligent bins. Image processing solutions for the Solid Waste (SW) collection have also been developed; however, during capturing the bin image, it is challenging to position the camera for getting a bin area centralized image. As yet, there is no ideal system which can correctly estimate the amount of SW. This paper briefly discusses an efficient image processing solution to overcome these problems. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) was used for detecting and cropping the bin area and Gabor wavelet (GW) was introduced for feature extraction of the waste bin image. Image features were used to train the classifier. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier was used to classify the waste bin level and estimate the amount of waste inside the bin. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to statistically evaluate classifier performance. The results of this developed system are comparable to previous image processing based system. The system demonstration using DTW with GW for feature extraction and an MLP classifier led to promising results with respect to the accuracy of waste level estimation (98.50%). The application can be used to optimize the routing of waste collection based on the estimated bin level.

  10. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beylot, Antoine Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from ?58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of ?58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  11. BETO Active Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BETO Active Project Management Bioenergy Technologies Office - Program Management Review 6/25/15 Liz Moore Technology Manager eere.energy.gov Program Managers * Manages portfolio within their technology area * Establishes technical and cost goals * Strategic planning for technology area * Budget preparation/justification for technology portfolio * Identifies needs for workshops and FOAs * Oversees portfolio reviews including high-level project status Technology Managers * Plans/conducts

  12. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  13. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  14. 42 U.S.C. 6901 - Solid Waste Disposal Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6901 - Solid Waste Disposal Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 42 U.S.C. 6901 - Solid Waste Disposal ActLegal...

  15. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters. The range is primarily due to uncertainties associated with the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program, including uncertainties regarding retrieval of long-length equipment, scheduling, and tank retrieval technologies.

  16. Tank farms solid waste characterization guide with sampling and analysis plan attachment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quigley, J.T.

    1997-04-02

    This document describes methods used, including sampling and analysis, to characterize hazardous chemical constituent in Tank Farms containerized solid waste.

  17. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  18. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-15

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%)

  19. Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

  20. Problems associated with solid wastes from energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, S.Y.; Fradkin, L.; Barisas, S.; Surles, T.; Morris, S.; Crowther, A.; DeCarlo, V.

    1980-09-01

    Waste streams from many energy-related technologies including coal, oil shale, tar sands, geothermal, oil and gas extraction, and nuclear power generation are reviewed with an emphasis on waste streams from coal and oil shale technologies. This study has two objectives. The first objective is to outline the available information on energy-related solid wastes. Data on chemical composition and hazardous biological characteristics are included, supplemented by regulatory reviews and data on legally designated hazardous waste streams. The second objective is to provide disposal and utilization options. Solid waste disposal and recovery requirements specified under the RCRA are emphasized. Information presented herein should be useful for policy, environmental control, and research and development decision making regarding solid and hazardous wastes from energy production.

  1. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  2. Pennsylvania to require statewide recycling of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The new law, requiring trash recycling in 407 communities affecting 7.8 million Pennsylvanians, is a key component of the Casey administration's comprehensive environmental clean up plant. The new recycling law requires municipalities with more than 10,000 residents to start curb-side recycling programs within two years. Communities with 5000 to 10,000 residents must start recycling in three years. The goal is to reduce the state's volume of solid waste by 25 percent by 1997. Nine million tons of trash are generated each year in Pennsylvania, with 95 percent of it landfilled and only one percent recycled. Much of the state's solid waste must be transported over increasing distances at increasing costs to be disposed of. Average trash disposal costs have increased 150 percent in the past three years. The new law requires communities to recycle three of eight materials, including glass, colored glass, aluminum, steel and bimetallic cans, high-grade office paper, newsprint, corrugated paper and plastics. All communities must recycle leaf waste. The legislation shifts responsibility for planning solid waste disposal from municipalities to counties, reimbursing counties 80 percent of the cost of developing comprehensive recycling plans and 50 percent of the cost of hiring a recycling coordinator. The program will be self-supporting through a $2-per-ton fee on all garbage going to landfills and resource recovery.

  3. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  4. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-09-14

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste with Regulated Asbestos Waste.'' A requirement of the authorization was that on or before October 9, 1999, a permit was required to be issued. Because of NDEP and NNSA/NSO review cycles, the final permit was issued on April 5, 2000, for the operation of the Area 5 Low-Level Waste Disposal Site, utilizing Pit 7 (P07) as the designated disposal cell. The original permit applied only to Pit 7, with a total design capacity of 5,831 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (157,437 cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]). NNSA/NSO is expanding the SWDS to include the adjacent Upper Cell of Pit 6 (P06), with an additional capacity of 28,037 yd{sup 3} (756,999 ft{sup 3}) (Figure 3). The proposed total capacity of ALLW in Pit 7 and P06 will be approximately 33,870 yd{sup 3} (0.9 million ft{sup 3}). The site will be used for the disposal of regulated ALLW, small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The only waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM). The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe this waste. Other TSCA waste (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) will not be accepted for disposal at the SWDS. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) 325

  5. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  6. Reducing the environmental impact on solid wastes from a fluidized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; WASTE MANAGEMENT; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; CALCIUM OXIDES; CHEMICAL ACTIVATION;...

  7. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-04-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

  8. Study of the operational conditions for anaerobic digestion of urban solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillo M, Edgar Fernando . E-mail: efcastil@uis.edu.co; Cristancho, Diego Edison; Victor Arellano, A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes an experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion technology as an option for the management of organic solid waste in developing countries. As raw material, a real and heterogeneous organic waste from urban solid wastes was used. In the first experimental phase, seed selection was achieved through an evaluation of three different anaerobic sludges coming from wastewater treatment plants. The methanization potential of these sludges was assessed in three different batch digesters of 500 mL, at two temperature levels. The results showed that by increasing the temperature to 15 deg. C above room temperature, the methane production increases to three times. So, the best results were obtained in the digester fed with a mixed sludge, working at mesophilic conditions (38-40 deg. C). Then, this selected seed was used at the next experimental phase, testing at different digestion times (DT) of 25, 20 and 18 days in a bigger batch digester of 20 L with a reaction volume of 13 L. The conversion rates were registered at the lowest DT (18 days), reaching 44.9 L/kg{sup -1} of wet waste day{sup -1}. Moreover, DT also has a strong influence over COD removal, because there is a direct relationship between solids removal inside the reactor and DT.

  9. Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Jun; Zhang Weiqian; Che Yue; Feng Di

    2011-08-15

    A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

  10. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet; Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-08-15

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

  11. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  12. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  13. EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington | Department of Energy 07: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington Summary This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of closing the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and the Solid Waste Landfill. The Washington State Department of Ecology

  14. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treat, Russell L. (Richland, WA); Gee, Glendon W. (Richland, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  15. Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

  16. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  17. Cost avoidance techniques through the Fernald controlled area trash segregation program and the RIMIA solid waste reduction program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menche, C.E.

    1997-05-14

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department of Energy owned facility that produced high quality uranium metals for military defense. The Fernald mission has changed from one of production to remediation. Remediation is intended to clean up legacy (primary) waste from past practices. Little opportunity is available to reduce the amount of primary waste. However, there is an opportunity to reduce secondary waste generation, primarily through segregation. Two programs which accomplish this are the Controlled Area Trash Segregation Program and the RIMIA Solid Waste Reduction Program. With these two programs now in place at the FEMP, it has been estimated that a 60% reduction has been achieved in unnecessary clean waste being disposed as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site. The cost savings associated with these programs (currently 79,000 cubic feet, $428,000) could easily run into the millions of dollars based on the upcoming restoration activities to be undertaken. The segregation of non-radiological waste in the radiologically Controlled Area not only establishes a firm commitment to send only low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site, but also results in substantial cost avoidance.

  18. On-line early fault detection and diagnosis of municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Jinsong [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: jinsongzhao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Huang Jianchao [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10086 (China); Sun Wei [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows that automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.

  19. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT & M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RYAN GW

    2008-04-25

    In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI!ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized.

  20. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

  1. Bridging legal and economic perspectives on interstate municipal solid waste disposal in the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longo, Christine; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Legal and economic opinions of free interstate trade of MSW in the US are reviewed. {yields} Economic theory of landfill space as the article of commerce can align opinions. {yields} Waste management policies implied by this economic theory are compared/contrasted. - Abstract: Managing municipal solid waste (MSW) within and across regions is a complex public policy problem. One challenge regards conceptualizing precisely what commodity is to be managed across space and time. The US Supreme Court view is that waste disposal is the article of commerce per se. Some justices, however, have argued that while waste disposal is the article of commerce, its interstate flow could be impeded by states on the grounds that they have the authority to regulate natural resource quality within their boundaries. The argument in this paper is that adopting the economic theory view of the article of commerce as landfill space brings the majority and dissenting US Supreme Court views-and the resulting sides of the public policy dispute-into closer alignment. We discuss waste management policy tools that emerge from this closer alignment that are more likely to both withstand judicial scrutiny and achieve economic efficiency.

  2. Waste management units - Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only.

  3. Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The adoption of the SDMT for the measurements of MSW properties is proposed. • A comparison between SDMT results and laboratory tests was carried out. • A good reliability has been found in deriving waste properties by SDMT. • Results seems to be promising for the friction angle and Young’s modulus evaluation. - Abstract: In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the “Cozzo Vuturo” landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for “fresh” and “degraded waste” have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements.

  4. Composite analysis for solid waste storage area 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    The composite analysis (CA) provides an estimate of the potential cumulative impacts to a hypothetical future member of the public from the Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) disposal operations and all of the other sources of radioactive material in the ground on the ORR that may interact with contamination originating in SWSA 6.The projected annual dose to hypothetical future member of the public from all contributing sources is compared to the primary dose limit of 100 mrem per year and a dose constraint of 30 mrem per year. Consistent with the CA guidance, dose estimates for the first 1000 years after disposal are emphasized for comparison with the primary dose limit and dose constraint.The current land use plan for the ORR is being revised, and may include a reduction in the land currently controlled by DOE on the ORR. The possibility of changes in the land use boundary is considered in the CA as part of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, the interpretation of results, and the conclusions.

  5. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  6. Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

  7. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification March 2010 Adapted from reports prepared by: C Valkenburg Y Zhu CW Walton BL Thompson MA Gerber SB Jones DJ Stevens of the Pacifc Northwest National Laboratory A two volume report "Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology" & "Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evalua- tion of the Production of Mixed Alcohols" is available

  8. Waste management units - Savannah River Site. Volume 1, Waste management unit worksheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only.

  9. EA-1097: Solid waste Disposal- Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to continue the on-site disposal of solid waste at the Area 9 and Area 23 landfills at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site...

  10. EA-1707: Closure of Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of closing the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and the Solid Waste Landfill. The Washington State Department of Ecology is a cooperating agency in preparing this EA.

  11. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  12. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (solid waste pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The paper discusses pollution by solid wastes including garbage, scrap, junked automobiles, spoil, sludge, containers; Disposal methods such as composts or land application, injection wells, incineration, sanitary landfills; Mining wastes; Processing for separation and materials recovery; Solid waste utilization; Recycling; Biological and ecological effects; Superfund (Records of Decision, etc.); SITE technology; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use. The discussion includes disposal of concentrated or pure liquids such as brines, oils, chemicals, and hazardous materials.

  14. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  15. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A. Tolis, Athanasios I. Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained.

  16. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  17. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

  18. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  19. RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

  20. Environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. The nature and magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. Within the United States, operational DOE facilities, as well as the decontamination and decommissioning of inactive facilities, have produced significant amounts of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. In order to ensure worker safety and the protection of the public, DOE must: (1) assess, remediate, and monitor sites and facilities; (2) store, treat, and dispose of wastes from past and current operations; and (3) develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The EM directive necessitates looking beyond domestic capabilities to technological solutions found outside US borders. Following the collapse of the Soviet regime, formerly restricted elite Soviet scientific expertise became available to the West. EM has established a cooperative technology development program with Russian scientific institutes that meets domestic cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Russian EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) increasing US private sector opportunities in Russian in EM-related areas.

  1. Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (..cap alpha..,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Composting: Dirty riches. [Composting organic wastes from the municiple solid waste stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1993-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of municiple solid waste (MSW) is organic, readily biodegradable material, such as food, leaves, and paper. If this waste were allowed to root properly, the solid waste crisis would be less serious. However, rotting isn't easy in a tightly packed mountain of garbage at a typical landfill. The last few years have at least established composing as a rising green industry, especially in the most populous regions of the developed world. However, the variety of composting programs is too inefficient to divert any more than a tiny fraction of the compostable waste stream away from landfills and incinerators. This article discusses the problems of mixed municiple solid wastes and composting organic wastes, and possible solutions.

  3. Proposal of an environmental performance index to assess solid waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulart Coelho, Hosmanny Mauro; Lange, Lisete Celina; Coelho, Lineker Max Goulart

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposal of a new concept in waste management: Cleaner Treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of an index to assess quantitatively waste treatment technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Delphi Method was carried out so as to define environmental indicators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance evaluation of waste-to-energy plants. - Abstract: Although the concern with sustainable development and environment protection has considerably grown in the last years it is noted that the majority of decision making models and tools are still either excessively tied to economic aspects or geared to the production process. Moreover, existing models focus on the priority steps of solid waste management, beyond waste energy recovery and disposal. So, in order to help the lack of models and tools aiming at the waste treatment and final disposal, a new concept is proposed: the Cleaner Treatment, which is based on the Cleaner Production principles. This paper focuses on the development and validation of the Cleaner Treatment Index (CTI), to assess environmental performance of waste treatment technologies based on the Cleaner Treatment concept. The index is formed by aggregation (summation or product) of several indicators that consists in operational parameters. The weights of the indicator were established by Delphi Method and Brazilian Environmental Laws. In addition, sensitivity analyses were carried out comparing both aggregation methods. Finally, index validation was carried out by applying the CTI to 10 waste-to-energy plants data. From sensitivity analysis and validation results it is possible to infer that summation model is the most suitable aggregation method. For summation method, CTI results were superior to 0.5 (in a scale from 0 to 1) for most facilities evaluated. So, this study demonstrates that CTI is a simple and robust tool to assess and compare the environmental performance of different treatment plants being an excellent quantitative tool to support Cleaner Treatment implementation.

  4. WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 WIPP Doubles Solid Waste Reduction Rate in Fiscal Year 2013 December 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis WIPP environmental and operations personnel gather next to pallets that will be provided to the local community as part of WIPP’s wood waste diversion program. WIPP environmental and operations personnel gather next to pallets that will be provided to the local community as part of WIPP's wood waste diversion program. CARLSBAD, N.M.

  5. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  6. DOE Financial Assistance Awards: Active Project Management |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financial Assistance Awards: Active Project Management DOE Financial Assistance Awards: Active Project Management Presentation by Jim Alkire during the May 15 working lunch session ...

  7. Haul trash or haul ash: Local government decision-making for municipal solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeler, A.G.; Renkow, M. )

    1992-12-01

    A model of local government choice of solid waste disposal strategies is developed. The conditions under which incineration is an optimal strategy is derived. The effects of mandatory recycling legislation and extra-local policies that reduce the cost of recycling and the size of the waste stream are investigated.

  8. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This appendix provides the radionuclide inventory data used for the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 Performance Assessment (PA). The uncertainties in the radionuclide inventory data are also provided, along with the descriptions of the methods used to estimate the uncertainties.

  9. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  10. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  11. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  12. Vermont Waste Management and Prevention Division | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    federal and state programs regulating hazardous wastes, solid wastes, and underground storage tanks, and manages cleanup at hazardous sites under state and federal authorities,...

  13. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Survey of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-07-15

    The operations of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan were examined. Input waste, system processes, material flows, quality of char and its utilization, fuel and chemical consumption, control of facility emissions, and trouble areas in facility operation were investigated and analyzed. Although carbonization is a technically available thermochemical conversion method for municipal solid waste treatment, problems of energy efficiency and char utilization must be solved for carbonization to be competitive. Possible solutions include (1) optimizing the composition of input waste, treatment scale, organization of unit processes, operational methods, and quality and yield of char on the basis of analysis and feedback of long-term operating data of present operating facilities and (2) securing stable char demands by linking with local industries such as thermal electric power companies, iron manufacturing plants, and cement production plants.

  15. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazza, G.; Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G.; Soria, J.

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  16. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  17. Solid waste disposal economics. (Latest citations from the NTISs Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic aspects of solid waste disposal. Topics include feasibility studies of specific waste-to-energy programs, materials recovery and recycling, and the use of fuel gases from landfills. Waste materials sources include industrial and municipal wastes, dredged materials, and waste derived from agricultural and mining operations. Considerable attention is given to Superfund records of decision at specific sites. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Solid waste disposal economics. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic aspects of solid waste disposal. Topics include feasibility studies of specific waste-to-energy programs, materials recovery and recycling, and the use of fuel gases from landfills. Waste materials sources include industrial and municipal wastes, dredged materials, and waste derived from agricultural and mining operations. Considerable attention is given to Superfund records of decision at specific sites. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  1. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols | Department of Energy 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S.

  2. Simplified method to characterize municipal solid waste properties under seismic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Deepankar Savoikar, Purnanand

    2009-02-15

    The response of municipal solid waste landfills during earthquakes is gaining worldwide attention due to the devastating nature of earthquakes on landfills. Safety code provisions and regulations of various countries require the incorporation of safety measures against seismic hazards in the design of new landfills, as well as for extensions of existing landfills in seismic zones. Determination of dynamic properties is the first step for the analysis of municipal solid waste materials under seismic conditions. Landfill composition and properties, like unit weight, shear wave velocity, shear strength, normalized shear modulus, and material damping, are the most important dynamic properties that have direct impact on the seismic behaviour of landfills, and need to be evaluated carefully. In the present study, based on the extensive data provided by various researchers, the dynamic properties of landfill materials are analyzed using curve-fitting techniques, and simple mathematical equations are proposed. The resulting profiles are compared with laboratory and field data wherever possible. These properties are difficult to generalize and may vary from landfill to landfill. Hence, the proposed simple mathematical models for these landfill properties can be used to design municipal solid waste landfills in the absence of landfill-specific field data under seismic conditions.

  3. EA-0767: Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary at the U.S. Department of Energy's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plant...

  4. Project Management Expectations for Financial Assistance Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Memo on Project Management Expectations for Financial Assistance Activities from David K. Garman, dated June 23, 2006.

  5. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hefa Cheng; Yanguo Zhang; Aihong Meng; Qinghai Li

    2007-11-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (about 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m{sup 3} landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Microbial diversity and dynamics during methane production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bareither, Christopher A.; Wolfe, Georgia L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Benson, Craig H.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? Similar bacterial communities developed following different start-up operation. ? Total methanogens in leachate during the decelerated methane phase reflected overall methane yield. ? Created correlations between methanogens, methane yield, and available substrate. ? Predominant bacteria identified with syntrophic polysaccharide degraders. ? Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were dominant in the methane generation process. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to characterize development of bacterial and archaeal populations during biodegradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and to link specific methanogens to methane generation. Experiments were conducted in three 0.61-m-diameter by 0.90-m-tall laboratory reactors to simulate MSW bioreactor landfills. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to characterize microbial communities in both leachate and solid waste. Microbial assemblages in effluent leachate were similar between reactors during peak methane generation. Specific groups within the Bacteroidetes and Thermatogae phyla were present in all samples and were particularly abundant during peak methane generation. Microbial communities were not similar in leachate and solid fractions assayed at the end of reactor operation; solid waste contained a more abundant bacterial community of cellulose-degrading organisms (e.g., Firmicutes). Specific methanogen populations were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, and Methanobacteriales were the predominant methanogens in all reactors, with Methanomicrobiales consistently the most abundant. Methanogen growth phases coincided with accelerated methane production, and cumulative methane yield increased with increasing total methanogen abundance. The difference in methanogen populations and corresponding methane yield is attributed to different initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the MSW. Higher initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents supported growth of larger methanogen populations that resulted in higher methane yield.

  7. Nuclear Solid Waste Processing Design at the Idaho Spent Fuels Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dippre, M. A.

    2003-02-25

    A spent nuclear fuels (SNF) repackaging and storage facility was designed for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with nuclear solid waste processing capability. Nuclear solid waste included contaminated or potentially contaminated spent fuel containers, associated hardware, machinery parts, light bulbs, tools, PPE, rags, swabs, tarps, weld rod, and HEPA filters. Design of the nuclear solid waste processing facilities included consideration of contractual, regulatory, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) exposure, economic, logistical, and space availability requirements. The design also included non-attended transfer methods between the fuel packaging area (FPA) (hot cell) and the waste processing area. A monitoring system was designed for use within the FPA of the facility, to pre-screen the most potentially contaminated fuel canister waste materials, according to contact- or non-contact-handled capability. Fuel canister waste materials which are not able to be contact-handled after attempted decontamination will be processed remotely and packaged within the FPA. Noncontact- handled materials processing includes size-reduction, as required to fit into INEEL permitted containers which will provide sufficient additional shielding to allow contact handling within the waste areas of the facility. The current design, which satisfied all of the requirements, employs mostly simple equipment and requires minimal use of customized components. The waste processing operation also minimizes operator exposure and operator attendance for equipment maintenance. Recently, discussions with the INEEL indicate that large canister waste materials can possibly be shipped to the burial facility without size-reduction. New waste containers would have to be designed to meet the drop tests required for transportation packages. The SNF waste processing facilities could then be highly simplified, resulting in capital equipment cost savings, operational time savings, and significantly improved ALARA exposure.

  8. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Waste Management Project fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan, WBS 1.2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1997-09-23

    The Waste Management Project manages and integrates (non-TWRS) waste management activities at the site. Activities include management of Hanford wastes as well as waste transferred to Hanford from other DOE, Department of Defense, or other facilities. This work includes handling, treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive, nonradioactive, hazardous, and mixed solid and liquid wastes. Major Waste Management Projects are the Solid Waste Project, Liquid Effluents Project, and Analytical Services. Existing facilities (e.g., grout vaults and canyons) shall be evaluated for reuse for these purposes to the maximum extent possible.

  10. Case study of a solid-waste-scavenger community with respect to health and environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun.

    1991-01-01

    This study was an investigation of a solid waste scavenger community at the On-Nooch Dump Site in Bangkok, Thailand. The purpose was to identify the dimensions of the public health conditions of solid waste scavengers and their community. Cross-sectional field surveys and measurements were undertaken to characterize the distribution and magnitude of health-related problems and environmental conditions. Scavengers were found to be exposed to hazardous conditions due to the waste materials at the dump site. Cuts and punctures from sharp materials were the most common complaints among scavengers. Health symptoms like headache, diarrhea, respiratory illness, skin diseases and back pain were also reported. There was a high prevalence of childhood respiratory illness especially among those children of households where cigarette smoking was present. Children had poor nutritional status and were commonly infected by intestinal protozoa and helminths. An appreciable proportion of adult respondents was below the normal range for lung function performance. Seroprevalence of HBV infection was found to be high among male respondents in addition to six respondents that had possible HIV infections. The quality of the community water supply was low. Air pollution measurements showed acceptable ambient air levels except for particulate levels (TSP and RSP). Levels of indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure NO{sub 2} were found to be similar. Data for an inner-city project apartment community named Din-Dang were also collected for comparison. A priority rating index and recommendations for public health condition improvements were presented.

  11. Sumner County Solid-Waste Energy Recovery Facility. Volume 2. Performance and environmental evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes the operation of the Sumner County Solid Waste Energy Recovery Facility for a 2-year period, beginning with initial operation of the plant in December 1981. The 200-ton/day facility is located at Gallatin, Tennessee, and converts municipal solid waste into steam and eletricity. The report addresses physical and chemical properties of process and waste streams, other operating factors including thermal efficiency and availability, and the initial operating expenses and revenues. Two series of tests were carried out approximately one year apart. An environmental analysis was performed to determine the potential solids, liquid, and gaseous emissions from the plant. The results of the testing will be of interest to others who may be considering a resource recovery facility for the production of energy. The principal conclusions of the report are: The initial operation of the facility has been satisfactory. The ash drag system and air pollution control device must be extensively modified. Waste quantities and steam sales have been less than predicted causing some economic difficulties. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the ash have been high (especially fly ash). The long-range outlook for the facility continues to be optimistic. 10 refs., 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  12. Resolving Radiological Classification and Release Issues for Many DOE Solid Wastes and Salvageable Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1999-06-14

    The cost effective radiological classification and disposal of solid materials with potential volume contamination, in accordance with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, suffers from an inability to unambiguously distinguish among transuranic waste, low-level waste, and unconditional-release materials. Depending on the classification, disposal costs can vary by a hundred-fold. But in many cases, the issues can be easily resolved by a combination of process information, some simple measurements, and calculational predictions from a computer model for radiation shielding.The proper classification and disposal of many solid wastes requires a measurement regime that is able to show compliance with a variety of institutional and regulatory contamination limits. Although this is not possible for all solid wastes, there are many that do lend themselves to such measures. Several examples are discussed which demonstrate the possibilities, including one which was successfully applied to bulk contamination.The only barriers to such broader uses are the slow-to-change institutional perceptions and procedures. For many issues and materials, the measurement tools are available; they need only be applied.

  13. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: richard.taylor@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  14. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  15. H. R. 2670: A bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 18, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on June 18, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste. When garbage is burned, toxic materials are concentrated in the ash. If the ash is disposed of in a landfill, these toxic materials can contaminate the ground water or surface water by leaching toxic materials from the ash. In addition, disposing of contaminated ash improperly can pose a health hazard. New authority is provided for regulating incinerator ash as a hazardous waste.

  16. GeoMelt{sup R} ICV{sup TM} Treatment of Sellafield Pond Solids Waste - 13414

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, Keith; Woosley, Steve; Campbell, Brett [Kurion, Inc., GeoMelt Division, 3015 Horn Rapids Road, Richland, Washington (United States)] [Kurion, Inc., GeoMelt Division, 3015 Horn Rapids Road, Richland, Washington (United States); Wong, Martin; Hill, Joanne [AMEC Inc., Birchwood Park, 601 Faraday Street, Birchwood, Warrington, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)] [AMEC Inc., Birchwood Park, 601 Faraday Street, Birchwood, Warrington, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Kurion, Inc., in partnership with AMEC Ltd., is demonstrating its GeoMelt{sup R} In-Container Vitrification (ICV){sup TM} Technology to Sellafield Ltd. (SL). SL is evaluating the proposition of directly converting a container (skip/box/drum) of raw solid ILW into an immobilized waste form using thermal treatment, such that the resulting product is suitable for interim storage at Sellafield and subsequent disposal at a future Geological Disposal Facility. Potential SL feed streams include sludges, ion-exchange media, sand, plutonium contaminated material, concrete, uranium, fuel cladding, soils, metals, and decommissioning wastes. The solid wastes have significant proportions of metallic constituents in the form of containers, plant equipment, structural material and swarf arising from the nuclear operations at Sellafield. GeoMelt's proprietary ICV process was selected for demonstration, with the focus being high and reactive metal wastes arising from solid ILW material. A composite surrogate recipe was used to demonstrate the technology towards treating waste forms of diverse types and shapes, as well as those considered difficult to process; all the while requiring few (if any) pre-treatment activities. Key strategic objectives, along with their success criterion, were established by SL for this testing, namely: 1. Passivate and stabilize the raw waste simulant, as demonstrated by the entire quantity of material being vitrified, 2. Immobilize the radiological and chemo-toxic species, as demonstrated via indicative mass balance using elemental analyses from an array of samples, 3. Production of an inert and durable product as evidenced by transformation of reactive metals to their inert oxide forms and satisfactory leachability results using PCT testing. Two tests were performed using the GeoMelt Demonstration Unit located at AMEC's Birchwood Park Facilities in the UK. Post-melt examination of the first test indicated some of the waste simulant had not fully processed, due to insufficient processing time and melt temperature. A second test, incorporating operational experience from the first test, was performed and resulted in all of the 138 kg of feed material being treated. The waste simulant portion, at 41 kg, constituted 30 wt% of the total feed mass, with over 90% of this being made up of various reactive and non-reactive metals. The 95 liters of staged material was volume reduced to 41 liters, providing a 57% overall feed to product volume reduction in a fully passivated two-phase glass/metal product. The GeoMelt equipment operated as designed, vitrifying the entire batch of waste simulant. Post-melt analytical testing verified that 91-99+% of the radiological tracer metals were uniformly distributed within the glass/cast refractory/metal product, and the remaining fraction was captured in the offgas filtration systems. PCT testing of the glass and inner refractory liner showed leachability results that outperform the DOE regulatory limit of 2 g/m{sup 2} for the radiological species of interest (Sr, Ru, Cs, Eu, Re), and by more than an order of magnitude better for standard reference analytes (B, Na, Si). (authors)

  17. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe RACM. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the DOE/NV-325, Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC, current revision). Approval will be given by NNSA/NSO to generators that have successfully demonstrated through process knowledge (PK) and/or sampling and analysis that the waste is low-level, contains asbestiform material, or contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, or small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste and does not contain prohibited waste materials. Each waste stream will be approved through the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP), which ensures that the waste meets acceptance requirements outlined in the NNSSWAC.

  18. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by NDEP/BFF. The generator of permissible waste is responsible for preparing documentation related to waste acceptance criteria, waste characterization, and load verification. Waste and Water (WW) personnel are responsible for operating the disposal site and reviewing documentation to determine if the waste is acceptable.

  19. Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.; Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H.; Matsubae, K.; Bai, H.; Nagasaka, T.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

  20. Proceedings: 1989 conference on municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 1989 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Conference on Municipal Solid Waste as a Utility Fuel. The subject areas included are: Utility cofiring experience, refuse-derived fuel production, firing 100% refuse-derived fuel, mass burn technology, fluidized bed combustion, research reports, environmental control technology, and papers on permitting, environmental risk assessment, and the impact of recycling. The conference was held on October 10--12, 1989, and was proceeded by similar conferences held 11/85 (EPRI publication CS-4900-SR, 1986); 1/82 (EPRI publication CS-2723, 1982) and 1/80 (EPRI Publication WS-79-225, 1980). Individual projects are processed separately for on the databases. (MHB)

  1. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.R.; Mayancsik, B.A.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Reddick, J.A.; Sheldon, K.M.; Weyns, M.I.

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  3. Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova

    2009-07-01

    It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

  4. Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste for Syngas Production by Microwave Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V.; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we discuss the application of microwave-irradiated pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) for total recovery of useful gases and energy. The MSW pyrolysis under microwave irradiation highly depends on the process parameters, like microwave power, microwave absorbers, and time of irradiation. The thoroughness of pyrolysis and product recovery were studied by changing the abovesaid variables. Pyrolysis of MSW occurs in the power rating range of 450-850 W-outside this power rating range, pyrolysis is not possible. Experiments were carried out using various microwave absorbers (i.e., graphite, charcoal, and iron) to enhance the pyrolysis even at lower power rating. The results show that the pyrolysis of MSW was possible even at low power ratings. The major composition of the pyrolysis gaseous product were analyzed with GC-MS which includes CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, etc.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayono, Satoto E.; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

  6. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo?ová, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. • More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. • More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline – acid leaching. • The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 °C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 °C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  7. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  8. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  9. Management of Support Services Activities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1991-05-17

    To provide the policy, procedures, and responsibilities for the management of support services contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). Cancels DOE O 4200.3B dated 10-3-85. Chg 1 dated 3-26-92. Canceled by DOE O 4200.3D dated 8-31-92.

  10. Remediation of Highland Drive Landfill: Technical Challenges of Segregating Co-Mingled LLRW and Municipal Solid Waste in an Urbanized Area - 13319

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Jeff; Lawrence, Dave; Case, Glenn; Fergusson Jones, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Highland Drive Landfill is an inactive Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill which received waste from the 1940's until its closure in 1991. During a portion of its active life, the Landfill received low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) which currently exists both in a defined layer and co-mingled with MSW. Remediation of this site to remove the LLRW to meet established cleanup criteria, forms part of the Port Hope Project being undertaken by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) as part of the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). The total volume of LLRW and co-mingled LLRW/MSW estimated to require removal from the Highland Drive Landfill is approximately 51,900 cubic metres (m{sup 3}). The segregation and removal of LLRW at the Highland Drive Landfill presents a number of unique technical challenges due to the co-mingled waste and location of the Landfill in an urbanized area. Key challenges addressed as part of the design process included: delineation of the extent of LLRW, development of cut lines, and estimation of the quantity of co-mingled LLRW in a heterogeneous matrix; protection of adjacent receptors in a manner which would not impact the use of adjacent facilities which include residences, a recreational facility, and a school; coordination and phasing of the work to allow management of six separate material streams including clean soil, MSW, co-mingled LLRW/MSW, LLRW, un-impacted water, and impacted water/leachate within a confined environment; and development of a multi-tiered and adaptive program of monitoring and control measures for odour, dust, and water including assessment of risk of exceedance of monitoring criteria. In addition to ensuring public safety and protection of the environment during remedy implementation, significant effort in the design process was paid to balancing the advantages of increased certainty, including higher production rates, against the costs of attaining increased certainty. Many of these lessons may be applicable to other projects. (authors)

  11. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual technical progress report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute`s fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison`s limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United`s mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  12. Active DOE Technical Standards Managers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    TECHNICAL STANDARDS PROGRAM ASSIGNMENT TELEPHONE/FAX/EMAIL NAME DOE FACILITY/ADDRESS LOC CODE AU-30 Je D. Feit DOE Technical Standards Program, Manager U.S. Department of Energy 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, MD 20876 Phone: (301) 903-0471 Fax: (301) 903-6172 Je rey.Feit@hq.doe.gov AU-30 Kathy A. Knight DOE Technical Standards Program, Program Specialist U.S. Department of Energy 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, MD 20876 Phone: (301) 903-4439 Fax: (301) 903-6172 kathy.knight@hq.doe.gov AU-30

  13. Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davoli, E.; Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M.; Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M.; Fanelli, R.

    2010-08-15

    An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

  14. Attachment_5_Fact_Sheet_Proposed_TPA_Changes-Managing-Hanford-Solid-Waste.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  15. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Krishna R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Degraded synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) anaerobically in controlled bench-scale reactors. > Performed laboratory tests to determine geotechnical properties of MSW at different phases of degradation. > Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. > Compression ratio reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. > Friction angle reduced, but cohesion increased with degradation. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation conducted to determine the variation of geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) at different phases of degradation. Synthetic MSW samples were prepared based on the composition of MSW generated in the United States and were degraded in bioreactors with leachate recirculation. Degradation of the synthetic MSW was quantified based on the gas composition and organic content, and the samples exhumed from the bioreactor cells at different phases of degradation were tested for the geotechnical properties. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength of initial and degraded synthetic MSW were all determined at constant initial moisture content of 50% on wet weight basis. Hydraulic conductivity of synthetic MSW was reduced by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. Compression ratio was reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. Direct shear tests showed that the fresh and degraded synthetic MSW exhibited continuous strength gain with increase in horizontal deformation, with the cohesion increased from 1 kPa for fresh MSW to 16-40 kPa for degraded MSW and the friction angle decreased from 35{sup o} for fresh MSW to 28{sup o} for degraded MSW. During the triaxial tests under CU condition, the total strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were found to vary from 21 to 57 kPa and 1{sup o} to 9{sup o}, respectively, while the effective strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle varied from 18 to 56 kPa and from 1{sup o} to 11{sup o}, respectively. Similar to direct shear test results, as the waste degrades an increase in cohesion and slight decrease in friction angle was observed. Decreased friction angle and increased cohesion with increased degradation is believed to be due to the highly cohesive nature of the synthetic MSW. Variation of synthetic MSW properties from this study also suggests that significant changes in geotechnical properties of MSW can occur due to enhanced degradation induced by leachate recirculation.

  16. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimmer, Bernhard; Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ? The isotopic signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ? Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ? In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ? The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ? ?{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of ?{sup 13}C, ?{sup 2}H and ?{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the ?{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (?{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of ?{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of ?20‰ to ?25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in ?{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW. During aeration of a landfill the aerobic degradation of the remaining organic matter caused a decrease to a ?{sup 13}C-DIC of about ?20‰. Therefore carbon isotope analysis in leachates and groundwater can be used for tracing the oxidation–reduction status of MSW landfills. Our results indicate that monitoring of stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates over a longer time period (e.g. during in situ aeration) is a powerful and cost-effective tool for characterising the biodegradability and stability of the organic matter in landfilled municipal solid waste and can be used for monitoring the progress of in situ aeration.

  17. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  18. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanakya, H.N. Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-04-15

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

  19. Production of energy and high-value chemicals from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colucci-Raeos, J.A.; Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Herncndez, A.

    1996-12-31

    Landfills have been used for decades in Puerto Rico as the only alternative for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). In the present, 7,300 metric tons (8,000 tons) of MSW are generated on a daily basis, of which about 43% are generated in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. Garbage dumps in the Metropolitan Area have an estimated useful life of two years from now. Furthermore, Puerto Rico`s average daily per capita generation exceeds that of US and is almost as twice as that of Europe. A novel alternative for the disposal of MSW needs to be implemented. The University of Puerto Rico (Department of Chemical Engineering), in a collaborative effort with the Sandia National Laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Puerto Rico`s Energy Affairs Administration, and the Institute of Chemical Engineers of Puerto Rico, have conceptualized a research program that would address the utilization of MSW and other agricultural residues for the generation of energy and/or high-value chemical products. The concept, {open_quotes}biorefinery{close_quotes} would consist of the collection of MSW and other agricultural wastes, separation of materials for recycling (glass, ceramics, metals), and use of gasification and/or hydrolysis of the screened material to produce energy and/or chemicals (such as alcohols and oxyaromatics).

  20. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  1. Waste Management Program. Technical progress report, Aporil-June 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1984-02-01

    This quarterly report provides current information on operations and development programs for the management of radioactive wastes from operation of the Savannah River Plant. The studies on environmental and safety assessments, process and equipment development, TRU waste, and low-level waste are a part of the Long-Term Waste Management Technology Program. The following studies are reported for the SR Interim Waste Operations Program: surveillance and maintenance, waste concentration, low-level effluent waste, tank replacement/waste transfer, and solid waste storage and related activities.

  2. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. > BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. > Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. > At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. > The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

  3. SOLID WASTE INTEGRATED FORECAST TECHNICAL (SWIFT) REPORT FY2003 THRU FY2046 VERSION 2003.1 VOLUME 2 [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARCOT, R.A.

    2003-12-01

    This report includes data requested on September 10, 2002 and includes radioactive solid waste forecasting updates through December 31, 2002. The FY2003.0 request is the primary forecast for fiscal year FY 2003.

  4. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gug, JeongIn Cacciola, David Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette sample composition was similar to biomass fuels but had significant advantages due to addition of waste plastics that have high energy content compared to other waste types. Addition of PP and HDPE presented better benefits than addition of PET due to lower softening temperature and lower oxygen content. It should be noted that while harmful emissions such as dioxins, furans and mercury can result from burning plastics, WTE facilities have been able to control these emissions to meet US EPA standards. This research provides a drop-in coal replacement that reduces demand on landfill space and replaces a significant fraction of fossil-derived fuel with a renewable alternative.

  5. Assessing the credibility of the calorific value of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.; Ledford, A.E.; Colbert, J.C.; Bruce, S.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Paule, R.C.; Reilly, M.L.

    1984-02-01

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards to establish the limits of reliability of the calorific value of municipal solid waste (MSW) determined by the bomb calorimetric procedure currently used in commercial test laboratories. This procedure involves using gram-size samples derived from MSW that has been processed down to a particle size of 2 mm or less. Critics of the procedure argue that gram-size samples are too small to be representative of such a large quantity of so heterogeneous a material, and that processing MSW may also alter its composition. To test the bomb calorimetric procedure, a 2.5 kg capacity combustion flow calorimeter was designed and constructed for the determination of the enthalpies of combustion of kilogram-size samples of MSW in flowing oxygen near atmospheric pressure. Calorimetric data on processed MSW were obtained using both the kilogram-size flow and a gram-size bomb calorimeter. Intercomparison of results shows that the calorific value (on a dry basis) of gram-size test samples agrees, within the uncertainty of our experiments, with the corresponding values for their kilogram-size parent samples provided that the sample division technique used to obtain the gram-size samples is that described in this work. The average difference of the parent minus gram-size sample values (on a dry basis) is -0.1% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-1.1% of the mean calorific value. The effects of processing on sample composition were determined by intercomparison of flow calorimetric results on kilogram-size samples of processed and minimally processed MSW (150 mm or less particle size) that are nominally identical. The average difference of the unprocessed minus processed values (on a dry basis) is -0.5% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-2.9% of the mean calorific value. 7 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

  6. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for sulfoaluminate cement clinker production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Kai; Shi Huisheng; Guo Xiaolu

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The replacement can be taken up to 30% of MSWI fly ash in the raw mix. > The novelty compositional parameters were defined, their optimum values were determined. > Expansive property of SAC is strongly depended on gypsum content. > Three leaching test methods are used to assess the environmental impact. - Abstract: The feasibility of partially substituting raw materials with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) clinker production was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength and free expansion ratio testing. Three different leaching tests were used to assess the environmental impact of the produced material. Experimental results show that the replacement of MSWI fly ash could be taken up to 30% in the raw mixes. The good quality SAC clinkers are obtained by controlling the compositional parameters at alkalinity modulus (C{sub m}) around 1.05, alumina-sulfur ratio (P) around 2.5, alumina-silica ratio (N) around 2.0{approx}3.0 and firing the raw mixes at 1250 deg. C for 2 h. The compressive strengths of SAC are high in early age while that develop slowly in later age. Results also show that the expansive properties of SAC are strongly depended on the gypsum content. Leaching studies of toxic elements in the hydrated SAC-based system reveal that all the investigated elements are well bounded in the clinker minerals or immobilized by the hydration products. Although some limited positive results indicate that the SAC prepared from MSWI fly ash would present no immediate thread to the environment, the long-term toxicity leaching behavior needs to be further studied.

  7. Design considerations for the cross jet air mixing in the municipal solid waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, C.K.; Choi, S.

    1995-12-31

    In the mass-burning municipal solid waste incinerators, overfire air injection plays a key role in the improvement of mixing and reaction between oxygen and incomplete combustion products and/or pollutants. However, design parameters of overfire air nozzles are not well understood and sometimes confusing. In this paper, major design parameters of the cross jet air nozzles are discussed along with flow simulation results for the simplified furnace geometry. The overall performance of the jet air mixing and the effects of design parameters are quantitatively evaluated. The flow simulation results are interpreted in terms of the penetration depth of the jet into the main flow, the size of the recirculation zone and the ratio of the unmixed portion of the gas flow. The momentum flux ratio(J) of the jet to the cross flow strongly affects the penetration depth of the jet and the mixing of two flow streams. As the inter-nozzle distance (S in non-dimensional form) decreases, the penetration depth decreases but the size of recirculation zone increases and the resultant mixing deteriorates. The degree of mixing of the jet with the cross gas stream is evaluated in terms of the mass-averaged probability distribution of the relative concentration. Fresh air disperses more efficiently into the gas stream as J and S increase. The momentum flux ratio and the inter-nozzle distance are considered as important design parameters, and optimum values of these variables can be chosen for the given furnace conditions. This numerical evaluation also provides the basis of the similarity consideration for the cold flow model tests and the validity of the 2-dimensional idealization.

  8. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  9. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR HANFORD EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE VITRIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UNTERREINER BJ

    2008-07-18

    More than 200 million liters (53 million gallons) of highly radioactive and hazardous waste is stored at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The DOE's Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) mission includes tank waste retrieval, waste treatment, waste disposal, and tank farms closure activities. This mission will largely be accomplished by the construction and operation of three large treatment facilities at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP): (1) a Pretreatment (PT) facility intended to separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW); (2) a HLW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the HLW for disposal at a geologic repository in Yucca Mountain; and (3) a LAW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the LAW for shallow land burial at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The LAW facility is on target to be completed in 2014, five years prior to the completion of the rest of the WTP. In order to gain experience in the operation of the LAW vitrification facility, accelerate retrieval from single-shell tank (SST) farms, and hasten the completion of the LAW immobilization, it has been proposed to begin treatment of the low-activity waste five years before the conclusion of the WTP's construction. A challenge with this strategy is that the stream containing the LAW vitrification facility off-gas treatment condensates will not have the option of recycling back to pretreatment, and will instead be treated by the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Here the off-gas condensates will be immobilized into a secondary waste form; ETF solid waste.

  10. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  11. Active Network Management (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Network Management (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Active Network Management Country United Kingdom Coordinates 55.378052, -3.435973 Loading...

  12. Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > High-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion is attracting a lot of attention these days. > One reactor was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste. > Maximum biogas production rate of 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d was achieved at HRT 40 d and 40% TS. > The other reactor was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW). > Until a 40% LW content increase, the reactor exhibited a stable performance. - Abstract: With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH{sub 4} production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, 0.25 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, MPY of 0.26 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60%, there was a significant performance drop, which was attributed to free ammonia inhibition. The performances in these two reactors were comparable to the ones achieved in the conventional wet digestion and thermophilic dry digestion processes.

  13. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  14. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  15. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that cocombustion of municipal solid waste and oil shale can reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2} and HCl) to acceptable levels. Tests in 6- and 15-inch units showed that the oil shale absorbs acid gas pollutants and produces an ash which could be, at the least, disposed of in a normal landfill. Further analysis of the results are underway to estimate scale-up to commercial size. Additional work will be done to evaluate the cementitious properties of oil shale ash.

  16. Competency Management and Cross-Cutting Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Business Operations » Project Management Coordination Office » Competency Management and Cross-Cutting Activities Competency Management and Cross-Cutting Activities PMCO works with the Workforce Management Office to provide project and risk management training and certification support. Goals and Priorities Provide project and risk management training and certification as well as knowledge sharing. News & Blog Mission Leadership Budget EERE Offices Business Operations Budget Workforce

  17. Nuclear Waste Fund Activities Management Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Fund Activities Management Team Nuclear Waste Fund Activities Management Team The Nuclear Waste Fund Activities Management Team has responsibility to: Manage the investments and expenditures of the Nuclear Waste Fund; Support correspondence regarding Nuclear Waste Policy Act issues raised by congressional, Inspector General, Government Accounting Office and Freedom of Information Act inquiries; and, Manage the annual fee adequacy assessment process. Applicable Documents Nuclear Waste

  18. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  19. UNREVIEWED DISPOSAL QUESTION EVALUATION: IMPACT OF NEW INFORMATION SINCE 2008 PA ON CURRENT LOW-LEVEL SOLID WASTE OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.

    2014-10-06

    Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as impacted by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQE report in 2013: ? New K{sub d} values for iodine, radium and uranium ? Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors ? Updated radionuclide data ? Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides ? Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025 ? Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0 of this UDQE has rendered the projected final SOF for SLIT9 less than the WITS Admin Limit. With respect to future disposal unit operations in the East Slit Trench Group, consideration of new information for Slit Trench#14 (SLIT14) reduced the current SOF for the limiting All-Pathways 200-1000 year period (AP2) by an order of magnitude and by one quarter for the Beta-Gamma 12-100 year period (BG2) pathway. On the balance, updates to K{sub d} values and dose factors and elimination of CDP factors (generally favorable) more than compensated for the detrimental impact of a more rigorous treatment of plume dispersion. These observations suggest that future operations in the East Slit Trench Group can be conducted with higher confidence using current inventory limits, and that limits could be increased if desired for future low-level waste disposal units. The same general conclusion applies to future ST’s in the West Slit Trench Group based on the Impacted Final SOFs for existing ST’s in that area.

  20. Status report on energy recovery from municipal solid waste: technologies, lessons and issues. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the lessons learned and issues raised regarding the recovery of energy from solid wastes. The review focuses on technologies and issues significant to currently operating energy recovery systems in the US - waterwall incineration, modular incineration, refuse derived fuels systems, landfill gas recovery systems. Chapters are: Energy Recovery and Solid Waste Disposal; Energy Recovery Systems; Lessons in Energy Recovery; Issues in Energy Recovery. Some basic conclusions are presented concerning the state of the art of energy from waste. Plants in shakedown or under construction, along with technologies in the development stages, are briefly described. Sources of additional information and a bibliography are included. (MCW)

  1. Methodology for modeling the devolatilization of refuse-derived fuel from thermogravimetric analysis of municipal solid waste components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritsky, K.J.; Miller, D.L.; Cernansky, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    A methodology was introduced for modeling the devolatilization characteristics of refuse-derived fuel (RFD) in terms of temperature-dependent weight loss. The basic premise of the methodology is that RDF is modeled as a combination of select municipal solid waste (MSW) components. Kinetic parameters are derived for each component from thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) data measured at a specific set of conditions. These experimentally derived parameters, along with user-derived parameters, are inputted to model equations for the purpose of calculating thermograms for the components. The component thermograms are summed to create a composite thermogram that is an estimate of the devolatilization for the as-modeled RFD. The methodology has several attractive features as a thermal analysis tool for waste fuels. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

  4. A criticism of applications with multi-criteria decision analysis that are used for the site selection for the disposal of municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemal Korucu, M.; Erdagi, Bora

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existing structure of the multi-criteria decision analysis for site selection is criticized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fundamental problematic points based on the critics are defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some modifications are suggested in order to provide solutions to these problematical points. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new structure for the decision making mechanism is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The feasibility of the new method is subjected to an evaluation process. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to criticize the process of selecting the most appropriate site for the disposal of municipal solid wastes which is one of the problematic issues of waste management operations. These kinds of problems are pathological symptoms of existing problematical human-nature relationship which is related to the syndrome called ecological crisis. In this regard, solving the site selection problem, which is just a small part of a larger entity, for the good of ecological rationality and social justice is only possible by founding a new and extensive type of human-nature relationship. In this study, as a problematic point regarding the discussions on ecological problems, the existing structure of the applications using multi-criteria decision analysis in the process of site selection with three main criteria is criticized. Based on this critique, fundamental problematic points (to which applications are insufficient to find solutions) will be defined. Later, some modifications will be suggested in order to provide solutions to these problematical points. Finally, the criticism addressed to the structure of the method with three main criteria and the feasibility of the new method with four main criteria is subjected to an evaluation process. As a result, it is emphasized that the new structure with four main criteria may be effective in solution of the fundamental problematic points.

  5. Waste management project fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaybaugh, R.R.

    1997-08-29

    The MYWP technical baseline describes the work to be accomplished by the Project and the technical standards which govern that work. The Waste Management Project manages and integrates (non-TWRS) waste management activities at the site. Activities include management of Hanford wastes as well as waste transferred to Hanford from other DOE, Department of Defense, or other facilities. This work includes handling, treatment, storage, and disposition of radioactive, nonradioactive, hazardous, and mixed solid and liquid wastes. Major Waste Management Projects are the Solid Waste Project (SW), Liquid Effluents Project (LEP), and Analytical Services. Existing facilities (e.g., grout vaults and canyons) shall be evaluated for reuse for these purposes to the maximum extent possible. The paper tabulates the major facilities that interface with this Project, identifying the major facilities that generate waste, materials, or infrastructure for this Project and the major facilities that will receive waste and materials from this Project.

  6. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  7. The effects of the mechanical–chemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yu-Lun

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Milling extracted MSWI fly ash. ? Increasing specific surface area, destruction of the crystalline texture, and increasing the amount of amorphous materials. ? Increasing heavy metal stability. ? Inducing pozzolanic reactions and increasing the early and later strength of the cement paste. - Abstract: A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96 h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50 times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} and led to the generation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste.

  8. JOBAID-MANAGING LEARNNIG ACTIVITIES (SUPERVISOR)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this job aid is to guide users through the step-by-step process of managing employees' To-Do Lists withing SuccessFactors Learning.

  9. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  10. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together) buried in three rows in the northeast comer. In addition, five eight-foot diameter caissons are located at the west end of the center row of the drum storage units. Initially, wastes disposed to the caissons and drum storage units were from the 325 and 327 building hot cells. Later, a small amount of remote-handled (RH) waste from the 309 building Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) cells, and the newly built 324 building hot cells, was disposed at the site.

  11. Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinsky, F.T. (Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States)); Ross, J. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (United States)); Dennis, D.S. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (United States). Stearns-Roger Div.); Huston, J.S. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Warren NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO{sub 2} will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Design of a large-scale anaerobic digestion facility for the recovery of energy from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayhanian, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-12-31

    The California Prison Industry Authority, in conjunction with the City of Folsom, operates a 100 ton/d municipal solid waste (MSW) recovery facility using inmate labor. Through manual sorting, all useful organic and inorganic materials are recycled for marketing. The remaining organic material will be further processed to remove hazardous and inert material and prepared as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion process. The clean organic waste (approximately 78 ton/d) will then be shredded and completely mixed with sewage water prior feeding to the digester. Off gas from the digester will be collected as a fuel for the steam boiler or combusted in a waste gas burner. Steam will be injected directly into the digester for heating. The anaerobically digested material will be moved to compost area where it will be mixed with wood faction of yard waste and processed aerobically for the production of compost material as a soil amendment. Anaerobic digesters will be constructed in two phases. The first phase consists of the construction of one 26 ton/d digester to confirm the suitability of feeding and mixing equipment. Modifications will be made to the second and third digesters, in the second phase, based on operating experience of the first digester. This paper discusses important design features of the anaerobic digestion facility.

  13. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E`s perspective on how these systems will operate.

  14. Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterlund, Helene Rodushkin, Ilia; Ylinenjaervi, Karin; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2009-04-15

    A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 deg. C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine.

  15. The estimation of N{sub 2}O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-08-15

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N{sub 2}O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N{sub 2}O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N{sub 2}O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N{sub 2}O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N{sub 2}O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N{sub 2}O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N{sub 2}O emissions.

  16. Evolution of heavy metals in municipal solid waste during bio-drying and implications of their subsequent transfer during combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dongqing; Zhang Hua; Wu Changlin; Shao Liming; He Pinjing

    2011-08-15

    Bio-drying has been applied to improve the heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to combustion. In the present study, evolution of heavy metals in MSW during bio-drying and subsequent combustion was studied using one aerobic and two combined hydrolytic-aerobic scenarios. Heavy metals were concentrated during bio-drying and transformed between different metal fractions, namely the exchangeable, carbonate-bound, iron- and manganese-oxides-bound, organic-matter-bound and residual fractions. The amounts of heavy metals per kg of bio-dried MSW transferred into combustion flue gas increased with bio-drying time, primarily due to metals enrichment from organics degradation. Because of their volatility, the partitioning ratios of As and Hg in flue gas remained stable so that bio-drying and heavy metal speciation had little effect on their transfer and partitioning during combustion. In contrast, the partitioning ratios of Pb, Zn and Cu tended to increase after bio-drying, which likely enhanced their release potential during combustion.

  17. Management of Support Services Contract Activity

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-08-31

    To provide the policy, procedures, and responsibilities for the management of support services contracts within the Department of Energy (DOE). Cancels DOE O 4200.3C dated 5-17-91. Canceled by DOE N 1321.140 dated 5-20-94.

  18. Management of Support Services Contract Activity

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1985-10-03

    To provide the policy, procedures, and responsibilities for the management of support service contracts within the Department of Energy (DOE). Cancels 4200.3A dated 4-5-83. Change 1 Errata Sheet dated 6-27-89. Canceled by DOE O 4200.3C dated 5-17-91.

  19. Natural resources management activity and biodiversity maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, M.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities in coordinating land use for the Savannah River Site public lands during the period of July 1, 1992 to June 30, 1993 are reported.

  20. DOE Financial Assistance Awards: Active Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Source: US DOE 712013 eere.energy.gov DOE Financial Assistance Awards: Active Project ... eere.energy.gov Award Mechanisms * Financial Assistance - Principal Purpose: to ...

  1. Disaster waste management: A review article

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica

    2011-06-15

    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems.

  2. Guide to good practices for line and training manager activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide direction for line and training managers in carrying out their responsibilities for training and qualifying personnel and to verify that existing training activities are effective.

  3. Analysis of Integrated Safety Management at the Activity Level: Work

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Planning and Control, Final Report | Department of Energy Integrated Safety Management at the Activity Level: Work Planning and Control, Final Report Analysis of Integrated Safety Management at the Activity Level: Work Planning and Control, Final Report May 15, 2013 Presenter: Stephen L. Domotor, Director, Office of Analysis, Office of Health, Safety and Security Topic: On August 28, 2012, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB or "Board") wrote to the Department of

  4. Kinetics and dynamic modelling of batch anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in a stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nopharatana, Annop; Pullammanappallil, Pratap C.; Clarke, William P.

    2007-07-01

    A series of batch, slurry anaerobic digestion experiments were performed where the soluble and insoluble fractions, and unwashed MSW were separately digested in a 200 l stirred stainless steel vessel at a pH of 7.2 and a temperature of 38 deg. C. It was found that 7% of the total MSW COD was readily soluble, of which 80% was converted to biogas; 50% of the insoluble fraction was solubilised, of this only 80% was converted to biogas. The rate of digesting the insoluble fraction was about four times slower than the rate of digesting the soluble fraction; 48% of the total COD was converted to biogas and 40% of the total nitrogen was converted to ammonia. Soluble and insoluble fractions were broken down simultaneously. The minimum time to convert 95% of the degradable fraction to biogas was 20 days. The lag phase for the degradation of insoluble fraction of MSW can be overcome by acclimatising the culture with the soluble fraction. The rate of digestion and the methane yield was not affected by particle size (within the range of 2-50 mm). A dynamic model was developed to describe batch digestion of MSW. The parameters of the model were estimated using data from the separate digestion of soluble and insoluble fractions and validated against data from the digestion of unwashed MSW. Trends in the specific aceticlastic and formate-utilising methanogenic activity were used to estimate initial methanogenic biomass concentration and bacterial death rate coefficient. The kinetics of hydrolysis of insoluble fraction could be adequately described by a Contois equation and the kinetics of acidogenesis, and aceticlastic and hydrogen utilising methanogenesis by Monod equations.

  5. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horttanainen, M. Teirasvuo, N.; Kapustina, V.; Hupponen, M.; Luoranen, M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • New experimental data of mixed MSW properties in a Finnish case region. • The share of renewable energy of mixed MSW. • The results were compared with earlier international studies. • The average share of renewable energy was 30% and the average LHVar 19 MJ/kg. • Well operating source separation decreases the renewable energy content of MSW. - Abstract: For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50–60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  6. Improved energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in sanitary landfills by two-phase digestion of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onu, Chukwu.

    1990-01-01

    The concept under investigaton was the separation of the acidogenic and the methanogenic phases of anaerobic fermentation, converting the sanitary landfill into an acid reactor and using a separate upflow fixed-film anaerobic reactor for methanogenesis. Acidic leachate from the landfill simulator was used as the influent substrate to the anaerobic reactor. The goal of the study was to improve both methane yield and concentration through nutrient addition and two-phase digestion of MSW. Sewage sludge was utilized to provide moisture, buffering capacity, nutrients, and an adequate microbial population. Single-phase systems with other enhancement techniques were also compared to the two-phase with sludge addition. Data from this study indicated that gas produced in the anaerobic reactor had methane concentration as high as 80 Mole % at the fixed-bed reactor (FBR) hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The system reached a cumulative methane production rate of 78.6 {ell}/kg dry waste at an estimated cumulative production rate of approximately 270 {ell}/kg/yr. This performance was better than that reported in the literature for a similar type of feed. This study has also indicated that sewage sludge addition appears to be a successful enhancement technique for methane gas production from municipal solid waste. The addition of mineral nutrients and buffer solutions appears to have influenced the development of a dominant population of methanogenic bacteria in the FBR as indicated by the COD removal efficiency of 90% and 100% conversion of all influent organic acids. In terms of the overall system performance, the two-phase system was superior to the one-phase technique currently in use for methane generation.

  7. Alteration of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash focusing on the evolution of iron-rich constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yunmei; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2011-09-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash contains a considerable amount of Fe-rich constituents. The behaviors of these constituents, such as dissolution and precipitation, are quite important as they regulate the distribution of a series of ions between the liquid (percolated fluid) and solid (ash deposit) phases. This paper studied both fresh and weathered MSWI bottom ash from the mineralogical and geochemical viewpoint by utilizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), and powder X-ray diffraction. The analysis results revealed that for the fresh bottom ash, iron preferentially existed in the chemical forms of spinel group (mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and a series of Al- or Ti- substituted varieties), metallic inclusions (including Fe-P, Fe-S, Fe-Cu-Pb), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and unburned iron pieces. In the 1-20 years weathered bottom ash collected from a landfill site, interconversions among these Fe-rich constituents were identified. Consequently, numerous secondary products were developed, including goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH), hematite, magnetite, wustite (FeO), Fe-Si-rich gel phase. Of all these transformation products, hydrous iron oxides were the most common secondary minerals. Quantitative chemical analysis of these secondary products by SEM/EDX disclosed a strong association between the newly formed hydrous iron oxides and heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu). The results of this study suggest that the processes of natural weathering and secondary mineralization contribute to reduction of the potential risks of heavy metals to the surrounding environments.

  8. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  9. Municipal Solid Waste:

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of the Department of Energy or any other organization. ... Journal of Energy Resources Technology, "NOx and N2O ... Paper PET Containers & packaging HDPE Textiles PVC ...

  10. Management of offshore wastes in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

  11. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, L.; Batlle, F.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > A quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis method was proposed. > The proposed method is a good engineering tool for 3D slope stability analysis. > Factor of safety from 3D analysis is higher than from 2D analysis. > 3D analysis results are more sensitive to cohesion than 2D analysis. - Abstract: Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The 'equivalent' three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that FoS obtained from three-dimensional analysis increases as much as 50% compared to that from two-dimensional analysis implies the significance of the three-dimensional effect for this study-case. Influences of shear parameters, time elapse after landfill closure, leachate level as well as unit weight of waste on FoS were also investigated in this paper. These sensitivity analyses serve as the guidelines of construction practices and operating procedures for the MSW landfill under study.

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - Top 3 Issues_1 Accomplishment_1 Activity_Presentation 052311.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Chairs Meeting June 15-16, 2011 â—Š North Las Vegas, Nevada Hanford Solid Waste Burial Grounds 450,000 cubic meters radioactive solid waste in unlined trenches Draft Tank Closure & Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement identified unacceptable impacts to groundwater DOE preparing 200-SWBG RCRA Facility Investigation/ Corrective Measures Study and Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan that will Study and Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahriari, Haleh; Warith, Mostafa; Hamoda, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin J.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145 Degree-Sign C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8 days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated.

  16. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  17. Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-03-02

    This Soil Management Plan applies to all activities conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that involve soil disturbance and potential management of waste soil. The plan was prepared under the direction of the Y-12 Environmental Compliance Department of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Soil disturbances related to maintenance activities, utility and building construction projects, or demolition projects fall within the purview of the plan. This Soil Management Plan represents an integrated, visually oriented, planning and information resource tool for decision making involving excavation or disturbance of soil at Y-12. This Soil Management Plan addresses three primary elements. (1) Regulatory and programmatic requirements for management of soil based on the location of a soil disturbance project and/or the regulatory classification of any contaminants that may be present (Chap. 2). Five general regulatory or programmatic classifications of soil are recognized to be potentially present at Y-12; soil may fall under one or more these classifications: (a) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) pursuant to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facilities Agreement; (b) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (c) RCRA 3004(u) solid waste managements units pursuant to the RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 permit for the ORR; (d) Toxic Substances and Control Act-regulated soil containing polychlorinated biphenyls; and (e) Radiologically contaminated soil regulated under the Atomic Energy Act review process. (2) Information for project planners on current and future planned remedial actions (RAs), as prescribed by CERCLA decision documents (including the scope of the actions and remedial goals), land use controls implemented to support or maintain RAs, RCRA post-closure regulatory requirements for former waste management units, legacy contamination source areas and distribution of contamination in soils, and environmental infrastructure (e.g., caps, monitoring systems, etc.) that is in place or planned in association with RAs. (3) Regulatory considerations and processes for management and disposition of waste soil upon generation, including regulatory drivers, best management practices (BMPs), waste determination protocols, waste acceptance criteria, and existing waste management procedures and BMPs for Y-12. This Soil Management Plan provides information to project planners to better coordinate their activities with other organizations and programs with a vested interest in soil disturbance activities at Y-12. The information allows project managers and maintenance personnel to evaluate and anticipate potential contaminant levels that may be present at a proposed soil disturbance site prior to commencement of activities and allows a more accurate assessment of potential waste management requirements.

  18. An evaluation of hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical behavior of processed oil shale solid waste 2; The use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring in-situ volumetric water content in processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Elgezawi, S.M. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Kaser, T.G. (GIGO Computer and Electronic, Laramie, WY (US))

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring volumetric water contents in processed oil shale solid waste. TDR measures soil water content via a correlation between the dielectric constant (K) of the 3 phase (soil-water-air) system and the volumetric water content ({theta}{sub v}). An extensive bench top research program has been conducted to evaluate and verify the use of this technique in processed oil shale solid waste. This study utilizes columns of processed oil shale packed to known densities and varying water contents and compares the columetric water content measured via TDR and the volumetric water content measured through gravimetric determination.

  19. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  20. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Waste Management Activities - 13005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark Edward

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed a reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of this criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration.

  1. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  2. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang; Zou Luquan; Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping; Qian Guangren

    2011-02-15

    This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

  3. Using DRASTIC'' to improve the accuracy of a geographical information system used for solid waste disposal facility siting: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padgett, D.A. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    Beginning in 1989, the citizens and commissioners of Alachua County, Florida began to develop a siting plan for a new solid waste disposal facility (SWDF). Through a cooperative effort with a private consulting firm, several evaluative criteria were selected and then translated into parameters for a geographical information system (GIS). Despite efforts to avoid vulnerable hydrogeology, the preferred site selected was in close proximity to the well field supplying Gainesville, Florida, home to approximately 75 percent of the county's population. The results brought forth a wave of protests from local residents claiming that leachate from the proposed SWDF would contaminate their drinking water. In this study, DRASTIC'' was applied in order to improve the accuracy and defensibility of the aquifer protection-based GIS parameters. DRASTIC'', a method for evaluating ground water contamination potential, is an acronym which stands for Depth to Water, Net Recharge, Aquifer Media, Soil Media, Topography, Impact of Vadose Zone Media, and Conductivity (Hydraulic)''.

  4. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  5. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  6. MANAGING ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES FOR THE PLATEAU REMEDIATION CONTRACT - HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRONVALL CM

    2011-01-14

    In 2008, the primary Hanford clean-up contract transitioned to the CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Prior to transition, Engineering resources assigned to remediation/Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities were a part of a centralized engineering organization and matrixed to the performing projects. Following transition, these resources were reassigned directly to the performing project, with a loose matrix through a smaller Central Engineering (CE) organization. The smaller (10 FTE) central organization has retained responsibility for the overall technical quality of engineering for the CHPRC, but no longer performs staffing and personnel functions. As the organization has matured, there are lessons learned that can be shared with other organizations going through or contemplating performing a similar change. Benefits that have been seen from the CHPRC CE organization structure include the following: (1) Staff are closely aligned with the 'Project/facility' that they are assigned to support; (2) Engineering priorities are managed to be consistent with the 'Project/facility' priorities; (3) Individual Engineering managers are accountable for identifying staffing needs and the filling of staffing positions; (4) Budget priorities are managed within the local organization structure; (5) Rather than being considered a 'functional' organization, engineering is considered a part of a line, direct funded organization; (6) The central engineering organization is able to provide 'overview' activities and maintain independence from the engineering organizations in the field; and (7) The central engineering organization is able to maintain a stable of specialized experts that are able to provide independent reviews of field projects and day-to-day activities.

  7. Waste management plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel characterization activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chastain, S.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Spinks, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-17

    A joint project was initiated between Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to address critical issues associated with the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) stored at the Hanford Site. Recently, particular attention has been given to remediation of the SNF stored in the K Basins. A waste management plan (WMP) acceptable to both parties is required prior to the movement of selected material to the PNL facilities for examination. N Reactor and Single Pass Reactor (SPR) fuel has been stored for an extended period of time in the N Reactor, PUREX, K-East, and K-West Basins. Characterization plans call for transport of fuel material form the K Basins to the 327 Building Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL) in the 300 Area for examination. However, PNL received a directive stating that no examination work will be started in PNL hot cell laboratories without an approved disposal route for all waste generated related to the activity. Thus, as part of the Characterization Program Management Plan for Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel, a waste management plan which will ensure that wastes generated as a result of characterization activities conducted at PNL will be accepted by WHC for disposition is required. This document contains the details of the waste handling plan that utilizes, to the greatest extent possible, established waste handling and disposal practices at Hanford between PNL and WHC. Standard practices are sufficient to provides for disposal of most of the waste materials, however, special consideration must be given to the remnants of spent nuclear fuel elements following examination. Fuel element remnants will be repackaged in an acceptable container such as the single element canister and returned to the K Basins for storage.

  8. Lessons Learned by Environmental Management Complex-wide Activity...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Management Work Planning and Control Oversight Roger Claycomb Work Control Program Manager DOE Idaho Operations Office EM Headquarters WP&C Oversight * EM-42 Office of Operational...

  9. Municipal solid waste combustion: Waste-to-energy technologies, regulations, and modern facilities in USEPA Region V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, P.M.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

    1993-08-01

    Table of Contents: Incinerator operations (Waste preprocessing, combustion, emissions characterization and emission control, process monitoring, heat recovery, and residual ash management); Waste-to-energy regulations (Permitting requirements and operating regulations on both state and Federal levels); Case studies of EPA Region V waste-to-energy facilities (Polk County, Minnesota; Jackson County, Michigan; La Crosse, Wisconsin; Kent County, Michigan; Elk River, Minnesota; Indianapolis, Indiana); Evaluation; and Conclusions.

  10. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calabro, Paolo S.

    2009-07-15

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry on offsite release of hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials from Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Garcia, K.M.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Williams, K.L.; Jordan, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report is a response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry that requested information on all hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials sent from Department of Energy facilities to offsite facilities for treatment or disposal since January 1, 1981. This response is for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Other Department of Energy laboratories are preparing responses for their respective operations. The request includes ten questions, which the report divides into three parts, each responding to a related group of questions. Part 1 answers Questions 5, 6, and 7, which call for a description of Department of Energy and contractor documentation governing the release of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities. Offsite'' is defined as non-Department of Energy and non-Department of Defense facilities, such as commercial facilities. Also requested is a description of the review process for relevant release criteria and a list of afl Department of Energy and contractor documents concerning release criteria as of January 1, 1981. Part 2 answers Questions 4, 8, and 9, which call for information about actual releases of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities from 1981 to the present, including radiation levels and pertinent documentation. Part 3 answers Question 10, which requests a description of the process for selecting offsite facilities for treatment or disposal of waste from Department of Energy facilities. In accordance with instructions from the Department of Energy, the report does not address Questions 1, 2, and 3.

  12. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  13. Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate sulphur during MSW gasification within a fluid bed-plasma process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the literature on the feed, sulphur and process principles therein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The need for research in this area was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial findings indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur. - Abstract: Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H{sub 2}S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this.

  14. DOE's New Checklist Helps Plants Assess Energy Management Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE developed the Strategic Energy Management Checklist to help manufacturing facilities conduct a high-level assessment of their energy management practices and identify opportunities to achieve greater energy savings.

  15. Waste management units: Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molen, G.

    1991-09-01

    This report indexes every waste management unit of the Savannah River Site. They are indexed by building number and name. The waste units are also tabulated by solid waste units receiving hazardous materials with a known release or no known release to the environment. It also contains information on the sites which has received no hazardous waste, and units which have received source, nuclear, or byproduct material only. (MB)

  16. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasinski, Slawomir Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. • Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. • The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. • The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.7–2.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m{sup 3}/h. Using Darcy’s equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.7–2.88-fold.

  17. " Row: General Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Establishments by Participation in General Energy-Management Activities, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: General Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation and Source of Assistance;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,," Source of Assistance" "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No

  18. " Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","Don't Know","Not Applicable" ,,"Total United States" "

  19. " Row: General Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Establishments by Participation in General Energy-Management Activities, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: General Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation and Source of Assistance;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,," Source of Assistance" "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No

  20. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-07-15

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 {sup o}C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Sanitization of the digestate at 65 {sup o}C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO{sub 2} at a rate lower than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO{sub 2} g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  1. " Row: Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Establishments by Participation in Energy-Management Activity, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation and Source of Financial Support for Activity;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",,,,," " " "," ",,," Source of Financial Support for Activity",,,"RSE" "NAICS","

  2. Storm Water Analytical Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL from specified solid waste management units and areas of concern, collectively referred to as Sites. Contact...

  3. Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 8.4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes; Column: Participation; Unit: Establishment Counts. NAICS Code(a) Energy-Management Activity No Participation Participation(b) Don't Know Not Applicable Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Full-Time Energy Manager (c) 159,258 9,922 25,553 -- Set Goals for

  4. Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 8.4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes; Column: Participation; Unit: Establishment Counts. NAICS Code(a) Energy-Management Activity No Participation Participation(b) Don't Know No Steam Used Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Full-Time Energy Manager (c) 142,267 12,536 15,365 -- Set Goals for

  5. James L. Folk, Jr. is the Deputy Assistant Manager for Waste Deposition (AMWD) a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    L. Folk, Jr. is the Deputy Assistant Manager for Waste Deposition (AMWD) at the Savannah River Operations Office in Aiken, South Carolina. He has been the Deputy AMWD since 2008. Mr. Folk has more than 31 years of experience in nuclear engineering; oversight of safety and technical management with the Department of Energy. As the Deputy AMWD he is responsible for the management of the liquid and solid waste systems at the Savannah River Site that historically produced materials for use in

  6. " Row: Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C9.1. Number of Establishments by Participation in Energy-Management Activity, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation and General Amounts of Establishment-Paid Activity Cost;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," ",,,,,," " " "," ",,,"General","Amount of

  7. " Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Participation;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","Don't Know","No Steam Used" ,,"Total United States" "

  8. AUDIT REPORT Legacy Management Activities at Selected Closure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    public information center that would house records and displays about the site's history, the environmental remediation, and ecological restoration activities. The...

  9. The multiple market-exposure of waste management companies: A case study of two Swedish municipally owned companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corvellec, Herve; Bramryd, Torleif

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swedish municipally owned waste management companies are active on political, material, technical, and commercial markets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets differ in kind and their demands follow different logics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets affect the public service, processing, and marketing of Swedish waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Articulating these markets is a strategic challenge for Swedish municipally owned waste management. - Abstract: This paper describes how the business model of two leading Swedish municipally owned solid waste management companies exposes them to four different but related markets: a political market in which their legitimacy as an organization is determined; a waste-as-material market that determines their access to waste as a process input; a technical market in which these companies choose what waste processing technique to use; and a commercial market in which they market their products. Each of these markets has a logic of its own. Managing these logics and articulating the interrelationships between these markets is a key strategic challenge for these companies.

  10. August 2004 SWMU Report.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 2004 Quarterly Progress Report for Solid Waste Management Unit Activities from May 1, 2004 through July 31, 2004 August 2004 Quarterly Progress Report for Solid Waste Management Unit Activities i Table of Contents Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................... i List of Acronyms

  11. Natural resources management activities and biodiversity maintenance. Progress report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, M.B.

    1994-05-01

    This progress report briefly outlines activities at the Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area. Thirty-nine days were spent administering hunts with 1524 people participating. Biological data was collected on 89 deer, 6 turkeys, 8 feral hogs, 40 ducks of two species, 24 bobwhite, 3 rabbits, 2 gray squirrels, and 313 fish of 8 species. Public relations, maintenance and hunt preparation activities are summarized as well.

  12. EIS-0120: Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has prepared this environmental impact statement to assess the environmental consequences of the implementation of modified waste management activities for hazardous, low-level radioactive, and mixed wastes for the protection of groundwater, human health, and the environment at its Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina.

  13. EIS-0120: Waste Management Activities for Groundwater Protection, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has prepared this environmental impact statement to assess the environmental consequences of the implementation of modified waste management activities for hazardous, low-level radioactive, and mixed wastes for the protection of groundwater, human health, and the environment at its Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina.

  14. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental Management Activities Funded by the Recovery Act, OAS-RA-11-15

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental Management Activities Funded by the Recovery Act OAS-RA-11-15 August 2011 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 August 25, 2011 MEMORANDUM FOR THE MANAGER, LOS ALAMOS SITE OFFICE, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FROM: George W. Collard Assistant Inspector General for Audits SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental Management Activities Funded by the Recovery Act" BACKGROUND In February

  16. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Office FY 2011 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julie Braun Williams; Brenda R. Pace; Hollie K. Gilbert; Christina L. Olson

    2012-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500 year span of human land use in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has legal responsibility for the management and protection of the resources and has contracted these responsibilities to Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The BEA professional staff is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts the challenge of preserving INL cultural resources in a manner reflecting their importance in local, regional, and national history. This report is intended as a stand-alone document that summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office (CRMO) staff during fiscal year 2011. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be informative to both internal and external stakeholders, serve as a planning tool for future INL cultural resource management work, and meet an agreed upon legal requirement.

  18. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Office FY 2010 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollie K. Gilbert; Clayton F. Marler; Christina L. Olson; Brenda R. Pace; Julie Braun Williams

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500 year span of human land use in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) has legal responsibility for the management and protection of the resources and has contracted these responsibilities to Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The BEA professional staff is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts the challenge of preserving INL cultural resources in a manner reflecting their importance in local, regional, and national history. This report summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office (CRMO) staff during fiscal year 2010. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be informative to both internal and external stakeholders and to serve as a planning tool for future INL cultural resource management work.

  19. management

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5%2A en Management and Budget http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsmanagementandbudget

  20. management

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5%2A en Management and Budget http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsmanagementandbudget

    P...

  1. DOE-HDBK-1114-98; Guide to Good Practices for Line and Training Manager Activities

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4-98 June 1998 Superseding DOE-STD-1056-93 February 1993 DOE HANDBOOK GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR LINE AND TRAINING MANAGER ACTIVITIES U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (423) 576-8401.

  2. Environmental guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is issuing this document, entitled Guidance on Public Participation for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Activities, to summarize policy and provide guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities at DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, facilities, and laboratories. While the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has environmental restoration responsibility for the majority of DOE sites and facilities, other DOE Project Offices have similar responsibilities at their sites and facilities. This guidance is applicable to all environment restoration activities conducted by or for DOE under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) (corrective actions only); and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This guidance also is applicable to CERCLA remedial action programs under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 and the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, where DOE is the designated lead. The primary objectives of this guidance document are as follows: acclimate DOE staff to a changing culture that emphasizes the importance of public participation activities; provide direction on implementing these public participation activities; and, provide consistent guidance for all DOE Field Offices and facilities. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on conducting effective public participation activities for environmental restoration activities under CERCLA; RCRA corrective actions under sections 3004(u), 3004(v), and 3008(h); and NEPA public participation activities.

  3. Performance measures for evaluating public participation activities in DOE`s Office of Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnes, S.A.; Schweitzer, M.; Peelle, E.B.; Wolfe, A.K.; Munro, J.F.

    1996-08-01

    Public participation in decision-making in the United States has become a dominant theme throughout the public sector and is increasingly used in the private sector. Recent reports by the National Research Council and the Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, set up jointly by the White House and Congress, conclude that risk decisions must increasingly be structured in such a manner as to involve stakeholders meaningfully in the processes and activities leading to decisions and, perhaps, through decision implementation. Both of these reports indicate that decisions may take longer but be better if officials: (1) bring all interested and affected parties to the table at the beginning of the risk-discussion process; (2) identify relevant concerns, losses, exposures and other information the parties have; (3) address significant concerns through appropriate research; and (4) present findings in an understandable, accessible way. This report is intended to facilitate subsequent evaluations of public participation activities and programs.

  4. Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messineo, Antonio Panno, Domenico

    2008-07-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  6. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Active Management of Integrated Geothermal–CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: An Approach to Improve Energy Recovery and Mitigate Risk : FY1 Final Report The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  7. Performance Measures for Evaluating Public Participation Activities in the Office of Environmental Management (DOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnes, S.A.

    2001-02-15

    Public participation in Office of Environmental Management (EM) activities throughout the DOE complex is a critical component of the overall success of remediation and waste management efforts. The challenges facing EM and its stakeholders over the next decade or more are daunting (Nuclear Waste News 1996). Achieving a mission composed of such challenges will require innovation, dedication, and a significant degree of good will among all stakeholders. EM's efforts to date, including obtaining and using inputs offered by EM stakeholders, have been notable. Public participation specialists have accepted and met challenges and have consistently tried to improve their performance. They have reported their experiences both formally and informally (e.g., at professional conferences and EM Public Participation Network Workshops, other internal meetings of DOE and contractor public participation specialists, and one-on-one consultations) in order to advance the state of their practice. Our research, and our field research in particular (including our interactions with many representatives of numerous stakeholder groups at nine DOE sites with diverse EM problems), have shown that it, is possible to develop coherent results even in a problem domain as complex as that of EM. We conclude that performance-based evaluations of public participation appear possible, and we have recommended an approach, based on combined and integrated multi-stakeholder views on the attributes of successful public participation and associated performance indicators, that seems workable and should be acceptable to diverse stakeholders. Of course, as an untested recommendation, our approach needs the validation that can only be achieved by application (perhaps at a few DOE sites with ongoing EM activities). Such an application would serve to refine the proposed approach in terms of its clarity, its workability, and its potential for full-scale use by EM and, potentially, other government agencies and private sector concerns.

  8. Clean energy from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.

    1996-07-02

    This progress report describes a slurry grinding trial where a carbonized refuse derived fuel was dispersed in water. The RDF slurry produced in this study is to subjected to dioxin combustion tests.

  9. Wilders Grove Solid Waste Services Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Provide demonstration of Geothermal Heat Pumps viability on energy usage for future Service Centers planned by the City of Raleigh and other similar facilities in the southeast.

  10. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-29

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve.

  11. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided.

  12. Strategies for the municipal waste management system to take advantage of carbon trading under competing policies: The role of energy from waste in Sydney

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Hanandeh, Ali El-Zein, Abbas

    2009-07-15

    Climate change is a driving force behind some recent environmental legislation around the world. Greenhouse gas emission reduction targets have been set in many industrialised countries. A change in current practices of almost all greenhouse-emitting industrial sectors is unavoidable, if the set targets is to be achieved. Although, waste disposal contributes around 3% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Australia (mainly due to fugitive methane emissions from landfills), the carbon credit and trading scheme set to start in 2010 presents significant challenges and opportunities to municipal solid waste practitioners. Technological advances in waste management, if adopted properly, allow the municipal solid waste sector to act as carbon sink, hence earning tradable carbon credits. However, due to the complexity of the system and its inherent uncertainties, optimizing it for carbon credits may worsen its performance under other criteria. We use an integrated, stochastic multi-criteria decision-making tool that we developed earlier to analyse the carbon credit potential of Sydney municipal solid waste under eleven possible future strategies. We find that the changing legislative environment is likely to make current practices highly non-optimal and increase pressures for a change of waste management strategy.

  13. Lesson Learned by Environmental Management Complex-wide Activity-level Work Planning and Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slide Presentation by Roger Claycomb, Work Control Program Manager, DOE Idaho Operations Office. Office of Environmental Management Work Planning and Control Oversight. Contractor Good Practices and DOE EM Good Practices.

  14. SLFP: A stochastic linear fractional programming approach for sustainable waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, H.; Huang, G.H.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > A new fractional programming (SLFP) method is developed for waste management. > SLFP can solve ratio optimization problems associated with random inputs. > A case study of waste flow allocation demonstrates its applicability. > SLFP helps compare objectives of two aspects and reflect system efficiency. > This study supports in-depth analysis of tradeoffs among multiple system criteria. - Abstract: A stochastic linear fractional programming (SLFP) approach is developed for supporting sustainable municipal solid waste management under uncertainty. The SLFP method can solve ratio optimization problems associated with random information, where chance-constrained programming is integrated into a linear fractional programming framework. It has advantages in: (1) comparing objectives of two aspects, (2) reflecting system efficiency, (3) dealing with uncertainty expressed as probability distributions, and (4) providing optimal-ratio solutions under different system-reliability conditions. The method is applied to a case study of waste flow allocation within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. The obtained solutions are useful for identifying sustainable MSW management schemes with maximized system efficiency under various constraint-violation risks. The results indicate that SLFP can support in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, system cost and system-failure risk.

  15. WIPP Documents - Other

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Other Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure The Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office's proposed approach to cleaning up and closing transuranic waste storage sites. August 2004 Solid Waste Management Report Solid Waste Management Unit Activities from May 1, 2004 through July 31, 2004, August 2004 Quarterly Progress Report The Karst and Related Issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Dated 6/23/09 Pioneering Nuclear Waste Disposal DOE/CAO-00-3124, Feb. 2000 Documents the 40-plus year

  16. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  17. The Italian Activities in the Field of Nuclear Waste Management - 12439

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgiantoni, Giorgio; Marzo, Giuseppe A.; Sepielli, Massimo [ENEA, C. R. Casaccia, Roma (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    The Italian situation in the field of nuclear waste management is characterized by a relative small quantity of wastes, as a consequence of the giving up of energy production by nuclear generation in 1986. Notwithstanding this situation, Italy is a unique case study since the country needs to undertake the final decommissioning of four shut-down NPPs (size 100-200 MWe), each one different from the others. Therefore all the regulatory, technical, and financial actions are needed in the same way as if there was actual nuclear generation. Furthermore, the various non-power generating applications of nuclear energy still require management, a legal framework, a regulatory body, an industrial structure, and technical know-how. Notwithstanding the absence of energy production from nuclear sources, the country has the burden of radioactive waste management from the previous nuclear operations, which obliges it to implement at first a robust legislative framework, then to explore all the complex procedures to achieve the localization of the national interim storage facility, not excluding the chance to have a European regional facility for geologic disposal, under the clauses of the Council Directive of 19 July 2011 'Establishing a Community Framework for the Responsible and Safe Management of Radioactive Waste'. Then, as far as industrial, medical and R and D aspects, the improvement of the legislative picture, the creation of a regulatory body, is a good start for the future, to achieve the best efficiency of the Italian system. (authors)

  18. Natural resources management activity and biodiversity maintenance. Progress report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, M.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities in coordinating land use for the Savannah River Site public lands during the period of July 1, 1992 to June 30, 1993 are reported.

  19. Nitrogen management in landfill leachate: Application of SHARON, ANAMMOX and combined SHARON-ANAMMOX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sri Shalini, S.; Joseph, Kurian

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant research on ammonia removal from leachate by SHARON and ANAMMOX process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Operational parameters, microbiology, biochemistry and application of the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SHARON-ANAMMOX process for leachate a new research and this paper gives wide facts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cost-effective process, alternative to existing technologies for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Address the issues and operational conditions for application in leachate treatment. - Abstract: In today's context of waste management, landfilling of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is considered to be one of the standard practices worldwide. Leachate generated from municipal landfills has become a great threat to the surroundings as it contains high concentration of organics, ammonia and other toxic pollutants. Emphasis has to be placed on the removal of ammonia nitrogen in particular, derived from the nitrogen content of the MSW and it is a long term pollution problem in landfills which determines when the landfill can be considered stable. Several biological processes are available for the removal of ammonia but novel processes such as the Single Reactor System for High Activity Ammonia Removal over Nitrite (SHARON) and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) process have great potential and several advantages over conventional processes. The combined SHARON-ANAMMOX process for municipal landfill leachate treatment is a new, innovative and significant approach that requires more research to identify and solve critical issues. This review addresses the operational parameters, microbiology, biochemistry and application of both the processes to remove ammonia from leachate.

  20. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... electric energy generated from solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, ocean (including tidal, wave, current, and thermal), geothermal, municipal solid waste, or new hydroelectric ...

  1. US - Former Soviet Union environmental restoration and waste management activities, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy Agreement was signed between DOE and the Ministry of Atomic Energy for the Russian Federation and provides a mechanism for cooperation in research, development, and safe utilization of nuclear energy. Under the umbrella of this agreement, DOE and the former Ministry of Atomic Power and Industry signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the areas of environmental restoration and waste management in September 1990. This document discusses the environmental situation, science and technology process, technical projects (separations, contaminant transport, waste treatment, environmental restoration), scientist exchanges, enhanced data transfer, the US-Russia industry partnership (conference, centers), and future actions.

  2. Act as NARSTO Management Coordinator and Conduct Research In Support of NARSTO Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennell, William T.

    2014-01-22

    This grant funded the position of NARSTO Management Coordinator. NARSTO was a public-private partnership with members from government, utilities, industry, and academe in Canada, the United States and Mexico. NARSTO planed and coordinated independently sponsored projects and tasks designed to identify and resolve policy-relevant science questions related to a) Anthropogenic and biogenic air-pollution sources and emissions, b) The complex physical and chemical processes affecting the accumulation of pollutants in the troposphere (including greenhouse gases and aerosols), c) The potential of certain pollutants to react and generate oxidants and fine particles in the troposphere, d) The development, intercomparison, and application of atmospheric models, e) The development of monitoring studies and methodologies needed to assess emission control effectiveness for selected greenhouse gases and aerosols, air pollutants and their precursors, and f) The attainment of the national air-quality and climate-stabilization goals and standards established by each member Nation

  3. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  4. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  5. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  6. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  7. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  8. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  9. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  10. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2005-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  11. Summary report. Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Volume 4, No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    `Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts` is a supplement to `LLW Notes` and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive `LLW Notes`. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  12. Summary report, low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Vol. 4. No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    `Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts` is a supplement to `LLW Notes` and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive `LLW Notes`. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  13. Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2010-11-15

    The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

  14. Active DOE Standards Managers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E. (Bud) Danielson TSM U.S. Department of Energy Central Technical Authority Chief, Nuclear Safety Sta - CTACNS 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585-0270 Phone:...

  15. Feed Materials Production Center. Final phase-in report volume 11 of 15 waste management, October 25, 1985--December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, R.E.

    1986-01-17

    This volume of the Transition Final Report provides the findings, recommendations and corrective actions for the Waste Management areas developed during the phase-in actions by Westinghouse Materials Company (WMCO). The objective is to provide a summary of the studies and investigations performed by the WMCO Company during the transition period. The Waste Management effort at FMPC was expanded in 1984 when a separate group was formed within the NLO organization. This is considered to be an area where significant increase in priority and effort must be applied to resolve waste management problems and to bring the site in conformity to regulations and the Environmental Health/Safety Standards. During the transition, there was a comprehensive investigation in all areas of air, liquid and solid waste management for nuclear, chemical and conventional wastes. Not all of these investigations are documented in this report, but the information gathered was used in the development of the budgets (cost accounts), programs, and organizational planning.

  16. Environmental Management System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management System Environmental Management System An Environmental Management System is a systematic method for assessing mission activities, determining the environmental impacts of those activities, prioritizing improvements, and measuring results. May 30, 2012 The continuous improvement cycle Our Environmental Management System encourages continuous improvement of our environmental performance. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM

  17. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application of the model in a Greek region.

  18. Teaching Managers How to Manage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hylko, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Following graduation from a college or university with a technical degree, or through years of experience, an individual's training and career development activities typically focus on enhancing technical problem-solving skills. However, as these technical professionals, herein referred to as 'Techies', advance throughout their careers, they may be required to accept and adapt to the role of being a manager, and must undergo a transition to learn and rely on new problem-solving skills. However, unless a company has a specific manager-trainee class to address this subject and develop talent from within, an employee's management style is learned and developed 'on the job'. Both positive and negative styles are nurtured by those managers having similar qualities. Unfortunately, a negative style often contributes to the deterioration of employee morale and ultimate closing of a department or company. This paper provides the core elements of an effective management training program for 'Teaching Managers How to Manage' derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration 's Voluntary Protection Program. Discussion topics and real-life examples concentrate on transitioning an employee from a 'Techie' to a manager; common characteristics of being a manager; the history and academic study of management; competition, change and the business of waste management; what to do after taking over a department by applying Hylko's Star of Success; command media; the formal and informal organizational charts; chain of command; hiring and developing high-degree, autonomous employees through effective communication and delegation; periodic status checks; and determining if the program is working successfully. These common characteristics of a strong management/leadership culture and practical career tips discussed herein provide a solid foundation for any company or department that is serious about developing an effective management training program for its employees. In turn, any employee in any work environment can begin using this information immediately if they want to become a better manager. (authors)

  19. MAS 10.1 Implementation of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Process in Maintenance Activities, 2/14/2000

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the effectiveness of the contractor's ISMS process with regard to maintenance activities.  Surveillance activities encompass work planning and...

  20. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management system - An Italian case study on the quality of MSW data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, A.; Pellegrini, M.; Saccani, C.

    2011-09-15

    This paper analyses the way numerical data on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) quantities are recorded, processed and then reported for six of the most meaningful Italian Districts and shows the difficulties found during the comparison of these Districts, starting from the lack of homogeneity and the fragmentation of the data indispensable to make this critical analysis. These aspects are often ignored, but data certainty are the basis for serious MSW planning. In particular, the paper focuses on overall Source Separation Level (SSL) definition and on the influence that Special Waste (SW) assimilated to MSW has on it. An investigation was then necessary to identify new parameters in place of overall SSL. Moreover, these parameters are not only important for a waste management system performance measure, but are fundamental in order to design and check management plan and to identify possible actions to improve it.

  1. Caustic Recovery Technology

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    366, REVISON 0 Key Words: Waste Treatment Plant Sodium Recovery Electrochemical Retention: ... (E. Stevens, Manager, Solid Waste and Special Programs) ...

  2. Measuring the success of public participation efforts associated with the U.S. Department of energy`s environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweitzer, M.; Carnes, S.A.; Peelle, E.B.; Wolfe, A.K.; Munro, J.F.

    1996-06-02

    For the last several years, US DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has actively pursued a policy of involving local stakeholders in the planning and implementation of environmental management activities at contaminated sites throughout the DOE complex. An ongoing ORNL study is focusing on how to measure the success of the public participation efforts. Five DOE facilities were selected for intensive site visits; 4 or 5 additional sites were covered by telephone interviews. Key stakeholder groups were interviewed. Based on the data collection and preliminary analysis, 17 definitions of success were developed for public participation programs. Objective and subjective indicators of the success of the public participation efforts are discussed.

  3. Proceedings of the 1980 UCC-ND and GAT waste management seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-01

    Papers and/or abstracts of 42 papers presented at this waste management seminar are included in this volume. Separate abstracts of 27 papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base (EDB). There are 8 papers represented in the proceedings by abstract only and are not included separately in EDB. The subjects covered in these abstracts include: requirements and compliance for the issuance of the second round NPDES permit for the Portsmouth Plant; performance of the pollution abatement facilities at the Portsmouth Plant; the impact of the Kentucky hazardous waste regulations on the Paducah Plant; control of R-114 losses at the gaseous diffusion plants; innovative alternatives to pollution control projects; evaluating the fate and potential radiological impacts of Technetium-99 released to the environment; and technical support interfacing for the FY-1981 line item project control of water pollution and solid wastes at the Paducah Plant. There are 15 other papers which were previously input to the EDB. (RJC)

  4. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  5. Activation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emergency Response Services Activated At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CARLSBAD, N.M., 2/5/2014, 11:43 a.m. (MDT) - Emergency response services have been activated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The activation occurred as a result of an emergency incident at the site. More information will be provided as soon as the extent of the emergency is determined. The Joint Information Center (JIC), located at 4021 National Parks Highway, has been

  6. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  7. Clean energy from municipal solid waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project was to demonstrate the environmental and combustion performance advantages of a carbonized refuse derived fuel (RDF) slurry, produced from EnerTech`s slurry carbonization process, using continuous pilot scale equipment and its suitability as an alternative fuel for utility and industrial boilers.

  8. List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Photovoltaics Solar Thermal Electric Coal with CCS Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Natural Gas Yes Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (Pennsylvania) Renewables Portfolio...

  9. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with ... of Feedstock and Technology Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from ...

  10. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste potential market implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, H.T.D.; Mooij, H.P.

    1985-08-01

    A 10-day retention time experiment determined digester biogas production and overall digester performance for comparison with previous experiments using 12- and 18-day retention. The authors describe the experiments, compare the results, and discuss general operation and start-up of the three experiments. The results show that the 10-day retention time produces a high level of biogas with substantially lower retention times. The data suggest that as sludge is used and the problem of leaks is addressed, gas production rate can be increased as well as the extent of bio-conversion. They also suggest that a seven-day retention time is physically feasible, and that similar values for gas production and bio-conversion can be maintained. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Westinghouse Cementation Facility of Solid Waste Treatment System - 13503

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Torsten; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    During NPP operation, several waste streams are generated, caused by different technical and physical processes. Besides others, liquid waste represents one of the major types of waste. Depending on national regulation for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, solidification can be one specific requirement. To accommodate the global request for waste treatment systems Westinghouse developed several specific treatment processes for the different types of waste. In the period of 2006 to 2008 Westinghouse awarded several contracts for the design and delivery of waste treatment systems related to the latest CPR-1000 nuclear power plants. One of these contracts contains the delivery of four Cementation Facilities for waste treatment, s.c. 'Follow on Cementations' dedicated to three locations, HongYanHe, NingDe and YangJiang, of new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in the People's Republic of China. Previously, Westinghouse delivered a similar cementation facility to the CPR-1000 plant LingAo II, in Daya Bay, PR China. This plant already passed the hot functioning tests successfully in June 2012 and is now ready and released for regular operation. The 'Follow on plants' are designed to package three 'typical' kind of radioactive waste: evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the Westinghouse experience to design and execution of cementation facilities. (authors)

  12. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  13. Characterization of solid waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    The primary objective of the TASE program is to determine the probable consequences to the environment and to public health and safety resulting from widespread implementation of major solar and renewable resource technologies. The specific principal Phase I objective is to determine the levels of residuals most likely to result throughout the complete energy cycle from the utilization of each of the solar and renewable resource technologies. Three basic technologies for recovering energy from M SW are considered in this study. These are: (1) direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which the heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; (2) manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized or pelleted refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and (3) pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource recovery and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described here include both energy and resource recovery systems as well as necessary pollution control equipment for gaseous emissions. To meet the Phase I objective, LBL staff have characterized the individual application associated with each general technology; calculated operational residuals generated by each application; determined the input capital requirements and, when possible, annual operating input requirements; and have identified the technical and institutional constraints for the widespread implementation of each application. A description is presented of the energy and material development cycle required for the implementation of each technology. The capital requirements are compiled and presented in a SEAS system format.

  14. Reducing the environmental impact on solid wastes from a fluidized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    systems has been experimentally examined. The three options are: (1) the use of chemical reactivity enhancement agents, such as NaCl, (2) the regeneration and reuse of the...

  15. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the ILbiomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL...

  16. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data on CCW disposal practices and State regulatory requirements at landfills and surface impoundments that were permitted, built, or laterally expanded between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. The scope of the study excluded waste units that manage CCWs in active or abandoned coal mines. The EPA identified the following three areas of interest: (1) Recent and current CCW industry surface disposal management practices, (2) State regulatory requirements for CCW management, and (3) Implementation of State requirements (i.e., the extent to which States grant or deny operator requests to waive or vary regulatory requirements and the rationales for doing so). DOE and the EPA obtained data on recent and current disposal practices from a questionnaire that the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) distributed to its members that own or operate coal-fired power plants. USWAG, formed in 1978, is responsible for addressing solid and hazardous waste issues on behalf of the utility industry. It is an informal consortium of approximately 80 utility operating companies, the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the American Gas Association (AGA). EEI is the principal national association of investor-owned electric power and light companies. NRECA is the national association of rural electric cooperatives. APPA is the national association of publicly owned electric utilities. AGA is the national association of natural gas utilities. Together, USWAG member companies and trade associations represent more than 85% of the total electric generating capacity of the United States and service more than 95% of the nation's consumers of electricity. To verify the survey findings, the EPA also asked State regulators from nine selected States that are leading consumers of coal for electricity generation for information on disposal units that may not have been covered in the USWAG survey. The selected States were Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, North Da

  17. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record for the Review of the WTP Low-Activity Waste Facility Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis Change Package for the Effluent Management Facility (OAR # EA-WTP-LAW-2016-01-25)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operational Awareness Record for the Review of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Facility Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis Change Package for the Effluent Management Facility

  18. Contractor report to the Department of Energy on opportunities for integration of environmental management activities across the complex (predecisional draft). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program faces significant technical and financial challenges in cleaning up the environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production and research and development, while facing an uncertain future in obtaining the needed funding to perform this work. Many of these requirements, including State and Federal regulations and negotiated agreements, continue to be a significant contributor to EM program costs and schedules. Historically, the sites have managed their programs focusing on their individual site`s needs. While this approach maximized successes at individual sites, it has resulted in a more costly program than if more integration across the DOE system occurred. In July 1996, the DOE Assistant Secretary for EM, Al Alm, chartered a contractor led effort to perform complex-wide integration in support of the ten-year plan process to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives to meet the EM mission. This report documents opportunities for waste and nuclear materials management integration activities in six areas: transuranic (TRU) waste, mixed low-level waste (MLLW), low-level waste (LLW), environmental restoration (ER), high-level waste (HLW), and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The opportunities represent technically defensible solutions which reduce cost, accelerate schedules, and result in no significant increase in risk.

  19. Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) Waste Management Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VOLKMAN, D.D.

    1999-10-27

    This document is the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH), that implements the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) document, and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement with Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), Sections 6.5 and 7.8. WHM is responsible for the treatment, storage, and disposal of liquid and solid wastes generated at the Hanford Site as well as those wastes received from other US Department of Energy (DOE) and non-DOE sites. WMH operations include the Low-Level Burial Grounds, Central Waste Complex (a mixed-waste storage complex), a nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility, the Transuranic Storage Facility, T Plant, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facility, 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility, the 242-A Evaporator, 300 Area Treatment Effluent Disposal Facility, the 340 Facility (a radioactive liquid waste handling facility), 222-S Laboratory, the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility, and the Hanford TRU Waste Program.

  20. Structural Health and Prognostics Management for Offshore Wind Plants; Final Report of Sandia R&D Activities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2015-04-01

    This final report is a compilation of resear ch efforts - funded by the US Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Technolog ies Office over a four-year period from FY11 through FY14. The goals of this re search program were to develop and evaluate technical innovati ons with promise for maxi mizing revenues and reducing levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for offs hore wind plants - more specifically the goals of the Structural H ealth and Prognostics Management (SHPM) program were to reduce O&M costs and increase energy capture through use of SHPM-based technologies. A technology roadmap was deve loped at the start of the project to guide the research efforts. This roadmap identified and outlined six major research thrust areas each having five stages of ma turity. Research was conducted in each of these thrust areas, as documented throughout this report, although a major focus was on development of damage detection strategi es for the most frequent blade damage conditions and damage mitigation and life-exte nsion strategies via changes in turbine operations (smart loads management). Th e work summarized in this compilation report is the product of the work of many researchers. A summary of the major findings, status of the SHPM Technology Ro admap and recommendations for future work are also provided.

  1. The AmeriFlux Data Activity and Data System: An Evolving Collection of Data Management Techniques, Tools, Products and Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, Thomas A; Krassovski, Misha B; Yang, Bai

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the U.S. Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Over this period, climate change science has expanded from research focusing on basic understanding of geochemical cycles, particularly the carbon cycle, to integrated research addressing climate change impacts, vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation. Interests in climate change data and information worldwide have grown remarkably and, as a result, so have demands and expectations for CDIAC s data systems. To meet the growing demands, CDIAC s strategy has been to design flexible data systems using proven technologies blended with new, evolving technologies and standards. CDIAC development teams are multidisciplinary and include computer science and information technology expertise, but also scientific expertise necessary to address data quality and documentation issues and to identify data products and system capabilities needed by climate change scientists. CDIAC has learned there is rarely a single commercial tool or product readily available to satisfy long-term scientific data system requirements (i.e., one size does not fit all and the breadth and diversity of environmental data are often too complex for easy use with commercial products) and typically deploys a variety of tools and data products in an effort to provide credible data freely to users worldwide. Like many scientific data management applications, CDIAC s data systems are highly customized to satisfy specific scientific usage requirements (e.g., developing data products specific for model use) but are also designed to be flexible and interoperable to take advantage of new software engineering techniques, standards (e.g., metadata standards) and tools and to support future Earth system data efforts (e.g., ocean acidification). CDIAC has provided data management support for numerous long-term measurement projects crucial to climate change science. One current example is the AmeriFlux measurement network. AmeriFlux provides continuous measurements from forests, grasslands, wetlands, and croplands in North, Central, and South America and offers important insight about carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We share our approaches in satisfying the challenges of delivering AmeriFlux data worldwide to benefit others with similar challenges handling climate change data, further heighten awareness and use of an outstanding ecological data resource, and highlight expanded software engineering applications being used for climate change measurement data.

  2. Environmental Management System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of those activities, prioritizing improvements, and measuring results. May 30, 2012 The continuous improvement cycle Our Environmental Management System encourages continuous...

  3. NREL Announces Management Changes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies such as solar energy, wind energy, fuels development and building research. ... He will manage service and support activities such environment, safety and health, finance ...

  4. Management & Administration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management & Administration Management & Administration Management & Administration The Office of Management and Administration directs the development, coordination, and execution of overall OIG management and administrative policy and planning. This responsibility includes directing the OIG's strategic planning process, financial management activities, personnel management and security programs, administrative support services, and information resources programs. In addition, the

  5. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: A comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torretta, Vincenzo; Ragazzi, Marco; Istrate, Irina Aura; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review on data regarding WEEE management in Italy and in Romania. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems that countries that will enter in the EU will have to solve facing with the WEEE management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot experiences useful for the awareness campaign of the population. - Abstract: The paper presents some data regarding waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) management in one of the founding countries of the EU, Italy, and in a recent entry into the EU, Romania. The aim of this research was to analyze some problems that countries entering the EU will have to solve with respect to WEEE management. The experiences of Italy and Romania could provide an interesting reference point. The strengths and weaknesses that the two EU countries have encountered can be used in order to give a more rational plan for other countries. In Italy the increase of WEEE collection was achieved in parallel with the increase of the efficiency of selective Municipal Solid Waste collection. In Romania, pilot experiences were useful to increase the awareness of the population. The different interests of the two populations towards recyclable waste led to a different scenario: in Romania all types of WEEE have been collected since its entrance into the EU; in Italy the 'interest' in recycling is typically related to large household appliances, with a secondary role of lighting equipment.

  6. Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Tritium released into the air and disposed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of as solid waste Tritium released into the air and disposed of as solid waste Fermilab produces tritium as an expected byproduct of accelerator operations. The lab actively manages tritium, using and disposing of it in ways that pose no health or environmental threat. One of the ways that tritium is discharged from the Fermilab site is by releasing it into the air. This release occurs in various ways. Tritium in the form of water vapor is emitted into the air through ventilation systems

  7. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0?mm.

  8. Paducah Cleanup Milestones | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cleanup Milestones Paducah Cleanup Milestones The Paducah Site Management Plan sets forth enforceable milestones for cleanup activities. These activities include a series of prioritized cleanup actions, ongoing analysis to support future cleanup decisions, and eventual D&D of the gaseous diffusion plant. FY 2015 - Key Milestones/Outlook Issue Federal Facility Agreement Annual Site Management Plan (D1) Issue Burial Grounds Solid Waste Management Unit 5 and 6 Record of Decision (D1) C-400 -

  9. Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  10. Environmental Management

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2015-01-07

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  11. International fuel cycle and waste management technology exchange activities sponsored by the United States Department of Energy: FY 1982 evaluation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.

    1983-02-01

    In FY 1982, DOE and DOE contractor personnel attended 40 international symposia and conferences on fuel reprocessing and waste management subjects. The treatment of high-level waste was the topic most often covered in the visits, with geologic disposal and general waste management also being covered in numerous visits. Topics discussed less frequently inlcude TRU/LLW treatment, airborne waste treatment, D and D, spent fuel handling, and transportation. The benefits accuring to the US from technology exchange activities with other countries are both tangible, e.g., design of equipment, and intangible, e.g., improved foreign relations. New concepts initiated in other countries, particularly those with sizable nuclear programs, are beginning to appear in US efforts in growing numbers. The spent fuel dry storage concept originating in the FRG is being considered at numerous sites. Similarly, the German handling and draining concepts for the joule-heated ceramic melter used to vitrify wastes are being incorporated in US designs. Other foreigh technologies applicable in the US include the slagging incinerator (Belgium), the SYNROC waste form (Australia), the decontamination experience gained in decommissioning the Eurochemic reprocessing plant (Belgium), the engineered surface storage of low- and intermediate-level waste (Belgium, FRG, France), the air-cooled storage of vitrified high-level waste (France, UK), waste packaging (Canada, FRG, Sweden), disposal in salt (FRG), disposal in granite (Canada, Sweden), and sea dumping (UK, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland). These technologies did not necessarily originated or have been tried in the US but for various reasons are now being applied and extended in other countries. This growing nuclear technological base in other countires reduces the number of technology avenues the US need follow to develop a solid nuclear power program.

  12. Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Fantoni, Moris; Busto, Mirko; Genon, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

  13. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  14. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: Net recovery and transport intensity indexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning.

  15. 2014 PowerPoint template

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 10, 2015 Jane Hedges Manager, Nuclear Waste Program TPA Updates: Managing Hanford's solid waste Background * Proposed updates to TPA milestone M-091 * 37,000 containers were...

  16. Property:UNRegion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Management Guidelines for Conversion of Diesel Buses to Compressed Natural Gas H How Communities Manage Forests I IEA Energy Statistics IEA Implementing Agreements...

  17. Draft HAB Advice on Integrated Safety Management ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Committee Draft Advice -Integrated Safety Management v.3 - Korenko, Smith Page 13 Draft ... Safety Management v.3 - Korenko, Smith Page 23 employees, and actively listening ...

  18. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management options for produced fluids that require additional treatment for these constituents are also discussed, including surface disposal, reuse and recycle, agricultural industrial and domestic uses, mineral extraction and recovery, and solid waste handling.

  19. Interagency Energy Management Task Force

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Interagency Energy Management Task Force was created by the Federal Energy Management Improvement Act of 1988 to coordinate Federal government activities that encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency.

  20. Los Alamos Site Office Nuclear Maintenance Management Program...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Los Alamos Site Office Nuclear Maintenance Management Program Oversight Self-Assessment Dates of Activity : 11142011 - 11...

  1. Configuration Management Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-10-27

    The purpose of this standard is to define the objectives of a configuration management process for DOE nuclear facilities (including activities and operations), and to provide detailed examples and supplementary guidance on methods of achieving those objectives. Configuration management is a disciplined process that involves both management and technical direction to establish and document the design requirements nd the physical configuration of the nuclear facility and to ensure that they remain consistent with each other and the documentation.

  2. Integrated Safety Management (ISM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated Safety Management provides a platform for active sharing of the ISM-related documents, tools, and processes being utilized across the Department to accomplish the goals of ISM. You'll find archival documents and procedures as well as information on the very latest innovative approaches being undertaken to improve safety management.

  3. "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","Don't Know","Not Applicable"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.4;" " Unit: Percents." "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","Don't Know","Not Applicable" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES" ,"Full-Time Energy Manager (c)",0.7,4.8,3.9,"--" ,"Set Goals for Improving Energy Efficiency",1.2,2.8,3,"--"

  4. ORISE: Integrated Safety Management (ISM)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    minimization and pollution prevention. All ORAU programs and departments actively pursue continuous improvement, and the addition of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) concepts...

  5. Project Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Management Project Management MaRIE is the experimental facility needed to control the time-dependent properties of materials for national security science missions. It...

  6. Using social network and stakeholder analysis to help evaluate infectious waste management: A step towards a holistic assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caniato, Marco; Vaccari, Mentore; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of infectious waste management in Bangkok, in particular incineration. • Integration of social network and stakeholder analysis assessment methods. • Assessment of stakeholder characteristics, role, interaction and communication. • Interviewees self-evaluate their own characteristics and the system. • Non-technical aspects are important for system acceptability, and sustainability. - Abstract: Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a solid waste management scheme requires an accurate analysis and integration of several determining features. In addition to the technical aspects, any such system shows a complex interaction of actors with varying stakes, decision-making power and influence, as well as a favourable or disabling environment. When capitalizing on the knowledge and experience from a specific case, it is also crucial that experts do not “forget” or underestimate the importance of such social determinants and that they are familiar with the methods and tools to assess them. Social network analysis (SNA) and stakeholder analysis (SA) methods can be successfully applied to better understand actors’ role and actions, analyse driving forces and existing coordination among stakeholders, as well as identify bottlenecks in communication which affect daily operations or strategic planning for the future way forward. SNA and SA, appropriately adjusted for a certain system, can provide a useful integration to methods by assessing other aspects to ensure a comprehensive picture of the situation. This paper describes how to integrate SNA and SA in order to survey a solid waste management system. This paper presents the results of an analysis of On-Nuch infectious waste incinerator in Bangkok, Thailand. Stakeholders were interviewed and asked to prioritize characteristics and relationships which they consider particularly important for system development and success of the scheme. In such a way, a large quantity of information about organization, communication between stakeholders and their perception about operation, environmental and health impact, and potential alternatives for the system was collected in a systematic way. The survey results suggest that stakeholders are generally satisfied with the system operation, though communication should be improved. Moreover, stakeholders should be strategically more involved in system development planning, according to their characteristics, to prevent negative reactions.

  7. "Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","In-house","Other","Don't Know"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," " " "," ",,,"Source of Financial Support for Activity" "NAICS"," "," " "Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","In-house","Other","Don't Know" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL

  8. Attachment K

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT (SWMU) AND AREA OF CONCERN (AOC) TABLES Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Permit October 2013 (This page intentionally blank) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Permit October 2013 PERMIT ATTACHMENT K Page K-i ATTACHMENT K SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNIT (SWMU) AND AREA OF CONCERN (AOC) TABLES LIST OF TABLES Table Title Table K-1 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) & Areas of Concern (AOCs) Requiring Corrective Action Table K-2 SWMUs & AOCs

  9. Conference Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-11-03

    To establish requirements and responsibilities with respect to managing conferences sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) or by DOE management and operating contractors and other contractors who perform work at DOE-owned or -leased facilities, including management and integration contractors and environmental restoration management contractors (when using funds that will be reimbursed by DOE). Cancels DOE N 110.3.

  10. Best Management Practice #1: Water Management Planning | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1: Water Management Planning Best Management Practice #1: Water Management Planning A successful water management program starts with a comprehensive strategic plan. The process for developing a strategic plan is generally the same for an individual facility or an agency. The plan provides information about current water uses and charts a course for water efficiency improvements, conservation activities, and water-reduction goals. A strategic plan establishes the priorities and helps

  11. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an overview of the major Environmental Restoration (ER) concerns at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The identified solid waste management units at PGDP are listed. In the Department of Energy (DOE) Five Year Plan development process, one or more waste management units are addressed in a series of activity data sheets (ADSs) which identify planned scope, schedule, and cost objectives that are representative of the current state of planned technical development for individual or multiple sites.

  12. Contaminant Sources are Known

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources are Known Historical contaminant sources from liquid discharges and solid waste management units are known. August 1, 2013 Contaminant source map LANL contaminant...

  13. Energy Answers Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New York Zip: 12207 Product: Formed in 1981, Energy Answers develops integrated solid waste management solutions with environmentally sound resource recovery technologies....

  14. Frey Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy LLC Lancaster County Solid Waste Management Authority Energy Purchaser Turkey Hill Dairy Location Conestoga PA Coordinates 39.95904681, -76.45606756 Show Map...

  15. Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Guide to Clean Development...

  16. Visiam | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Visiam Place: Minnesota Zip: 55401 Product: Minneapolis-based waste management company that processes municipal solid waste. References: Visiam1 This...

  17. Coolside waste management demonstration OCDO grant agreement No. CDO/D-902-9. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to evaluate the potential utilization in road construction of wastes produced from the Coolside, LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) and FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) processes, and to specify criteria for landfill disposal of waste from the Coolside process. These three processes are considered to be clean coal technologies. The Coolside process involves injecting an aqueous slurry of hydrated lime into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater in a coal-fired boiler. The hydrated lime captures sulfur dioxide from the flue gas producing anhydrous calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate, which are collected along with the unused hydrated lime and fly ash. The LIMB process involves injection of lime or hydrated lime directly into the furnace to capture sulfur dioxide. The waste consists principally of anhydrous calcium sulfate, lime, and fly ash. Both processes were demonstrated successfully at the Edgewater Station of Ohio Edison in Lorrain, OH, from 1989 to 1992. Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a commercial technology which combines steam generation with SO{sub 2} control by burning coal in a circulating bed of limestone. The waste, chemically similar to LIMB waste, is produced by bleed-off of the bed material and by collection of the flue dust. All three processes produce a dry solid waste, which must either be used or disposed of and managed to ensure environmental compliance and economic feasibility. The project was completed in June 1996.

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  19. Federal Activities in the Bioeconomy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary V: Federal Activities in the Bioeconomy Federal Activities in the Bioeconomy Zia Haq, Senior Analyst, Technology Manager, Bioenergy Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy

  20. Data Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Management Data Management PDSF and IHEP, in Beijing, China, are the two main computing facitilies for the Daya Bay experiment with PDSF being used primarily by North American...

  1. Issues Management Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    IMTool performs the following: • The IMTool can manage issues, actions, and activities from one screen. • Provides enhanced and intuitive searching, sorting, and filtering capabilities. Grids allow for filtering any column instantly by any data heading. • IMTool uses drop-down menus to ensure date is entered accurately with consistency. • User-friendly system – highly utilized commitment tracking screen functions. Information is viewed on the left side of the screen and managed on the right.

  2. TWRS safety management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popielarczyk, R.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Management Program Plan for development, implementation and maintenance of the tank farm authorization basis is described. The plan includes activities and procedures for: (a) Updating the current Interim Safety Basis, (b) Development,implementation and maintenance of a Basis for Interim Operations, (c) Development, implementation and maintenance of the Final Safety Analyses Report, (d) Development and implementation of a TWRS information Management System for monitoring the authorization basis.

  3. Safety Management System Policy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy POLICY Washington, D.C. Approved: 4-25-11 SUBJECT: INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT POLICY PURPOSE AND SCOPE To establish the Department of Energy's (DOE) expectation for safety, 1 including integrated safety management that will enable the Department's mission goals to be accomplished efficiently while ensuring safe operations at all departmental facilities and activities. This Policy cancels and supersedes DOE Policy (P) 411.1, Safety

  4. Bibliographic Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bibliographic Management Bibliographic Management Manage citations, PDFs, and more from varied resources and databases to organize references, keep notes to stay ahead of the game. Questions? 505-667-5809 Email Bibliographic management tools allow you to: Compile, create, and organize bibliographic references in a single location Create bibliographies from those records, choosing from multiple output styles EndNote {http://www.endnote.com/} is hosted locally on your computer. The software can be

  5. MANAGEMENT ALERT

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    COMMISSION FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Management Alert: Review of Allegations of Improper Disclosure of Confidential, Nonpublic...

  6. FLUOR HANFORD SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GARVIN, L J; JENSEN, M A

    2004-04-13

    This document summarizes safety management programs used within the scope of the ''Project Hanford Management Contract''. The document has been developed to meet the format and content requirements of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses''. This document provides summary descriptions of Fluor Hanford safety management programs, which Fluor Hanford nuclear facilities may reference and incorporate into their safety basis when producing facility- or activity-specific documented safety analyses (DSA). Facility- or activity-specific DSAs will identify any variances to the safety management programs described in this document and any specific attributes of these safety management programs that are important for controlling potentially hazardous conditions. In addition, facility- or activity-specific DSAs may identify unique additions to the safety management programs that are needed to control potentially hazardous conditions.

  7. Management and integration of engineering and construction activities: Lessons learned from the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant China project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullough, M. C.; Ebeling-Koning, D.; Evans, M. C.

    2012-07-01

    The lessons learned during the early phase of design engineering and construction activities for the AP1000 China Project can be applied to any project involving multiple disciplines and multiple organizations. Implementation of a first-of-a-kind design to directly support construction activities utilizing resources assigned to design development and design delivery creates challenges with prioritization of activities, successful closure of issues, and communication between site organizations and the home office. To ensure successful implementation, teams were assigned and developed to directly support construction activities including prioritization of activities, site communication and ensuring closure of site emergent issues. By developing these teams, the organization is better suited to meet the demands of the construction schedule while continuing with design evolution of a standard plant and engineering delivery for multiple projects. For a successful project, proper resource utilization and prioritization are key for overcoming obstacles and ensuring success of the engineering organization. (authors)

  8. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SRNS 2011 Economic Impact $1.423 billion 4 Savannah River Nuclear Solution (M&O Contractor) * Landlord Services * EM Cleanup Activities * (Excluding Liquid Waste) * NNSA Activities * SRNL Savannah River Ecology Lab (University of GA) Ameresco Biomass Construction & Operation Shaw Areva MOX Services MOX Construction DOE-EM Environmental Management (Site Landlord) DOE-NNSA Nuclear Nonproliferation DOE-NNSA Defense Programs Parsons Solid Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) WSI-SRS Team Site

  9. Technical Standards Managers Contact List | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Standards Managers Contact List Technical Standards Managers Contact List October 2015 Contact list for Technical Standards Managers in DOE, Field offices and National Laboratories. PDF icon Technical Standards Managers Contact List, October 2015 More Documents & Publications All Active DOE Technical Standards Document Project Registration Number Assignments (Active) Active Project Justification Statement

  10. Administrative Management Records | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Administrative Management Records Administrative Management Records This schedule covers those administrative management activities not covered by other Administrative Schedules PDF icon Administrative Management Records More Documents & Publications ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 23: RECORDS COMMON TO MOST OFFICES ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 12: COMMUNICATIONS RECORDS ADM 12

  11. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) at...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Review of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) at Oak Ridge ... INTRODUCTION The Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) is a land ...

  12. Exploratory Well At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Exploratory Well At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management,...

  13. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

    1990-03-01

    The Soviet Union operates a vast and growing radioactive waste management system. Detailed information on this system is rare and a general overall picture only emerges after a review of a great deal of literature. Poor waste management practices and slow implementation of environmental restoration activities have caused a great deal of national concern. The release of information on the cause and extent of an accident involving high-level waste at the Kyshtym production reactor site in 1957, as well as other contamination at the site, serve to highlight past Soviet waste management practices. As a result, the area of waste management is now receiving greater emphasis, and more public disclosures. Little is known about Soviet waste management practices related to uranium mining, conversion, and fuel fabrication processes. However, releases of radioactive material to the environment from uranium mining and milling operations, such as from mill tailings piles, are causing public concern. Official Soviet policy calls for a closed fuel cycle, with reprocessing of power reactor fuel that has been cooled for five years. For power reactors, only VVER-440 reactor fuel has been reprocessed in any significant amount, and a decision on the disposition of RBMK reactor fuel has been postponed indefinitely. Soviet reprocessing efforts are falling behind schedule; thus longer storage times for spent fuel will be required, primarily at multiple reactor stations. Information on reprocessing in the Soviet Union has been severely limited until 1989, when two reprocessing sites were acknowledged by the Soviets. A 400-metric ton (MT) per year reprocessing facility, located at Kyshtym, has been operational since 1949 for reprocessing production reactor fuel. This facility is reported to have been reprocessing VVER-440 and naval reactor fuel since 1978, with about 2000 MT of VVER-440 fuel being reprocessed by July 1989. A second facility, located near Krasnoyarsk and having a 1500 MT per year capacity as the first of several modules, was about 30% completed by July 1989. The completion of this plant was subsequently "indefinitely postponed." The initial reprocessing scheme at the Kyshtym site used sodium uranyl acetate precipitation from fuel dissolved in nitric acid solutions. The basic method~ ology now appears to be based on the conventional PUREX process. Dry reprocessing on a pilot or laboratory scale has been under way in Dimitrovgrad since 1984, and a larger unit is now being built, according to the French CEA. Perhaps significantly, much research is being done on partitioning high-level waste into element fractions. The Soviets appear to have the technology to remove radioactive noble gases released during reprocessing operations; however, there are no indications of its implementation. Millions of curies of liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes have been disposed of by well injection into underground areas where they were supposedly contained by watertight rock strata. Some gaseous wastes were also disposed of by well injection. This practice is not referred to in recent literature and thus may not be widely used today. Rather, it appears that these waste streams are now first treated to reduce volume, and then solidified using bitumen or concrete. These solidified liquid wastes from Soviet nuclear power reactor operations, along with solid wastes, are disposed of in shallow-land burial sites located at most large power reactor stations. In addition, 35 shallow-land burial sites have been alluded to by the Soviets for disposal of industrial, medical, and research low-level wastes as well as ionization sources. Research on tritium-bearing and other gaseous wastes is mentioned, as well as a waste minimization program aimed at reducing the volume of waste streams by 30%. The Soviets have announced that their high-level waste management plan is to 1) store liquid wastes for 3-5 years; 2) incorporate the waste into glass (at a final glass volume of 100-150 liters/MT of fuel reprocessed); 3) set it aside in air-cooled storage

  14. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  15. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  16. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  17. EERE Program Management Quick Reference Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Quick Reference Guide EERE Program Management Quick Reference Guide Provides information on the EERE program management structure, program and project management roles/responsibilities, and sequence of activities in the program management cycle; also introduces EERE management concepts and tools. PDF icon pmquick_ref_guide.pdf More Documents & Publications EERE Program Management Guide - Chapter 2 EERE Program Management Guide - Chapter 4 EERE Program Management Guide - Chapter 5

  18. SUBCONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHAPTER 10 SUBCONTRACT MANAGEMENT (Revised October 19, 2011) WHAT ARE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES AND OBJECTIVES OF SUBCONTRACT MANAGEMENT? 1. To ensure contractors establish, document, and maintain adequate purchasing systems. 2. To ensure contractors flow down contract requirements to subcontractors. WHY IS SUBCONTRACT MANAGEMENT IMPORTANT? In many Department prime contracts a significant portion of the obligated dollars is spent on subcontract work. Due to the absence of a direct contractual

  19. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  20. Program Managers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    security. managers Advanced Scientific Computing Applied Mathematics: Pieter Swart, T-5 Computer Science: Pat McCormick, CCS-1 Computational Partnerships: Galen Shipman, CCS-7...

  1. acquisition management

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the science, technology, and engineering base; and,

  2. Continue NNSA management reforms. 


    • Our Values:<...

    • project management

      National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

      3%2A en Project Management and Systems Support http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsapmprojectmanagementandsystemssupport

    • project management

      National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

      %2A en Project Management and Systems Support http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsapmprojectmanagementandsystemssupport

    • Position Management

      Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

      1992-06-23

      The order prescribes the policies, responsibilities, and procedures for position management within (DOE). Canceled by DOE N 1321.140. Cancels DOE 3510.1

    • Quality Management

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      The Office of Quality Management, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security develops policies and procedures to ensure the classification and control of information is effective and...

    • Energy Management

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Management Utilize energy efficiency to improve your industrial customer's business performance without the cost of major capital improvements. Energy efficiency is not...

    • Summary - Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) at Oak Ridge, TN

      Office of Environmental Management (EM)

      Oak Ridge, TN EM Project: EM Waste Management Facility ETR Report Date: February 2008 ETR-11 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) at Oak Ridge, TN Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) is a land disposal facility for wastes generated by environmental restoration activities being conducted at the US Department of

    • Berkeley Storage Manager

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

      2007-03-01

      Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of shared storage components on the Grid, They provide storage availability for the planning and execution of a Grid job. SRMs manage two types of resources: space and files. When managing space, SRMs negotiate space allocation with the requesting client, andlor assign default space quotas. When managing files, SRMs allocate space for files, invoke file transfer servicesmore » to move files into the space. phi files for a certain lifetime, release files upon the clients’ request, and use file replacement policies to optimize the use of the shared space. SPMs can be designed to provide effective sharing of files, by monitoring the activity of shared files, and make dynamic decisions on which files to replace when space is needed. In addition, SRMs perform automatic gathage collection of unused files by removing selected files whose lifetime has expired when space is needed. BeStMan is a Java implementation of SRM functionality by the Scientific Data Management Group at LBNL. It manages multiple disks as well as the HPSS mass storage system, and can be adapted to other storage systems. The BeStMan package contains the SRM server, the SRM client tools, and SRM testing tools.« less

    • Integrated Safety Management Policy

      Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

      2011-04-25

      The policy establishes DOE's expectation for safety, including integrated safety management that will enable the Department’s mission goals to be accomplished efficiently while ensuring safe operations at all departmental facilities and activities. Supersedes DOE P 450.4, DOE P 411.1, DOE P 441.1, DOE P 450.2A, and DOE P 450.7

    • Property Management | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Management Property Management DOE is the fourth largest Federal land manager, conducting its mission at 50 major sites on 2.4 million acres across the country. In addition to land, DOE's assets include distinctive world-class facilities; irreplaceable natural and cultural history; and rare assemblages of plants, animals, and mineral resources. Numerous sites and tens of thousands of acres of land will be transferred to LM after active environmental remediation has been completed. LM will act as

    • Incident Management | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Management Incident Management IC2 (004).jpg The Incident Management Program (IMP) focuses on: threat information sharing critical infrastructure protection active defense incident preparedness. The IMP reports all incidents to the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT), fulfilling statutory requirements and ensuring a coordinated response to cyber attacks. Joint Cybersecurity Coordination Center (JC3) The Joint Cybersecurity Coordination Center (JC3) provides DOE with

    • Floodplain Management

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Guidelines for Implementing Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management, and Executive Order 13690, Establishing a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard and a Process for Further Soliciting and Considering Stakeholder Input October 8, 2015 1 Guidelines for Implementing E.O. 11988 and E.O. 13690 Contents Version Highlights ........................................................................................................................ 3 Glossary

    • Study of lay people's perceptions of appropriate management of gasoline/soil mixtures, hazardous waste mixtures, and trash/garbage mixtures

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Simon, L.E.

      1988-01-01

      The method used was a researcher-developed questionnaire that was given to San Diego residents who were either Naval Reservists or worked at the corporate headquarters of a fast food chain. The respondents were chosen to yield a cross section of lay people. The forced-choice questionnaire asked identical questions about each of the wastes. The sequence in which each waste appeared was varied in order not to imply a ranking. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's Method was used to identify any significant differences. On all eight elements, there was a significant difference between each of the wastes at the p < .05 level. Lay people perceive a significant difference in what constitutes appropriate management of the three waste mixtures. Lay people who participated in the study saw Gasoline/Soil Mixtures as requiring management that was significantly more lenient that what they saw as needed for Hazardous Waste Mixtures and significantly more strict than what they saw as needed for Trash/Garbage Mixtures. The establishment of an intermediate category of solid waste between the existing categories of Hazardous Waste and Non-Hazardous Waste was clearly identified as a possibility by the respondents. If such a category were established it would: (1) clarify and resolve existing contradictions between various regulations; (2) reduce unnecessary filling of scarce hazardous waste disposal capacity; (3) reduce uncertainty, delay and expense to businesses trying to comply with the regulations.

    • Individual Permit for Storm Water

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Laws » Individual Permit Individual Permit The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL from specified solid waste management units and areas of concern, collectively referred to as Sites. Canada del Buey Gage station in Mortandad Canyon Pajarito Canyon Sandia Canyon Willows planted for bank stabilization in Pueblo Canyon Willows planted for bank stabilization in Pueblo Canyon What's New Documents submitted to EPRR in

    • Recycling Programs | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Recycling Programs Recycling Programs The Office of Administration manages many recycling activities at DOE Headquarters that significantly impact energy and the environment. The Department of Energy Headquarters has instituted several recycling programs, starting with standard, solid waste recycling in 1991, and has expanded to include batteries, toner cartridges, carpeting and cell phones. Follow this link for a detailed listing of the products that DOE Headquarters recycles, and where to

    • RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      NSTec Environmental Management

      2010-07-19

      The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

    • Microsoft Word - 11-0434 _signature on file_ _2_.docx

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      solids waste and S5000 debris waste. The audit team also evaluated, for initial certification, activities related to the real-time radiography Unit 4 to characterize the...

    • Management control system description

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bence, P. J.

      1990-10-01

      This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

    • Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: Project overview and main results

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Consonni, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Massarutto, Antonio; Saccani, Cesare

      2011-09-15

      Highlights: > The source separation level (SSL) of waste management system does not qualify adequately the system. > Separately collecting organic waste gives less advantages than packaging materials. > Recycling packaging materials (metals, glass, plastics, paper) is always attractive. > Composting and anaerobic digestion of organic waste gives questionable outcomes. > The critical threshold of optimal recycling seems to be a SSL of 50%. - Abstract: This paper describes the context, the basic assumptions and the main findings of a joint research project aimed at identifying the optimal breakdown between material recovery and energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the framework of integrated waste management systems (IWMS). The project was carried out from 2007 to 2009 by five research groups at Politecnico di Milano, the Universities of Bologna and Trento, and the Bocconi University (Milan), with funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR). Since the optimization of IWMSs by analytical methods is practically impossible, the search for the most attractive strategy was carried out by comparing a number of relevant recovery paths from the point of view of mass and energy flows, technological features, environmental impact and economics. The main focus has been on mature processes applicable to MSW in Italy and Europe. Results show that, contrary to a rather widespread opinion, increasing the source separation level (SSL) has a very marginal effects on energy efficiency. What does generate very significant variations in energy efficiency is scale, i.e. the size of the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant. The mere value of SSL is inadequate to qualify the recovery system. The energy and environmental outcome of recovery depends not only on 'how much' source separation is carried out, but rather on 'how' a given SSL is reached.

    • EERE Program Management Guide - Chapter 7

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Program Managers must be continuously aware of the extent to which activities are being ... tools for analyzing EERE programs in the context of the broader economy, under different ...