National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for active gas carbon

  1. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  2. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-12-31

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  3. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  4. OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg

    2007-05-01

    Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

  5. Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

  6. EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC Why it Matters: Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is considered to be...

  7. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

  8. Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations: CCS as an offsetting activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-08-15

    When carbon capture and sequestration is conducted by entities that are not regulated, it could be counted as an offset that is fungible in the market or sold to a voluntary market. This paper addresses the complications that arise in accounting for carbon capture and sequestration as an offset, and methodologies that exist for accounting for CCS in voluntary and compliance markets. (author)

  9. Activated carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-25

    Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Continuous process preparation of activated silica with low carbon dioxide content gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burdett, Joseph Walton

    1954-01-01

    , Systems. II. Water and Sodium Silicate Feed. Systems. III. Orifice Nixers and phase Separator IV. N, in lying Orifice for Pilot, Plant Sbstem V. Phase Separator Construction. 16 23 VI. Effect of' Gas Pressure at the Qri. fice on Percent..., s not reduced. The product, of the reaction between the ammonIum sulphate and sodium silicate i" srmrrrnium hydroxide which keeps the altmllnity of the sol at the same value ss the initially diluted silicate. The usual method of producing this sol is to mix...

  11. Gas permeability of carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

  12. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban

  13. Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Research Report #12;#12;Research Report Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Forestry., White, M. and Yamulki, S. (2012). Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests

  14. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  15. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Article Correction to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

  16. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  17. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-16

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  18. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  19. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  20. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  1. Effects of HCl and SO{sub 2} concentration on mercury removal by activated carbon sorbents in coal-derived flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryota Ochiai; M. Azhar Uddin; Eiji Sasaoka; Shengji Wu [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology

    2009-09-15

    The effect of the presence of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the simulated coal combustion flue gas on the Hg{sup 0} removal by a commercial activated carbon (coconut shell AC) was investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor in a temperature range of 80-200{sup o}C. The characteristics (thermal stability) of the mercury species formed on the sorbents under various adsorption conditions were investigated by the temperature-programmed decomposition desorption (TPDD) technique. It was found that the presence of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the flue gas affected the mercury removal efficiency of the sorbents as well as the characteristics of the mercury adsorption species. The mercury removal rate of AC increased with the HCl concentration in the flue gas. In the presence of HCl and the absence of SO{sub 2} during Hg{sup 0} adsorption by AC, a single Hg{sup 0} desorption peak at around 300{sup o}C was observed in the TPDD spectra and intensity of this peak increased with the HCl concentration during mercury adsorption. The peak at around 300{sup o}C may be derived from the decomposition and desorption of mercury chloride species. The presence of SO{sub 2} during mercury adsorption had an adverse effect on the mercury removal by AC in the presence of HCl. In the presence of both HCl and SO{sub 2} during Hg{sup 0} adsorption by AC, the major TPDD peak temperatures changed drastically depending upon the concentration of HCl and SO{sub 2} in flue gas during Hg{sup 0} adsorption. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Activated carbon to the rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, S.

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the response to pipeline spill of ethylene dichloride (EDC) on the property of an oil company. Activated carbon cleanup proceedure was used. During delivery, changeout, transport, storage, thermal reactivation, and return delivery to the site, the carbon never came into direct contact with operating personnel or the atmosphere. More than 10,000 tones of dredge soil and 50 million gallons of surface water were processed during the emergency response.

  3. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael Ray (Knoxville, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  4. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats (Sturbridge, MA); Benson, Steven (Grand Forks, ND); Crocker, Charlene (Newfolden, MN); Mackenzie, Jill (Carmel, IN)

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    Admin- istration. Wang, M. The Greenhouse Gases, RegulatedGreenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  6. New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars and Trucks June 11,...

  7. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  8. Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    CSEM WP 167 Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel94720-5180 www.ucei.org Greenhouse Gas Reductions under LowLCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  10. Demonstration of a Carbonate Fuel Cell on Coal Derived Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies indicate that carbonate fuel cell systems have the potential to offer efficient, cost competitive, and environmentally preferred power plants operating on natural gas or coal derived gas (“syn-gas”). To date, however, no fuel cell...

  11. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Chilcoat, Bill R. (Knoxville, TN); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  12. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Chilcoat, Bill R. (Knoxville, TN); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    2000-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  13. Treatment of activated carbon to enhance catalytic activity for reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, B.J.; Rhee, H.K. (Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Lee, J.K.; Park, D. (Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    1994-11-01

    Catalytic activity of activated carbon treated with various techniques was examined in a fixed bed reactor for the reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia at 150 C. Activated carbon derived from coconut shell impregnated with an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate, further treated with sulfuric acid, dried at 120 C, and then heated in an inert gas stream at 400 C, showed the highest catalytic activity within the range of experimental conditions. The enhancement of catalytic activity of modified activated carbon could be attributed to the increase in the amount of oxygen function groups which increased the adsorption site for ammonia. Catalytic activity of activated carbons depended on the surface area and the oxygen content as well.

  14. Carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery: Identifying candidate sites for pilot study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Benson, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Process modeling of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas2001. Reichle, D. et al.. Carbon sequestration research andCarbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery: Identifying

  15. Gas flux and carbonate occurrence at a shallow seep of thermogenic natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    010-0184-0 ORIGINAL Gas flux and carbonate occurrence atof thermogenic natural gas Franklin S. Kinnaman & Justine B.comprehensive survey of gas flux at Brian Seep yielded a

  16. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Coal-derived synthesis gas is a potential major source of hydrogen for fuel cells. Oxygen-blown coal gasification is an efficient approach to achieving the goal of producing hydrogen from coal, but a cost-effective means of enriching O2 concentration in air is required. A key objective of this project is to assess the utility of a system that exploits porous carbon materials and electrical swing adsorption to produce an O2-enriched air stream for coal gasification. As a complement to O2 and N2 adsorption measurements, CO2 was used as a more sensitive probe molecule for the characterization of molecular sieving effects. To further enhance the potential of activated carbon composite materials for air separation, work was implemented on incorporating a novel twist into the system; namely the addition of a magnetic field to influence O2 adsorption, which is accompanied by a transition between the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. The preliminary findings in this respect are discussed.

  17. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, N.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Rinaldi, A.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300 deg. C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2} was carried out at temperature of 550 deg. C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N{sub 2} isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  18. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number was superior to commercial DARCO FGD for mercury capture. The results of the activated carbon market assessment indicate an existing market for water treatment and an emerging application for mercury control. That market will involve both existing and new coal-fired plants. It is expected that 20% of the existing coal-fired plants will implement activated carbon injection by 2015, representing about 200,000 tons of annual demand. The potential annual demand by new plants is even greater. In the mercury control market, two characteristics are going to dominate the customer's buying habit-performance and price. As continued demonstration testing of activated carbon injection at the various coal-fired power plants progresses, the importance of fuel type and plant configuration on the type of activated carbon best suited is being identified.

  19. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  20. EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing Facility, Red River Parish, LA EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing...

  1. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT You are accessing a document from...

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  4. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  5. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  6. A novel activated carbon for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Haijie; Liu, Enhui; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Zhengzheng; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yuhu; Wu, Zhilian; Xie, Hui

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel activated carbon was prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon has large surface area with microporous, and high heteroatom content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteroatom-containing functional groups can improve the pseudo-capacitance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: A novel activated carbon has been prepared by simple carbonization and activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin which is synthesized by the condensation polymerization method. The morphology, thermal stability, surface area, elemental composition and surface chemical composition of samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L{sup -1} potassium hydroxide. The activated carbon shows good capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance is up to 210 F g{sup -1}, which indicates that it may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  7. Modeling the selectivity of activated carbons for efficient separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    the separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide via adsorption in activated carbons. In the simulations, both hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules are modeled as Lennard-Jones spheres, and the activated carbons essentially no preference over the two gases and the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to hydrogen falls

  8. Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, Jian; Lizzio, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    Goal is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate their potential application for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGVs). Focus is to design and engineer adsorbents that meet or exceed performance and cost targets established for low-pressure natural gas storage materials. Potentially, about two million tons adsorbent could be consumed in NGVs by year 2000. If successful, the results could lead to use of Illinois coal in a market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. Activated carbon samples were prepared from IBC-106 coal by controlling both the preoxidation temperature and time, and the devolatilization temperature in order to eliminate coal caking. A 4.6 cc pressurized vessel was constructed to measure the Vm/Vs methane adsorption capacity (volume of stored methane at STP per volume storage container). Several IBC-106 derived activated carbons showed methane adsorption capacities comparable to that of a 1000 m{sup 2}/g commercial activated carbon. Results indicated that surface area and micropore volume of activated carbons are important for natural gas storage. Work is in progress to synthesize samples from IBC-106 coal with optimum pore diameter for methane adsorption.

  9. Method and apparatus for regenerating activated carbon containing an adsorbed volatile organic absorbate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiggelbeck, D.D.; Goyak, G.M.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described for regenerating spent activated carbon containing adsorbed volatile organic adsorbate comprising: establishing a confined downwardly moving bed of activated carbon; adding spent carbon to the top of said bed; introducing superheated steam into the bottom of said bed in contact with said carbon; recovering exit gas including predominantly superheated steam and volatilized adsorbate from the top of said bed; circulating a portion of said exit gas through a superheater and compressor to the bottom of said bed; withdrawing a portion of said exit gas through a cooler to condense steam and volatile adsorbate; continuously circulating superheated steam in a closed loop through said downwardly moving bed, said compressor and said superheater; recovering partially regenerated activated carbon containing residual volatile adsorbate from the bottom of said bed.

  10. Preparation of activated carbons with mesopores by use of organometallics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Yoshio; Yoshizawa, Noriko; Furuta, Takeshi [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Activated carbons are commercially produced by steam or CO{sub 2} activation of coal, coconut shell and so on. In general the carbons obtained give pores with a broad range of distribution. The objective of this study was to prepare activated carbons from coal by use of various organometallic compounds. The carbons were evaluated for pore size by nitrogen adsorption experiments.

  11. Activation and micropore structure determination of activated carbon-fiber composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1997-09-05

    Rigid, high surface area activated carbon fiber composites have been produced with high permeabilities for environmental applications in gas and water purification. These novel monolithic adsorbents can be produced in single pieces to a given size and shape. The project involves a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), University of Kentucky. The carbon fiber composites are produced at the ORNL and activated at the CAER using different methods, with the aims of producing a uniform degree of activation, and of closely controlling pore structure and adsorptive properties. The main focus of the present work has been to find a satisfactory means to uniformly activate large samples of carbon fiber composites and produce controlled pore structures. Several environmental applications have been explored for the activated carbon fiber composites. One of these was to evaluate the activated composites for the separation of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures, and an apparatus was constructed specifically for this purpose. The composites were further evaluated in the cyclic recovery of volatile organics. The activated carbon fiber composites have also been tested for possible water treatment applications by studying the adsorption of sodium pentachlorophenolate, PCP.

  12. Method of making improved gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-11-05

    A method of making an adsorbent carbon fiber based monolith having improved methane gas storage capabilities is disclosed. Additionally, the monolithic nature of the storage carbon allows it to exhibit greater thermal conductivity than conventional granular activated carbon or powdered activated carbon storage beds. The storage of methane gas is achieved through the process of physical adsorption in the micropores that are developed in the structure of the adsorbent monolith. The disclosed monolith is capable of storing greater than 150 V/V of methane [i.e., >150 STP (101.325 KPa, 298K) volumes of methane per unit volume of storage vessel internal volume] at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi).

  13. Removal of carbonyl sulfide using activated carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, M.L.; Rosenberk, R.S. [University of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Wastewater treatment plant odors are caused by compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptans, and carbonyl sulfide (COS). One of the most efficient odor control processes is activated carbon adsorption; however, very few studies have been conducted on COS adsorption. COS is not only an odor causing compound but is also listed in the Clean Air Act as a hazardous air pollutant. Objectives of this study were to determine the following: (1) the adsorption capacity of 3 different carbons for COS removal; (2) the impact of relative humidity (RH) on COS adsorption; (3) the extent of competitive adsorption of COS in the presence of H{sub 2}S; and (4) whether ammonia injection would increase COS adsorption capacity. Vapor phase react (VPR; reactivated), BPL (bituminous coal-based), and Centaur (physically modified to enhance H{sub 2}S adsorption) carbons manufactured by Calgon Carbon Corp. were tested in three laboratory-scale columns. It was found that the adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon for COS was higher than the other two carbons, regardless of RH. As humidity increased, the percentage of decrease in adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon, however, was greater than the other two carbons. The carbon adsorption capacity for COS decreased in proportion to the percentage of H{sub 2}S in the gas stream. More adsorption sites appear to be available to H{sub 2}S, a smaller molecule. Ammonia, which has been found to increase H{sub 2}S adsorption capacity, did not increase the capacity for COS.

  14. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 27012711 Carbon structure and enzyme activities in alpine and forest ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    2007-01-01

    : Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Py-GC/MS; Enzymes; Microbe; Carbon; Chemistry; Soil organicSoil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 2701­2711 Carbon structure and enzyme activities in alpine of soil organic matter fractions and its relationship to biological processes remains uncertain. We used

  15. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  16. Production of activated carbon from coconut shell char in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai, P.M.S.; Ahmed, J. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India). Centralised Waste Management Facility; Krishnaiah, K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-09-01

    Activated carbon is produced from coconut shell char using steam or carbon dioxide as the reacting gas in a 100 mm diameter fluidized bed reactor. The effect of process parameters such as reaction time, fluidizing velocity, particle size, static bed height, temperature of activation, fluidizing medium, and solid raw material on activation is studied. The product is characterized by determination of iodine number and BET surface area. The product obtained in the fluidized bed reactor is much superior in quality to the activated carbons produced by conventional processes. Based on the experimental observations, the optimum values of process parameters are identified.

  17. Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL

    2008-03-01

    In continuation of the development of composite materials for air separation based on molecular sieving properties and magnetic fields effects, several molecular sieve materials were tested in a flow system, and the effects of temperature, flow conditions, and magnetic fields were investigated. New carbon materials adsorbents, with and without pre-loaded super-paramagnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized; all materials were packed in chromatographic type columns which were placed between the poles of a high intensity, water-cooled, magnet (1.5 Tesla). In order to verify the existence of magnetodesorption effect, separation tests were conducted by injecting controlled volumes of air in a flow of inert gas, while the magnetic field was switched on and off. Gas composition downstream the column was analyzed by gas chromatography and by mass spectrometry. Under the conditions employed, the tests confirmed that N2 - O2 separation occurred at various degrees, depending on material's intrinsic properties, temperature and flow rate. The effect of magnetic fields, reported previously for static conditions, was not confirmed in the flow system. The best separation was obtained for zeolite 13X at sub-ambient temperatures. Future directions for the project include evaluation of a combined system, comprising carbon and zeolite molecular sieves, and testing the effect of stronger magnetic fields produced by cryogenic magnets.

  18. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy and Fuels, 17(RECOVERY AND NATURAL GAS STORAGE Curtis M. Oldenburg Eartheffective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at

  19. The Effect of Acid Additives on Carbonate Rock Wettability and Spent Acid Recovery in Low Permeability Gas Carbonates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saneifar, Mehrnoosh

    2012-10-19

    Spent acid retention in the near-wellbore region causes reduction of relative permeability to gas and eventually curtailed gas production. In low-permeability gas carbonate reservoirs, capillary forces are the key parameters that affect the trapping...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gas by Phase Enhanced Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Fout

    2007-06-30

    A new process, phase enhanced absorption, was invented. The method is carried out in an absorber, where a liquid carrier (aqueous solution), an organic mixture (or organic compound), and a gas mixture containing a gas to be absorbed are introduced from an inlet. Since the organic mixture is immiscible or at least partially immiscible with the liquid carrier, the organic mixture forms a layer or small parcels between the liquid carrier and the gas mixture. The organic mixture in the absorber improves mass transfer efficiency of the system and increases the absorption rate of the gas. The organic mixture serves as a transportation media. The gas is finally accumulated in the liquid carrier as in a conventional gas-liquid absorption system. The presence of the organic layer does not hinder the regeneration of the liquid carrier or recovery of the gas because the organic layer is removed by a settler after the absorption process is completed. In another aspect, the system exhibited increased gas-liquid separation efficiency, thereby reducing the costs of operation and maintenance. Our study focused on the search of the organic layer or transportation layer to enhance the absorption rate of carbon dioxide. The following systems were studied, (1) CO{sub 2}-water system and CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system; (2) CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution system and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system. CO{sub 2}-water and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate systems are the traditional gas-liquid absorption processes. The CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate-organic layer systems are the novel absorption processes, phase enhanced absorption. As we mentioned early, organic layer is used for the increase of absorption rate, and plays the role of transportation of CO{sub 2}. Our study showed that the absorption rate can be increased by adding the organic layer. However, the enhanced factor is highly depended on the liquid mass transfer coefficients for the CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system. For the CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system, the enhanced factor is not only dependent on the liquid mass transfer coefficients, but also the chemical reaction rates.

  1. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  2. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen production from natural gas, sequestration ofunderground storage of natural gas, Jour. Petrol. Tech. 943,dioxide as cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy and

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic43,728 243,242ConsumersAnnual CoalOrigin6

  4. Entrapment of Carbon Dioxide in the Active Site of Carbonic Anhydrase II*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    Entrapment of Carbon Dioxide in the Active Site of Carbonic Anhydrase II* Received for publication step of CO2 hydration catalyzed by the zinc- metalloenzyme human carbonic anhydrase II, the binding substrates and revealing hydrophobic pockets in proteins. Since their discovery (2), the carbonic anhydrases

  5. Removal potential of toxic 2378-substituted PCDD/F from incinerator flue gases by waste-derived activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T.

    2011-06-15

    The application of activated carbons has become a commonly used emission control protocol for the removal or adsorption of persistent organic pollutants from the flue gas streams of waste incinerators. In this study, the 2378-substituted PCDD/F removal efficiency of three types of activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of refuse derived fuel, textile waste and scrap tyre was investigated and compared with that of a commercial carbon. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor under a simulated flue gas at 275 deg. C with a reaction period of four days. The PCDD/F in the solid matrices and exhaust gas, were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the absence of activated carbon adsorbent, there was a significant increase in the concentration of toxic PCDD/F produced in the reacted flyash, reaching up to 6.6 times higher than in the raw flyash. In addition, there was a substantial release of PCDD/F into the gas phase, which was found in the flue gas trapping system. By application of the different commercial, refuse derived fuel, textile and tyre activated carbons the total PCDD/F toxic equivalent removal efficiencies in the exhaust gas stream were 58%, 57%, 64% and 52%, respectively. In general, the removal of the PCDDs was much higher with an average of 85% compared to PCDFs at 41%. Analysis of the reacted activated carbons showed that there was some formation of PCDD/F, for instance, a total of 60.6 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} toxic PCDD/F was formed in the refuse derived fuel activated carbon compared to 34 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} in the commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of waste, therefore, showed good potential as a control material for PCDD/F emissions in waste incinerator flue gases.

  6. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POWDERED ACTIVATED...

  7. Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, Jian; Lizzio, A.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Sperry Univac, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). The focus of the project is to design and engineer adsorbents that meet or exceed the performance and cost targets established for low-pressure natural gas storage materials. Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a sowing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a series of experiments were made to evaluate the effect of coal pre-oxidation, coal pyrolysis, and char activation on the surface area development and methane adsorption capacity of activated carbons/chars made from IBC-102. The optimum production conditions were determined to be: coal oxidation in air at 225C, oxicoal (oxidized coal); devolatilization in nitrogen at 400C; and char gasification in 50% steam in nitrogen at 850C. Nitrogen BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 800--1100 m{sup 2}/g. Methane adsorption capacity of several Illinois coal derived chars and a 883 m{sup 2}/g commercial activated carbon were measured using a pressurized thermogaravimetric analyzer at pressures up to 500 psig. Methane adsorption capacity (g/g) of the chars were comparable to that of the commercial activated carbon manufactured by Calgon Carbon. It was determined that the pre-oxidation is a key processing step for producing activated char/carbon with high surface area and high methane adsorption capacity. The results to date are encouraging and warrant further research and development in tailored activated char from Illinois coal for natural gas storage.

  8. Oxidative Degradation of Trichloroethylene Adsorbed on Active Carbons: Use of Microwave Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varma, R.; Nandi, S. P.; Cleaveland, D.; Myles, K. M.; Vissers, D. R.; Nelson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    carbon bed impreg nated with CuO and Cr203 and exposed to moist air. Experimental results indicated that free chlorine produced from TCE degradation is very strongly held by active carbon. In addition, hydrogen chloride was found in large... concentration in the exit gas. Generation of free chlorine may be avoided by using a chlorohydrocarbon and hydrocarbon mixture on such composition that the stoichiometry favors the pro duction of hydrogen chloride. The experimental results show promise...

  9. Screening of carbon-based sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A fixed-bed reactor system with continuous Hg{sup 0} analysis capabilities was used to evaluate commercial carbon sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas. The objectives of the program were to compare the sorbent effectiveness under identical test conditions and to identify the effects of various flue gas components on elemental mercury sorption. Sorbents tested included steam-activated lignite, chemically activated hardwood, chemically activated bituminous coal, iodated steam-activated coconut shell, and sulfur-impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. The iodated carbon was the most effective sorbent, showing over 99% mercury removal according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 101A. Data indicate that adding O{sub 2} at 4 vol% reduced the effectiveness of the steam-activated lignite, chemically activated hardwood, and sulfur- impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. Adding SO{sub 2} at 500 ppm improved the mercury removal of the sulfur-impregnated carbon. Further, the presence of HCl gas (at 50 ppm) produced an order of magnitude increase in mercury removal with the chemically activated and sulfur-impregnated bituminous coal-based carbons.

  10. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by {sup 31}P MAS NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishay Columbus; Daniel Waysbort; Liora Shmueli; Ido Nir; Doron Kaplan [Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona (Israel). Departments of Organic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry

    2006-06-15

    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Four types of activated carbon were used, including coal-based BPL. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) ((DES){sub 2}). Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Gas permeation carbon capture --- Process modeling and optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morinelly, Juan; Miller, David

    2011-01-01

    A multi-staged gas permeation carbon capture process model was developed in Aspen Custom Modeler{reg_sign} (ACM) and optimized in the context of the retrofit of a 550 MW subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The gas permeation stages in the process are described by a custom multi-component, hollowfiber membrane model. Gas transport across the asymmetric membrane was modeled according to the solution-diffusion model for the selective skin layer and the assumption of negligible flux resistance by the porous support. Counter-current, one-dimensional plug flow was assumed with permeate pressure drop in the fiber lumen side due to capillary constrained flow. A modular optimization framework was used to minimize the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) by optimizing a set of key process variables. The framework allows the external control of multiple simulation modules from different software packages from a common interface.

  12. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, N.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer`s classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation.

  13. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    M. F. , Northern California oil and gas field production.California, Division of Oil, Gas and Geothermal Resources;Beaumont EA, eds. , Atlas of Oil and Gas Fields, Structural

  14. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

  15. PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 17571765 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    2000-01-01

    addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO oxidation and impregnated directly, as in a traditional H , 23.1% CO, 5.8% CO , 6.6% H O, 0.5% H S, and2 2 2 2 coal-fired power plant carbon I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition a , b c *M.P. Cal , B.W. Strickler , A.A. Lizzio

  16. Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, J.; Lizzio, A.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a growing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a pyrolysis-gasification reactor system was designed and assembled. Four carbon samples were produced from a {minus}20+100 mesh size fraction of an Illinois Basin Coal (IBC-106) using a three-step process. The three steps were: coal oxidation in air at 250 C, oxicoal (oxidized coal) devolatilization in nitrogen at 425 C and char gasification in 50% steam-50% nitrogen at 860 C. These initial tests were designed to evaluate the effects of pre-oxidation on the surface properties of carbon products, and to determine optimum reaction time and process conditions to produce an activated carbon with high surface area. Nitrogen-BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 700--800 m{sup 2}/g. Work is in progress to further optimize reaction conditions in order to produce carbons with higher surface areas. A few screening tests were made with a pressurized thermogravimetric (PTGA) to evaluate the suitability of this instrument for obtaining methane adsorption isotherms at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from one to 30 atmospheres. The preliminary results indicate that PTGA can be used for both the adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies.

  17. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  18. Gas Sensing Mechanism of Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gas Sensing Mechanism of Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Single- Walled Carbon Nanotubes Syed Mubeen towards different gas analytes, however the sensing mechanism was not clearly elucidated. The detailed demonstration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as highly sensitive gas sensors [1], there have been

  19. Oil and Gas CDT Gas hydrate distribution on tectonically active continental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Gas hydrate distribution on tectonically active continental margins: Impact on gas. Gregory F. Moore, University of Hawaii (USA) http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/moore/ Key Words Gas Hydrates, Faults, Fluid Flow, gas prospectivity Overview Fig. 1. Research on gas hydrates is often undertaken

  20. Gas-Surface Energy Exchange in Collisions of Helium Atoms with Aligned Single-Walled Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Gas-Surface Energy Exchange in Collisions of Helium Atoms with Aligned Single-Walled Carbon #12;2 ABSTRACT Since gas flows in micro/nano devices are dominated by the interaction of gas molecules accommodation of gas molecules on surfaces. The scattering of gas molecules on quartz surfaces covered with VA

  1. Desorption kinetics of N,N-dimethylformamide vapor from granular activated carbon and hydrophobic zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ching-Yuan Chang [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wen-Tien Tsai [Chia Nan Jr. College of Pharmacy, Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Horng-Chia Lee [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-07-01

    Such thermodynamic properties as enthalpy, free energy, and entropy of adsorption have been computed for N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) vapor on two commercial adsorbents: coconut shell Type PCB of activated carbon and Type DAY of hydrophobic zeolite. The computation is based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherms obtained at 293, 303, and 313 K as reported by Tsai et al. The laden adsorbents were regenerated with hot inert nitrogen gas and studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at three different heating rates. The apparent activation energies (E{sub des}) of thermal desorption were determined by using the Friedman method. The zeolite DAY has an adsorption potential higher than that of activated carbon PCB as indicated by the more negative value of the adsorption enthalpy of DMF vapor. The average value of E{sub des} of zeolite DAY is larger than that of activated carbon PCB.

  2. Reprocessing of used tires into activated carbon and other products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, H.; Serio, M.A.; Wojtowicz, M.A.; Bassilakis, R.; Solomon, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    Landfilling used tires which are generated each year in the US is increasingly becoming an unacceptable solution. A better approach, from an environmental and economic standpoint, is to thermally reprocess the tires into valuable products such as activated carbon, other solid carbon forms (carbon black, graphite, and carbon fibers), and liquid fuels. In this study, high surface area activated carbons (> 800 m{sup 2}/g solid product) were produced in relatively high yields by pyrolysis of tires at up to 900 C, followed by activation in CO{sub 2} at the same temperature. The surface areas of these materials are comparable with those of commercial activated carbons. The efficiency of the activation process (gain in specific surface area/loss in mass) was greatest (up to 138 m{sup 2}/g original tire) when large pieces of tire material were used ({approximately} 170 mg). Oxygen pretreatment of tires was found to enhance both the yield and the surface area of the carbon product. High-pressure treatment of tires at low temperatures (< 400 C) is an alternative approach if the recovery of carbon black or fuel oils is the primary objective.

  3. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Frederick S.

    2010-06-01

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  4. Activated carbon fibers and engineered forms from renewable resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Frederick S

    2013-02-19

    A method of producing activated carbon fibers (ACFs) includes the steps of providing a natural carbonaceous precursor fiber material, blending the carbonaceous precursor material with a chemical activation agent to form chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers, spinning the chemical agent-impregnated precursor material into fibers, and thermally treating the chemical agent-impregnated precursor fibers. The carbonaceous precursor material is both carbonized and activated to form ACFs in a single step. The method produces ACFs exclusive of a step to isolate an intermediate carbon fiber.

  5. Microstructure-Dependent Gas Adsorption: Accurate Predictions of Methane Uptake in Nanoporous Carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ihm, Yungok; Cooper, Valentino R; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Morris, James R

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a successful, efficient framework for predicting gas adsorption properties in real materials based on first-principles calculations, with a specific comparison of experiment and theory for methane adsorption in activated carbons. These carbon materials have different pore size distributions, leading to a variety of uptake characteristics. Utilizing these distributions, we accurately predict experimental uptakes and heats of adsorption without empirical potentials or lengthy simulations. We demonstrate that materials with smaller pores have higher heats of adsorption, leading to a higher gas density in these pores. This pore-size dependence must be accounted for, in order to predict and understand the adsorption behavior. The theoretical approach combines: (1) ab initio calculations with a van der Waals density functional to determine adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, and (2) a thermodynamic method that predicts equilibrium adsorption densities by directly incorporating the calculated potential energy surface in a slit pore model. The predicted uptake at P=20 bar and T=298 K is in excellent agreement for all five activated carbon materials used. This approach uses only the pore-size distribution as an input, with no fitting parameters or empirical adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, and thus can be easily applied to other adsorbent-adsorbate combinations.

  6. Production and characterization of activated carbons from cereal grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatraman, A.; Walawender, W.P.; Fan, L.T. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The term, activated carbon, is a generic name for a family of carbonaceous materials with well-developed porosities and consequently, large adsorptive capacities. Activated carbons are increasingly being consumed worldwide for environmental applications such as separation of volatiles from bulk gases and purification of water and waste-water streams. The global annual production is estimated to be around 300 million kilograms, with a rate of increase of 7% each year. Activated carbons can be prepared from a variety of raw materials. Approximately, 60% of the activated carbons generated in the United States is produced from coal; 20%, from coconut shells; and the remaining 20% from wood and other sources of biomass. The pore structure and properties of activated carbons are influenced by the nature of the starting material and the initial physical and chemical conditioning as well as the process conditions involved in its manufacture. The porous structures of charcoals and activated carbons obtained by the carbonization of kernels have been characterized.

  7. Screening of carbon-based sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A fixed-bed reactor system with continuous Hg{sup 0} analysis capabilities was used to evaluate commercial carbon sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas. The objectives of the program were to compare the sorbent effectiveness under identical test conditions and to identify the effects of various flue gas components on elemental mercury sorption. Sorbents tested included steam-activated lignite, chemical-activated hardwood and bituminous coal, iodated steam-activated coconut shell, and sulfur-impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. The iodated carbon was the most effective carbon, showing over 99% mercury removal according to EPA Method 101A. Data indicate that O{sub 2} (4 vol%) and SO{sub 2} (500 ppm) improved the mercury removal of the other carbons for tests at 150{degrees}C using 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}. Further, the presence of HCl (at 50 ppm) produced a magnitude increase in mercury removal for the steam-activated and sulfur-impregnated bituminous coal-based carbons.

  8. Activated carbon testing for the 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, R.N.

    1997-01-17

    This report documents pilot and laboratory scale testing of activated carbon for use in the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility peroxide decomposer columns. Recommendations are made concerning column operating conditions and hardware design, the optimum type of carbon for use in the plant, and possible further studies.

  9. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BYRNES ME

    2010-09-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs) will load heavily onto activated carbon and should be removed from groundwater upstream of the activated carbon pre-treatment system. Unless removed upstream, the adsorbed loadings of these organic constituents could exceed the land disposal criteria for carbon.

  10. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  11. Short communication Improvement of activated carbons as oxygen reduction catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    available activated carbon (AC) powders from different precursor materials (peat, coconut shell, coal be made from several biomass waste materials such as coconut shells, wood chips and sawdust. They have

  12. Fabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    solvent such as acetone, and then exchanging with liquid CO2 and drying under CO2 supercritical conditionsFabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical a mixture of ACF and resorcinol and furfural, followed by supercritical drying of the mixture in isopropanol

  13. Effect of silicate modulus and metakaolin incorporation on the carbonation of alkali silicate-activated slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernal, Susan A.; Mejia de Gutierrez, Ruby; Provis, John L.; Rose, Volker

    2010-06-15

    Accelerated carbonation is induced in pastes and mortars produced from alkali silicate-activated granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS)-metakaolin (MK) blends, by exposure to CO{sub 2}-rich gas atmospheres. Uncarbonated specimens show compressive strengths of up to 63 MPa after 28 days of curing when GBFS is used as the sole binder, and this decreases by 40-50% upon complete carbonation. The final strength of carbonated samples is largely independent of the extent of metakaolin incorporation up to 20%. Increasing the metakaolin content of the binder leads to a reduction in mechanical strength, more rapid carbonation, and an increase in capillary sorptivity. A higher susceptibility to carbonation is identified when activation is carried out with a lower solution modulus (SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O ratio) in metakaolin-free samples, but this trend is reversed when metakaolin is added due to the formation of secondary aluminosilicate phases. High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffractometry of uncarbonated paste samples shows that the main reaction products in alkali-activated GBFS/MK blends are C-S-H gels, and aluminosilicates with a zeolitic (gismondine) structure. The main crystalline carbonation products are calcite in all samples and trona only in samples containing no metakaolin, with carbonation taking place in the C-S-H gels of all samples, and involving the free Na{sup +} present in the pore solution of the metakaolin-free samples. Samples containing metakaolin do not appear to have the same availability of Na{sup +} for carbonation, indicating that this is more effectively bound in the presence of a secondary aluminosilicate gel phase. It is clear that claims of exceptional carbonation resistance in alkali-activated binders are not universally true, but by developing a fuller mechanistic understanding of this process, it will certainly be possible to improve performance in this area.

  14. Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration nonnegligible roles in mitigation in comparison with carbon sequestration. Forests are recognized for having

  15. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    permits and low carbon energy trading equilibria are bothx = 0 is equivalent to trading energy, then it follows thatthe LCFS by trading carbon, energy, or weighted emissions

  16. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    permits and low carbon energy trading equilibria are bothx = 0 is equivalent to trading energy, then it follows thatthe LCFS by trading carbon, energy, or weighted emissions

  17. EOS7C Version 1.0: TOUGH2 Module for Carbon Dioxide or Nitrogen in Natural Gas (Methane) Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Moridis, George J.; Spycher, Nicholas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    as cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy&Fuels ,of CO 2 injection into natural gas reservoirs for carbonDioxide or Nitrogen in Natural Gas (Methane) Reservoirs

  18. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

    1999-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C). Surprisingly, the ability of activated carbon to remove organics from the water is better at a high temperature than at room temperature. These initial results are opposite to those expected from chromatographic theory, since the solubility of the organics is about 100,000-fold higher in the hot water than in ambient water. At present, the physicochemical mechanism accounting for these results is unknown; however, it is possible that the lower surface tension and lower viscosity of subcritical water (compared to water at ambient conditions) greatly increases the available area of the carbon by several orders of magnitude. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the optimal use of activated carbon to clean the wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation will depend on obtaining a better understanding of the controlling parameters. While these investigations focused on the cleanup of wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation, the results also apply to cleanup of any wastewater contaminated with nonpolar and moderately polar organics such as wastewaters from coal and petroleum processing.

  19. A comparison of the electrochemical behavior of carbon aerogels and activated carbon fiber cloths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, T.D.; Alviso, C.T.; Hulsey, S.S.; Nielsen, J.K.; Pekala, R.W.

    1996-05-10

    Electrochemical capacitative behavior of carbon aerogels and commercial carbon fiber cloths was studied in 5M KOH, 3M sulfuric acid, and 0.5M tetrethylammonium tetrafluoroborate/propylene carbonate electrolytes. The resorcinol-formaldehyde based carbon aerogels with a range of denisty (0.2-0.85 g/cc) have open-cell structures with ultrafine pore sizes (5-50 nm), high surface area (400-700 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles or fibers with characteristic diameters of 10 nm. The commercial fiber cloths in the density range 0.2-04g/cc have high surface areas (1000-2500 m{sup 2}/g). The volumetric capacitances of high-density aerogels are shown to be comparable to or exceeding those from activated carbon fibers. Electrochemical behavior of these materials in various electrolytes is compared and related to their physical properties.

  20. Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal System- A Case Study Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  1. A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics Guillaume contended the gas-fired plants would slow Norway's dependence on imported electricity from Denmark, which 81-71 in favor of building Norway's first natural gas-fired power plant.1 As a result Bondevik

  2. Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes

  3. Gas sorption properties of zwitterion-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surapathi, Anil; Chen, Hang-yan; Marand, Eva; Johnson, J Karl, Zdenka Sedlakova

    2013-02-15

    We have functionalized carbon nanotubes with carboxylic acid and zwitterion groups. We have evaluated the effect of functionalization by measuring the sorption of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} at 35? for pressures up to 10 bar. Zwitterion functionalized nanotubes were found to be highly hygroscopic. Thermal gravimetric analysis indicates that water can be desorbed at about 200°C. The adsorption of gases in zwitterion functionalized nanotubes is dramatically reduced compared with nanotubes functionalized with carboxylic acid groups. The presence of water on the zwitterion functionalized nanotube reduces the sorption even further. Molecular simulations show that three or more zwitterion groups per tube entrance are required to significantly reduce the flux of CO{sub 2} into the tubes. Simulations also show that gas phase water is rapidly sorbed into the zwitterion functionalized nanotubes, both increasing the free energy barrier to CO{sub 2} entering the tube and also lowering the equilibrium adsorption through competitive adsorption.

  4. Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer; Bruce Buffett

    2011-12-31

    We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

  5. Improved granular activated carbon for the stabilization of wastewater PH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, R.W.; Dussert, B.W.; Kovacic, S.L. [Calgon Carbon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Laboratory studies have identified the cause of the pH rise, which occurs during water treatment with activated carbon, as an interaction between the naturally occurring anions and protons in the water and the carbon surface. The interaction can be described as an ion exchange type of phenomenon, in which the carbon surface sorbs the anions and corresponding hydronium ions from the water. These studies have shown that the anion sorption and resulting pH increase is independent of the raw material used for the activated carbon production, e.g. bituminous or subbituminous coal, peat, wood or coconut. Also, the pH excursions occur with virgin, reactivated, and acid washed granular carbons. Current pH control technologies focus on adjustment of the wastewater pH prior to discharge or recycle of the initial effluent water until the pH increase abates. However, improved water pH control options have been realized by altering the carbon surface through controlled oxidation rather than the water chemistry or extended preprocessing at the treatment site.

  6. Carbon-based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Zhu; S Murali; M Stoller; K Ganesh; W Cai; P Ferreira; A Pirkle; R Wallace; K Cychosz; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  7. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Su, D.; Murali, S.; Stoller, M.D.; Ganesh, K.J.; Cai, W.; Ferreira, P.J.; Pirkle, A.; Wallace, R.M.; Cychosz, K.A., Thommes, M.; Stach, E.A.; Ruoff, R.S.

    2011-06-24

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  8. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, David B. (108 Tall Oaks Dr., Wayne, NJ 07470); Gelbein, Abraham P. (45 Headley Rd., Morristown, NJ 07960)

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  9. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Activity: Natural Gas Engine and Vehicle Research & Development (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the status of the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) activity, including goals, R&D progress, NGV implementation, and the transition to hydrogen.

  10. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests conducted to ascertain the effects of changing pH showed that at pH values of 6.5 and 7.5, no significant differences existed in Tc-adsorption performance for three of the carbons, but the fourth carbon performed better at pH 7.5. When the pH was increased to 8.5, a slight decline in performance was observed for all carbons. Tests conducted to ascertain the temperature effect on Tc-99 adsorption indicated that at 21 ºC, 27 ºC, and 32 ºC there were no significant differences in Tc-99 adsorption for three of the carbons. The fourth carbon showed a noticeable decline in Tc-99 adsorption performance with increasing temperature. The presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the source water did not significantly affect Tc-99 adsorption on either of two carbons tested. Technetium-99 adsorption differed by less than 15% with or without VOCs present in the test water, indicating that Tc-99 adsorption would not be significantly affected if VOCs were removed from the water prior to contact with carbon.

  11. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  12. Gas Pressure Effect on Density of Horizontally Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Crystal Quartz Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Gas Pressure Effect on Density of Horizontally Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown performance FETs. In this study, we examined the effect of gas pressures on the growth process of horizontally grown by alcohol CVD method[5] using ethanol as a carbon source gas at different gas pressures. SWCNTs

  13. Gas hydrates at two sites of an active continental margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-03-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart or the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m. Both sites are characterized by rates of sedimentation exceeding about 30 m/m.y. and organic carbon contents exceeding about 0.5%. The magnitudes and trends of gas compositions, residual gas concentrations and chlorinity variations are generally similar at both sites. The carbon isotopic compositions are significantly heavier at Site 568 than at Site 565. The isotopic compositions and trends at Site 565 are typical of biogenic methane generation. At Site 568, the isotopic compositions are very heavy. In spite of its heavy carbon isotopic composition, this methane is believed to have a biogenic source.

  14. Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

  15. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  16. Experimental and simulation studies of sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Jeong Gyu

    2004-09-30

    he feasibility of sequestering supercritical CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs. The experimental runs involved the following steps. First, the 1 ft long by 1 in. diameter carbonate core is inserted into a viton Hassler sleeve and placed inside...

  17. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  18. The Carbon-Rich Gas in the Beta Pictoris Circumstellar Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aki Roberge; Paul D. Feldman; Alycia J. Weinberger; Magali Deleuil; Jean-Claude Bouret

    2006-04-20

    The edge-on disk surrounding the nearby young star Beta Pictoris is the archetype of the "debris disks", which are composed of dust and gas produced by collisions and evaporation of planetesimals, analogues of Solar System comets and asteroids. These disks provide a window on the formation and early evolution of terrestrial planets. Previous observations of Beta Pic concluded that the disk gas has roughly solar abundances of elements [1], but this poses a problem because such gas should be rapidly blown away from the star, contrary to observations of a stable gas disk in Keplerian rotation [1, 2]. Here we report the detection of singly and doubly ionized carbon (CII, CIII) and neutral atomic oxygen (OI) gas in the Beta Pic disk; measurement of these abundant volatile species permits a much more complete gas inventory. Carbon is extremely overabundant relative to every other measured element. This appears to solve the problem of the stable gas disk, since the carbon overabundance should keep the gas disk in Keplerian rotation [3]. New questions arise, however, since the overabundance may indicate the gas is produced from material more carbon-rich than the expected Solar System analogues.

  19. Study on removal of organic sulfur compound by modified activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Huiling; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China). Research Inst. for Chemical Engineering of Coal

    1997-12-31

    With the price of coal increasing in China, more and more small and medium scale chemical plants are turning to high sulfur coal as the raw material in order to cut cost. However, the major drawback is that the lifetime of the ammonia synthesis catalyst is then reduced greatly because of the high concentration of the sulfur compounds in the synthesis gas, especially organic sulfur, usually CS{sub 2} and COS. The effects of water vapor and experimental temperature on removal of organic sulfur compounds by using a modified activated carbon were studied in this paper. It was found that water vapor had a negative effect on removal of carbon disulfide by activated carbon impregnated with organic amine. The use of activated carbon impregnated with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for removal of carbonyl sulfide was also investigated over the temperature range 30--60, the results show a favorable temperature (40) existing for carbonyl sulfide removal. Fixed-bed breakthrough curves for the adsorbent bed were also offered in this paper.

  20. Preparation of activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell by air activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tam, M.S.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, three-step process for the production of high-quality activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell charcoals is described. In this process the charcoal is (1) heated to a high temperature (carbonized), (2) oxidized in air following a stepwise heating program from low (ca. 450 K) to high (ca. 660 K) temperatures (oxygenated), and (3) heated again in an inert environment to a high temperature (activated). By use of this procedure, activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1,000 m{sub 2}/g are manufactured with an overall yield of 15% (based on the dry shell feed). Removal of carbon mass by the development of mesopores and macropores is largely responsible for increases in the surface area of the carbons above 600 m{sub 2}/g. Thus, the surface area per gram of activated carbon can be represented by an inverse function of the yield for burnoffs between 15 and 60%. These findings are supported by mass-transfer calculations and pore-size distribution measurements. A kinetic model for gasification of carbon by oxygen, which provides for an Eley-Rideal type reaction of a surface oxide with oxygen in air, fits the measured gasification rates reasonably well over the temperature range of 550--660 K.

  1. Gas flux and carbonate occurrence at a shallow seep of thermogenic natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    seep of thermogenic natural gas Franklin S. Kinnaman &small seep of thermogenic natural gas located near the Coalmicrobial oxidation of natural gas in the sediments (

  2. Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2006-08-29

    A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  3. Sorption of cobalt on activated carbons from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paajanen, A.; Lehto, J.; Santapakka, T.; Morneau, J.P. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-01-01

    The efficiencies of 15 commercially available activated carbons were tested for the separation of trace cobalt ({sup 60}Co) in buffer solutions at pH 5.0, 6.7, and 9.1. On the basis of the results four carbon products, Diahope-006, Eurocarb TN5, Hydraffin DG47, and Norit ROW Supra, were selected for further study. These carbons represented varying (low, medium and high) cobalt removal efficiencies and were prepared of three typical raw materials: peat, coconut shell, or coal. Study was made of the effects on sorption efficiencies of factors of interest in metal/radionuclide-bearing waste effluents. These factors were pH, sodium ions, borate, and citrate.

  4. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. Micro Strip Gas Chambers Overcoated with Carbon, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, and Glass Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Strip Gas Chambers Overcoated with Carbon, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, and Glass Films M Moscow GSP­1, Russia c Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Krasnokazarmennaya St. 14, Moscow, Russia Abstract The performance of glass and sapphire substrate Micro Strip Gas Chambers with chromium

  6. EFFECT OF GAS ADSORPTION ON THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF SINGLE WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES MATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    filtration process followed by high temperature annealing under vacuum (1200 °C). In this work we present results on the influence of the surrounding gas nature (N2, H2, CO2, H2O...) on the electrical resistivity1 EFFECT OF GAS ADSORPTION ON THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF SINGLE WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES MATS C

  7. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D

    2015-03-31

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  8. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.

    2013-03-12

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  9. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  10. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy`s law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  11. II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system analysed in the previous chapter. GHG policies that create an emissions trading system such as the cap

  12. Nuclear Power: a Hedge against Uncertain Gas and Carbon Prices?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roques, Fabien A.; Nuttall, William J.; Newbery, David; de Neufville, Richard

    2006-03-14

    and Carbon Prices Fabien A. Roques, William J. Nuttall, David M. Newbery and Richard de Neufville November 2005 CWPE 0555 and EPRG 09 These working papers present preliminary research findings, and you...

  13. Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

    2005-11-01

    Previous experiments - injecting pure CO2 into carbonate cores - showed that the process is a win-win technology, sequestrating CO2 while recovering a significant amount of hitherto unrecoverable natural gas that could help defray the cost of CO2...

  14. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier, Fleming, and Mulberry coals--are the major coals of sufficient thickness (nominally >1-foot) that can imbibe carbon dioxide gas with an enhanced coalbed injection. Comparison of the adsorption gas content of coals to the gas desorbed from the coals shows that the degree of saturation decreases with depth for the coals.

  15. An active carbon catalyst prevents coke formation from asphaltenes during the hydrocracking of vacuum residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuyama, H.; Terai, S. [Toyo Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technological Research Center

    2007-07-01

    Active carbons were prepared by the steam activation of a brown coal char. The active carbon with mesopores showed greater adsorption selectivity for asphaltenes. The active carbon was effective at suppressing coke formation, even with the high hydrocracking conversion of vacuum residue. The analysis of the change in the composition of saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes in the cracked residue with conversion demonstrated the ability of active carbon to restrict the transformation of asphaltenes to coke. The active carbon that was richer in mesopores was presumably more effective at providing adsorption sites for the hydrocarbon free-radicals generated initially during thermal cracking to prevent them from coupling and polycondensing.

  16. New and Future Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st edition Supporting Information to Chapter 17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    New and Future Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st edition S2 Cartesian

  17. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson (Castro Valley, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  18. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYearEnergyPresentationsWeekU.S.Changing3 Oil3B

  19. Compare All CBECS Activities: Natural Gas Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep3,118,592Number ofByFuel Oil

  20. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1 0 0 0 0 0 2013 2014

  1. Recoil carbon-11 atom reactions with 1,3-butadiene in the gas phase 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltuskonis, Dennis Alan Anthony

    1975-01-01

    RECOIL CARBON-11 ATOM REACTIONS WITH 1, 3-BUTADIENE IN THE GAS PHASE A Thesis by DENNIS ALAN ANTHONY BALTUSKONIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major Subject: Chemistry RECOIL CARBON-11 ATOM REACTIONS NITH 1, 3-BUTADIENE IN THE GAS PHASE A Thesis by DENNIS ALAN ANTHONY BALTUSKONIS Approved as to sty1e and content by: p h';~ (5iai ma of Committee) (Head...

  2. Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  3. Efficient boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitney, R Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael W

    2015-03-24

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  4. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  5. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  6. Activated carbon is an electron-conducting amphoteric ion adsorbent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC) particles can desalinate water by ion electrosorption. To describe ion electrosorption mathematically, accurate models are required for the structure of the electrical double layers (EDLs) that form within electrically charged AC micropores. To account for salt adsorption also in uncharged ACs, an "attraction term" was introduced in modified Donnan models for the EDL structure in ACs. Here it will be shown how instead of using an attraction term, chemical information of the surface structure of the carbon-water interface in ACs can be used to construct an alternative EDL model for ACs. This EDL model assumes that ACs contain both acidic groups, for instance due to carboxylic functionalities, and basic groups, due to the adsorption of protons to the carbon basal planes. As will be shown, this "amphoteric Donnan" model accurately describes various data sets for ion electrosorption in ACs, for solutions of NaCl, of CaCl2, and mixtures thereof, as function of the exter...

  7. Carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated chloroplasts of chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzman, G.; Togasaki, R.K. ); Marcus, Y. ); Moroney, J.V. )

    1989-04-01

    In a new assay of carbonic anhydrase, NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} solution at the bottom of a sealed vessel releases {sup 14}CO{sub 3} which diffuses to the top of the vessel to be assimilated by actively photosynthesizing Chlamydomonas cells. The assay is initiated by illuminating cells and stopped by turning the light off and killing the cells with acid. Enzyme activity was estimated from acid stable radioactivity above the uncatalyzed background level. With bovine carbonic anhydrase, 1.5 Wilbur Anderson Unit (WAU) can be consistantly measured at 5-6 fold above background. Sonicated whole cells of air adapted wild type (+)gave 741.1 {plus minus} 12.4 WAU/mg chl. Intact washed cells of mixotrophically grown wall-less mutant CWD(-) and a high CO2 requiring wall-less double mutant CIA-3/CW15 (-) gave 7.1 {plus minus} 1.9 and 2.8 {plus minus} 7.8 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplasts isolated from CWD and CIA-3/CW15 and subsequently disrupted gave 64.0 {plus minus} 14.7 and 2.8 {plus minus} 3.2 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplast sonicate from another wall-less mutant CW15(-) gave activity comparable to CWD. Thus on a chlorophyll basis, enzyme activity in chloroplasts from mixotrophically grown cells is about 1/10th of the level found in air adapted wild type cells. CIA-3 seems to lack this activity.

  8. Nano Structured Activated Carbon for Hydrogen Storge. Project Final Technical Report (May 2, 2005-Dec. 31, 2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabasso, Israel; Yuan, Youxin

    2013-02-27

    Development of a nanostructured synthetic carbons materials that have been synthesized by thermal-decomposition of aromatic rich polyether such as poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) is reported. These polymers based nanostructured carbons efficacious for gas adsorption and storage and have Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of more than 3000 m2/g, and with average pore diameter of < 2nm. Surface-area, pore characteristics, and other critical variables for selecting porous materials of high gas adsorption capacities are presented. Analysis of the fragments evolved under various carbonization temperatures, and the correlation between the activation and carbonization temperatures provides a mechanistic perspective of the pore evolution during activation. Correlations between gas (N2 and H2) adsorption capacity and porous texture of the materials have been established. The materials possess excellent hydrogen storage properties, with hydrogen storage capacity up to 7.4 wt% (gravimetric) and ~ 45 g H2 L-1 (volumetric) at -196oC and 6.0 MPa.

  9. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  10. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S; Pavlish, John H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to carbon nanocomposite sorbents. The present invention provides carbon nanocomposite sorbents, methods for making the same, and methods for separation of a pollutant from a gas that includes that pollutant. Various embodiments provide a method for reducing the mercury content of a mercury-containing gas.

  11. A Novel Circuit Model of Nanotechnology-Enabled Inkjet-Printed Gas Sensors Using Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    A Novel Circuit Model of Nanotechnology-Enabled Inkjet-Printed Gas Sensors Using Multi-Wall Carbon-scale nanotechnology- enabled inkjet-printed modules. Index Terms -- Gas sensing, carbon nanotube, inkjet printing, equivalent circuit, nanotechnology. I. INTRODUCTION Due to their excellent mechanical and electronic

  12. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  13. 8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

  14. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year--and are projected to rise another 60 percent by 2030 (see Figure 1).1 Most of the world's emissions come from

  15. Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

    2007-09-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

  16. Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Dipendu; Li, Yunchao; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong Kahk; Hensley, Dale K; Grappe, Hippolyte A.; Meyer III, Harry M; Dai, Sheng; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  17. The production of activated silica with carbon dioxide gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, William Bell

    1956-01-01

    , patented a process for water purI fIcation, including treatment with lime, soluble salts of aluminum, and solu- ble sIlicates which had been neutrali. sed wI. th an acid, Parkin (18) developed a process involving the ad- dition of sodium sIll, cats to a... mine water to neutralise the acid, The Martin patent (16), issued in 1955, covers a method of water purification involving the addition of an alkali metal silicate to an I. mpure water previously treated with an acidic material. These three...

  18. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1992 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-03-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIACs staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. As analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center: FY 1991 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-06-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specially publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provides technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC during the period October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of numeric data packages, computer model packages, technical reports, newsletters, factsheets, specially publications, and reprints is provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also described.

  1. Catalytically active nickel ^110 surfaces in growth of carbon tubular structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Catalytically active nickel ^110 surfaces in growth of carbon tubular structures M. H. Kuang and Z interest in the growth of aligned carbon nanotube films using transition metal catalysts has led in the nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes. The size of the catalytic particles determines the size

  2. Single Pd atoms in activated carbon fibers and their contribution to hydrogen storage 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Single Pd atoms in activated carbon fibers and their contribution to hydrogen storage 5 Cristian I surface area carbon materials for hydrogen storage continues to attract interest because predicted high potential for hydrogen storage on metal-decorated carbon supports, the experimental

  3. Uranium Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon – Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2013-09-26

    The uranium adsorption performance of two activated carbon samples (Tusaar Lot B-64, Tusaar ER2-189A) was tested using unadjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests support ongoing performance optimization efforts to use the best material for uranium treatment in the Hanford Site 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. A linear response of uranium loading as a function of the solution-to-solid ratio was observed for both materials. Kd values ranged from ~380,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the B-64 material and ~200,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the ER2-189A material. Uranium loading values ranged from 10.4 to 41.6 ?g/g for the two Tusaar materials.

  4. Gas flux and carbonate occurrence at a shallow seep of thermogenic natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    DL (2008) Disentangling oil weathering at a marine seepAbstract The Coal Oil Point seep field located offshorethe thermo- genic gas and oil seeps located near Coal Oil

  5. Copper nanocrystal modified activated carbon for supercapacitors with enhanced volumetric energy and power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Copper nanocrystal modified activated carbon for supercapacitors with enhanced volumetric energy of Cu can greatly increase the volumetric capacitance and power density of AC. online 4 March 2013 Keywords: Supercapacitor Copper Volumetric capacitance Activated carbon a b s t r a c

  6. Assessment of dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in shoe manufacturing by activated carbon cloth patches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Assessment of dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in shoe manufacturing by activated carbon activated carbon cloth (ACC) patches to study the probability and extent of dermal exposure to benzene for the contribution from the air through passive absorption of benzene and toluene on the ACC patches. Systemic

  7. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO? separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H? selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H?/CO? separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO? separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H?/CO? separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commercially attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H?/CO? separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.

  8. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO? separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H? selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H?/CO? separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO? separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H?/CO? separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commerciallymore »attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H?/CO? separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.« less

  9. Characterization of the micropore structure of activated carbons by adsorptions of nitrogen and some hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guezel, F. [Dicle Univ., Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry] [Dicle Univ., Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    In the present study the effects of the duration of carbonization and physical activation properties of activated carbon from vegetable materials were investigated. Peanut shells were used to obtain active carbon. These shells were activated chemically with ZnCl{sub 2} and/or CO{sub 2} for different times, and the micropore structures of these active carbons were studied by measuring the adsorption isotherms for nitrogen and some hydrocarbons such as benzene, n-butane, isobutane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, and isooctane. As the physical activation time was increased, the primary micropores, which were measured at 0.01 relative pressure, were reduced, and they were replaced by larger secondary and tertiary micropores which were measured at 0.15--0.01 and 0.30--0.15 relative pressures. The ratios of the mesopore volume to the micropore volume also increased as the duration of physical activation increased.

  10. Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    feet (~26.2'x26.2'x26.2') 5 CO2 Content by Fuel Type (lbs of CO2 per Million Btu of Fuel) Coal Type (lbs of CO2 per Megawatt-hour of Power) Coal-fired generation Coal-fired generation Existing PNW Sectors, by Fuel Type Annual 2012Annual 2012 Millions of Metric Tons Fuel Type Coal 1,657 Natural Gas 1

  11. Studies of adsorption characteristics of activated carbons down to 4.5 K for the development of cryosorption pumps for fusion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, U.; Vivek, G. A.; Krishnamoorthy, V.; Gangradey, R.; Udgata, S. S.; Tripati, V. S.

    2014-01-29

    Cryosorption pump is the only possible device to pump helium, hydrogen and its isotopes in fusion environment, such as high magnetic field and high plasma temperatures. Activated carbons are known to be the most suitable adsorbent in the development of cryosorption pumps. For this purpose, the data of adsorption characteristics of activated carbons in the temperature range 4.5 K to 77 K are needed, but are not available in the literature. For obtaining the above data, a commercial micro pore analyzer operating at 77 K has been integrated with a two stage GM cryocooler, which enables the cooling of the sample temperature down to 4.5 K. A heat switch mounted between the second stage cold head and the sample chamber helps to raise the sample chamber temperature to 77 K without affecting the performance of the cryocooler. The detailed description of this system is presented elsewhere. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of adsorption isotherms measured on different types of activated carbons in the form of granules, globules, flake knitted and non-woven types in the temperature range 4.5 K to 10 K using Helium gas as the adsorbate. The above results are analyzed to obtain the pore size distributions and surface areas of the activated carbons. The effect of adhesive used for bonding the activated carbons to the panels is also studied. These results will be useful to arrive at the right choice of activated carbon to be used for the development of cryosorption pumps.

  12. Carbon activation process for increased surface accessibility in electrochemical capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doughty, Daniel H. (Albuquerque, NM); Eisenmann, Erhard T. (Belpre, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A process for making carbon film or powder suitable for double capacitor electrodes having a capacitance of up to about 300 F/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. This is accomplished by treating in aqueous nitric acid for a period of about 5 to 15 minutes thin carbon films obtained by carbonizing carbon-containing polymeric material having a high degree of molecular directionality, such as polyimide film, then heating the treated carbon film in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a non-graphitizing temperature of at least 350.degree. C. for about 20 minutes, and repeating alternately the nitric acid step and the heating step from 7 to 10 times. Capacitors made with this carbon may find uses ranging from electronic devices to electric vehicle applications.

  13. Study of Adsorption of Methanol in an Activated Carbon and Carbon Nanotube Matrix for Use in a Solar Based Refrigeration Cycle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sambath, Srivaths

    2012-07-16

    This thesis seeks to investigate the adsorption capabilities of activated carbon and carbon nanotubes. The adsorption of methanol on both of these substances was tested for their application in a solar based refrigeration ...

  14. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide on Activated Carbons Impregnated with Sodium Hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Baskova, Svetlana [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Two activated carbons of different origin were impregnated with the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of various concentrations up to 10 wt %, and the effect of impregnation on the catalytic performance of the carbons was evaluated. The catalytic activity was analyzed in terms of the capacity of carbons for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conversion and removal from hydrogen-rich fuel streams and the emission times of H2S and the products of its oxidation [e.g., sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS)]. The results of impregnation showed a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of both carbons proportional to the amount of NaOH introduced. NaOH introduces hydroxyl groups (OH-) on the surface of the activated carbon that increase its surface reactivity and its interaction with sulfur-containing compounds.

  15. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  16. Windowed Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient CO2 Removal from Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongjun; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-en; 10.1021/jz301576s

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate from molecular dynamics simulations that windowed carbon nanotubes can efficiently separate CO2 from the CO2/CH4 mixture, resembling polymeric hollow fibers for gas separation. Three CO2/CH4 mixtures with 30%, 50% and 80% CO2 are investigated as a function of applied pressure from 80 to 180 bar. In all simulated conditions, only CO2 permeation is observed; CH4 is completely rejected by the nitrogen-functionalized windows or pores on the nanotube wall in the accessible timescale, while maintaining a fast diffusion rate along the tube. The estimated time-dependent CO2 permeance ranges from 107 to 105 GPU (gas permeation unit), compared with ~100 GPU for typical polymeric membranes. CO2/CH4 selectivity is estimated to be ~108 from the difference in free-energy barriers of permeation. This work suggests that a windowed carbon nanotube can be used as a highly efficient medium, configurable in hollow-fiber-like modules, for removing CO2 from natural gas.

  17. Magnetron sputtering of gold nanoparticles onto WO3 and activated carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Magnetron sputtering of gold nanoparticles onto WO3 and activated carbon Gabriel M. Veith a and investigation of two supported gold catalyst systems prepared by magnetron sputtering: Au on WO3 and Au, such as WO3 and carbon, which are generally not accessible using the ubiquitous deposition

  18. Plant diversity increases soil microbial activity and soil carbon storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    B. The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and itsA. S. & Whitmore, A. P. Soil organic matter turnover isorganic matter in a cultivated soil. Org. Geochem. 33, 357–

  19. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William

    2012-01-01

    carbon filters for the control of ozone, sulfur dioxide, andMendell (2008). "Outdoor ozone and building-related symptomsAir filter materials, outdoor ozone and building-related

  20. Electrical and gas sensing properties of polyaniline functionalized single-walled carbon This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical and gas sensing properties of polyaniline functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes.1088/0957-4484/21/7/075502 Electrical and gas sensing properties of polyaniline functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes Jae Online at stacks.iop.org/Nano/21/075502 Abstract Electrical and gas sensing properties of single

  1. Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01

    the physical properties of carbon dioxide, compare thei.e. , Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Z ? PV ? 1 ?Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Publishing

  2. Ultraviolet Diagnostics for the Emission Line Gas in Active Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. G. Allen; M. A. Dopita; Z. I. Tsvetanov

    1998-01-06

    Optical diagnostic diagrams are frequently ambiguous as a test of the photoionization or fast shock models of the narrow line regions of active galaxies. Here, we present a set of UV line ratio diagrams which can discriminate between pure shock and photoionization modes of excitation, and to some extent, also discriminate shocks with ionized precursors from photoionization. These diagrams use relatively bright emission lines and reddening insensitive ratios and provide a practical observational test for separating the excitation mechanisms of the narrow line regions of active galaxies. The most useful diagrams are those involving the various ionization stages of Carbon, [OIII]5007/H-beta vs. CIV 1550/ HeII 1640 and the purely UV ratio pair CII] 2326 / CIII] 1909 vs. CIV 1550 / CIII]909. Temperature sensitive FUV lines CIII 977 and NIII 991 also provide good discriminants. The models are compared to observations of nearby AGN, and also to high redshift objects where the UV lines are shifted into the optical.

  3. Pyrolysis of scrap tires and conversion of chars to activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, A.A.; Petrich, M.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the conversion of scrap tires to activated carbon. The authors have been successful in this endeavor, producing carbons with surface areas greater than 500 m[sup 2]/g and significant micropore volumes. Tire shreddings were pyrolyzed in batch reactors, and the pyrolysis chars activated by reaction with superheated steam. Solid products of pyrolysis and activation were studied with nitrogen adsorption techniques. They find that the porosity development during steam activation of tire pyrolysis char is similar to that reported for various other chars. A maximum in micropore volume is observed as a function of conversion, but the total surface area increases monotonically with conversion. They suggest that the activation process consists of micropore formation, followed by pore enlargement. The process conditions used in this study are a good starting point from which to optimize a process to convert tires to activated carbon.

  4. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  5. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  6. A Helium Gas-Scintillator Active Target for Photoreaction Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Al Jebali; J. R. M. Annand; J. -O. Adler; I. Akkurt; E. Buchanan; J. Brudvik; K. Fissum; S. Gardner; D. J. Hamilton; K. Hansen; L. Isaksson; K. Livingston; M. Lundin; J. C. McGeorge; I. J. D. MacGregor; R. MacRae; D. G. Middleton; A. J. H. Reiter; G. Rosner; B. Schröder; J. Sjögren; D. Sokhan; B. Strandberg

    2015-03-18

    A multi-cell He gas-scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 $\\mathrm{g/cm^{2}}$ at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of $\\mathrm{N}_{2}$ to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has good timing resolution and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in $^{4}\\mathrm{He}$, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response.

  7. Detection of Hydrogen Spillover in Palladium-Modified Activated Carbon Fibers During Hydrogen Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; Brown, Craig; Liu, Yun; Bhat, Vinay V; Gallego, Nidia C

    2009-01-01

    Palladium-modified activated carbon fibers (Pd-ACF) are being evaluated for adsorptive hydrogen storage at near-ambient conditions because of their enhanced hydrogen uptake in comparison to Pd-free activated carbon fibers (ACF). The net uptake enhancement (at room temperature and 20 bar) is in excess of the amount corresponding to formation of Pd hydride, and is usually attributed to hydrogen spillover. In this paper, inelastic neutron scattering was used to demonstrate the formation of new C-H bonds in Pd-containing activated carbon fibers after exposure to hydrogen at 20 oC and 1.6 MPa, at the expense of physisorbed H2. This finding is a post-factum proof of the atomic nature of H species formed in presence of a Pd catalyst, and of their subsequent spillover and binding to the carbon support. Chemisorption of hydrogen may explain the reduction in hydrogen uptake from first to second adsorption cycle.

  8. Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for three different mountain/plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active and Atmospheric Dynamics: Boundary layer processes; KEYWORDS: CO2 flux, absorbed PAR, carbon cycle, remote sensing Change: Biogeochemical processes (4805); 1640 Global Change: Remote sensing; 3307 Meteorology

  9. Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce lower emissions it is essential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce

  10. Thermal and Photochemical Silicon-Carbon Bond Activation in Donor-Stabilized Platinum(0)-Alkyne

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Thermal and Photochemical Silicon-Carbon Bond Activation in Donor-Stabilized Platinum(0)-Alkyne-CtC-CtC-SiMe3 have been thermally activated by a (PN)Pt fragment to afford the dinuclear Pt(II) species (PN)- Pt. In contrast, the bisphosphino-substituted compound 3 has been isolated as a thermally robust Pt(0) complex

  11. Improved granular activated carbon for the stabilization of wastewater pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Many times the start up of granular activated carbon adsorption systems for the control of organic contaminants in wastewater cm exhibit unacceptable increases in the adscurber effluent pH. Experience shows that the duration of the pH increase ranges from several hours to several days, during which time several hundred bed volumes of water can be discharged with a pH in excess of 9. Laboratory studies have identified the cause of the pH rise as an interaction between the naturally occurring anions and protons ar the water and the carbon surface. The interaction can be described as an ion exchange type of phenomenon, in which the carbon surface sorbs the anions and corresponding hydronium ions from the water. Capacities of the carbon for the anions range from 2 to 9 mg/g GAC, depending upon the water characteristics, the carbon type, the nature of the anion and its influent concentration. These studies have shown de the anion sorption and resulting pH increase is independent of the raw material used for die activated carbon production, e.g. bituminous or sub-bituminous coal, peat, wood or coconut. Also, the pH excursions occur with virgin, reactivated, and acid washed granular carbons. Current pH control technologies focus on adjustment of wastewater pH prior to discharge or recycle of the initial effluent water until the pH increase abates. However, improved water pH control options have been realized by altering the carbon surface rather than the water chemistry. The change to the carbon surface is accomplished through a controlled oxidation process. This process provides a more acidic carbon surface with a reduced affinity for the anions in the waste water. As a result, the pH excursions above 9 are eliminated and the initial effluent from the adsorption system can be discharged without further treatment.

  12. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.; Evans, W.C. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California (United States)] Kennedy, B.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States)] Farrar, C.D. [U.S. Geological Survey, Carnelian Bay, California (United States)] Hainsworth, L.J. [Chemistry Department, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia (United States)] Hausback, B. [Geology Department, California State University, Sacramento

    1998-07-01

    Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ({delta}thinsp{sup 13}C={minus}4.5 to {minus}5{per_thousand}, {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He=4.5 to 6.7 R{sub A}) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO{sub 2} discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills arc associated with CO{sub 2} concentrations of 30{endash}90{percent} in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 gthinspm{sup {minus}2}thinspd{sup {minus}1} at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO{sub 2} discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO{sub 2} flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30{endash}50 t/d of CO{sub 2} are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N{sub 2}/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  13. A mathematical model for countercurrent moving-bed activated carbon adsorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Douglas Harold

    1976-01-01

    effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Activated carbon removes substances from water by adsorption, which is the physical attachment of a mole- cule to a surface. The attractive forces are van der Waal's forces... treatment. Among these are: 1. Capable of removing organic contamination to minimal concentration; 2. No additional disposal or pollutional problems are created; 3. Excess capacity in the carbon beds can effec- tively process unexpected impurity...

  14. Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide onto Activated Carbon Fibers: Effect of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    about 95-97% of the hydrogen sulfide, emissions from Claus units are now becoming a source of H2S with other gases such as COS, CS2, and CO2 at various concentrations. Now Claus plants are required to reduce H2S emissions from the tail gas (7). Adsorption/oxidation by carbonaceous surfaces

  15. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  16. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  17. Diffusion barriers in the kinetics of water vapor adsorption/desorption on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, A.W.; Foley, N.J.; Thomas, K.M. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Norman, P.R.; Francis, D.C. [CBD, Salisbury (United Kingdom)] [CBD, Salisbury (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-07

    The adsorption of water vapor on a highly microporous coconut-shell-derived carbon and a mesoporous wood-derived carbon was studied. These carbons were chosen as they had markedly different porous structures. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of water vapor on the activated carbons were investigated over the relative pressure range p/p{degree} = 0--0.9 for temperatures in the range 285--313 K in a static water vapor system. The adsorption isotherms were analyzed using the Dubinin-Serpinski equation, and this provided an assessment of the polarity of the carbons. The kinetics of water vapor adsorption and desorption were studied with different amounts of preadsorbed water for set changes in pressure relative to the saturated vapor pressure (p/p{degree}). The adsorption kinetics for each relative pressure step were compared and used to calculate the activation energies for the vapor pressure increments. The kinetic results are discussed in relation to their relative position on the equilibrium isotherm and the adsorption mechanism of water vapor on activated carbons.

  18. Gas phase electronic spectra of the linear carbon chains HC2n1H ,,n36,9...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, John Paul

    Gas phase electronic spectra of the linear carbon chains HC2n¿1H ,,nÄ3­6,9... H. Ding, T. W resonant two-color two-photon ionization technique coupled to a supersonic plasma source. The electronic using DFT, MP2, and state-averaged CASSCF theories. The three lowest dipole allowed electronic

  19. State and Regional Comprehensive Carbon Pricing and Greenhouse Gas Regulation in the Power Sector under the EPA's Clean Power Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    1 State and Regional Comprehensive Carbon Pricing and Greenhouse Gas Regulation in the Power Sector under the EPA's Clean Power Plan UC Davis Policy Institute, Resources for the Future, Next 10 November:30 Welcome; background information · California, AB32, the trading program, other policies in electricity

  20. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications for Ozone Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from-based, single vehicle dynamometer testing, and on-road measurements in roadway tunnels.3-12 Emission factors

  1. Method and apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H.J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for converting hydrocarbon fuel or an alcohol into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide. The apparatus includes a first vessel having a partial oxidation reaction zone and a separate steam reforming reaction zone that is distinct from the partial oxidation reaction zone. The first vessel has a first vessel inlet at the partial oxidation reaction zone and a first vessel outlet at the steam reforming zone. The reformer also includes a helical tube extending about the first vessel. The helical tube has a first end connected to an oxygen-containing source and a second end connected to the first vessel at the partial oxidation reaction zone. Oxygen gas from an oxygen-containing source can be directed through the helical tube to the first vessel. A second vessel having a second vessel inlet and second vessel outlet is annularly disposed about the first vessel. The helical tube is disposed between the first vessel and the second vessel and gases from the first vessel can be directed through second vessel.

  2. Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena , Sigurd little attention. this paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process at all times. Keywords: Self-optimizing control, liquefied natural gas, LNG, PRICO, disturbances, optimal

  3. Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a , Sigurd Keywords: Self-optimizing control Liquefied natural gas LNG PRICO Disturbances Optimal operation a b s t r. This paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process e the PRICO process

  4. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Interactions of the carbon cycle, human activity, and the climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    and regional carbon budgets, including its attribution of variability and trends to underlying drivers. In particular, the Global Carbon Project was established by the Earth System Science Partnership 10 years agoAvailable online at www.sciencedirect.com Interactions of the carbon cycle, human activity

  5. Single Pd atoms in activated carbon fibers and their contribution to hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; van Benthem, Klaus; Li, Sa; Bonifacio, Cecile S; Pennycook, Stephen J; Jena, Puru; Gallego, Nidia C

    2011-01-01

    Palladium-modified activated carbon fibers (Pd-ACF) were synthesized by meltspinning, carbonization and activation of an isotropic pitch carbon precursor premixed with an organometallic Pd compound. The hydrogen uptake at 25 oC and 20 bar on Pd- ACF exceeded the expected capacity based solely on Pd hydride formation and hydrogen physisorption on the microporous carbon support. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with sub- ngstrom spatial resolution provided unambiguous identification of isolated Pd atoms occurring in the carbon matrix that coexist with larger Pd particles. First principles calculations revealed that each single Pd atom can form Kubas-type complexes by binding up to three H2 molecules in the pressure range of adsorption measurements. Based on Pd atom concentration determined from STEM images, the contribution of various mechanisms to the excess hydrogen uptake measured experimentally was evaluated. With consideration of Kubas binding as a viable mechanism (along with hydride formation and physisorption to carbon support) the role of hydrogen spillover in this system may be smaller than previously thought.

  6. Adsorption of cadmium ions on oxygen surface sites in activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Y.F.; Thomas, K.M.

    2000-02-08

    Various types of oxygen functional groups were introduced onto the surface of coconut shell derived activated carbon by oxidation using nitric acid. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and selective neutralization were used to characterize the surface oxygen functional groups. The oxidized carbons were also heat treated to provide a suite of carbons where the oxygen functional groups of various thermal stabilities were varied progressively. The adsorption of cadmium ions was enhanced dramatically by oxidation of the carbon. The ratio of released protons to adsorbed cadmium ions on oxidized carbon was approximately 2, indicating cation exchange was involved in the process of adsorption. Na{sup +} exchange studies with the oxidized carbon gave a similar ratio. After heat treatment of the oxidized carbons to remove oxygen functional groups, the ratio of H{sup +} released to Cd{sup 2+} adsorbed and the adsorption capacity decreased significantly. Both reversible and irreversible processes were involved in cadmium ion adsorption with reversible adsorption having higher enthalpy. The irreversible adsorption resulted from cation exchange with carboxylic acid groups, whereas the reversible adsorption probably involved physisorption of the partially hydrated cadmium ion.

  7. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-01-01

    Underground Storage of Natural Gas in the United States andEnergy Information Agency (2002). U.S. Natural Gas Storage.www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/info_glance/storage.html

  8. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-01-01

    http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/info_glance/underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brinestorage projects. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine

  9. Production of single-walled carbon nanotube grids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-12-03

    A method of forming a nanotube grid includes placing a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles on a grid framework, contacting the catalyst nanoparticles with a gas mixture that includes hydrogen and a carbon source in a reaction chamber, forming an activated gas from the gas mixture, heating the grid framework and activated gas, and controlling a growth time to generate a single-wall carbon nanotube array radially about the grid framework. A filter membrane may be produced by this method.

  10. Effects of support composition and pretreatment on the activity and selectivity of carbon-supported PdCunClx catalysts for the synthesis of diethyl carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis

    retaining similar blending octane properties [1,2]. Commercial production of DEC and other alkyl carbonates, and alkali hydroxides) [7,13]. While it has been established that the promoters enhance catalyst activity

  11. Factors affecting the adsorption of xenon on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underhill, D.W.; DiCello, D.C.; Scaglia, L.A.; Watson, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    The presence of water vapor was found to interfere strongly with the dynamic adsorption of /sup 133/Xe on coconut-base activated charcoal. The percent loss in the xenon adsorption coefficient was similar to values reported earlier for the adsorption of krypton on humidified charcoal. Attempts to increase the adsorption of xenon by (a) using a petroleum-based adsorbent with an extremely high surface area and (b) by impregnation of the adsorbent with iodine were not successful.

  12. The treatment of wood preserving wastes with activated carbon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pence, Robert Fuller

    1978-01-01

    is to reduce the volume by increasing the solids concentration to the point where they can be disposed to a sanitary landfill or incineration. Sludge drying beds are the most common method used. Typical mechanical units are centrifuges and vacuum filters... to biological systems. Typical biological processes are activated sludge, lagoons, oxidation ponds, soil irrigation, and trick- ling filters. In a 1974 survey conducted by Thompson (16), 270 plants received questionnaires concerning current methods used...

  13. Natural Gas_v2 (9764 - Activated, Traditional).xps

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegionalMethodology forNYMEXUsed asnatural

  14. Sorption of metal ions from multicomponent aqueous solutions by activated carbons produced from waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonova, L.P.; Goba, V.E.; Kovtun, M.F.; Tarasenko, Y.A.; Khavryuchenko, V.D.; Lyubchik, S.B.; Boiko, A.N.

    2008-08-15

    Activated carbons produced by thermal treatment of a mixture of sunflower husks, low-grade coal, and refinery waste were studied as adsorbents of transition ion metals from aqueous solutions of various compositions. The optimal conditions and the mechanism of sorption, as well as the structure of the sorbents, were studied.

  15. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Properties of Activated Carbon Powders and Their Influence on Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUPPORTING INFORMATION Properties of Activated Carbon Powders and Their Influence on Oxygen pages, 4 figures) #12;2 Figure S1: Example of RDE LSV data for bituminous coal based sample (B1: Example of K­L analysis for bituminous coal based sample (B1) where the slope of the line is used

  16. Adsorption of gold cyanide complexes by activated carbon on non-coconut shell origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yalcin, M.; Arol, A.I. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Coconut shells are the most widely used raw material for the production of activated carbon used in the gold production by cyanide leaching. There have been efforts to find alternatives to coconut shells. Shells and stones of certain fruits, have been tested. Although promising results to some extent were obtained, coconut shells remain the main source of activated carbon. Turkey has become a country of interest in terms of gold deposits of epithermal origin. Four deposits have already been discovered and, mining and milling operations are expected to start in the near future. Explorations are underway in many other areas of high expectations. Turkey is also rich in fruits which can be a valuable source of raw material for activated carbon production. In this study, hazelnut shells, peach and apricot stones, abundantly available locally, have been tested to determine whether they are suitable for the gold metallurgy. Parameters of carbonization and activation have been optimized. Gold loading capacity and adsorption kinetics have been studied.

  17. Oxygen Reduction Activity of PtxNi1-x Alloy Nanoparticles on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Junhyung

    PtxNi1 - x nanoparticles (Pt:Ni; 1:0, 4:1, 3:1 and 0.7:1) of ~5 nm, were synthesized on carboxylic acid-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (PtxNi1 - x NPs/MWNT). The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity measurements ...

  18. Kinetic effect of Pd additions on the hydrogen uptake of chemically activated, ultramicroporous carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2010-01-01

    The effect of mixing chemically-activated ultramicroporous carbon (UMC) with Pd nanopowder is investigated. Results show that Pd addition doubles the rate of hydrogen uptake, but does not enhance the hydrogen capacity or improve desorption kinetics. The effect of Pd on the rate of hydrogen adsorption supports the occurrence of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in the Pd - UMC system.

  19. Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

    1988-01-01

    to new or existing conventional air-conditioning system via a duct. It consists of a triple integrated heat-exchanger combining (liquid) desiccant dehumidification with indirect evaporative cooling, a brine interchanger, and a gas-fired brine heater...

  20. Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide levels in two areas of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    - house gas, but also the hydroperoxide radical (HO2). HO2 converts nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxideContribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide. Chen, K. Carmody, S. Vutukuru, and D. Dabdub (2007), Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile

  1. Micro gas preconcentrator made of a film of single-walled carbon nanotubes Shuji Takada*Takashi Nakai*Theerapol Thurakitseree*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Micro gas preconcentrator made of a film of single-walled carbon nanotubes Shuji Takada-Jacques Delaunay*, *** and Ichiro Yamada*, *** The development of a micro gas preconcentrator is crucial for the realization of miniaturized gas chromatography (micro-GC) systems which are expected to open up new

  2. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.; Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Gehman, John D.; Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R.; Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 ; Duxson, Peter; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2013-11-15

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

  3. Gas dynamic effects on formation of carbon dimers in laser-produced plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    production, carbon laser-produced plasma (LPP) research was a main focus over the last several years.1

  4. Modeling and Measuring Greenhouse Gas Reduction from Low Carbon Airport Access Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirti, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Updated State?level Greenhouse  Gas Emission Coefficients Agency (EPA) (2006) Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the U.S.  Port of Seattle (2008) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory.  

  5. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-01-01

    2002). U.S. Natural Gas Storage. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_OF UNDERGROUND NATURAL GAS STORAGE TO GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATIONof underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in

  6. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  7. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste material in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nuessle, F.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Recently, carbonaceous materials including activated carbon were proven to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste gasification in supercritical water. Using coconut shell activated carbon catalyst, complete decomposition of industrial organic wastes including methanol and acetic acid was achieved. During this process, the total mass of the activated carbon catalyst changes by two competing processes: a decrease in weight via gasification of the carbon by supercritical water, or an increase in weight by deposition of carbonaceous materials generated by incomplete gasification of the biomass feedstocks. The deposition of carbonaceous materials does not occur when complete gasification is realized. Gasification of the activated carbon in supercritical water is often favored, resulting in changes in the quality and quantity of the catalyst. To thoroughly understand the hazardous waste decomposition process, a more complete understanding of the behavior of activated carbon in pure supercritical water is needed. The gasification rate of carbon by water vapor at subcritical pressures was studied in relation to coal gasification and generating activated carbon.

  8. Tracing coalbed natural gas-coproduced water using stable isotopes of carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S.; Frost, C.D. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. for Renewable Resources

    2008-03-15

    Recovery of hydrocarbons commonly is associated with coproduction of water. This water may be put to beneficial use or may be reinjected into subsurface aquifers. In either case, it would be helpful to establish a fingerprint for that coproduced water so that it may be tracked following discharge on the surface or reintroduction to geologic reservoirs. This study explores the potential of using {delta}{sup 13}C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) - coproduced water as a fingerprint of its origin and to trace its fate once it is disposed on the surface. Our initial results for water samples coproduced with CBNG from the Powder River Basin show that this water has strongly positive {delta}{sup 13}C(DIC) (12 parts per thousand to 22 parts per thousand) that is readily distinguished from the negative {delta}{sup 13}C of most surface and ground water (-8 parts per thousand to -11 parts per thousand). Furthermore, the DIC concentrations in coproduced water samples are also high (more than 100 mg C/L) compared to the 20 to 50 mg C/L in ambient surface and ground water of the region. The distinctively high {delta}{sup 13}C and DIC concentrations allow us to identify surface and ground water that have incorporated CBNG-coproduced water. Accordingly, we suggest that the {delta}{sup 13}C(DIC) and DIC concentrations of water can be used for long-term monitoring of infiltration of CBNG-coproduced water into ground water and streams. Our results also show that the {delta} {sup 13}C (DIC) of CBNG-coproduced water from two different coal zones are distinct leading to the possibility of using {delta}{sup 13}C(DIC) to distinguish water produced from different coal zones.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A Lesch

    2010-06-30

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

  10. Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 2. Model prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Z.; Peldszus, S.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). NSERC Chair in Water Treatment

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of two representative pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) naproxen and carbamazepine and one endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) nonylphenol was studied in pilot-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorbers using post-sedimentation (PS) water from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. The GAC adsorbents were coal-based Calgon Filtrasorb 400 and coconut shell-based PICA CTIF TE. Acidic naproxen broke through fastest while nonylphenol was removed best, which was consistent with the degree to which fouling affected compound removals. Model predictions and experimental data were generally in good agreement for all three compounds, which demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the pore and surface diffusion model (PSDM) used in combination with the time-variable parameter approach for predicting removals at environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., ng/L range). Sensitivity analyses suggested that accurate determination of film diffusion coefficients was critical for predicting breakthrough for naproxen and carbamazepine, in particular when high removals are targeted. Model simulations demonstrated that GAC carbon usage rates (CURs) for naproxen were substantially influenced by the empty bed contact time (EBCT) at the investigated conditions. Model-based comparisons between GAC CURs and minimum CURs for powdered activated carbon (PAC) applications suggested that PAC would be most appropriate for achieving 90% removal of naproxen, whereas GAC would be more suitable for nonylphenol. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Ni(NiO)/single-walled carbon nanotubes composite: Synthesis of electro-deposition, gas sensing property for NO gas and density functional theory calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Guo; Chen, Lei; Bi, Hong-Mei; Shi, Ke-Ying

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The Ni(NiO)/semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes composite collected from the cathode after electro-deposition shows a high sensitivity to low-concentration NO gas at room temperature (18 °C). Display Omitted Highlights: ? Ni(NiO) nanoparticles were deposited on semiconducting SWCNTs by electro-deposition. ? Ni(NiO)/semiconducting SWCNTs film shows a high sensitivity to NO gas at 18 °C. ?Theoretical calculation reveals electron transfer from SWCNTs to NO via Ni. -- Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes which contains metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) and semiconducting SWCNTs (s-SWCNTs) have been obtained under electric arc discharge. Their separation can be effectively achieved by the electro-deposition method. The Ni(NiO)/s-SWCNTs composite was found on cathode where Ni was partially oxidized to NiO at ambient condition with Ni(NiO) nanoparticles deposited uniformly on the bundles of SWCNTs. These results were confirmed by Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis–NIR and TG characterizations. Furthermore, investigation of the gas sensing property of Ni(NiO)/s-SWCNTs composite film to NO gas at 18 °C demonstrated the sensitivity was approximately 5% at the concentration of 97 ppb. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to explore the sensing mechanism which suggested the adsorption of NO molecules onto the composite through N–Ni interaction as well as the proposition of electron transfer mechanisms from SWCNTs to NO via the Ni medium.

  12. The role of destabilization of palladium hydride on the hydrogen uptake of Pd-containing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on differences in stability of Pd hydride phases in palladium particles with various degrees of contact with microporous carbon supports. A sample containing Pd embedded in activated carbon fiber (Pd-ACF; 2 wt% Pd) was compared with commercial Pd nanoparticles deposited on microporous activated carbon (Pd-catalyst, 3 wt% Pd) and with support-free nanocrystalline palladium (Pd-black). The morphology of materials was characterized by electron microscopy, and the phase transformations were analyzed over a large range of hydrogen partial pressures (0.003 - 10 bar) and at several temperatures using in-situ X-ray diffraction. The results were verified with volumetric hydrogen uptake measurements. Results indicate that higher degree of Pd-carbon contacts for Pd particles embedded in a microporous carbon matrix induce efficient pumping of hydrogen out of -PdHx. It was also found that thermal cleaning of carbon surface groups prior to exposure to hydrogen further enhances the hydrogen pumping power of the microporous carbon support. In brief, this study highlights that the stability of -PdHx phase supported on carbon depends on the degree of contact between Pd-carbon and the nature of the carbon surface.

  13. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon product. As much as a 130% increase in the humic acid sorption capacity of a PAC produced from a high-sodium-content lignite was observed. We hypothesize that the sodium and calcium content of the coal plays a significant role in the development of pore structures and pore-size distribution, ultimately producing activated carbon products that have greater sorption capacity for specific contaminants, depending on molecular size.

  14. Natural Gas as a Pathway to Alternative Low Carbon Fuels: Infrastructure Issues and Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 CrudeOilProduction(thousandbarrels) NaturalGasProduction(MMcf) U.S $/gigajoule Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration #12;Emissions Advantage? · Natural gas is promoted at current relative prices 3 #12;Refueling infrastructure requirements are costly Natural gas as an emerging

  15. Polypyrrole-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensor Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kakoullis, James

    2011-01-01

    32 3.1.4 Thermal Activation Energy33 x Figure 3.9 Thermal Activation Energy Comparison betweencryogenic system, the thermal activation energy (E a ) was

  16. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-07-01

    A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizes a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

  17. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, A.R.; Thornton, D.C.; Driedger, A.R. III [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  18. High-strength porous carbon and its multifunctional applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wojtowicz, Marek A; Rubenstein, Eric P; Serio, Michael A; Cosgrove, Joseph E

    2013-12-31

    High-strength porous carbon and a method of its manufacture are described for multifunctional applications, such as ballistic protection, structural components, ultracapacitor electrodes, gas storage, and radiation shielding. The carbon is produced from a polymer precursor via carbonization, and optionally by surface activation and post-treatment.

  19. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Nitrogen and Water in Flue Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mera, Hilda 1989-

    2012-04-12

    coefficients of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water in MOFs. The metal-organic frameworks studied are copper trimesate (Cu-BTC), zinc terephthalate (IRMOF1), and MIL-47, which belongs to the Materials of the Institute Lavoisier series. Diffusion coefficients...

  20. PT AND PT/NI "NEEDLE" ELETROCATALYSTS ON CARBON NANOTUBES WITH HIGH ACTIVITY FOR THE ORR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2011-11-10

    Platinum and platinum/nickel alloy electrocatalysts supported on graphitized (gCNT) or nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (nCNT) are prepared and characterized. Pt deposition onto carbon nanotubes results in Pt 'needle' formations that are 3.5 nm in diameter and {approx}100 nm in length. Subsequent Ni deposition and heat treatment results in PtNi 'needles' with an increased diameter. All Pt and Pt/Ni materials were tested as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The Pt and Pt/Ni catalysts showed excellent performance for the ORR, with the heat treated PtNi/gCNT (1.06 mA/cm{sup 2}) and PtNi/nCNT (0.664 mA/cm{sup 2}) showing the highest activity.

  1. On the reactive adsorption of ammonia on activated carbons modified by impregnation with inorganic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandosz, T.J.; Petit, C. [CUNY City College, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-10-15

    Ammonia adsorption was studied under dynamic conditions, at room temperature, on activated carbons of different origins (coal-based, wood-based and coconut-shell-based carbons) before and after their impregnation with various inorganic compounds including metal chlorides, metal oxides and polycations. The role of humidity was evaluated by running tests in both dry and moist conditions. Adsorbents were analyzed before and after exposure to ammonia by thermal analyses, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Results of breakthrough tests show significant differences in terms of adsorption capacity depending on the parent carbon, the impregnates and the experimental conditions. It is found that surface chemistry governs ammonia adsorption on the impregnated carbons. More precisely, it was demonstrated that a proper combination of the surface pH, the strength, type and amount of functional groups present on the adsorbents' surface is a key point in ammonia uptake. Water can have either positive or negative effects on the performance of adsorbents. It can enhance NH{sub 3} adsorption capacity since it favors ammonia dissolution and thus enables reaction between ammonium ions and carboxylic groups from the carbons' surface. On the other hand, water can also reduce the performance from the strength of adsorption standpoint. It promotes dissolution of ammonia and that ammonia is first removed from the system when the adsorbent bed is purged with air. Ammonia, besides adsorption by van der Waals forces and dissolution in water, is also retained on the surface via reactive mechanisms such as acid-base reactions (Bronsted and Lewis) or complexation. Depending on the materials used and the experimental conditions, 6-47% ammonia adsorbed is strongly retained on the surface even when the bed is purged with air.

  2. Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Annual Grasslands: Effects of Management and Potential for Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryals, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    dynamics and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands.G. E. Schuman. 2007. Carbon sequestration and rangelands: Aconcepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil &

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  8. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  9. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  10. Nanoporous separators for supercapacitor using activated carbon monolith electrode from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nor, N. S. M. Deraman, M. Omar, R. Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.

    2014-02-24

    Activated porous carbon electrode prepared from fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches was used for preparing the carbon based supercapacitor cells. The symmetrical supercapacitor cells were fabricated using carbon electrodes, stainless steel current collector, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, and three types of nanoporous separators. Cells A, B and C were fabricated using polypropylene, eggshell membrane, and filter paper, respectively. Electrochemical characterizations data from Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, and Galvanic Charge Discharge techniques showed that specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy for cell A were 122 F g{sup ?1}, 177 W kg{sup ?1}, 3.42 Wh kg{sup ?1}, cell B; 125 F g{sup ?1}, 179 W kg{sup ?1}, and 3.64 Wh kg{sup ?1}, and cell C; 180 F g{sup ?1}, 178 W kg{sup ?1}, 4.27 Wh kg{sup ?1}. All the micrographs from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that the different in nanoporous structure of the separators lead to a significant different in influencing the values of specific capacitance, power and energy of supercapacitors, which is associated with the mobility of ion into the pore network. These results indicated that the filter paper was superior than the eggshell membrane and polypropylene nanoporous separators. However, we found that in terms of acidic resistance, polypropylene was the best nanoporous separator for acidic medium.

  11. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  12. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    the Australian National Green- house Gas Inventory (DCCEE,fuel emissions Carbon and green house gas (GHG) accounts are

  13. Safety basis For activities in double-shell tanks with flammable gas concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlosser, R.L.

    1996-02-05

    This is full revision to Revision 0 of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of analyses done to support activities performed for double shell tanks. These activities are encompassed by the flammable gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). The basic controls required to perform these activities involve the identification, elimination and/or control of ignition sources and monitoring for flammable gases. Controls are implemented through the Interim Safety Basis (ISB), IOSRs, and OSDs. Since this report only provides a historical compendium of issues and activities, it is not to be used as a basis to perform USQ screenings and evaluations. Furthermore, these analyses and others in process will be used as the basis for developing the Flammable Gas Topical Report for the ISB Upgrade.

  14. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the time that enhanced AC was injected, the average mercury removal for the month long test was approximately 74% across the test baghouse module. ACI was interrupted frequently during the month long test because the test baghouse module was bypassed frequently to relieve differential pressure. The high air-to-cloth ratio of operations at this unit results in significant differential pressure, and thus there was little operating margin before encountering differential pressure limits, especially at high loads. This limited the use of sorbent injection as the added material contributes to the overall differential pressure. This finding limits sustainable injection of AC without appropriate modifications to the plant or its operations. Handling and storage issues were observed for the TOXECON ash-AC mixture. Malfunctioning equipment led to baghouse dust hopper plugging, and storage of the stagnant material at flue gas temperatures resulted in self-heating and ignition of the AC in the ash. In the hoppers that worked properly, no such problems were reported. Economics of mercury control at Big Brown were estimated for as-tested scenarios and scenarios incorporating changes to allow sustainable operation. This project was funded under the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory project entitled 'Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program--Phase II'.

  15. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2004-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash. These analyses will also determine the properties of ash which are important for Hg capture.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2005-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

  18. Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    The transportation sector accounts for nearly one third of the United States' greenhouse gas emissions. While over the past number of decades, policy makers have avoided directly pricing the externalities from vehicles, ...

  19. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and...

  20. Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Doug

    to as Combustion Turbine Generators (CTGs). Each unit is connected to a Rentech Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) which captures waste heat from combustion turbine exhaust to produce steam for the campus's heatingActive NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade

  1. Active microuidic mixer and gas bubble lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Active micro¯uidic mixer and gas bubble ®lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$ Jr-Hung Tsaia interface to increase the contact area of mixing ¯uids to accelerate the mixing process. The micro and successfully demonstrated in the micro¯uidic mixing system. A model based on the principle of threshold

  2. Atlantic update, July 1986--June 1990: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpas, R.M.; Gould, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the Atlantic Region. This edition of the Atlantic Update includes an overview of the Mid-Atlantic Planning Area and a summary of the Manteo Prospect off-shore North Carolina. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  7. Activation of Carbon Dioxide 501 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-53882-6.00018-8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    Activation of Carbon Dioxide 501 © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10 Policy Institute [11] reported total carbon emissions of 7.980PgC (petagram of carbon, 1015 g carbon.4%. The Global Carbon Project [12] reported in its "Carbon Budget 2012" [13] an estimated total emission of 9

  8. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney

    2010-06-30

    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  9. Application of Crunch-Flow Routines to Constrain Present and Past Carbon Fluxes at Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, Marta

    2014-01-31

    In November 2012, Oregon State University initiated the project entitled: Application of Crunch-Flow routines to constrain present and past carbon fluxes at gas-hydrate bearing sites. Within this project we developed Crunch-Flow based modeling modules that include important biogeochemical processes that need to be considered in gas hydrate environments. Our modules were applied to quantify carbon cycling in present and past systems, using data collected during several DOE-supported drilling expeditions, which include the Cascadia margin in US, Ulleung Basin in South Korea, and several sites drilled offshore India on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Specifically, we completed modeling efforts that: 1) Reproduce the compositional and isotopic profiles observed at the eight drilled sites in the Ulleung Basin that constrain and contrast the carbon cycling pathways at chimney (high methane flux) and non-chimney sites (low methane, advective systems); 2) Simulate the Ba record in the sediments to quantify the past dynamics of methane flux in the southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin; and 3) Provide quantitative estimates of the thickness of individual mass transport deposits (MTDs), time elapsed after the MTD event, rate of sulfate reduction in the MTD, and time required to reach a new steady state at several sites drilled in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin off India. In addition we developed a hybrid model scheme by coupling a home-made MATLAB code with CrunchFlow to address the methane transport and chloride enrichment at the Ulleung Basins chimney sites, and contributed the modeling component to a study focusing on pore-scale controls on gas hydrate distribution in sediments from the Andaman Sea. These efforts resulted in two manuscripts currently under review, and contributed the modeling component of another pare, also under review. Lessons learned from these efforts are the basis of a mini-workshop to be held at Oregon State University (Feb 2014) to instruct graduate students (OSU and UW) as well as DOE staff from the NETL lab in Albany on the use of Crunch Flow for geochemical applications.

  10. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  11. Optical activity in an isotropic gas of electrons with a preferred helicity D. B. Melrose and J. I. Weise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melrose, Don

    Optical activity in an isotropic gas of electrons with a preferred helicity D. B. Melrose and J. I; published 22 October 2003 An isotropic gas of electrons with a preferred spin helicity is shown response tensor is calculated for an electron gas described in terms of a spin-dependent occupation number

  12. Regional air quality impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale natural gas activity: Evidence from ambient VOC observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    Regional air quality impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale natural gas activity: Evidence from/Washington area. Shale natural gas operation emissions appear to be transported downwind. a r t i c l e i n f o to free and extract natural gas trapped within shale layers (USGS, 2014). According to the U.S. Energy

  13. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  14. Regeneration of field-spent activated carbon catalysts for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Jong Ki; Kim, Hyeonjoo; Park, Young-Kwon; Peden, Charles HF; Kim, Do Heui

    2011-10-15

    In the process of producing liquid crystal displays (LCD), the emitted NOx is removed over an activated carbon catalyst by using selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH3 at low temperature. However, the catalyst rapidly deactivates primarily due to the deposition of boron discharged from the process onto the catalyst. Therefore, this study is aimed at developing an optimal regeneration process to remove boron from field-spent carbon catalysts. The spent carbon catalysts were regenerated by washing with a surfactant followed by drying and calcination. The physicochemical properties before and after the regeneration were investigated by using elemental analysis, TG/DTG (thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric) analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption and NH3 TPD (temperature programmed desorption). Spent carbon catalysts demonstrated a drastic decrease in DeNOx activity mainly due to heavy deposition of boron. Boron was accumulated to depths of about 50 {mu}m inside the granule surface of the activated carbons, as evidenced by cross-sectional SEM-EDX analysis. However, catalyst activity and surface area were significantly recovered by removing boron in the regeneration process, and the highest NOx conversions were obtained after washing with a non-ionic surfactant in H2O at 70 C, followed by treatment with N2 at 550 C.

  15. Active hurricane season expected to shut-in higher amount of oil and natural gas production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas ReservesAlabamaAbout EIA.gov Screen capture ofHelpActive

  16. Optimal Process Design for Coupled CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Gas Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odi, Uchenna

    2013-12-09

    ........................................................................................................ 26 Figure 11: PVT System for Dew Point Measurement (a) Oven (b) Computer Data Gathering Equipment (c) Top Pump B (d) PVT Visual Cell (e) Bottom Pump A... adequate understanding of condensate blockage and its interaction with CO2. Accomplishing this requires a fundamental understanding of the pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) interactions between gas condensate and CO2. Discerning these PVT...

  17. Inner-shell excitation of gas phase carbonates and a,c-dicarbonyl compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    and dimethyldicarbonate ­ have been recorded in the gas phase with inner shell electron energy loss spectroscopy in the scattering regime dominated by electric dipole transitions. All spectra are presented on absolute oscillator strength intensity scales. They are interpreted with the aid of chemical series systematics

  18. Initial activity of reduced chromia/alumina catalyst in n-butane dehydrogenation monitored by on-line FT-IR gas analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakuli, A.; Kytoekivi, A.; Suntola, T.

    1996-06-01

    The initial activity of chromia/alumina catalyst (13 wt% Cr) in n-butane dehydrogenation was studied in a flow reactor at 853 K. The initial activity was determined by on-line FT-IR gas analysis, which enabled sampling of the gaseous product mixture at a time resolution of seconds. The catalysts were processed in repeated cycles of oxidation, reduction, and dehydrogenation using n-butane, methane, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide as reducing agents. With n-butane, methane, and hydrogen and dehydrogenation activity was associated with Cr{sup 3+} species apparently formed in the reduction of high-valence Cr species. The catalyst reduced with carbon monoxide at 853 K showed poor initial selectivity for butenes and, relative to the other catalysts. Simultaneous data relating the initial activity, coke content, and some of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst indicated that the surfaces of all catalysts were modified to some extent by the successive reaction cycles. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors of trinitrotoluene adsorption on powdered activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.W.; Hwang, K.J.; Shim, W.G.; Moon, I.S. [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Regulations on the removal of trinitrotoluene (TNT) from wastewater have become increasingly more stringent, demanding faster, less expensive, and more efficient treatment. This study focuses on the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of TNT on powered activated carbons (PAC). Three types of PACs (i.e., wood based, coal based, and coconut-shell based) were studied as functions of temperature and pH. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, were evaluated by applying the Van't Hoff equation. In addition, the adsorption energy distribution functions which describe heterogeneous characteristics of porous solid sorbents were calculated by using the generalized nonlinear regularization method. Adsorption kinetic studies were carried out in batch adsorber under important conditions such as PAC types, temperature, pH, and concentration. We found that fast and efficient removal of TNT dissolved in water can be successfully achieved by PAC adsorption.

  20. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (7 Rocky Brook Rd., Dover, MA 02030); Mitchell, William L. (111 Oakley Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (20 Landmark Rd., Westford, MA 01886); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (1 Richdale Ave.#2, Cambridge, MA 02140)

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

  1. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  2. Analysis of the relationship between H{sub 2}S removal capacity and surface properties of unimpregnated activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adib, F.; Bagreev, A.; Bandosz, T.J.

    2000-02-15

    The H{sub 2}S breakthrough capacity was measured on two series of activated carbons of a coconut shell and a bituminous coal origins. To broaden the spectrum of surface features the samples were oxidized using nitric acid or ammonium persulfate under conditions chosen to preserve their pore structures. Then the carbons were characterized using Boehm titration, potentiometric titration, thermal analysis, temperature programmed desorption, sorption of nitrogen, and sorption of water. It was found that the choice of unimpregnated carbon for application as H{sub 2}S adsorbent should be made based on parameters of its acidity such as number of acidic groups, pH of surface, amount of surface groups oxygen, or weight loss associated to decomposition of surface oxygen species. The results obtained from the analyses of six unimpregnated carbon samples suggest that there are certain threshold values of these quantities which, when exceeded, have a dramatic effect on the H{sub 2}S breakthrough capacity.

  3. Carbon brainprint – An estimate of the intellectual contribution of research institutions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterton, Julia; Parsons, David; Nicholls, John; Longhurst, Phil; Bernon, Mike; Palmer, Andrew; Brennan, Feargal; Kolios, Athanasios; Wilson, Ian; Ishiyama, Edward; Clements-Croome, Derek; Elmualim, Abbas; Darby, Howard; Yearley, Thomas; Davies, Gareth

    2015-05-07

    Ceramic coatings for jet engine turbine blades to improve engine efficiency Cranfield Improved delivery vehicle logistics to save fuel Cranfield Training for landfill gas inspectors to improve methane capture Cranfield Novel offshore vertical axis wind... of air travel, this was 196 excluded from the assessment. 197 3.2 Novel offshore vertical axis wind turbines 198 Researchers within the School of Engineering at Cranfield University were part of a 199 consortium to develop further the concept of Novel...

  4. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-09-26

    A method is disclosed for synthesizing hydrogen gas from hydrocarbon fuel. A first mixture of steam and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 208 to subject the first mixture to a first steam reforming reaction in the presence of a first catalyst 214. A stream of oxygen-containing gas is pre-heated by transferring heat energy from product gases. A second mixture of the pre-heated oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 218 disposed about the first tube 208 to subject the second mixture to a partial oxidation reaction and to provide heat energy for transfer to the first tube 208. A first reaction reformate from the first tube 208 and a second reaction reformate from the second tube 218 are directed into a third tube 224 disposed about the second tube 218 to subject the first and second reaction reformates to a second steam reforming reaction, wherein heat energy is transferred to the third tube 224 from the second tube 218.

  5. Establishing MICHCARB, a geological carbon sequestration research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Western Michigan University 58 GEOSCIENCES Geological carbon sequestration Enhanced oil recovery Characterization of oil, gas and saline reservoirs Geological carbon...

  6. Novel Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanostructures for High-Temperature Gas Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi Chen; Kozo Saito

    2008-08-31

    The primary objective of this research is to examine the feasibility of using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a high temperature sensor material for fossil energy systems where reducing atmospheres are present. In the initial period of research, we fabricated capacitive sensors for hydrogen sensing using vertically aligned MWCNTs. We found that CNT itself is not sensitive to hydrogen. Moreover, with the help of Pd electrodes, hydrogen sensors based on CNTs are very sensitive and fast responsive. However, the Pd-based sensors can not withstand high temperature (T<200 C). In the last year, we successfully fabricated a hydrogen sensor based on an ultra-thin nanoporous titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) film supported by an AAO substrate, which can operate at 500 C with hydrogen concentrations in a range from 50 to 500 ppm.

  7. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  8. New Funding Boosts Carbon Capture, Solar Energy and High Gas Mileage Cars

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoftPolicy,Department of EnergyRemarks byand

  9. Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActToolsForNorthfor GasConference

  10. Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Annual Grasslands: Effects of Management and Potential for Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryals, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    D.A. Angers. 2005. Greenhouse gas contributions ofchange and the impact on greenhouse gas exchange in northprimary productivity and greenhouse gas emissions in annual

  11. A dsorption of H2 S or SO2 on an activated carbon cloth modified by ammonia treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by treatment with ammonia/air at 300 8 C or with ammonia/steam at 800 8 C. The pore structure of the samples so prepared was examined by adsorption measurements. Changes in the surface chemistry were assessed by X granular activated carbons with similar pore size distribution [3]. However, the cost of ACFs makes

  12. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m-2

  13. Carbon-Supported IrNi Core-Shell Nanoparticles: Synthesis Characterization and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K Sasaki; K Kuttiyiel; L Barrio; D Su; A Frenkel; N Marinkovic; D Mahajan; R Adzic

    2011-12-31

    We synthesized carbon-supported IrNi core-shell nanoparticles by chemical reduction and subsequent thermal annealing in H{sub 2}, and verified the formation of Ir shells on IrNi solid solution alloy cores by various experimental methods. The EXAFS analysis is consistent with the model wherein the IrNi nanoparticles are composed of two-layer Ir shells and IrNi alloy cores. In situ XAS revealed that the Ir shells completely protect Ni atoms in the cores from oxidation or dissolution in an acid electrolyte under elevated potentials. The formation of Ir shell during annealing due to thermal segregation is monitored by time-resolved synchrotron XRD measurements, coupled with Rietveld refinement analyses. The H{sub 2} oxidation activity of the IrNi nanoparticles was found to be higher than that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst. This is predominantly due to Ni-core-induced Ir shell contraction that makes the surface less reactive for IrOH formation, and the resulting more metallic Ir surface becomes more active for H{sub 2} oxidation. This new class of core-shell nanoparticles appears promising for application as hydrogen anode fuel cell electrocatalysts.

  14. Iodine Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins and Activated Carbons– Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows: • The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. • The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. • The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. • In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine sorption.

  15. Geological controls on gas accumulation in a unique Zechstein carbonate reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    anhydrite and halite (salt)), that are well known both for their mobility (halokenesis) and ability to trap hydrocarbons as an effective reservoir seal. Deep in the palaeo-basin centre, salts (anhydrite and halite to two stages of tectonic inversion (re-activation in compression of the initially extensional faults

  16. Outsourcing Logistics in the Oil and Gas Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Cristina 1988-

    2012-04-30

    The supply chain challenges that the Oil and Gas industry faces in material logistics have enlarged in the last few decades owing to an increased hydro-carbon demand. Many reasons justify the challenges, such as exploration activities which have...

  17. Microfluidic sieve using intertwined, free-standing carbon nanotube mesh as active medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakajin, Olgica (San Leandro, CA); Noy, Aleksandr (Belmont, CA)

    2007-11-06

    A microfluidic sieve having a substrate with a microfluidic channel, and a carbon nanotube mesh. The carbon nanotube mesh is formed from a plurality of intertwined free-standing carbon nanotubes which are fixedly attached within the channel for separating, concentrating, and/or filtering molecules flowed through the channel. In one embodiment, the microfluidic sieve is fabricated by providing a substrate having a microfluidic channel, and growing the intertwined free-standing carbon nanotubes from within the channel to produce the carbon nanotube mesh attached within the channel.

  18. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  19. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  20. Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

    2005-06-21

    New low-cost CO2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35 degrees C.

  1. Solid sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    2005-06-21

    New low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35.degree. C.

  2. TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    C Carbon TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon Active C Pool Indicated by Light, the relationship between carbon dynamics including total organic carbon (TOC) storage, microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass carbon in subsoil 4 years after rehabilitation · Microbial biomass carbon had a positive

  3. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  4. Gas-phase CO2 emission toward Cepheus A East: the result of shock activity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sonnentrucker; E. González-Alfonso; D. A. Neufeld; E. A. Bergin; G. J. Melnick; W. J. Forrest; J. L. Pipher; D. M. Watson

    2006-09-05

    We report the first detection of gas-phase CO2 emission in the star-forming region Cepheus A East, obtained by spectral line mapping of the v2 bending mode at 14.98 micron with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The gaseous CO2 emission covers a region about 35'' x 25'' in extent, and results from radiative pumping by 15 micron continuum photons emanating predominantly from the HW2 protostellar region. The gaseous CO2 exhibits a temperature distribution ranging from 50 K to 200 K. A correlation between the gas-phase CO2 distribution and that of H2 S(2), a tracer of shock activity, indicates that the CO2 molecules originate in a cool post-shock gas component associated with the outflow powered by HW2. The presence of CO2 ice absorption features at 15.20 micron toward this region and the lack of correlation between the IR continuum emission and the CO2 gas emission distribution further suggest that the gaseous CO2 molecules are mainly sputtered off grain mantles -- by the passage of slow non-dissociative shocks with velocities of 15-30 km/s -- rather than sublimated through grain heating.

  5. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-01-01

    editor. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emission and sinks:Ishida. 2008. An integrated greenhouse gas assessment of anguidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume

  6. if it is a gas leak, do not activate building alarms, use mobile phones, hand held radios, electronic equipment or light flammable material!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    gas leak gas leak if it is a gas leak, do not activate building alarms, use mobile phones, hand held radios, electronic equipment or light flammable material! 1. If you discover a Gas Leak, shout and check that the nearest gas isolator switch is off. 4. Evacuate the building immediately, avoiding

  7. Oxidation of activated carbon fibers: Effect on pore size, surface chemistry, and adsorption properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangun, C.L.; Benak, K.R.; Daley, M.A.; Economy, J.

    1999-12-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were oxidized using both aqueous and nonaqueous treatments. As much as 29 wt% oxygen can be incorporated onto the pore surface in the form of phenolic hydroxyl, quinine, and carboxylic acid groups. The effect of oxidation on the pore size, pore volume, and the pore surface chemistry was thoroughly examined. The average micropore size is typically affected very little by aqueous oxidation while the micropore volume and surface area decreases with such a treatment. In contrast, the micropore size and micropore volume both increase with oxidation in air. Oxidation of the fibers produces surface chemistries in the pore that provide for enhanced adsorption of basic (ammonia) and polar (acetone) molecules at ambient and nonambient temperatures. The adsorption capacity of the oxidized fibers for acetone is modestly better than the untreated ACFs while the adsorption capacity for ammonia can increase up to 30 times compared to untreated ACFs. The pore surface chemical makeup was analyzed using elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  8. Effect of temperature on the desorption and decomposition of mustard from activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karwacki, C.J.; Buchanan, J.H.; Mahle, J.J.; Buettner, L.C.; Wagner, G.W.

    1999-12-07

    Experimental data are reported for the desorption of bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, (a sulfur mustard or HD) and its decomposition products from activated coconut shell carbon (CSC). The results show that under equilibrium conditions changes in the HD partial pressure are affected primarily by its loading and temperature of the adsorbent. The partial pressure of adsorbed HD is found to increase by about a decade for each 25 C increase in temperature for CSC containing 0.01--0.1 g/g HD. Adsorption equilibria of HD appear to be little affected by coadsorbed water. Although complicated by its decomposition, the distribution of adsorbed HD (of known amount) appears to occupy pores of similar energy whether dry or in the presence of adsorbed water. On dry CSC adsorbed HD appears stable, while in the presence of water its decomposition is marked by hydrolysis at low temperature and thermal decomposition at elevated temperatures. The principal volatile products desorbed are 1,4-thioxane, 2-chloroethyl vinyl sulfide and 1,4-dithiane, with the latter favoring elevated temperatures.

  9. Modeling hot gas flow in the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2014-02-20

    Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with ?{sup 2}/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ?}. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r {sub st} ? 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r{sub B} = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}. We find a shallow density profile n?r {sup –?} with ? ? 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r ? 1'', and (4) the outflow at r ? 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T{sub v} at any radius.

  10. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) ON ACTIVATED CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION: KINETICS AND MECHANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and Mechanism for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxidekinetic study of the catalytic oxidation on carbon particlesthe kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on

  11. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Preston D.

    2008-01-01

    2007), Oil and gas well drilling and servicing etool.over a century of well drilling and production activities inactivity in the district. Well drilling, as well as plugging

  12. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  13. Spatial Distribution of U.S. Household Carbon Footprints Reveals Suburbanization Undermines Greenhouse Gas Benefits of Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Spatial Distribution of U.S. Household Carbon Footprints Reveals Suburbanization Undermines that were used to derive average household carbon footprints (HCF) for U.S. zip codes, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas. We find consistently lower HCF in urban core cities (40 tCO2e) and higher carbon footprints

  14. Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming, it is necessary to find are primarily responsible for the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations and therefore a main cause

  15. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A WINDOWED HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER USING A SUSPENSION OF ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES AS THE SOLAR ABSORBER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    from the compressor of a gas turbine and passes on to thewith a regenerated gas turbine sys- tem providing severaltemperature for powering a gas turbine or to supply indus-

  16. Characterization of porous carbon fibers and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-15

    This program was geared to support the Fossil Energy Material Sciences Program with respect to several areas of interest in efficient production and utilization of energy. Carbon molecular sieves have great potential for economically purifying gases; i.e. removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas without having to resort to cryogenic techniques. Microporous carbons can be tailored to serve as adsorbents for natural gas in on-board storage in automotive applications, avoiding high pressures and heavy storage tanks. This program is a laboratory study to evaluate production methodologies and activation processes to produce porous carbons for specific applications. The Carbon Materials Technology Group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is engaged in developmental programs to produce activated carbon fibers (ACF) for applications in fixed beds and/or flowing reactors engineering applications.

  17. How carbon-based sorbents will impact fly ash utilization and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J.; Buckley, T.D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pavlish, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    The injection of activated carbon flue gas to control mercury emissions will result in a fly ash and activated carbon mixture. The potential impact of this on coal combustion product disposal and utilization is discussed. The full paper (and references) are available at www.acaa-usa.org. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  18. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  19. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA 99532 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  20. Gas-solid carbonation of Ca(OH)2 and CaO particles under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions by using a thermogravimetric analyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    by using a thermogravimetric analyzer: Implications for CO2 capture G. Montes-Hernandeza, *, R. Chiriacb-solid carbonation of alkaline sorbents has been actively investigated as an alternative method to CO2 capture from industrial combustion sources and CO2 contained in the air. This study has a two-fold objective: firstly

  1. A Novel "Green" Fully-integrated Ultrasensitive RFID-enabled Gas Sensor Utilizing Inkjet-printed Antennas and Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    -cost paper substrate. Carbon nanotube composites change their electric properties (e.g. resistance-to-reel" production make it the cheapest material ever made. Furthermore, the expensive and very polluting batteries. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) composites were found to have electrical properties highly

  2. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  3. Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Jimmy

    2014-05-31

    In 2000 Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deep water portion of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Chevron is an active explorer and operator in the Gulf of Mexico and is aware that natural gas hydrates need to be understood to operate safely in deep water. In August 2000 Chevron worked closely with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and held a workshop in Houston, Texas to define issues concerning the characterization of natural gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, the workshop was meant to clearly show where research, the development of new technologies, and new information sources would be of benefit to the DOE and to the oil and gas industry in defining issues and solving gas hydrate problems in deep water.

  4. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  6. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  7. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Wei [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Peng Jinhui [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)], E-mail: jhpeng_ok@yeah.net; Zhang Libo; Yang Kunbin; Xia Hongying; Zhang Shimin; Guo Shenghui [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K.

  8. Studies on activated carbon capacitor materials loaded with different amounts of ruthenium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    as electrochemical capacitors in high-power applications [1]. The energy storage mechanism here is based on fast of Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 loadings of RuO2 on carbon have been synthesized by an electroless deposition process. Increase in RuO2

  9. Techno-economic analysis of sour gas oxy-fuel combustion power cycles for carbon capture and sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakroun, Nadim Walid

    2014-01-01

    The world's growing energy demand coupled with the problem of global warming have led us to investigate new energy sources that can be utilized in a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions than traditional fossil fuel power ...

  10. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-23

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  11. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  12. Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Cold Helium Injection into Gas Storage Tanks made of Carbon Steel Following Resistive Transition of the LHC Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorowski, M

    1998-01-01

    A resistive transition (quench) of the LHC sector magnets will be followed by cold helium venting to a quench buffer volume of 2000 m3 at ambient temperature. The volume will be composed of eight medi um-pressure (2 MPa) gas storage tanks made of carbon steel, which constrains the temperature of the wall to be higher than -50oC (223 K). The aim of the analysis is the assessment of a possible spot c ooling intensity and thermo-mechanical stresses in the tank wall following helium injection.

  13. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  14. Risk assessment framework for geologic carbon sequestration sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.

    2010-01-01

    Framework for geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment,for geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment, Energyfor Geologic Carbon Sequestration, Int. J. of Greenhouse Gas

  15. Assessing the Effect of Timing of Availability for Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Largest Oil and Gas Pools in the Alberta Basin: Description of Data and Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Bachu, Stefan

    2007-03-05

    Carbon dioxide capture from large stationary sources and storage in geological media is a technologically-feasible mitigation measure for the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere in response to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sequestered underground in oil and gas reservoirs, in deep saline aquifers, in uneconomic coal beds and in salt caverns. The Alberta Basin provides a very large capacity for CO2 storage in oil and gas reservoirs, along with significant capacity in deep saline formations and possible unmineable coal beds. Regional assessments of potential geological CO2 storage capacity have largely focused so far on estimating the total capacity that might be available within each type of reservoir. While deep saline formations are effectively able to accept CO2 immediately, the storage potential of other classes of candidate storage reservoirs, primarily oil and gas fields, is not fully available at present time. Capacity estimates to date have largely overlooked rates of depletion in these types of storage reservoirs and typically report the total estimated storage capacity that will be available upon depletion. However, CO2 storage will not (and cannot economically) begin until the recoverable oil and gas have been produced via traditional means. This report describes a reevaluation of the CO2 storage capacity and an assessment of the timing of availability of the oil and gas pools in the Alberta Basin with very large storage capacity (>5 MtCO2 each) that are being looked at as likely targets for early implementation of CO2 storage in the region. Over 36,000 non-commingled (i.e., single) oil and gas pools were examined with effective CO2 storage capacities being individually estimated. For each pool, the life expectancy was estimated based on a combination of production decline analysis constrained by the remaining recoverable reserves and an assessment of economic viability, yielding an estimated depletion date, or year that it will be available for CO2 storage. The modeling framework and assumptions used to assess the impact of the timing of CO2 storage resource availability on the region’s deployment of CCS technologies is also described. The purpose of this report is to describe the data and methodology for examining the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage capacity resource of a major hydrocarbon province incorporating estimated depletion dates for its oil and gas fields with the largest CO2 storage capacity. This allows the development of a projected timeline for CO2 storage availability across the basin and enables a more realistic examination of potential oil and gas field CO2 storage utilization by the region’s large CO2 point sources. The Alberta Basin of western Canada was selected for this initial examination as a representative mature basin, and the development of capacity and depletion date estimates for the 227 largest oil and gas pools (with a total storage capacity of 4.7 GtCO2) is described, along with the impact on source-reservoir pairing and resulting CO2 transport and storage economics. The analysis indicates that timing of storage resource availability has a significant impact on the mix of storage reservoirs selected for utilization at a given time, and further confirms the value that all available reservoir types offer, providing important insights regarding CO2 storage implementation to this and other major oil and gas basins throughout North America and the rest of the world. For CCS technologies to deploy successfully and offer a meaningful contribution to climate change mitigation, CO2 storage reservoirs must be available not only where needed (preferably co-located with or near large concentrations of CO2 sources or emissions centers) but also when needed. The timing of CO2 storage resource availability is therefore an important factor to consider when assessing the real opportunities for CCS deployment in a given region.

  16. Characterisation of reactive magnesia and sodium carbonate-activated fly ash/slag paste blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdalqader, Ahmed F.; Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-06-20

    ]. This places huge pressures on the cement and concrete industries to apply more 55 sustainable practices. Optimising the production process of PC, using waste as fuel and raw 56 materials, using renewable energy, and replacing the clinker partially... on the environment because of their large 49 consumption of natural resources, mass disposal of wastes, and the energy intensiveness and 50 high carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of cement production. The production of PC, currently 51 at more than 3 billion tonnes...

  17. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste materials in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nuessle, F.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Recently, carbonaceous materials were proved to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste decomposition in supercritical water. Gasification of the carbonaceous catalyst itself is also expected, however, under supercritical conditions. Thus, it is essential to determine the gasification rate of the carbonaceous materials during this process to determine the active lifetime of the catalysts. For this purpose, the gasification characteristics of granular coconut shell activated carbon in supercritical water alone (600-650{degrees}C, 25.5-34.5 MPa) were investigated. The gasification rate at subatmospheric pressure agreed well with the gasification rate at supercritical conditions, indicating the same reaction mechanism. Methane generation under these conditions is via pyrolysis, and thus is not affected by the water pressure. An iodine number increase of 25% was observed as a result of the supercritical water gasification.

  18. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  19. REPORT ON NOBLE GAS, CARBON STABLE ISOTOPE AND HCO3 MEASUREMENTS FROM THE KERR QUARTER AND SURROUNDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfillan, Stuart

    of an alleged leakage of CO2 which had been injected into the oil field below to enhance oil recovery (EOR is responsible for the environmental monitoring of the Weyburn CO2-EOR and storage operation, published and carbon isotope compositions measured from fluids sampled from a production well, and CO2 and water

  20. Petrographic, Mineralogic, and Geochemical Studies of Hydrocarbon-derived Authigenic Carbonate Rock from Gas Venting, Seepage, Free Gas, and Gas Hydrate Sites in the Gulf of Mexico and offshore India 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Woodong

    2012-02-14

    . ACR collected from the seafloor in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and ACR recovered from drilled cores in the Krishna-Godawari (KG) basin offshore India were used. All study sites are associated with hydrocarbon gas venting, seepage, free gas, or gas hydrate...

  1. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    2003. “Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource TechnologyATIONAL L ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for CarbonFirestone 5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon

  2. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program that helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and GHG emissions.

  3. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  4. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  5. Fixed Bed Adsorption of Acetone and Ammonia onto Oxidized Activated Carbon Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of chemicals instead of disposal. One technol- ogy which is attractive for this purpose is the use of dry's are commercially available from Nippon Kynol and are prepared by the direct activation of a cross-linked phenolic

  6. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W. |

    1994-01-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  7. Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural Gas Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-01-01

    cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy & Fuels, 17(1),cushion gas for natural gas storage (Oldenburg, 2003). Forstorage of carbon dioxide in depleted natural gas reservoirs

  8. Graphitic carbon nitride/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunctions: Preparation, characterization, and enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yanlong; Chang, Binbin; Fu, Jie; Zhou, Baocheng; Liu, Jiyang; Xi, Fengna; Dong, Xiaoping, E-mail: xpdong@zstu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    As a metal-free semiconductor material, graphitic carbon nitride (C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), the high recombination rate of photogenerated charges and insufficient sunlight absorption limit its solar-based photocatalytic activity. Here, we reported the heterojunctions of C{sub 3}N{sub 4}–Cu{sub 2}O with a p–n junction structure, which was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The HR-TEM result revealed an intimate interface between C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}O in the heterojunction, and UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra showed their extended spectral response in the visible region compared with pure C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. These excellent structural and spectral properties, as well as p–n junction structures, endowed the C{sub 3}N{sub 4}–Cu{sub 2}O heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic activities. The possible photocatalytic mechanism that photogenerated holes as the mainly oxidant species in photocatalysis was proposed base on the trapping experiments. - Highlights: • A hydrothermal method was used to prepare C3N{sub 4}–Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction. • The resulting heterojunction possesses broader absorption in the visible region. • The material owns a high visible light activity and stability for dye degradation.

  9. An investigation of groundwater organics, soil minerals, and activated carbon on the complexation, adsorption, and separation of technetium-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, B.; Dowlen, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes studies on the interactions of technetium-99 (Tc) with different organic compounds and soil minerals under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The report is divided into four parts and includes (1) effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the complexation and solubility of Tc, (2) complexation between Tc and trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solutions, (3) adsorption of Tc on soil samples from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), and (4) adsorption and separation of Tc on activated carbon. Various experimental techniques were applied to characterize and identify Tc complexation with organic compounds and TCE, including liquid-liquid extraction, membrane filtration, size exclusion, and gel chromatography. Results indicate, within the experimental error, Tc (as pertechnetate, TcO{sub 4}) did not appear to form complexes with groundwater or natural organic matter under both atmospheric and reducing conditions. However, Tc can form complexes with certain organic compounds or specific functional groups such as salicylate. Tc did not appear to form complexes with TCE in aqueous solution.Both liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gave no indication Tc was complexed with TCE. The correlations between Tc and TCE concentrations in monitoring wells at PGDP may be a coincidence because TCE was commonly used as a decontamination reagent. Once TCE and Tc entered the groundwater, they behaved similarly because both TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and TCE are poorly adsorbed by soils. An effective remediation technique to remove TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from PGDP contaminated groundwater is needed. One possibility is the use of an activated carbon adsorption technique developed in this study.

  10. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 10141022 Influence of earthworm activity on aggregate-associated carbon and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 1014­1022 Influence of earthworm activity on aggregate of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA b Institute of Ecology and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University regulators of soil structure and soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics, however, quantifying their influence

  12. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  13. GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GALLIUM NITRIDE INTEGRATED GAS/TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FUEL CELL SYSTEM MONITORING FOR HYDROGEN on field effect devices using catalytic metal gates on silicon carbide substrates has been reviewed (Spetz) and prototype silicon carbide (SiC) FET based sensors show enhanced sensitivity at high temperature

  14. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  15. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genet, Helene [Institute of Arctic Biology (IAB), University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF)] [Institute of Arctic Biology (IAB), University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF); McGuire, A. David [University of Alaska] [University of Alaska; Barrett, K. [USGS Alaska Science Center] [USGS Alaska Science Center; Breen, Amy [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF)] [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF); Euskirchen, Eugenie S [University of Alaska] [University of Alaska; Johnstone, J. F. [University of Saskatchewan] [University of Saskatchewan; Kasischke, Eric S. [University of Maryland, College Park] [University of Maryland, College Park; Melvin, A. M. [University of Florida, Gainesville] [University of Florida, Gainesville; Bennett, A. [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF)] [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF); Mack, M. C. [University of Florida, Gainesville] [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rupp, Scott T. [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF)] [International Arctic Research Center, SNAP, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF); Schuur, Edward [University of Florida] [University of Florida; Turetsky, M. R. [University of Guelph, Canada] [University of Guelph, Canada; Yuan, Fengming [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layercaused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness of 1.1 m on average by 2100. The combination of warming and fire led to a simulated cumulative loss of 9.6 kgC m 2 on average by 2100. Our analysis suggests that ecosystem carbon storage in boreal forests in interior Alaska is particularly vulnerable, primarily due to the combustion of organic layer thickness in fire and the related increase in active layer thickness that exposes previously protected permafrost soil carbon to decomposition.

  16. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  17. Perchlorate ion (C104) removal using an electrochemically induced catalytic reaction on modified activated carbon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langille, Meredith Caitlyn

    2009-05-15

    to remove perchlorate ion. Bioremediation has been used to remove perchlorate, generally with the addition of acetate and hydrogen as electron donors. Phytoremediation with plants like smartweed, watercress and the trees chinaberry, elm, willow, mulberry... treatment processes to chemically reduce (a transfer of electrons) perchlorate ion cannot do so effectively due to a high activation energy barrier. This unique energy barrier and electron transfer process is called the bridged electron transfer (6, 7, 8...

  18. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  19. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical waste water with PAC (powdered activated carbon) addition. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    A lack of information on applicable removal technologies for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) prevented promulgation of best available technology economically achievable (BAT) limitations and new source performance standards (NSPS) for TCOD for pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in 1983 (EPA/440/1-83/084). One technology that was evaluated was powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition to an activated-sludge system (PACT*). A viscous floating mass of mixed-liquor solids (VFMLS) developed in the PACT units and resulted in premature termination of the study. The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the VFMLS; (2) generate additional research data for TCOD removal from pharmaceutical waste water using the PACT process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics; (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity and (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settleability of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins for improving the settling characteristics of the mixed-liquor suspended solids were operated.

  20. REMEDIAT1NG AT MANUFACTURED GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    , comhusti- hle gas manufactured Pfrom coke, coal, and oil 1 served as the major gas- eous fuel for urban for the three primary gas production meth- ods: coal carbonization, carbureted water gas production, and oil gas carbonization, from the resi- due of gasifying oils in oil gas pro- cesses, and from the cracking of en- riching

  1. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  2. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Carbon Dioxide Capture for Natural Gas and Industrial Applications Technology Assessment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy Headquarters Categorical| Department of Energy Cha-Ching!Chapter 4 TransmissionGas

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  6. Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 1. Adsorption capacity and kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Z.; Peldszus, S.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). NSERC Chair in Water Treatment

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of two representative PhACs (naproxen and carbamazepine) and one EDC (nonylphenol) were evaluated on two granular activated carbons (GAC) namely coal-based Calgon Filtrasorb 400 and coconut shell-based PICA CTIF TE. The primary objective was to investigate preloading effects by natural organic matter (NOM) on adsorption capacity and kinetics under conditions and concentrations (i.e., ng/L) relevant for drinking water treatment. Isotherms demonstrated that all compounds were significantly negatively impacted by NOM fouling. Adsorption capacity reduction was most severe for the acidic naproxen, followed by the neutral carbamazepine and then the more hydrophobic nonylphenol. The GAC with the wider pore size distribution had considerably greater NOM loading, resulting in lower adsorption capacity. Different patterns for the change in Freundlich KF and 1/n with time revealed different competitive mechanisms for the different compounds. Mass transport coefficients determined by short fixed-bed (SFB) tests with virgin and preloaded GAC demonstrated that film diffusion primarily controls mass transfer on virgin and preloaded carbon. Naproxen suffered the greatest deteriorative effect on kinetic parameters due to preloading, followed by carbamazepine, and then nonylphenol. A type of surface NOM/biofilm, which appeared to add an additional mass transfer resistance layer and thus reduce film diffusion, was observed. In addition, electrostatic interactions between NOM/biofilm and the investigated compounds are proposed to contribute to the reduction of film diffusion. A companion paper building on this work describes treatability studies in pilot-scale GAC adsorbers and the effectiveness of a selected fixed-bed model. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities. Pacific update: August 1987 - November 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slitor, Douglas L.; Wiese, Jeffrey D.; Karpas, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    This Pacific Update focuses on the geology and petroleum potential of the Central California and Washington-Oregon OCS Planning Areas. This report discusses the following topics: offshore oil and gas resources of the Pacific region; project-specific developments and status; and magnitude and timing of offshore developments. (CBS)

  8. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  9. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Preston D.

    2008-01-01

    Gas and Geothermal Resources (2006) Oil ?eld data ?le datedDivision of Oil, Gas and Geothermal Resources (2007),Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, Sacramento

  10. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Preston D.

    2008-01-01

    recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage. Keywords: geologicalsuch as natural gas storage, EOR, and deep undergroundstorage, such as natural gas storage and CO 2 -enhanced oil

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN MULTI-PLANT CHEMICAL........................................................ 8 C. Carbon Dioxide ­ A Greenhouse Gas................................................ 9 1. Sources. Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions....................................... 6 2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  12. Solvent vapor recovery by pressure swing adsorption. 1: Experimental transient and periodic dynamics of the butane-activated carbon system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Holland, C.E.; Ritter, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out for the separation and recovery of butane vapor (10 to 40 vol%) from nitrogen using Westvaco BAX activated carbon in a twin-bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system utilizing a 4-step Skarstrom-type cycle. Twenty-four runs, covering a broad range of process and initial column conditions, were performed to investigate the transient and period process dynamics. In all cases the approach to the periodic state was very slow, taking up to 160 cycles depending on the initial condition of the beds; and peak bed temperatures of up to 105 C were observed depending on both the initial condition of the beds and the process conditions. Also, the periodic state of each run was unique when approaching a new periodic state from less contaminated beds. The uniqueness of the periodic states, together with the exceedingly high peak temperatures, inferred much about the practice of preconditioning beds to avoid high temperature excursions. The periodic enriched butane vapor concentration histories also gave considerable insight into new cycle designs for improved solvent vapor enrichment.

  13. Evaluation of biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with PAC (powdered activated carbon) addition. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.A.; Osantowski, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    A lack of information on applicable removal technologies for total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) prevented promulgation of best available technology economically achievable (BAT) limitations and new source performance standards (NSPS) for TCOD for pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in 1983 (EPA/440/1-83/084). Therefore, in 1984 EPA conducted a pilot-plant study of activated-carbon-treatment technologies utilizing pharmaceutical waste waters from a manufacturing plant that produces fermentation products (Subcategory A) and chemical synthesis products (Subcategory C). The purposes of the study were to: (1) attempt to find the cause of the formation of the VFMLS; (2) generate additional research data for TCOD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater using the PACT process; (3) evaluate the efficiency of PACT in removing specific organics; (4) evaluate the effectiveness of PACT in reducing effluent aquatic toxicity; and, (5) evaluate the use of a selector to improve the settleability of the mixed liquor. One control unit, two PACT units and a unit equipped with a series of selector basins for improving the settling characteristics of the mixed-liquor suspended solids were operated.

  14. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2014-06-27

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  15. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2013-04-19

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  16. 370 P. L. WALKER,JR.,AND EMILERAATS Vol. 60 EFFECT OF GAS DIFFUSION IN GRAPHITIZED CARBON RODS ON THEIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and C. D. Prater, ibid., 6, 144 (1954). (6) (:.nokhoven and W.Van Raayen. T n f s d O r r 8 N h 1 8 ,66 from the true activity as temperature is increased. Or, in es- lO0O~Ci -1400 1300 1200 L ..c 0 W [r out under Contract No. AT(30-1)-1710, sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission. (3) E. W. Thiele, Ind

  17. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    a remarkable source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from anthropogenic and industrial activities [4 for indirect reduction (IR) of iron oxides in blast furnaces (BFs), carbon dioxide emissions can be lessened. Motivated from utilizing hydrogen and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in ironmaking, the reaction

  18. Thermal instability in X-ray photoionized media in Active Galactic Nuclei: Influence on the gas structure and spectral features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Goncalves; S. Collin; A. -M. Dumont; L. Chevallier

    2006-12-01

    A photoionized gas in thermal equilibrium can display a thermal instability, with 3 or more solutions in the multi-branch region of the S-shape curve giving the temperature versus the radiation-to-gas-pressure ratio. Many studies have been devoted to this curve and to its dependence on different parameters, always in the optically thin case. The purpose of our study is the thermal instability in optically thick, stratified media, in total pressure equilibrium. We have developped a new algorithm to select the hot/cold stable solution, and thereof to compute a fully consistent photoionization model. We have implemented it in the TITAN code and computed a set of models encompassing the range of conditions valid for the Warm Absorber in Active Galactic Nuclei. We have demonstrated that the thermal instability problem is quite different in thin or thick media. In thick media the spectral distribution changes as the radiation progresses inside the ionized gas. This has observational implications in the emitted/absorbed spectra, ionization states, and variability. However impossible to know what solution the plasma will adopt when attaining the multi-solutions regime, we expect the emitted/absorbed spectrum to be intermediate between those resulting from pure cold and hot models. Large spectral fluctuations corresponding to the onset of a cold/hot solution could be observed in timescales of the order of the dynamical time. A strong turbulence implying supersonic velocities should permanently exist in the multi-branch region of thick, stratified, pressure equilibrium media.

  19. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Information Program. Update 2, August 1981, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: a summary report, July 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In July 1980, the Office of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Information issued an initial report called Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: A Summary Report, July 1980. The purpose of this report was to provide State and local governments with current information about offshore oil and gas resources and onshore activity in the area extending from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Cape Canaveral, Florida. This information was designed to assist in socioeconomic planning for the onshore impacts of oil and gas development in the affected areas. This report, Update 2, discusses Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities and their onshore impacts for the period of February 1981 to August 1981. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the South Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Very little, if any, development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. Even though the South Atlantic OCS does contain large areas with hydrocarbon potential, little optimism has been generated by exploration associated with Lease Sale 43. Lease Sale 56 included tracts with geologic conditions more favorable to the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, especially the deepwatr tracts, but industry showed moderate interest in the first deepwater lease sale. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with Lease Sale 56. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of exploration efforts.

  20. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Active Well Service Rigs in operation

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Estimated Production2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

  1. FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

    2012-08-01

    Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

  2. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Active Well Service Rigs in operation

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved ReservesCubicper ThousandFeet) and TableTop 100 Oil1.841SalesDecade Year-0

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug

  4. U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Withdraw (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

  5. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan FebBarrels)

  6. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan FebBarrels)Decade Year-0

  7. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Withdraw (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan FebBarrels)Decade

  8. U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan Feb Mar

  9. U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Activity-Withdraw (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan Feb MarCubic Feet) Year Jan

  10. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan Feb MarCubic2009YearFeet)

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Net (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan Feb

  12. U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Withdraw (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers inYear Jan FebFeet) Year Jan Feb Mar

  13. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  14. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

  15. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  16. The gas metallicity gradient and the star formation activity of disc galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tissera, Patricia B; Sillero, Emanuel; Vilchez, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    We study oxygen abundance profiles of the gaseous disc components in simulated galaxies in a hierarchical universe. We analyse the disc metallicity gradients in relation to the stellar masses and star formation rates of the simulated galaxies. We find a trend for galaxies with low stellar masses to have steeper metallicity gradients than galaxies with high stellar masses at z ~0. We also detect that the gas-phase metallicity slopes and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of our simulated disc galaxies are consistent with recently reported observations at z ~0. Simulated galaxies with high stellar masses reproduce the observed relationship at all analysed redshifts and have an increasing contribution of discs with positive metallicity slopes with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with low stellar masses a have larger fraction of negative metallicity gradients with increasing redshift. Simulated galaxies with positive or very negative metallicity slopes exhibit disturbed morphologies and/or have a clo...

  17. Outflowing Diffuse Gas in the Active Galactic Nucleus of NGC 1068

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geballe, T R; Oka, T

    2015-01-01

    Spectra of the archetypal Type II Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 in a narrow wavelength interval near 3.7 microns have revealed a weak absorption feature due to two lines of the molecular ion H3+. The observed wavelength of the feature corresponds to velocity of -70 km/s relative to the systemic velocity of the galaxy, implying an outward flow from the nucleus along the line of sight. The absorption by H3+ along with the previously known broad hydrocarbon absorption at 3.4~microns probably are formed in diffuse gas that is in close proximity to the continuum source, i.e. within a few tens of parsecs of the central engine. Based on that conclusion and the measured H3+ absorption velocity and with the assumption of a spherically symmetric wind we estimate a rate of mass outflow from the AGN of ~1 Msun/yr.

  18. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,?)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.

  19. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,?)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass.more »It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.« less

  20. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 ?mol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  1. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-26

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  2. greenhouse gas inve green developmen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    greenhouse gas inve green developmen energy conservation transportation carbon offs student facult;greenhouse gas inventory green development energy conservation transportation carbon offsets student faculty. Changi natural gas as a primary fuel allowed us to find cleaner and more effici university. Both in 1988

  3. Effects of a carbon tax on combined heat and power adoption by a microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Siddidqui, Afzal S.; Stadler, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Carbon emissions rate from burning natural gas to meet heating and cooling loads (kg/kWh) Natural gas price

  4. Effects of a carbon tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Carbon emissions rate from burning natural gas to meet heating and cooling loads (kg/kWh) Natural gas price

  5. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Natural Gas Miscellaneous Oil TOTAL Energy Consumption of the China’Natural Gas Miscellaneous Oil TOTAL Energy Consumption of the China’Natural Gas Miscellaneous Oil TOTAL Energy Consumption of the China’

  6. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Preston D.

    2008-01-01

    pub/oil/ Data_Catalog/Oil_and_Gas/Oil_?elds/CA_oil?elds.DAT.1993) A history of oil- and gas-well blowouts in California,Health Administration (2007), Oil and gas well drilling and

  7. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    in BF N.A. Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressureVariable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke dryin BF Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressure recovery

  8. Synthesis, Activity and Durability of Pt Nanoparticles Supported on Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Oxygen Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Sheng, Wenchao; Lee, Seung Woo; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Chen, Shuo; Shao-Horn, Yang

    Carbon nanotube supported metal nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable attention due to their great potential for heterogeneous catalysis. In this paper, surfactant-free and well dispersed platinum (Pt) NPs supported ...

  9. Synthesis and Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity of Atomic and Nanoparticle Gold on Thiol-Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Junhyung

    We demonstrated the self-assembly of atomic Au on thiol-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes through covalent bonding and the formation of Au nanoparticles (NPs) upon a subsequent thermal treatment. Au NPs of 3.4 nm ...

  10. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream The present invention relates to carbon nanocomposite sorbents. The present invention provides carbon...

  11. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  12. Lattice-gas model for active vesicle transport by molecular motors with opposite polarities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudipto Muhuri; Ignacio Pagonabarraga

    2010-09-09

    We introduce a multi-species lattice gas model for motor protein driven collective cargo transport on cellular filaments. We use this model to describe and analyze the collective motion of interacting vesicle cargoes being carried by oppositely directed molecular motors, moving on a single biofilament. Building on a totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) to characterize the motion of the interacting cargoes, we allow for mass exchange with the environment, input and output at filament boundaries and focus on the role of interconversion rates and how they affect the directionality of the net cargo transport. We quantify the effect of the various different competing processes in terms of non-equilibrium phase diagrams. The interplay of interconversion rates, which allow for flux reversal and evaporation/deposition processes introduce qualitatively new features in the phase diagrams. We observe regimes of three-phase coexistence, the possibility of phase re-entrance and a significant flexibility in how the different phase boundaries shift in response to changes in control parameters. The moving steady state solutions of this model allows for different possibilities for the spatial distribution of cargo vesicles, ranging from homogeneous distribution of vesicles to polarized distributions, characterized by inhomogeneities or {\\it shocks}. Current reversals due to internal regulation emerge naturally within the framework of this model. We believe this minimal model will clarify the understanding of many features of collective vesicle transport, apart from serving as the basis for building more exact quantitative models for vesicle transport relevant to various {\\it in-vivo} situations.

  13. Diagnostic Neutral Beam Injector for Active Plasma Spectroscopy at Gas-Dynamic Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korepanov, S.A.; Deichuli, P.O.; Ivanov, A.A.; Mishagin, V.V.

    2005-01-15

    A diagnostic beam system has been developed for the GDT. This injector is the modification of the diagnostic injector RFX-DNBI. The system is primarily used for magnetic field measurements via motional Stark effect (MSE). The ion source provides 50keV, 5A hydrogen beam. Ions are extracted from a plasma created by an arc-discharge source and, after accelerating and focusing, are neutralized in a gas target. A plasma emitter, which is formed by collisionless expansion of a plasma jet on to the grids, has low perpendicular ion temperature. These results in rather low (0.01 rad) angular divergence of the extracted ion beam. In the accelerator, there is a set of four nested grids with 421 circular apertures of 4 mm diameter configured in a hexagonal pattern. The geometry of the elementary cell was optimized by using 2D computer code PBGUNS to obtain small angular divergence of the beam. The grids of ion optical system are spherically curved providing geometric focusing of the beam at a distance 1.5 m. Arc-discharge plasma box provides highly ionized plasma, so that the extracted beam has about 90% of full energy specie. The injector provides up to 4 ms duration pulse.

  14. Kinematics of Arp 270: gas flows, nuclear activity, and two regimes of star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, J; Beckman, J E; Blasco-Herrera, J; García-Lorenzo, B; Camps, A; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Almeida, C Ramos; Loiseau, N; Gutiérrez, L

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the Arp 270 system (NGC 3395 & NGC 3396) in H{\\alpha} emission using the GH{\\alpha}FaS Fabry-Perot spectrometer on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma). In NGC 3396, which is edge-on to us, we detect gas inflow towards the centre, and also axially confined opposed outflows, characteristic of galactic superwinds, and we go on to examine the possibility that there is a shrouded AGN in the nucleus. The combination of surface brightness, velocity and velocity dispersion information enabled us to measure the radii, FWHM, and the masses of 108 HII regions in both galaxies. We find two distinct modes of physical behaviour, for high and lower luminosity regions. We note that the most luminous regions show especially high values for their velocity dispersions and hypothesize that these occur because the higher luminosity regions form from higher mass, gravitationally bound clouds while those at lower luminosity HII regions form within molecular clouds of lower mass, which are pressure co...

  15. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  16. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  17. Quarterly Report for LANL Activities: FY12-Q2 National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawar, Rajesh J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-17

    This report summarizes progress of LANL activities related to the tasks performed under the LANL FWP FE102-002-FY10, National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program. This FWP is funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Overall, the NRAP activities are focused on understanding and evaluating risks associated with large-scale injection and long-term storage of CO{sub 2} in deep geological formations. One of the primary risks during large-scale injection is due to changes in geomechanical stresses to the storage reservoir, to the caprock/seals and to the wellbores. These changes may have the potential to cause CO{sub 2} and brine leakage and geochemical impacts to the groundwater systems. While the importance of these stresses is well recognized, there have been relatively few quantitative studies (laboratory, field or theoretical) of geomechanical processes in sequestration systems. In addition, there are no integrated studies that allow evaluation of risks to groundwater quality in the context of CO{sub 2} injection-induced stresses. The work performed under this project is focused on better understanding these effects. LANL approach will develop laboratory and computational tools to understand the impact of CO{sub 2}-induced mechanical stress by creating a geomechanical test bed using inputs from laboratory experiments, field data, and conceptual approaches. The Geomechanical Test Bed will be used for conducting sensitivity and scenario analyses of the impacts of CO{sub 2} injection. The specific types of questions will relate to fault stimulation and fracture inducing stress on caprock, changes in wellbore leakage due to evolution of stress in the reservoir and caprock, and the potential for induced seismicity. In addition, the Geomechanical Test Bed will be used to investigate the coupling of stress-induced leakage pathways with impacts on groundwater quality. LANL activities are performed under two tasks: (1) develop laboratory and computational tools to understand CO{sub 2}-induced mechanical impacts and (2) use natural analog sites to determine potential groundwater impacts. We are using the Springerville-St. John Dome as a field site for collecting field data on CO{sub 2} migration through faults and groundwater impacts as well as developing and validating computational models. During the FY12 second quarter we have been working with New England Research Company to construct a tri-axial core-holder. We have built fluid control system for the coreflood system that can be ported to perform in-situ imaging of core. We have performed numerical simulations for groundwater impacts of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage using the reservoir model for Springerville-St John's Dome site. We have analyzed groundwater samples collected from Springerville site for major ion chemistry and isotopic composition. We are currently analyzing subsurface core and chip samples acquired for mineralogical composition.

  18. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  19. Contamination and purification of alkaline gas treating solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullough, J.G. [Proton Technology Ltd., Hawthorne, NY (United States); Nielsen, R.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Alkanolamine and potassium carbonate solutions in gas treating units removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or both are contaminated by impurities in the feed gases and makeup water and by the products of the degradation and oxidation of amines occurring in the units themselves. Feed gas impurities include oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, brine, solid particles, heavy hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, organic acids, and pipeline corrosion inhibitors. Impure makeup water contains sulfate, chloride, alkali metal, and alkaline earth ions (hardness). Reactions causing contamination in the units include oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate and thiosulfate, oxidation of amines to formic acid and other products, and degradation of amines by carbon dioxide. The resulting heat-stable salts and polymers reduce the gas absorbing capacity of alkanolamine solutions and increase their corrosiveness. Similar problems occur in potassium carbonate solutions, except that degradation products of amine activators are too dilute to be harmful. Contaminants are removed by inlet gas separation, charcoal and mechanical filtration, neutralization of heat-stable salts, reclaiming at both atmospheric and reduced pressure, upstream washing of the feed gas, electrodialysis, use of antioxidants, ion exchange, and blowdown and dumping of the solution.

  20. Characterization of Porous Carbon Fibers and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, E.L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A one-year subcontract sponsored by the Carbon Materials Technology Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the Department of Geological Sciences, University Of Tennessee, has been completed. A volumetric sorption system has been upgraded, in cooperation with commercial vendor, to allow the acquisition of data relevant to the program for the production of activated carbon molecular fiber sieves (ACFMS). The equipment and experimental techniques have been developed to determine the pore structure and porosity of reference materials and materials produced at ORNL as part of the development of methods for the activation of carbon fibers by various etching agents. Commercial activated coconut shell charcoal (ACSC) has been studied to verify instrument performance and to develop methodology for deducing cause and effects in the activation processes and to better understand the industrial processes (gas separation, natural gas storage, etc.). Operating personnel have been trained, standard operating procedures have been established, and quality assurance procedures have been developed and put in place. Carbon dioxide and methane sorption have been measured over a temperature range 0 to 200 C for both ACFMS and ACSC and similarities and differences related to the respective structures and mechanisms of interaction with the sorbed components. Nitrogen sorption (at 77 K) has been used to evaluate ''surface area'' and ''porosity'' for comparison with the large data base that exists for other activated carbons and related materials. The preliminary data base reveals that techniques and theories currently used to evaluate activated carbons may be somewhat erroneous and misleading. Alternate thermochemical and structural analyses have been developed that show promise in providing useful information related both to the activation process and to industrial applications of interest in the efficient and economical utilization of fossil fuels in a manner that is friendly to the earth's environment.

  1. Carbon aging mechanisms and effects on retention of organic iodides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The activated carbon used to treat the off-gas from the Savannah River Plant prodution reactor building was studied to determine the chemical changes occurring in this carbon during its service life. The carbon is a coconut-shell charcoal impregnated with 1% triethylenediamine (TEDA) and 2% KI. It was known that during its 30-month service life the carbon becomes more acidic and less effective for retaining iodine in organic form. The study showed that the most important change occurring in the carbon is the reaction of KI to give other chemical forms of iodine. The reacted iodine is unavailable for exchange with alkyl iodides. The results suggest that the carbon reacts with KI to form organic compounds, but small amounts of oxidized iodine may also be presnt. There is also evidence that some iodide is lost from the carbon altogether. The TEDA impregnant is lost from the carbon very quickly, and has no importance after a few months. The specific reactions by which the impregnant is lost have not been identified. However, mathematical analysis shows that the carbon performance data are consistent with the reaction of iodide impregnant with impurities in the air flowing through the carbon bed. Additional mathematical analysis, based on electron microscopic observation of the carbon particles, indicates that the external surfaces of the carbon are mainly responsible for their effectiveness in retaining iodine. Consequently, the condition of the impregnants on a relatively small fraction of the carbon surface can have a large effect on its performance. 4 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Advances in potassium catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Illan-Gomez, M.J.; Linares-Solano, A.; de Lecea, C.S.M. [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-06-15

    The research work conducted in our group concerning the study of the potassium-catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials is presented. The importance of the different variables affecting the NOx-carbon reactions is discussed, e.g. carbon porosity, coal rank, potassium loading, influence of the binder used, and effect of the gas composition. The catalyst loading is the main feature affecting the selectivity for NOx reduction against O{sub 2} combustion. The NOx reduction without important combustion in O{sub 2} occurs between 350 and 475{sup o}C in the presence of the catalyst. The presence of H{sub 2}O in the gas mixture enhances NOx reduction at low carbon conversions, but as the reaction proceeds, it decreases as the selectivity does. The presence of CO{sub 2} diminishes the activity and selectivity of the catalyst. SO{sub 2} completely inhibits the catalytic activity of potassium due to sulfate formation.

  3. Predict carbonation rate on iron catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1980-02-01

    On solely thermodynamic grounds, the main hydrocarbon product of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction should be methane; in practice, however, carbon is frequently produced as well and deposited on the iron catalyst, fouling the active surface sites. South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd.'s experiments with a fluidized Fischer-Tropsch catalyst bed demonstrate that the rate of carbon deposition is strongly dependent on the hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor, much less dependent on the CO pressure, and not affected at all by the pressure of CO/sub 2/. A suggested reaction scheme for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis explains these observations and provides a basis for a correlation useful in predicting carbon-deposition rates.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    of annual production and energy consumption in the U.S. ironcommodity production, energy consumption, carbon emission),including production, energy consumption, emissions, and

  5. Non-linear response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygen availability in a drained histosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNicol, Gavin; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Soil respiration; methane; carbon dioxide; oxygen;response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygenof carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gas

  6. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-16

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  7. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  8. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-24

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  9. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  10. COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE DECAY HEAT REMOVAL APPROACH FOR THE 24 MWt GAS-COOLED FAST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHENG,L.Y.; LUDEWIG, H.

    2007-06-01

    Decay heat removal at depressurized shutdown conditions has been regarded as one of the key areas where significant improvement in passive response was targeted for the GEN IV GFR over the GCFR designs of thirty years ago. It has been recognized that the poor heat transfer characteristics of gas coolant at lower pressures needed to be accommodated in the GEN IV design. The design envelope has therefore been extended to include a station blackout sequence simultaneous with a small break/leak. After an exploratory phase of scoping analysis in this project, together with CEA of France, it was decided that natural convection would be selected as the passive decay heat removal approach of preference. Furthermore, a double vessel/containment option, similar to the double vessel/guard vessel approach of the SFR, was selected as the means of design implementation to reduce the PRA risks of the depressurization accident. However additional calculations in conjunction with CEA showed that there was an economic penalty in terms of decay heat removal system heat exchanger size, elevation heights for thermal centers, and most of all in guard containment back pressure for complete reliance on natural convection only. The back pressure ranges complicated the design requirements for the guard containment. Recognizing that the definition of a loss-of-coolant-accident in the GFR is a misnomer, since gas coolant will always be present, and the availability of some driven blower would reduce fuel temperature transients significantly; it was decided instead to aim for a hybrid active/passive combination approach to the selected BDBA. Complete natural convection only would still be relied on for decay heat removal but only after the first twenty four hours after the initiation of the accident. During the first twenty four hour period an actively powered blower would be relied on to provide the emergency decay power removal. However the power requirements of the active blower/circulators would be kept low by maintaining a pressurized system coolant back pressure of {approx}7-8 bars through the design of the guard containment for such a design pressure. This approach is termed the medium pressure approach by both CEA and the US. Such a containment design pressure is in the range of the LWR experience, both PWRs and BWRs. Both metal containments and concrete guard containments are possible in this pressure range. This approach is then a time-at-risk approach as the power requirements should be low enough that battery/fuel cell banks without diesel generator start-up failure rate issues should be capable of providing the necessary power. Compressed gas sources are another possibility. A companion PRA study is being conducted to survey the reliability of such systems.

  11. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

  12. Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jim Butz; Terry Hunt

    2005-11-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado and ADA Technologies, Inc. have performed a study of the injection of activated carbon for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas streams. The project was completed under contract to the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with contributions from EPRI and Public Service Company. The prime contractor for the project was Public Service Company, with ADA Technologies as the major subcontractor providing technical support to all aspects of the project. The research and development effort was conducted in two phases. In Phase I a pilot facility was fabricated and tests were performed using dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control on a coal-fired flue gas slipstream extracted from an operating power plant. Phase II was designed to move carbon injection technology towards commercial application on coal-fired power plants by addressing key reliability and operability concerns. Phase II field work included further development work with the Phase I pilot and mercury measurements on several of PSCo's coal-fired generating units. In addition, tests were run on collected sorbent plus fly ash to evaluate the impact of the activated carbon sorbent on the disposal of fly ash. An economic analysis was performed where pilot plant test data was used to develop a model to predict estimated costs of mercury removal from plants burning western coals. Testing in the pilot plant was undertaken to quantify the effects of plant configuration, flue gas temperature, and activated carbon injection rate on mercury removal. All three variables were found to significantly impact the mercury removal efficiency in the pilot. The trends were clear: mercury removal rates increased with decreasing flue gas temperature and with increasing carbon injection rates. Mercury removal was much more efficient with reverse-gas and pulse-jet baghouse configurations than with an ESP as the particulate control device. The native fly ash of the host unit provided significant mercury removal capacity, so that the activated carbon sorbent served as an incremental mercury removal mechanism. Tests run to characterize the waste product, a combination of fly ash and activated carbon on which mercury was present, showed that mercury and other RCRA metals of interest were all below Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) regulatory limits in the leachate. The presence of activated carbon in the fly ash was shown to have an effect on the use of fly ash as an additive in the manufacture of concrete, which could limit the salability of fly ash from a plant where activated carbon was used for mercury control.

  13. Evaluation of post-treatment filter, Part I: Experimental study of DMMP and DIMP filtration at high temperature and high dew point using activated carbon. Final report, November 1994-September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahle, J.J.; Buettner, L.C.; Mauer, S.

    1996-08-01

    A series of experimental results are reported for breakthrough of the agent simulants DMMP and DIMP on coconut carbon. This adsorbent is used in filters for the Chemical Demiliterization program. The conditions were appropriate for a post treatment stack gas filter. Results indicate that high capacity and long filtration times are achievable under moderate humidity conditions up to 180 degrees F.

  14. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

  15. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  16. Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane of tables relating to national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (principally carbon dioxide, methane, 1

  17. Field tests of carbon monitoring methods in forestry projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In response to the emerging scientific consensus on the facts of global climate change, the international Joint Implementation (JI) program provided a pilot phase in which utilities and other industries could finance, among other activities, international efforts to sequester carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas. To make JI and its successor mechanisms workable, however, cost-effective methods are needed for monitoring progress in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The papers in this volume describe field test experiences with methods for measuring carbon storage by three types of land use: natural forest, plantation forest, and agroforestry. Each test, in a slightly different land-use situation, contributes to the knowledge of carbon-monitoring methods as experienced in the field. The field tests of the agroforestry guidelines in Guatemala and the Philippines, for example, suggested adaptations in terms of plot size and method of delineating the total area for sampling.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    systems in EAF plants Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps, fans in integrated steel mills Cogeneration

  19. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    species, such as carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (the formation of carbonyl sulfide (COS); carbon dioxide (COsmall amounts of gas phase carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon

  20. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  1. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    20april%202006.pdf ETSU, 1999. Industrial Sector CarbonSee discussion of this report in ETSU, AEA Technology, 2001.a report prepared by ETSU (now AEA Energy & Environment) on

  2. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  3. Membrane-based systems for carbon capture and hydrogen purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berchtold, Kathryn A

    2010-11-24

    This presentation describes the activities being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop carbon capture technologies for power systems. This work is aimed at continued development and demonstration of a membrane based pre- and post-combustion carbon capture technology and separation schemes. Our primary work entails the development and demonstration of an innovative membrane technology for pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide that operates over a broad range of conditions relevant to the power industry while meeting the US DOE's Carbon Sequestration Program goals of 90% CO{sub 2} capture at less than a 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Separating and capturing carbon dioxide from mixed gas streams is a first and critical step in carbon sequestration. To be technically and economically viable, a successful separation method must be applicable to industrially relevant gas streams at realistic temperatures and pressures as well as be compatible with large gas volumes. Our project team is developing polymer membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) chemistries that can purify hydrogen and capture CO{sub 2} at industrially relevant temperatures. Our primary objectives are to develop and demonstrate polymer-based membrane chemistries, structures, deployment platforms, and sealing technologies that achieve the critical combination of high selectivity, high permeability, chemical stability, and mechanical stability all at elevated temperatures (> 150 C) and packaged in a scalable, economically viable, high area density system amenable to incorporation into an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) plant for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. Stability requirements are focused on tolerance to the primary synthesis gas components and impurities at various locations in the IGCC process. Since the process stream compositions and conditions (temperature and pressure) vary throughout the IGCC process, the project is focused on the optimization of a technology that could be positioned upstream or downstream of one or more of the water-gas-shift reactors (WGSRs) or integrated with a WGSR.

  4. EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE completed a final environmental assessment (EA) for a project under Area I of the Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2...

  5. Effects of afforestation and forest management on soil carbon dynamics and trace gas emissions in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr.) forest 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zerva, Argyro

    The establishment and intensive management of forests for the production of timber can have significant effects on the soil carbon dynamics. The establishment of forest on organic soils under grasslands may lead to ...

  6. PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besser, Ronald S.

    PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES stream after hydrocarbon fuel reforming and water-gas-shift reactions. This process, referred to as CO intermediate, which enhances the catalytic activity at temperatures below 200°C. With the same catalyst system

  7. Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nychka, Douglas

    . Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an impor- tant trace gas in the atmosphere. It is produced by both natural emissions and human activities and is formed primarily through natural atmospheric oxidation processes fields of CO on short time scales. An observing framework for atmospheric composition that is analogous

  8. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas A Boden (CDIAC Di-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; oceanic trace gases; solar and atmospheric radiation; trace gas emissions; vegetation response to CO2 PROJECT START DATE: January 1, 1982 PROJECT END DATE: Ongoing SPONSOR: US DOE, Office of Science, Office of the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other radiatively active gases; the role of the terres

  9. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts. South Atlantic summary report update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havran, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    An update of the South Atlantic Summary Report 2, this report provides current information about Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil- and gas-related activities and their onshore impacts for the period June 1982 to February, 1983. The geographical area covered by the report extends from north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to Cape Canaveral, Florida. The information is designed to assist in planning for the onshore effects associated with offshore oil and gas development. It covers lease and transportation strategies and the nature and location of onshore facilities. An appendix summarizes related state and federal studies. 11 references, 2 tables.

  10. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, John N.

    2010-01-01

    CO) oxidation (Figure 6) and the catalytic activity wascatalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation,catalytic properties using ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation,

  11. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    fuel switching, and cogeneration. These measures can oftenthe installation of cogeneration natural gas plants. Cement:They also implemented cogeneration plants and have increased

  12. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    They also implemented cogeneration plants and have increasedinstallation of cogeneration natural gas plants. Cement: Therefineries, 27 power plants, and 5 cogeneration facilities (

  13. Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, October...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Documents & Publications Understanding the 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Cement (2010 MECS)...

  14. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  15. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodumagulla, A [North Carolina State University; Varanasi, V [North Carolina State University; Pearce, Ryan [North Carolina State University; Wu, W-C [North Carolina State University; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Tracy, Joseph B [North Carolina State University; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli [North Carolina State University

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) have been synthesized in a mixture of acetone and air using catalytic DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Typically, ammonia or hydrogen is used as etchant gas in the mixture to remove carbon that otherwise passivates the catalyst surface and impedes growth. Our demonstration of using air as the etchant gas opens up a possibility that ion etching could be sufficient to maintain the catalytic activity state during synthesis. It also demonstrates the path toward growing VACNFs in open atmosphere.

  16. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  17. Tuning Chirality of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Selective Etching with Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Tuning Chirality of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Selective Etching with Carbon Dioxide Kwanyong properties that are determined by the chirality1 and diameter of carbon nanotubes. One way to overcome@skku.ac.kr Application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to various electronic devices such as field emission displays, gas

  18. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  19. Stable carbonous catalyst particles and method for making and utilizing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguli, Partha S.; Comolli, Alfred G.

    2005-06-14

    Stable carbonous catalyst particles composed of an inorganic catalytic metal/metal oxide powder and a carbonaceous binder material are formed having a basic inner substantially uniform-porous carbon coating of the catalytic powder, and may include an outer porous carbon coating layer. Suitable inorganic catalytic powders include zinc-chromite (ZnO/Cr.sub.2 03) and suitable carbonaceous liquid binders having molecular weight of 200-700 include partially polymerized furfuryl alcohol, which are mixed together, shaped and carbonized and partially oxidized at elevated temperature. Such stable carbonous catalyst particles such as 0.020-0.100 inch (0.51-2.54 mm) diameter extrudates, have total carbon content of 2-25 wt. % and improved crush strength of 1.0-5 1b/mn, 50-300 m.sup.2 /g surface area, and can be advantageously utilized in fixed bed or ebullated/fluidized bed reactor operations. This invention also includes method steps for making the stable carbonous catalyst particles having improved particle strength and catalytic activity, and processes for utilizing the active stable carbonous carbon-coated catalysts such as for syn-gas reactions in ebullated/fluidized bed reactors for producing alcohol products and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis liquid products.

  20. Carbon nanotube-based field ionization vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a novel micropump architecture that uses arrays of isolated vertical carbon nanotubes (CNT) to field ionize gas particles. The ionized gas molecules are accelerated to and implanted into a ...

  1. Carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2).[1] Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid ...

  2. The CPA Equation of State and an Activity Coefficient Model for Accurate Molar Enthalpy Calculations of Mixtures with Carbon Dioxide and Water/Brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myint, P C; Firoozabadi, A

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic property calculations of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO$_2$) and water, including brines, are essential in theoretical models of many natural and industrial processes. The properties of greatest practical interest are density, solubility, and enthalpy. Many models for density and solubility calculations have been presented in the literature, but there exists only one study, by Spycher and Pruess, that has compared theoretical molar enthalpy predictions with experimental data. In this report, we recommend two different models for enthalpy calculations: the CPA equation of state by Li and Firoozabadi, and the CO$_2$ activity coefficient model by Duan and Sun. We show that the CPA equation of state, which has been demonstrated to provide good agreement with density and solubility data, also accurately calculates molar enthalpies of pure CO$_2$, pure water, and both CO$_2$-rich and aqueous (H$_2$O-rich) mixtures of the two species. It is applicable to a wider range of conditions than the Spy...

  3. The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-15

    The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

  4. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  5. Discussion by Matthew J. Kotchen (Yale University and NBER) of "Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins," by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    ) helps us understand how a carbon price that affects the price of gasoline is likely to impact decisions about automobile use. In particular, KS consider how the price of gasoline affects decisions about when Check. They find that when gasoline prices are higher, vehicles with relatively low fuel efficiency

  6. 2013 Carbon Management Research Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . BACKGROUND · As a first step towards developing risk assessment strategies for carbon sequestration projects2013 Carbon Management Research Symposium Effects of Formation Heterogeneity on CO2 Gas Phase Attenuation in the Shallow Subsurface During Possible Leakage from Geologic Sequestration Sites Michael

  7. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are represented, in addition to the extensive data compiled from recent studies on bottom-up representation of efficiency measures for the sector. We also defined various mitigation scenarios including long-term production trends to project country-specific production, energy use, trading, carbon emissions, and costs of mitigation. Such analyses can provide useful information to assist policy-makers when considering and shaping future emissions mitigation strategies and policies. The technical objective is to analyze the costs of production and CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the U.S, China, and India’s iron and steel sectors under different emission reduction scenarios, using the ISEEM-IS as a cost optimization model. The scenarios included in this project correspond to various CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets for the iron and steel sector under different strategies such as simple CO{sub 2} emission caps (e.g., specific reduction goals), emission reduction via commodity trading, and emission reduction via carbon trading.

  9. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-03-24

    The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.

  10. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  11. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by the USGS, is the best geochemical program for correcting carbon-14 activities for geochemical r

  12. Electroless preparation and characterization of Ni-B nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Zhilin; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Wang, Feng; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Liu, Jingjun; Ji, Jing; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Park, Ki Chul; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The MWCNT/Ni-B catalyst has been successfully prepared by an electroless deposition process. The Ni-B nanoparticles on the supporter are amorphous and are well-distributed. The catalytic conversion towards hydrogenation of styrene shows excellent catalytic activity of the obtained materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-step treatment of MWCNTs enabled the homogeneous growth of Ni-B nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-B nanoparticles were amorphous with an average size of 60 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were electron transfer between Ni and B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst had excellent catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene. -- Abstract: Nickel-boron (Ni-B) nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were successfully synthesized through an electroless deposition process using the plating bath with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The structural and morphological analyses using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that the Ni-B nanoparticles deposited on the sidewalls of MWCNTs are fine spheres comprised of amorphous structure with the morphologically unique fine-structure like flowers, and homogenously dispersed with a narrow particle size distribution centered at around 60 nm diameter. The catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles was evaluated with respect to hydrogenation of styrene. The hydrogenation catalyzed by MWCNT-supported Ni-B nanoparticles has been found to make styrene selectively converted into ethylbenzene. The highest conversion reaches 99.8% under proper reaction conditions, which demonstrates the high catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles.

  13. Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

  14. NaturallyProduced CarbonSources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (e.g., methane) to generate electricity, drive a petroleum-powered car, or cut down a forest, CO2 element in our universe. Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is the most abundant car- bon bearing gas, and plays a special role in Earth's carbon cycle. From an atmospheric perspective, sources emit or release carbon

  15. Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural gas production in Texas for 2004 and 2005 to correctly account for carbon dioxide (CO2) production.

  16. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  17. Quantum states and specific heat of low-density He gas adsorbed within the carbon nanotube interstitial channels: Band structure effects and potential dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Siber; H. Buljan

    2002-09-13

    We calculate the energy-band structure of a He atom trapped within the interstitial channel between close-packed nanotubes within a bundle and its influence on the specific heat of the adsorbed gas. A robust prediction of our calculations is that the contribution of the low-density adsorbed gas to the specific heat of the nanotube material shows pronounced nonmonotonic variations with temperature. These variations are shown to be closely related to the band gaps in the adsorbate density of states.

  18. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C. (Arvada, CO); Blandon, Antonio E. (Thornton, CO); Hepworth, Malcolm T. (Edina, MN)

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  19. Tunneling effects in the kinetics of helium and hydrogen isotopes desorption from single-walled carbon nanotube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilchenko, B. A. Yaskovets, I. I.; Uvarova, I. Y.; Dolbin, A. V.; Esel'son, V. B.; Basnukaeva, R. M.; Vinnikov, N. A.

    2014-04-28

    The kinetics of desorption both helium isotopes and molecules of hydrogen and deuterium from open-ended or ?-irradiated single-walled carbon nanotube bundles was investigated in temperature range of 10–300?K. The gases desorption rates obey the Arrhenius law at high temperatures, deviate from it with temperature reduction and become constant at low temperatures. These results indicate the quantum nature of gas outflow from carbon nanotube bundles. We had deduced the crossover temperature below which the quantum corrections to the effective activation energy of desorption become significant. This temperature follows linear dependence against the inverse mass of gas molecule and is consistent with theoretical prediction.

  20. Building new power plants in a CO2 constrained world: A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Building new power plants in a CO2 constrained world: A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power director. Most of the material used in this work are either courtesy of the persons I talked to in Norway, or the results of interviews the author conducted in Norway, between August 26 and August 30.The author

  1. Management Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.

    2012-12-01

    The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological carbon (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at global, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions – through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels – to augment these natural sinks. Carbon sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use management. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.

  2. Is there a Difference in Van Der Waals Interactions between Rare Gas Atoms Adsorbed on Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, De-Li; Mandeltort, Lynn; Saidi, Wissam A.; Yates, John T Jr, Cole, Milton W Johnson,J Karl

    2013-03-26

    Differences in polarizabilities of metallic (M) and semiconducting (S) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) might give rise to differences in adsorption potentials. We show from experiments and van der Waals-corrected density functional theory (DFT) that binding energies of Xe adsorbed on M- and S-SWNTs are nearly identical. Temperature programmed desorption of Xe on purified M- and S-SWNTs give similar peak temperatures, indicating that desorption kinetics and binding energies are independent of the type of SWNT. Binding energies computed from vdW-corrected DFT are in good agreement with experiments.

  3. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  4. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  5. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  6. Method for hot gas conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paisley, Mark A. (Upper Arlington, OH)

    1996-02-27

    A method for cracking and shifting a synthesis gas by the steps of providing a catalyst consisting essentially of alumina in a reaction zone; contacting the catalyst with a substantially oxygen free mixture of gases comprising water vapor and hydrocarbons having one or more carbon atoms, at a temperature between about 530.degree. C. (1000.degree. F.) to about 980.degree. C. (1800.degree. F.); and whereby the hydrocarbons are cracked to form hydrogen, carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide and the hydrogen content of the mixture increases with a corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide, and carbon formation is substantially eliminated.

  7. Method for hot gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.

    1996-02-27

    A method is described for cracking and shifting a synthesis gas by the steps of providing a catalyst consisting essentially of alumina in a reaction zone; contacting the catalyst with a substantially oxygen free mixture of gases comprising water vapor and hydrocarbons having one or more carbon atoms, at a temperature between about 530 C (1000 F) to about 980 C (1800 F); and whereby the hydrocarbons are cracked to form hydrogen, carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide and the hydrogen content of the mixture increases with a corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide, and carbon formation is substantially eliminated. 3 figs.

  8. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  9. Gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    There is a definite need for the US government to provide leadership for research in gas hydrates and to coordinate its activities with academia, industry, private groups, federal agencies, and their foreign counterparts. In response to this need, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center implemented a gas hydrates R and D program. Understanding the resource will be achieved through: assessment of current technology; characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering; and development of diagnostic tools and methods. Research to date has focused on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for future detailed investigation. Initial research activities involved the development of the Geologic Analysis System (GAS); which will provide, through approximately 30 software packages, the capability to manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. Preliminary mapping of hydrate prospects for the Alaskan North Slope is underway. Geological research includes physical system characterization which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran, consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice base mixtures, and water base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by METC. More recently, a natural hydrate sample from the Gulf of Mexico was also acquired and testing of this sample is currently underway. In addition to the development of GAS, modeling and systems analysis work focused on the development of conceptual gas hydrate production models. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents information pertaining to the natural gas industry. Data are included on production, consumption, distribution, and pipeline activities.

  11. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? Americanto Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Volume I Sta?Paper Series Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel

  12. Natural gas monthly, August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    This report presents information on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  13. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  14. Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2012-04-24

    An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

  15. Russia’s Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey

    Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds ...

  16. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Mid-Atlantic and their onshore impacts: a summary report, November 1979. Update 3, August 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    At the present, there are no operators drilling in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The prime targets for future exploration will be in areas of 3000 to 6000 feet (914 to 1829 m) depth of water, seaward of previously leased tracts. No commercial discoveries have been found during the 4-year drilling history of the area. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the Mid-Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Little development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with upcoming Lease Sale 59. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of future exploration efforts. After Lease Sale 59, the next sale is Lease Sale 76, which is tentatively scheduled for March 1983.

  17. Lesson Summary Students will learn about different carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    set of A4 sheets of `products' · 1 set of A4 sheets of `processes' · 1 set of specimens of `products in seawater - Carbon in marine animals and plants - Carbon in coal and natural gas - Carbon in oil - Carbon supplies. 3. Place `products' sheets in a rough circle on desks around the classroom Recommended Reading

  18. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.