National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for act-fault current limiting

  1. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  2. Fault Current Limiters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Other benefits include: &17; Enhanced system safety, stability, and efficiency of the power ... large fault current desaturates the iron core of the series AC coils and the increased ...

  3. LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device.

  4. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  5. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  6. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  7. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  8. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  9. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  10. Fault current limiter and alternating current circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1998-01-01

    A solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter for a load served by an alternating current source having a source impedance, the solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter comprising a thyristor bridge interposed between the alternating current source and the load, the thyristor bridge having four thyristor legs and four nodes, with a first node connected to the alternating current source, and a second node connected to the load. A coil is connected from a third node to a fourth node, the coil having an impedance of a value calculated to limit the current flowing therethrough to a predetermined value. Control means are connected to the thyristor legs for limiting the alternating current flow to the load under fault conditions to a predetermined level, and for gating the thyristor bridge under fault conditions to quickly reduce alternating current flowing therethrough to zero and thereafter to maintain the thyristor bridge in an electrically open condition preventing the alternating current from flowing therethrough for a predetermined period of time.

  11. Fault current limiter and alternating current circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, H.J.

    1998-03-10

    A solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter are disclosed for a load served by an alternating current source having a source impedance, the solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter comprising a thyristor bridge interposed between the alternating current source and the load, the thyristor bridge having four thyristor legs and four nodes, with a first node connected to the alternating current source, and a second node connected to the load. A coil is connected from a third node to a fourth node, the coil having an impedance of a value calculated to limit the current flowing therethrough to a predetermined value. Control means are connected to the thyristor legs for limiting the alternating current flow to the load under fault conditions to a predetermined level, and for gating the thyristor bridge under fault conditions to quickly reduce alternating current flowing therethrough to zero and thereafter to maintain the thyristor bridge in an electrically open condition preventing the alternating current from flowing therethrough for a predetermined period of time. 9 figs.

  12. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shea, John Joseph; Djordjevic, Miomir B.; Hanna, William Kingston

    2002-01-01

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  13. Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet Plugging America Into the Future of Power: Superconducting & Solid-state Power Equipment What are Fault Current Limiters Why do we need Fault Current Limiters What are the benefits to utilities Fault Current Limiter projects Fault Current Limiters (926.42 KB) More Documents & Publications An Assessment of Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements Superconductivity Program Overview Superconductivity for

  14. Self field triggered superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-02-19

    A superconducting fault current limiter array with a plurality of superconductor elements arranged in a meanding array having an even number of supconductors parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to an odd number of the plurality of superconductors, where the odd number of supconductors are parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to the even number of the plurality of superconductors, when viewed from a top view. The even number of superconductors are coupled at the upper end to the upper end of the odd number of superconductors. A plurality of lower shunt coils each coupled to the lower end of each of the even number of superconductors and a plurality of upper shunt coils each coupled to the upper end of each of the odd number of superconductors so as to generate a generally orthoganal uniform magnetic field during quenching using only the magenetic field generated by the superconductors.

  15. Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels The phenomenon ...

  16. Fault current limiter with shield and adjacent cores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony; Moriconi, Franco; Hodge, Eoin Patrick

    2013-10-22

    In a fault current limiter (FCL) of a saturated core type having at least one coil wound around a high permeability material, a method of suppressing the time derivative of the fault current at the zero current point includes the following step: utilizing an electromagnetic screen or shield around the AC coil to suppress the time derivative current levels during zero current conditions.

  17. An Assessment of Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements An Assessment of Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on next-generation electricity delivery equipment including fault current limiters (FCLs). Prototype FCL devices are undergoing testing with the aim of market-ready devices making their debut in the transmission and distribution (T&D)

  18. Testing of 3-meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouge, Michael J; Duckworth, Robert C; Demko, Jonathan A; Rey, Christopher M; Thompson, James R; Lindsay, David T; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton; Willen, Dag; Lentge, Heidi; Thidemann, Carsten; Carter, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Two 3-m long, single-phase cables have been fabricated by Ultera from second generation (2G) superconductor supplied by American Superconductor. The first cable was made with two layers of 2G tape conductor and had a critical current of 5,750 A while the second cable had four layers and a critical current of 8,500 A. AC loss was measured for both cables at ac currents of up to 4 kArms. Ultera performed initial fault current studies of both cables in Denmark with limited currents in the range from 9.1 to 44 kA. Results from these tests will provide a basis for a 25-m long, three-phase, prototype cable to be tested at ORNL early next year and a 300-m long, fault current limiting, superconducting cable to be installed in a ConEd substation in New York City.

  19. Method and apparatus to trigger superconductors in current limiting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Xing; Hazelton, Drew Willard; Walker, Michael Stephen

    2004-10-26

    A method and apparatus for magnetically triggering a superconductor in a superconducting fault current limiter to transition from a superconducting state to a resistive state. The triggering is achieved by employing current-carrying trigger coil or foil on either or both the inner diameter and outer diameter of a superconductor. The current-carrying coil or foil generates a magnetic field with sufficient strength and the superconductor is disposed within essentially uniform magnetic field region. For superconductor in a tubular-configured form, an additional magnetic field can be generated by placing current-carrying wire or foil inside the tube and along the center axial line.

  20. High voltage fault current limiter having immersed phase coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2014-04-22

    A fault current limiter including: a ferromagnetic circuit formed from a ferromagnetic material and including at least a first limb, and a second limb; a saturation mechanism surrounding a limb for magnetically saturating the ferromagnetic material; a phase coil wound around a second limb; a dielectric fluid surrounding the phase coil; a gaseous atmosphere surrounding the saturation mechanism.

  1. Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1995-08-08

    A beam current limiter is disclosed for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity. 6 figs.

  2. Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogaty, John M.; Clifft, Benny E.; Bollinger, Lowell M.

    1995-01-01

    A beam current limiter for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity.

  3. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  4. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  5. Wind Power Plant Enhancement with a Fault-Current Limiter: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; DeLaRosa, F.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the capability of a saturable core fault-current limiter to limit the short circuit current of different types of wind turbine generators.

  6. Superconducting matrix fault current limiter with current-driven trigger mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Xing

    2008-04-15

    A modular and scalable Matrix-type Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. An inductor is connected in series with the trigger superconductor in the trigger matrix and physically surrounds the superconductor. The current surge during a fault will generate a trigger magnetic field in the series inductor to cause fast and uniform quenching of the trigger superconductor to significantly reduce burnout risk due to superconductor material non-uniformity.

  7. Current parallel I/O limitations to scalable data analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenhas, Ajith Arthur; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the limitations to parallel scalability which we have encountered when applying our otherwise optimally scalable parallel statistical analysis tool kit to large data sets distributed across the parallel file system of the current premier DOE computational facility. This report describes our study to evaluate the effect of parallel I/O on the overall scalability of a parallel data analysis pipeline using our scalable parallel statistics tool kit [PTBM11]. In this goal, we tested it using the Jaguar-pf DOE/ORNL peta-scale platform on a large combustion simulation data under a variety of process counts and domain decompositions scenarios. In this report we have recalled the foundations of the parallel statistical analysis tool kit which we have designed and implemented, with the specific double intent of reproducing typical data analysis workflows, and achieving optimal design for scalable parallel implementations. We have briefly reviewed those earlier results and publications which allow us to conclude that we have achieved both goals. However, in this report we have further established that, when used in conjuction with a state-of-the-art parallel I/O system, as can be found on the premier DOE peta-scale platform, the scaling properties of the overall analysis pipeline comprising parallel data access routines degrade rapidly. This finding is problematic and must be addressed if peta-scale data analysis is to be made scalable, or even possible. In order to attempt to address these parallel I/O limitations, we will investigate the use the Adaptable IO System (ADIOS) [LZL+10] to improve I/O performance, while maintaining flexibility for a variety of IO options, such MPI IO, POSIX IO. This system is developed at ORNL and other collaborating institutions, and is being tested extensively on Jaguar-pf. Simulation code being developed on these systems will also use ADIOS to output the data thereby making it easier for other systems, such as ours, to

  8. Inherent limitations and current status of the unresolved resonance treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    The two general methods for representing the behavior of the unresolved resonances and the limitations of these methods are discussed. Possible solutions to the problem are considered. 17 references. (WHK)

  9. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  10. Limiting electron beam current for cyclic induction acceleration in a constant guide field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanunnikov, V.N.

    1982-09-01

    Theoretical relations are derived for the limiting beam current in a cyclic induction accelerator (CIA) with a constant guide field. The calculations are in agreement with the available experimental data. It is shown that the limiting average beam current in a CIA is of the order of 100 microamperes, i.e., the level attained in microtrons and linear accelerators. The CIA may find industrial applications.

  11. Uncertainties in compliance with harmonic current distortion limits in electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruzs, T.M. )

    1991-07-01

    The harmonic distortion of any repetitive voltage or current waveform is typically described by the quantity total harmonic distortion (THD). With the proliferation of nonlinear loads, such as static power converters, there has been increasing concern over the generation of harmonic currents and the effects of these currents on the power system. Proposals have been made to limit harmonic currents in power systems using the total harmonic distortion of the current as the criterion. This criterion, although it may be necessary, can be ambiguous and lead to compliance uncertainties. In this paper a discussion is presented on several of the practical problems by applying total harmonic current distortion limits to industrial and commercial power systems.

  12. Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H.; Koh, W. S.; Ang, L. K.

    2014-04-15

    Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

  13. Solid-state circuit breaker with current limiting characteristic using a superconducting coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1984-01-01

    A thyristor bridge interposes an ac source and a load. A series connected DC source and superconducting coil within the bridge biases the thyristors thereof so as to permit bidirectional ac current flow therethrough under normal operating conditions. Upon a fault condition a control circuit triggers the thyristors so as to reduce ac current flow therethrough to zero in less than two cycles and to open the bridge thereafter. Upon a temporary overload condition the control circuit triggers the thyristors so as to limit ac current flow therethrough to an acceptable level.

  14. Solid-state circuit breaker with current-limiting characteristic using a superconducting coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, H.J.

    1982-08-16

    A thyristor bridge interposes an ac source and a load. A series connected DC source and superconducting coil within the bridge biases the thyristors thereof so as to permit bidirectional ac current flow therethrough under normal operating conditions. Upon a fault condition a control circuit triggers the thyristors so as to reduce ac current flow therethrough to zero in less than two eyeles and to open the bridge thereafter. Upon a temporary overload condition the control circuit triggers the thyristors so as to limit ac current flow therethrough to an acceptable level.

  15. Application of active quenching of second generation wire for current limiting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Li, Qiang

    2015-10-19

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL's) are increasingly implemented in the power grid as a protection of substation equipment from fault currents. Resistive SFCL's are compact and light, however they are passively triggered and thus may not be sufficiently sensitive to respond to faults in the distribution grid. Here, we explore the prospect of adding an active management feature to a traditional resistive SFCL. A flexible radio-frequency coil, which is an integral part of the switching structure, acts as a triggering device. We show that the application of a short, 10 ms, burst of ac magnetic field during the fault triggersmore » a uniform quench of the wire and significantly reduces the reaction time of the wire at low currents. The ac field burst generates a high density of normal zones, which merge into a continuous resistive region at a rate much faster than that of sparse normal zones created by the transport current alone.« less

  16. Application of active quenching of second generation wire for current limiting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Li, Qiang

    2015-10-19

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL's) are increasingly implemented in the power grid as a protection of substation equipment from fault currents. Resistive SFCL's are compact and light, however they are passively triggered and thus may not be sufficiently sensitive to respond to faults in the distribution grid. Here, we explore the prospect of adding an active management feature to a traditional resistive SFCL. A flexible radio-frequency coil, which is an integral part of the switching structure, acts as a triggering device. We show that the application of a short, 10 ms, burst of ac magnetic field during the fault triggers a uniform quench of the wire and significantly reduces the reaction time of the wire at low currents. The ac field burst generates a high density of normal zones, which merge into a continuous resistive region at a rate much faster than that of sparse normal zones created by the transport current alone.

  17. Assessment study of superconducting fault-current limiters operating at 77K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giese, R.F. ); Runde, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The possible impact of nitrogen-cooled superconductors on the design and cost of superconducting fault-current limiters is assessed by considering the technical specifications such devices must meet and by comparing material properties of 77-K and 4-K superconductors. The main advantage of operating superconductors at 77 K is that the refrigeration operating cost is reduced by a factor of up to 25, and the refrigeration capital cost is reduced by a factor of up to 10. The heat capacity of 77 K is several orders of magnitude larger than at 4 K. This phenomenon increases conductor stability against flux jumps but makes switching from the superconducting to normal state slow and difficult. Consequently, a high critical current density, probably at least 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}, is required.

  18. Assessment study of superconducting fault-current limiters operating at 77K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giese, R.F.; Runde, M.

    1992-07-01

    The possible impact of nitrogen-cooled superconductors on the design and cost of superconducting fault-current limiters is assessed by considering the technical specifications such devices must meet and by comparing material properties of 77-K and 4-K superconductors. The main advantage of operating superconductors at 77 K is that the refrigeration operating cost is reduced by a factor of up to 25, and the refrigeration capital cost is reduced by a factor of up to 10. The heat capacity of 77 K is several orders of magnitude larger than at 4 K. This phenomenon increases conductor stability against flux jumps but makes switching from the superconducting to normal state slow and difficult. Consequently, a high critical current density, probably at least 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}, is required.

  19. Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Darmann; Robert Lombaerde; Franco Moriconi; Albert Nelson

    2011-10-31

    Zenergy Power has successfully designed, built, tested, and installed in the US electrical grid a saturable reactor Fault Current Limiter. Beginning in 2007, first as SC Power Systems and from 2008 as Zenergy Power, Inc., ZP used DOE matching grant and ARRA funds to help refine the design of the saturated reactor fault current limiter. ZP ultimately perfected the design of the saturated reactor FCL to the point that ZP could reliably design a suitable FCL for most utility applications. Beginning with a very basic FCL design using 1G HTS for a coil housed in a LN2 cryostat for the DC bias magnet, the technology progressed to a commercial system that was offered for sale internationally. Substantial progress was made in two areas. First, the cryogenics cooling system progressed from a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen container housing the HTS coils to cryostats utilizing dry conduction cooling and reaching temperatures down to less than 20 degrees K. Large, round cryostats with “warm bore” diameters of 1.7 meters enabled the design of large tanks to hold the AC components. Second, the design of the AC part of the FCL was refined from a six legged “spider” design to a more compact and lighter design with better fault current limiting capability. Further refinement of the flux path and core shape led to an efficient saturated reactor design requiring less Ampere-turns to saturate the core. In conclusion, the development of the saturable reactor FCL led to a more efficient design not requiring HTS magnets and their associated peripheral equipment, which yielded a more economical product in line with the electric utility industry expectations. The original goal for the DOE funding of the ZP project “Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters” was to stimulate the HTS wire industry with, first 1G, then 2G, HTS wire applications. Over the approximately 5 years of ZP’s product

  20. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  1. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  2. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, Kideok D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-07-12

    Describing the reactions that occur at the glass-water interface and control the development of the altered layer constitutes one of the main scientific challenges impeding existing models from providing accurate radionuclide release estimates. Radionuclide release estimates are a critical component of the safety basis for geologic repositories. The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products) represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most interface. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed tomore » improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include geochemical simulations [i.e., classical reaction path simulations and glass reactivity in allowance for alteration layer (GRAAL) simulations], Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Finally, in this manuscript, we discuss the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass-water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers.« less

  3. Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouge, M..; Schwenterly, S.W.; Hazelton, D.

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this project was to conduct R&D on specified components and provide technical design support to a SuperPower team developing a high temperature superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL). ORNL teamed with SuperPower, Inc. on a Superconductivity Partnerships with Industry (SPI) proposal for the SFCL that was submitted to DOE and approved in FY 2003. A contract between DOE and SuperPower, Inc. was signed on July 14, 2003 to design, fabricate and test the SFCL. This device employs high temperature superconducting (HTS) elements and SuperPower's proprietary technology. The program goal was to demonstrate a device that will address a broad range of the utility applications and meet utility industry requirements. This DOE-sponsored Superconductivity Partnership with Industry project would positively impact electric power transmission reliability and security by introducing a new element in the grid that can significantly mitigate fault currents and provide lower cost solutions for grid protection. The project will conduct R&D on specified components and provide technical design support to a SuperPower-led team developing a SFCL as detailed in tasks 1-5 below. Note the SuperPower scope over the broad SPI project is much larger than that shown below which indicates only the SuperPower tasks that are complementary to the ORNL tasks. SuperPower is the Project Manager for the SFCL program, and is responsible for completion of the project on schedule and budget. The scope of work for ORNL is to provide R&D support for the SFCL in the following four broad areas: (1) Assist with high voltage subsystem R&D, design, fabrication and testing including characterization of the general dielectric performance of LN2 and component materials; (2) Consult on cryogenic subsystem R&D, design, fabrication and testing; (3) Participate in project conceptual and detailed design reviews; and (4) Guide commercialization by participation on the Technical Advisory Board (TAB). Super

  4. Limiting current of axisymmetric relativistic charged-particle beam propagating in strong axial magnetic field in coaxial drift tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yatsenko, T.; Ilyenko, K.; Sotnikov, G. V.

    2012-06-15

    In the strong axial magnetic field approximation, we calculate the space-charge limited (SCL) current of axisymmetric relativistic charged-particle beam in a coaxial drift tube of finite length. Results are compared to analytical estimates and numerical modeling of SCL current in the infinitely long drift tube. For the infinitely long drift tube, which inner conductor is biased and the outer conductor is lined with a finite-width dielectric insert, analytic approximations for the SCL current in the bias voltage are developed.

  5. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  6. Biasing, operation and parasitic current limitation in single device equivalent to CMOS, and other semiconductor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, James D.

    2003-09-23

    Disclosed are semiconductor devices including at least one junction which is rectifying whether the semiconductor is caused to be N or P-type, by the presence of applied gate voltage field induced carriers in essentially intrinsic, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at substantially equal doping levels, essentially homogeneously simultaneously containing both N and P-type metallurgical dopants at different doping levels, and containing a single metallurgical doping type, and functional combinations thereof. In particular, inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to conventional multiple device CMOS systems, which can be operated as modulators, are disclosed as are a non-latching SCR and an approach to blocking parasitic currents utilizing material(s) which form rectifying junctions with both N and P-type semiconductor whether metallurigically or field induced.

  7. Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development : Design and Testing Update of a 15kV SSCL Power Stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ram Adapa; Mr. Dante Piccone

    2012-04-30

    ABSTRACT The Solid-State Fault Current Limiter (SSCL) is a promising technology that can be applied to utility power delivery systems to address the problem of increasing fault currents associated with load growth. As demand continues to grow, more power is added to utility system either by increasing generator capacity or by adding distributed generators, resulting in higher available fault currents, often beyond the capabilities of the present infrastructure. The SSCL is power-electronics based equipment designed to work with the present utility system to address this problem. The SSCL monitors the line current and dynamically inserts additional impedance into the line in the event of a fault being detected. The SSCL is based on a modular design and can be configured for 5kV through 69kV systems at nominal current ratings of 1000A to 4000A. Results and Findings This report provides the final test results on the development of 15kV class SSCL single phase power stack. The scope of work included the design of the modular standard building block sub-assemblies, the design and manufacture of the power stack and the testing of the power stack for the key functional tests of continuous current capability and fault current limiting action. Challenges and Objectives Solid-State Current Limiter technology impacts a wide spectrum of utility engineering and operating personnel. It addresses the problems associated with load growth both at Transmission and Distribution class networks. The design concept is pioneering in terms of developing the most efficient and compact power electronics equipment for utility use. The initial test results of the standard building blocks are promising. The independent laboratory tests of the power stack are promising. However the complete 3 phase system needs rigorous testing for performance and reliability. Applications, Values, and Use The SSCL is an intelligent power-electronics device which is modular in design and can provide current

  8. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Qwner contacted n yes Current: ---------------------L---- if yes, date contacted Research & Development cl Facility Type 0 . Productioff 0 Di 3pcsal /Storage TYPE OF CONTRACT ---------------- q Prime q Subcontractor 0 Purchase Order 0 Other information (i.e. q cast + fixed fee, unit piice, time & material, etr) ------- ------_-----_--------------- 0 Production scale testing 0 Pilot Scale 0 Bench Scale Process a Theoretical Studies Sample & Analysis rcc t O' L~1 q Manufacturing 0

  9. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    OWNE3 (55) -------- past: _--_-------------------- Current: Owner contacted I-J yes ,Fqna; ------------_------------- if yes, date contacted TYPE OF OPEF(ATION ---__-------_____ c] Research & Development -4 Facility Type ci Production scale testing 0 Pilbt Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Theoretical Studies 0 Sample & Analysis C Productian E Disposal/Storage TYPE OF CONTRACi _------_-------_ tlanuf acturi ng University Research Organizaticn q Prime --. _' cl Other information (i.e., cost

  10. Current

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dollars in Thousands) FY 2014 Current FY 2015 Enacted FY 2016 Request Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) 27,100 32,100 45,000 Hydrothermal 10,300 12,500 36,500 Low Temperature and Coproduced 4,700 6,000 9,000 Systems Analysis 3,700 3,900 5,000 NREL Sitewide 0 500 500 Total, Geothermal Technologies 45,800 55,000 96,000 The Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) accelerates deployment of clean, domestic geothermal energy by supporting innovative technologies that reduce the cost and risks of

  11. Approach to Recover Hydrocarbons from Currently Off-Limit Areas of the Antrim Formation, MI Using Low-Impact Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Wood; William Quinlan

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop and execute a novel drilling and completion program in the Antrim Shale near the western shoreline of Northern Michigan. The target was the gas in the Lower Antrim Formation (Upper Devonian). Another goal was to see if drilling permits could be obtained from the Michigan DNR that would allow exploitation of reserves currently off-limits to exploration. This project met both of these goals: the DNR (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) issued permits that allow drilling the shallow subsurface for exploration and production. This project obtained drilling permits for the original demonstration well AG-A-MING 4-12 HD (API: 21-009-58153-0000) and AG-A-MING 4-12 HD1 (API: 21-009-58153-0100) as well as for similar Antrim wells in Benzie County, MI, the Colfax 3-28 HD and nearby Colfax 2-28 HD which were substituted for the AG-A-MING well. This project also developed successful techniques and strategies for producing the shallow gas. In addition to the project demonstration well over 20 wells have been drilled to date into the shallow Antrim as a result of this project's findings. Further, fracture stimulation has proven to be a vital step in improving the deliverability of wells to deem them commercial. Our initial plan was very simple; the 'J-well' design. We proposed to drill a vertical or slant well 30.48 meters (100 feet) below the glacial drift, set required casing, then angle back up to tap the resource lying between the base to the drift and the conventional vertical well. The 'J'-well design was tested at Mancelona Township in Antrim County in February of 2007 with the St. Mancelona 2-12 HD 3.

  12. Estimation of the potential efficiency of a multijunction solar cell at a limit balance of photogenerated currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintairov, M. A. Evstropov, V. V.; Mintairov, S. A.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Timoshina, N. Kh.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.

    2015-05-15

    A method is proposed for estimating the potential efficiency which can be achieved in an initially unbalanced multijunction solar cell by the mutual convergence of photogenerated currents: to extract this current from a relatively narrow band-gap cell and to add it to a relatively wide-gap cell. It is already known that the properties facilitating relative convergence are inherent to such objects as bound excitons, quantum dots, donor-acceptor pairs, and others located in relatively wide-gap cells. In fact, the proposed method is reduced to the problem of obtaining such a required light current-voltage (I–V) characteristic which corresponds to the equality of all photogenerated short-circuit currents. Two methods for obtaining the required light I–V characteristic are used. The first one is selection of the spectral composition of the radiation incident on the multijunction solar cell from an illuminator. The second method is a double shift of the dark I–V characteristic: a current shift J{sub g} (common set photogenerated current) and a voltage shift (−J{sub g}R{sub s}), where R{sub s} is the series resistance. For the light and dark I–V characteristics, a general analytical expression is derived, which considers the effect of so-called luminescence coupling in multijunction solar cells. The experimental I–V characteristics are compared with the calculated ones for a three-junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with R{sub s} = 0.019 Ω cm{sup 2} and a maximum factual efficiency of 36.9%. Its maximum potential efficiency is estimated as 41.2%.

  13. Assessment of Current Process Modeling Approaches to Determine Their Limitations, Applicability and Developments Needed for Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Injection Molded Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Holbery, Jim; Smith, Mark T.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Norris, Robert E.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2006-11-30

    This report describes the status of the current process modeling approaches to predict the behavior and flow of fiber-filled thermoplastics under injection molding conditions. Previously, models have been developed to simulate the injection molding of short-fiber thermoplastics, and an as-formed composite part or component can then be predicted that contains a microstructure resulting from the constituents’ material properties and characteristics as well as the processing parameters. Our objective is to assess these models in order to determine their capabilities and limitations, and the developments needed for long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). First, the concentration regimes are summarized to facilitate the understanding of different types of fiber-fiber interaction that can occur for a given fiber volume fraction. After the formulation of the fiber suspension flow problem and the simplification leading to the Hele-Shaw approach, the interaction mechanisms are discussed. Next, the establishment of the rheological constitutive equation is presented that reflects the coupled flow/orientation nature. The decoupled flow/orientation approach is also discussed which constitutes a good simplification for many applications involving flows in thin cavities. Finally, before outlining the necessary developments for LFTs, some applications of the current orientation model and the so-called modified Folgar-Tucker model are illustrated through the fiber orientation predictions for selected LFT samples.

  14. CX-003029: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act - Fault Current Limiting Superconducting TransformerCX(s) Applied: A11, B3.6Date: 07/13/2010Location(s): Houston, TexasOffice(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  15. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Lionel Robert

    2007-02-14

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx}0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  16. New experiments elucidating the current limiting mechanisms of Ag-sheathed (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} tapes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.W.; Babcock, S.E.; Cai, X.Y.; Dorris, S.E.; Feldmann, M.; Jiang, J.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Li, Q.; Parrell, J.A.; Parrella, R.; Polak, M.; Polyanskii, A.; Riley, G.N. Jr.; Rupich, M.; Wu, Y.

    1999-01-15

    Multiple current limiting mechanisms exist from the nanometer to millimeter scale in Ag-sheathed (Bi,Pb)-2223 tapes. Recent studies of the zero-field critical current density (J{sub c} (0T, 77K)), the irreversibility field (H*) and the crack microstructure elucidate these properties. We show that H*(77K) can vary significantly over the range {approximately}120-260 mT, independently of J{sub c} (0T, 77K). Cracks, actual or incipient, exist on the sub to several hundred micron scale. Surface magneto optical imaging of whole tapes, correlated to subsequent ultrasonic fracture analysis of. the bare 2223 filaments extracted by dissolving away the Ag shows that even composites having J{sub c} (0T, 77K) values of 60 kA/cm{sup 2} exhibit strong signs of unhealed rolling damage. These combined studies show that today's very best 2223 tapes are still far from full optimization.

  17. Current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  18. Dose Limits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Dose Limits ERAD (Question Posted to ERAD in May 2012) Who do you define as a member of the public for the onsite MEI? This question implies that there may be more than one maximally exposed individual (MEI), one on-site and one off-site, when demonstrating compliance with the Public Dose Limit of DOE Order 458.1. Although all potential MEIs should be considered and documented, as well as the calculated doses and pathways considered, the intent of DOE Order 458.1 is in fact to ultimately identify only one MEI, a theoretical individual who could be either on-site or off-site.

  19. CX-003061: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act-Fault Current Limiting (FCL) Superconducting TransformerCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B4.11Date: 07/16/2010Location(s): Irvine, CaliforniaOffice(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  20. Current Titles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  1. Current Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Research The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) has established its only high-performance computing and engineering analysis research facility at Argonne National Laboratory to provide applications support in key areas of applied research and development for the USDOT community. The Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) features a state-of-the-art massively parallel computer system, advanced scientific visualization capability, high-speed network

  2. Current Contracts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Contracts U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Management & Operating Contractor for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contract Number DE-EM0001971 Fee Payment Information (Nuclear Waste Partnership, LLC.) U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Transportation Contractors for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contract Number DE-EM0001840 (Visionary Solutions, LLC) Contract Number DE-EM0001819 (CAST Specialty Transportation Services, Inc.) U.S. Department of Energy

  3. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-01-12

    One of the frontiers of today?s nuclear science is the ?journey to the limits? of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena, but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this series of lectures, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  4. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective.

  5. Current Schedule of Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    current schedule of experiments Current Schedule of Experiments Current Schedule of Experiments - Updated 4/2016

  6. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  7. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  8. Current to Current | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Current Jump to: navigation, search Name: Current to Current Address: 35 Corporate Dr Place: Burlington Zip: 1803 Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone...

  9. Superconducting fault current controller/current controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Yung S.

    2004-06-15

    A superconducting fault current controller/current controller employs a superconducting-shielded core reactor (SSCR) with a variable impedance in a secondary circuit to control current in a primary circuit such as an electrical distribution system. In a second embodiment, a variable current source is employed in a secondary circuit of an SSCR to control current in the primary circuit. In a third embodiment, both a variable impedance in one secondary circuit and a variable current source in a second circuit of an SSCR are employed for separate and independent control of current in the primary circuit.

  10. Limited Test Ban Treaty

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Detection System (USNDS), which monitors compliance with the international Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT). The LTBT, signed by 108 countries, prohibits nuclear testing in the...

  11. Commercial Current Promotions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture This page features all current special promotions for commercial programs....

  12. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  13. CONTROL LIMITER DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeShong, J.A.

    1960-03-01

    A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.

  14. Current to Current Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 1803 Sector: Ocean Product: Developing a technology which generates power from ocean currents : Submersible Power Generators (SPG). Coordinates: 44.446275,...

  15. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected ...

  16. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

    1959-03-31

    A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.

  17. Current measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, David A.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  18. Current measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  19. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  20. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  1. Current measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  2. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  3. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  4. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  5. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  6. About Direct Current

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about Direct Current -- a podcast about the energy that lights our homes, powers our lives and shapes our world.

  7. CIRCUITS FOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    Circuits are presented for measurement of a logarithmic scale of current flowing in a high impedance. In one form of the invention the disclosed circuit is in combination with an ionization chamber to measure lonization current. The particular circuit arrangement lncludes a vacuum tube having at least one grid, an ionization chamber connected in series with a high voltage source and the grid of the vacuum tube, and a d-c amplifier feedback circuit. As the ionization chamber current passes between the grid and cathode of the tube, the feedback circuit acts to stabilize the anode current, and the feedback voltage is a measure of the logaritbm of the ionization current.

  8. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  9. Electric current locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul E.; Woodside, Charles Rigel

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  10. Timminco Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Timminco Limited Place: Toronto, Ontario, Canada Zip: M5H 1J9 Product: Canadian manufacturer of magnesium and silicon; operates its...

  11. Current Solicitations - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE-RL Contracts/Procurements Current Solicitations DOE-RL Contracts/Procurements RL Contracts & Procurements Home Prime Contracts Current Solicitations Other Sources DOE RL Contracting Officers DOE RL Contracting Officer Representatives Current Solicitations Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size The Richland Operations Office uses Fedconnect (https://www.fedconnect.net) to post solicitations on FedBizOps. Quotes/proposals are also received using

  12. RF current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  13. Current Annualized Request

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Appropriation FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Current Annualized Request CR % Energy And Water Development, And Related Agencies Energy Programs Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  14. Current Testbed Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Testbed Research Previous Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Dark Fiber Testbed Federated Testbed Circuits Test Circuit Service Performance (perfSONAR)...

  15. Defining coiled tubing limits -- A new approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, K.R.; Sathuvalli, U.B.; Stone, L.R.; Wolhart, S.

    1996-12-31

    The burst, collapse and axial load operating limits for Coiled Tubing (CT) are currently established using the Von Mises incipient yield criterion. This criterion has historically been used to calculate the limits for oil country tubular goods (OCTG). The limits according to this criterion are based on the point at which the pipe material reaches a load state in which it begins to yield. Because of the bending that occurs when the CT is spooled on and off the reel, and when it is bent over the guide arch, the CT is already far beyond the yield point before it enters a well. Thus, this criterion does not really apply to CT. This paper describes a research project currently in progress. The purpose of this project is to define a new set of CT limits based on criteria other than incipient yield. This new approach to setting CT operating limits takes into account the internal residual stresses in the CT which are a consequence of repeated bending cycles and the accompanying change in material properties.

  16. Ultracapacitor current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jerabek, Elihu Calfin (Glenmont, NY); Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-10-16

    An ultracapacitor having two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. At least one of the current collectors comprises a conductive metal substrate coated with a metal nitride, carbide or boride coating.

  17. Current level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  18. Superconducting current transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil.

  19. Voltage controlled current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  20. Confidence limits and their errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendran Raja

    2002-03-22

    Confidence limits are common place in physics analysis. Great care must be taken in their calculation and use especially in cases of limited statistics. We introduce the concept of statistical errors of confidence limits and argue that not only should limits be calculated but also their errors in order to represent the results of the analysis to the fullest. We show that comparison of two different limits from two different experiments becomes easier when their errors are also quoted. Use of errors of confidence limits will lead to abatement of the debate on which method is best suited to calculate confidence limits.

  1. A brightness exceeding simulated Langmuir limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakasuji, Mamoru

    2013-08-15

    When an excitation of the first lens determines a beam is parallel beam, a brightness that is 100 times higher than Langmuir limit is measured experimentally, where Langmuir limits are estimated using a simulated axial cathode current density which is simulated based on a measured emission current. The measured brightness is comparable to Langmuir limit, when the lens excitation is such that an image position is slightly shorter than a lens position. Previously measured values of brightness for cathode apical radii of curvature 20, 60, 120, 240, and 480 ?m were 8.7, 5.3, 3.3, 2.4, and 3.9 times higher than their corresponding Langmuir limits, respectively, in this experiment, the lens excitation was such that the lens and the image positions were 180 mm and 400 mm, respectively. From these measured brightness for three different lens excitation conditions, it is concluded that the brightness depends on the first lens excitation. For the electron gun operated in a space charge limited condition, some of the electrons emitted from the cathode are returned to the cathode without having crossed a virtual cathode. Therefore, method that assumes a Langmuir limit defining method using a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities may need to be revised. For the condition in which the values of the exceeding the Langmuir limit are measured, the simulated trajectories of electrons that are emitted from the cathode do not cross the optical axis at the crossover, thus the law of sines may not be valid for high brightness electron beam systems.

  2. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  3. Current Financial Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Current hydrogen-related funding opportunities through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office are listed below. The Fuel Cell Technologies Office offers opportunities for both financial and technical assistance.

  4. Current control circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S.

    2005-03-15

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor (30), a servo device (40), and a current source (50). The servo device (40) is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor (30) by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base (32b). The current source (150) is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor (30). A first device (24) provides an input signal to an electrical node (70) positioned between the emitter (32e) of the transistor (30) and the current source (50). A second device (26) receives an output signal from the collector (32c) of the transistor (30).

  5. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  6. Current Annualized Request

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Organization FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Current Annualized Request CR % National Security Weapons Activities* 7,214,834 7,557,342 7,868,409 +311,067 +4.1% Defense Nuclear...

  7. Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs.

  8. Superconducting current transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    The construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor is described. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil. The C shaped half toroids can be separated and brought precisely together from outside the cryostat. The Hall probe is energized and sensed by a lock-in amplifier whose output drives a bipolar power supply which feeds the compensating coil. The output is the voltage across a resistor in this feedback circuit. Currents of up to 10 kA can be measured with a precision of 150 mA. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Beam current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.

    1984-09-28

    A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.

  10. Beam current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  11. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  12. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2013-01-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  13. Mutual inductance current transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemminger, R.C.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a mutual inductance differential current transducer for producing an analog voltage output signal in response to, and having a level varying linearly with respect to, and having a level varying linearly with respect to, the magnitude and rate of change of a flow of current supplied by an alternating current power line distribution system. It comprises: an elongated current conductor having first and second ends and a substantially straight axial portion therebetween of a predetermined length and defining a central axis; a generally cylindrical sleeve of conductive material of substantially the predetermined length, received coaxially over the elongated current conductor in the straight axial portion thereof and electrically insulated therefrom; a toroidal sensor coil defining a central axis and having an axial length less than approximately one-third the length of the generally cylindrical sleeve and an internal diameter substantially the same as the outer diameter of the cylindrical sleeve and sufficient to position the coil coaxially on the cylindrical sleeve. The coil being positioned coaxially thereon and generally centrally of the length thereof.

  14. An alternative approach to achieving water quality-based limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, C.M.; Graeser, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    Since May 1982, members of the Iron and Steel Industry have been required to meet effluent limits based on Best Available Technology (BAT) for a process water discharge to receiving stream. US Steel Clairton Works has been successful in meeting these limits in the last three years; however, the current regulatory thrust is toward more stringent limits based on water quality. In cases of smaller streams such as the receiving stream for Clairton Works` process outfall, these limits can be very rigid. This paper will discuss the alternative approaches investigated to meet the new more stringent limits including the solution chosen.

  15. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  16. Clean Currents | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Currents Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Clean Currents Name: Clean Currents Address: 155 Gibbs St. Suite 425 Place: Rockville, Maryland Zip: 20850 Sector: Wind energy...

  17. Motor Current Data Collection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-01

    The Motor Current Data Collection System (MCDCS) uses IBM compatible PCs to collect, process, and store Motor Current Signature information.

  18. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  19. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturatedmore » island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.« less

  20. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  1. Fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  2. Solfex Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solfex Limited Address: Energy Arena Bannister Hall Works Off Shop Lane, Higher Walton Preston, Lancashire PR5 4DZ Place: Preston, United...

  3. Lysanda Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CM8 3GA Product: US-based vehicle engineering consultancy with a technology capable of playing a role in vehicle emissions management. References: Lysanda Limited1 This...

  4. PURAC Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technology and project management company in the environment sector and specialising in water, wastewater and municpal waste treatment. References: PURAC Limited1 This article...

  5. Excess Surface Area in Bioelectrochemical Systems Causes ion Transport Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Davenport, Emily K.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: (i) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200mM increased current linearly up to a total of þ273% vs. 0mM NaCl under advective conditions; (ii) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and (iii) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steadystate current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant.

  6. Limited Conditions of Operations Tracking Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-12-17

    The Lco tracking program is a computer based solution for tracking time limited action items for Limited Conditions of Operation (LCO) for nuclear and industrial processes. This use is not limited to any process except those not requiring specific action steps and times. The visual and audible assistance the LCO Tracking Program provides significantly reduces the chance of missing crucial actions required for safe operation of any facility in time of limited operations. The LCOmore » Tracking Program maintains all applicable action steps and times for each limited condition for the facility in its data base. The LCO Tracking Program is used to enter that condition by number, and the data base provides the applicble action steps and starts tracking their times based on the time the LCO was entered. The LCO display graphically displays, by colored bar charts, the time expired/time remaining of each specific action item. At 60% time expired, the bar chart turns yellow to caution personnel and then turns red at 90% time expired. Then an audible alarm is sounded at 95% as a warning, to finish or accomplish the required actions to satisfy the requirements. These warning and alarm limits are modifiable by the user and can be set at different values for each action. The display file is dynamic in function, checking every minute, and responds in real time to changes to the LCO Tracking Form file, providing the visual and audible warnings as to the status of the action steps chosen for display. The LCO Tracking Program efficiently tracks action times in minutes or days, up to 2 years. All current LCO''s are easily documentated using the LCO Tracking Form file with ease of printing and disposition. The Lco Tracking Program is designed as a user friendly program with navigational buttons to simplify use.« less

  7. Current status of APEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betts, R.R.

    1993-10-01

    The ATLAS Positron Experiment (APEX) is designed to investigate narrow structures observed in the energy spectra of positions and positron-electron coincidences produced in collisions of high Z ions with high Z targets at Coulomb barrier energies. The apparatus consists of a large diameter uniform-field solenoid mounted transverse to the beam direction. Scattered heavy ions are detected in a gas-counter array. Electrons and positrons transversing the solenoid are detected in highly segmented silicon arrays surrounded by position sensitive NaI detectors for positron identification. The concept of APEX and the current status of the apparatus will be discussed.

  8. Current Annualized Request

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appropriation FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Current Annualized Request CR $ % Energy And Water Development, And Related Agencies Energy Programs Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 1,780,548 1,820,713 2,775,700 +995,152 +55.9% Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability 136,178 139,954 169,015 +32,837 +24.1% Nuclear Energy 760,466 770,075 735,460 -25,006 -3.3% Race to the Top for Energy Efficiency and Grid Modernization 0 0 200,000 +200,000 N/A Fossil Energy Programs Fossil Energy Research and

  9. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

    2009-02-09

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

  10. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  11. Tritium Detection Methods and Limitations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... GASES * RF AND EMF * AC AND BATTERY POWER FLUCTUATIONS * TEMPERATURE SHOCK * MECHANICAL SHOCK * GEOTROPISM CALCULATIONS * CURRENT FLOW IN ION CHAMBERS * ION COLLECTION ...

  12. Impact Limiter Tests of Four Commonly Used Materials And Limiter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of four impact limiter materials was tested at four different load rates, quasi-statically, 44 feet per second (ftjs), (a 9 meter drop test per lOCF71), 33 fts and 22 fts. ...

  13. Current Annualized Request

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Current Annualized Request CR $ % National Security Weapons Activities* 7,214,834 7,557,342 7,868,409 +311,067 +4.1% Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation 2,300,950 2,409,930 2,140,142 -160,808 -7.0% Naval Reactors 1,080,000 1,086,610 1,246,134 +166,134 +15.4% Office of the Administrator 410,000 412,509 397,784 -12,216 -3.0% Total, National Nuclear Security Administration 11,005,784 11,466,391 11,652,469 +304,177 +2.8% Energy and Environment Energy Efficiency and

  14. Currents, Berkeley Lab's Biweekly Newspaper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Currents Index A-Z Index Search Phone Book Comments Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Search Currents Back Issues (1994 to present) Search Lab science articles...

  15. Plaxica Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: SW7 2AZ Product: UK-based technology company developing a new generation of polymers derived from sustainable resources. References: Plaxica Limited1 This article is a...

  16. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  17. NONDESTRUCTIVE EDDY CURRENT TESTING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, C.J. Jr.

    1961-05-23

    An eddy current testing device is described for measuring metal continuity independent of probe-to-sample spacing. An inductance would test probe is made a leg of a variable impedance bridge and the bridge is balanced with the probe away from the sample. An a-c signal is applied across the input terminals of the bridge circuit. As the probe is brought into proximity with the metal sample, the resulting impedance change in the probe gives an output signal from the bridge whose phase angle is proportional to the sample continuity and amplitude is proportional to the probe-tosample spacing. The output signal from the bridge is applied to a compensating network where, responsive to amplitude changes from the bridge output signal, a constant phased voltage output is maintained when the sample is continuous regardless of probe-to-sample spacing. A phase meter calibrated to read changes in resistivity of the metal sample measures the phase shift between the output of the compensating network and the original a-c signal applied to the bridge.

  18. Intensity limitations in compact H{sup minus} cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baartman, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    At TRIUMF, we have demonstrated 2.5 mA in a compact H{sup -} cyclotron. It is worthwhile to explore possibility of going to even higher intensity. In small cyclotrons, vertical focusing vanishes at the center. The space charge tune shift further reduces vertical focusing, thus determining an upper limit on instantaneous current. Limit on average current is of course also dependent upon phase acceptance, but this can be made quite large in an H{sup -} cyclotron. Longitudinal space charge on the first turn can reduce the phase acceptance as well. For finite ion source brightness, another limit comes from bunching efficiency in presence of space charge forces. We present methods of calculating and optimizing these limits. In particular, we show that it is possible to achieve 10mA in a 50 MeV compact H{sup -} cyclotron.

  19. Limitations on area compression of beams from pierce guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, V.P.; Nezhevenko, O.A. [Omega-P Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-2008 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    An important limitation for rf sources such as klystrons and magnicons, designed for 10{close_quote}s of MW power outputs at cm-wavelengths, is the transverse electron beam size. Cathode current density limits require high beam area compressions to obtain small transverse beam areas for fixed currents. This paper discusses the limitations to high beam area compression, namely geometrical aberrations and thermal spread in transverse velocities. Compensation can oftentimes be introduced for aberrations, but thermal velocity spread presents a fundamental limitation. Examples where subtle compensation strategies were employed are discussed for three guns with 100 MW beam power, and area compressions greater than 2000:1. Two of these guns have already been built. A clear determination of effective cathode temperature has yet to be found experimentally, but possible means to measure it are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  1. BNL-44836 COUNTER-CURRENT FLOW LIMITATION IN THIN RECTANGULAR£Ji...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    power reactor, CCFL is related to the ability of the emergency core cool- ing systems (ECCS) to deliver sufficient coolant to the core during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) 2. ...

  2. Oscillatory nonhmic current drive for maintaining a plasma current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method of the invention maintain a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

  3. Oscillatory nonohomic current drive for maintaining a plasma current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are described for maintaining a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

  4. Galvanic currents and hydrogen permeation currents caused by galvanic coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armacanquil, M.E. ); Harasyn, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper reports on galvanic coupling and hydrogen permeation experiments performed in a Devanathan-Stachurski cell to measure simultaneously the galvanic currents and the hydrogen permeation currents in an attempt to determine the extent of hydrogen charging into noble metals as a result of galvanic coupling. Large amounts of hydrogen permeated through the more noble element of the couple. The magnitude of the hydrogen permeation flux varied depending on the galvanic coupling conditions. No simple direct relationship between galvanic currents and hydrogen permeation currents was observed, although large hydrogen permeation currents were usually developed whenever large galvanic currents were established.

  5. Belize Electricity Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Belize Electricity Limited Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Belize Electricity Limited Name: Belize Electricity Limited Abbreviation: BEL Address: PO Box 327 Place: Belize City,...

  6. V Fuels Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: V-Fuels Biodiesel Limited Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based biodiesel producers. References: V-Fuels Biodiesel Limited1...

  7. Coastal ocean current response to storm winds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.L.

    1982-03-20

    Design of offshore structures requires knowledge of the appropriate current profile to be used in conjunction with the design wave. Accurate determination of the current profile will depend on reliable current models. Vertical transfer of momentum in storm-driven current models is commonly treated either by using eddy viscosity or by assuming 'slab-like' mixed layer flow. These two fundamentally different approaches predict different current speeds and profiles during severe storms. The existing data base is inadequate to determine which approach is better, but most existing data sets are subject to one or more of four limitations that can lead one improperly to interpret the data as supporting the existence of current velocity shear in otherwise uniform mixed layers. One-dimensional slab models are found to compare favorably with observed wind-driven currents at the Ocean Test Structure in the Gulf of Mexico (deployed in 20 m deep water). By using some reasonably simple assumptions, these slab models are able to replicate many of the significantly features of the wide range of different responses. The character of the response appears to depend on an interaction of stratification and topography. Barotropic responses are characteristic of typical coastal responses; current oriented longshore and are in phase with the wind. Baroclinic responses are dominantly inertial as might be expected in the deep sea, but with an additional near-bottom cross-shore counter flow. The structure of one observed barotropic response is compared to detail to predictions of both slab and eddy viscosity models and found consistent with a slab model and inconsistent with eddy viscosity models. Shear observed during this event was not significantly different from zero, but was significantly below estimated shear predictions of four eddy viscosity models given the peak 0.4 N/m/sup 2/ wind stress.

  8. Current Opportunities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financial Opportunities » Current Opportunities Current Opportunities No funding opportunities available at this time. Solid-State Lighting Home About the Solid-State Lighting Program Research & Development SSL Basics Using LEDs Information Resources Financial Opportunities Current Opportunities DOE Selections Related Opportunities

  9. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  10. Tritium Detection Methods and Limitations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Detection Methods and Limitations Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 2014 Tom Voss, Northern New Mexico DOE-HDBK-1105-2002 RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING FOR TRITIUM FACILITIES U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1105-2002 Radiological Training for Tritium Facilities U.S. Department of Energy, Radiological Control Programs for Special Tritium Compounds, DOE-STD- draft, Washington, D.C.

  11. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  12. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  13. High current plasma electron emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F.; Craig, D.

    1995-07-01

    A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications.

  14. Inductance due to spin current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-21

    The inductance of spintronic devices that transport charge neutral spin currents is discussed. It is known that in a media that contains charge neutral spins, a time-varying electric field induces a spin current. We show that since the spin current itself produces an electric field, this implies existence of inductance and electromotive force when the spin current changes with time. The relations between the electromotive force and the corresponding flux, which is a vector calculated by the cross product of electric field and the trajectory of the device, are clarified. The relativistic origin generally renders an extremely small inductance, which indicates the advantage of spin current in building low inductance devices. The same argument also explains the inductance due to electric dipole current and applies to physical dipoles consist of polarized bound charges.

  15. Current

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Currency Conversion and Energy Projections: Some Questions and Answers Vipin Arora November 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES November 2015 Vipin Arora | U.S. Energy Information

  16. DEEP WATER ISOTOPIC CURRENT ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, W.H.

    1964-04-21

    A deepwater isotopic current analyzer, which employs radioactive isotopes for measurement of ocean currents at various levels beneath the sea, is described. The apparatus, which can determine the direction and velocity of liquid currents, comprises a shaft having a plurality of radiation detectors extending equidistant radially therefrom, means for releasing radioactive isotopes from the shaft, and means for determining the time required for the isotope to reach a particular detector. (AEC)

  17. Current Awards | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Laser User Facilities Program Current Awards Current Awards National Laser Users' Facility Grant Program Current Awards Under Construction

  18. Current Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Current Electric Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology...

  19. Current | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To normalize competing...

  20. Property:CurrentMeasurement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type String Description MHK Current Measurement Categories Used in FormTemplate MHKSensor & MHKInstrument Allows Values Current Statistics (Current);Turbulence (Current);1D...

  1. Toroidal band limiter for a plasma containment device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, George G.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a toroidal plasma confinement device having poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields for confining a toroidal plasma column with a plasma current induced therein along an endless, circular equilibrium axis in a torus vacuum cavity wherein the improvement comprises the use of a toroidal plasma band limiter mounted within the vacuum cavity in such a manner as to ensure that the plasma energy is distributed more uniformly over the limiter surface thereby avoiding intense local heating of the limiter while at the same time substantially preventing damage to the plasma containment wall of the cavity by the energetic particles diffusing out from the confined plasma. A plurality of poloidal plasma ring limiters are also utilized for containment wall protection during any disruptive instability that might occur during operation of the device.

  2. On the density limit in the helicon plasma sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotelnikov, Igor A.

    2014-12-15

    Existence of the density limit in the helicon plasma sources is revisited. The low- and high-frequency regimes of a helicon plasma source operation are distinguished. In the low-frequency regime with ω<√(ω{sub ci}ω{sub ce}), the density limit is deduced from the Golant-Stix criterion of the accessibility of the lower hybrid resonance. In the high-frequency case, ω>√(ω{sub ci}ω{sub ce}), an appropriate limit is given by the Shamrai-Taranov criterion. Both these criteria are closely related to the phenomenon of the coalescence of the helicon wave with the Trivelpiece-Gould mode. We draw a conclusion that the derived density limits are not currently achieved in existing devices, perhaps, because of high energy cost of gas ionization.

  3. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    2005-04-19

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  4. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  5. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  6. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  7. United Group Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Group Limited Place: Perth, Western Australia, Australia Zip: 6001 Product: The United Group Resources (UGL) division is an EPC and...

  8. Greenergy Biofuels Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuels Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Greenergy Biofuels Limited Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: WC1V 7BD Sector: Biofuels Product: Imports, blends...

  9. Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited Place: Mumbai, India Zip: 400 021 Sector: Biomass Product: Indian cement company. the company...

  10. Transmission Capital Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transmission Capital Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Transmission Capital Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2V 7HR Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product:...

  11. Impact Capital Partners Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Partners Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Impact Capital Partners Limited Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: CA 90067-1509 Product: Los Angeles-based, investment...

  12. Power Projects Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Projects Limited Address: PO Box 25456 Panama Street Place: Wellington Zip: 6146 Region: New Zealand Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  13. Catamount Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Catamount Energy Limited Place: United Kingdom Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind power project developer working on projects in Scotland....

  14. Central Electronics Limited CEL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Limited CEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Central Electronics Limited (CEL) Place: Sahibabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 201010 Sector: Solar Product: String...

  15. Nufcor International Limited Nufcor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited (Nufcor) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Services Product: UK-based uranium marketing services company. References: Nufcor International Limited (Nufcor)1 This article...

  16. Mauktika Energy Limited MEL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mauktika Energy Limited MEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mauktika Energy Limited (MEL) Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500033 Sector: Renewable Energy Product:...

  17. Voith Hydro Wavegen Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Voith Hydro Wavegen Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Voith Hydro Wavegen Limited Region: United Kingdom Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.wavegen.co.uk This...

  18. Cape Systems Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cape Systems Limited Place: Rock Sound, Bahamas Sector: Services Product: Offers installation and site surveying services for clean...

  19. SRSL Ethanol Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SRSL Ethanol Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: SRSL Ethanol Limited Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Product: Mumbai-based ethanol subsidiary of Shree Renuka Sugars...

  20. Universal Carbon Credits Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Universal Carbon Credits Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Universal Carbon Credits Limited Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC3A6DF Sector: Carbon Product:...

  1. Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enterprises Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: WC2A 2AZ Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Trust Enterprises...

  2. Carbon Limiting Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limiting Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Limiting Technologies Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: N1 8HA Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based...

  3. Clipper Windpower Europe Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clipper Windpower Europe Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clipper Windpower Europe Limited Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 7TJ Sector: Wind energy...

  4. Rix Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rix Biodiesel Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rix Biodiesel Limited Place: Hull, United Kingdom Zip: HU8 7JR Product: Manufacture, blends and resells biodiesel....

  5. Tidal Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tidal Energy Limited (TEL) Place: Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom Zip: CF23 8RS Product: Tidal stream device developer. Coordinates:...

  6. Harvard Dedicated Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Harvard Dedicated Energy Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Harvard Dedicated Energy Limited Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: (617) 495-5560 Website: www.energyandfaciliti...

  7. BFC Solutions Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BFC Solutions Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: BFC Solutions Limited Place: Taunton, England, United Kingdom Zip: TA1 PEJ Sector: Carbon Product: Somerset-based...

  8. WaikatoLink Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: WaikatoLink Limited Place: New Zealand Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Individual Angel network )...

  9. China Innovation Investment Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innovation Investment Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Innovation Investment Limited Place: Hong Kong Sector: Solar Product: Hong Kong-listed alternative energy...

  10. Renewable Fuels Limited RFL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited RFL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Fuels Limited (RFL) Place: York, United Kingdom Zip: YO19 6ET Sector: Biomass Product: Supplies various biomass fuels and...

  11. United Biofuels Private Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Biofuels Private Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Biofuels Private Limited Place: Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Biomass Product: India-based owner and operator...

  12. Ocean current wave interaction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, J.G.

    1980-09-20

    A numerical model has been developed to incorporate refraction of ocean surface gravity waves by major ocean currents. The model is initialized with directional wave spectra and verified with aircraft synthetic aperture radar X band spectra, laser profilometer spectra, and pitch and roll buoy data. Data collected during the Marineland test experiment are used as surface truth observations for the wave-current study. Evidence of Gulf Stream refraction and trapping of surface waves as well as caustics in the current is shown and modeled assuming a nonuniform Gulf Stream distribution. Frequency and directional resolution of the wave spectral distribution and the current refraction patterns illustrates the need for further study of ocean current-wave interaction in wave refraction studies.

  13. METHOD OF PEAK CURRENT MEASUREMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, G.E.

    1959-01-20

    The measurement and recording of peak electrical currents are described, and a method for utilizing the magnetic field of the current to erase a portion of an alternating constant frequency and amplitude signal from a magnetic mediums such as a magnetic tapes is presented. A portion of the flux from the current carrying conductor is concentrated into a magnetic path of defined area on the tape. After the current has been recorded, the tape is played back. The amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape immediately adjacent the defined flux area and the amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape within the area are compared with the amplitude of the signal from an unerased portion of the tape to determine the percentage of signal erasure, and thereby obtain the peak value of currents flowing in the conductor.

  14. Testing of Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; R. Kaita; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; T. Gray; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith; D. Rodgers

    2004-07-30

    Part of the development of liquid metals as a first wall or divertor for reactor applications must involve the investigation of plasma-liquid metal interactions in a functioning tokamak. Most of the interest in liquid-metal walls has focused on lithium. Experiments with lithium limiters have now been conducted in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Initial experiments used a liquid-lithium rail limiter (L3) built by the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed some reduction of impurities in CDX-U plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. While no reduction in recycling was observed with the L3, which had a plasma-wet area of approximately 40 cm2, subsequent experiments with a larger area fully toroidal lithium limiter demonstrated significant reductions in both recycling and in impurity levels. Two series of experiments with the toroidal limiter have now be en performed. In each series, the area of exposed, clean lithium was increased, until in the latest experiments the liquid-lithium plasma-facing area was increased to 2000 cm2. Under these conditions, the reduction in recycling required a factor of eight increase in gas fueling in order to maintain the plasma density. The loop voltage required to sustain the plasma current was reduced from 2 V to 0.5 V. This paper summarizes the technical preparations for lithium experiments and the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations. The mechanical response of the liquid metal to induced currents, especially through contact with the plasma, is discussed. The effect of the lithium-filled toroidal limiter on plasma performance is also briefly described.

  15. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  16. Current Awards | National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Current Awards Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) Program Current Awards Under Construction

  17. Current Awards | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Current Awards Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) Program Current Awards Under Construction

  18. Current Awards | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Current Awards National Laser Users' Facility Grant Program Current Awards Under Construction

  19. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  20. DTE Energy- Solar Currents Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Note: The Solar Currents program has fulfilled phase two of the pilot program of additional 2 megawatts of customer-owned solar projects by 2015, and is no longer accepting applications. 

  1. Magneto-optic current sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanagan, Michael T.; Valsko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Fisher, Brandon L.; Welp, Ulrich

    2003-10-07

    An optical current transducer configured to sense current in the conductor is disclosed. The optical current transducer includes a light source and a polarizer that generates linearly polarized light received from a the light source. The light is communicated to a magneto-optic garnet that includes, among other elements, bismuth, iron and oxygen and is coupled to the conductor. The magneto-optic garnet is configured to rotate the polarization of the linearly polarized light received from the polarizer. The optical current transducer also includes an analyzer in optical communication with the magneto-optic garnet. The analyzer detects the rotation of the linearly polarized light caused by the magneto-optic garnet.

  2. Monitoring Current, Voltage and Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring Current, Voltage and Power in Photovoltaic Systems Anton Driesse 1 , Joshua S. Stein 2 , Daniel Riley 2 , Craig Carmignani 2 1 PV Performance Labs, Freiburg, Germany 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Abstract - Accurate photovoltaic system performance monitoring is critical for profitable long-term operation. Irradiance, temperature, power, current and voltage signals contain rapid fluctuations that are not observable by typical monitoring systems. Nevertheless

  3. electromagnetics, eddy current, computer codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-03-12

    TORO Version 4 is designed for finite element analysis of steady, transient and time-harmonic, multi-dimensional, quasi-static problems in electromagnetics. The code allows simulation of electrostatic fields, steady current flows, magnetostatics and eddy current problems in plane or axisymmetric, two-dimensional geometries. TORO is easily coupled to heat conduction and solid mechanics codes to allow multi-physics simulations to be performed.

  4. MHK technology developments include current

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology developments include current energy conversion (CEC) devices, for example, hydrokinetic turbines that extract power from water currents (riverine, tidal, and ocean) and wave energy conversion (WEC) devices that extract power from wave motion. Sandia's MHK research leverages decades of experience in engineering, design, and analysis of wind power technologies, and its vast research complex, including high- performance computing (HPC), advanced materials and coatings, nondestructive

  5. A recipe for the construction of confidence limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iain A Bertram et al.

    2000-04-12

    In this note, the authors present the recipe recommended by the Search Limits Committee for the construction of confidence intervals for the use of D0 collaboration. In another note, currently in preparation, they present the rationale for this recipe, a critique of the current literature on this topic, and several examples of the use of the method. This note is intended to fill the need of the collaboration to have a reference available until the more complete note is finished. Section 2 introduces the notation used in this note, and Section 3 contains the suggested recipe.

  6. Current Status of the WArP Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szelc, A. M.

    2009-04-17

    The WArP Collaboration is getting ready to run the WArP 100 liter detector in the Underground laboratory in Gran Sasso, Italy. The new detector, scheduled to run in 2008, should improve the current sensitivity limits by a factor of 10. Meanwhile, an active R and D program is being conducted. The highlights of this program, namely the runs with Argon depleted in the radioactive isotope {sup 39}Ar currently in preparation and the measurements of the effects of contamination with Nitrogen and Oxygen on the Liquid Argon effective light yield will be presented as well as the current status of the 100 liter detector.

  7. Global limits and interference patterns in dark matter direct detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catena, Riccardo; Gondolo, Paolo

    2015-08-13

    We compare the general effective theory of one-body dark matter nucleon interactions to current direct detection experiments in a global multidimensional statistical analysis. We derive exclusion limits on the 28 isoscalar and isovector coupling constants of the theory, and show that current data place interesting constraints on dark matter-nucleon interaction operators usually neglected in this context. We characterize the interference patterns that can arise in dark matter direct detection from pairs of dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, or from isoscalar and isovector components of the same operator. We find that commonly neglected destructive interference effects weaken standard direct detection exclusion limits by up to one order of magnitude in the coupling constants.

  8. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  9. Eddy current losses in ferromagnetic laminations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serpico, C.; Visone, C.; Mayergoyz, I. D.; Basso, V.; Miano, G.

    2000-05-01

    It is demonstrated through the comparison of analytical, numerical, and experimental results that the existence of excess eddy current losses can be explained by the peculiar nature of the nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in magnetically nonlinear laminations. The essence of this peculiar nature is that nonlinear diffusion occurs as inward progress of almost rectangular profiles of magnetic flux density of variable height. Approximating actual profiles of magnetic flux density by rectangular ones, the problem of nonlinear diffusion can be treated analytically by using a simple model. The accuracy and the limit of applicability of the rectangular profile model are discussed by comparing its predictions with finite elements numerical solutions of nonlinear diffusion equation as well as with experimental results. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Hot Plasma Partial to Bootstrap Current

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hot Plasma Partial to Bootstrap Current Hot Plasma Partial to Bootstrap Current New calculations shed light on self-generated current, which could help reduce fusion reactor costs ...

  11. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Current Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Publications NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Following are the current publications for the U.S. Department of Energy. Current Publications ...

  12. DNA Origami: A History and Current Perspective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Origami: A History and Current Perspective Authors: Nangreave, J., Han, D., Liu, Y., and Yan, H. Title: DNA Origami: A History and Current Perspective Source: Current Opinion in ...

  13. Force As A Momentum Current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-07-28

    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  14. GenDrive Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GenDrive Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: GenDrive Limited Place: Cambridge, United Kingdom Zip: CB23 3GY Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Developing...

  15. Mistral Invest Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mistral Invest Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mistral Invest Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1U 7DW Sector: Wind energy Product: Private Equity Fund aiming...

  16. Zebec Biogas Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zebec Biogas Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zebec Biogas Limited Place: Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: G12 9JD Product: Sotland-based biogas company. The firm is...

  17. Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  18. Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  19. EU Energy Wind Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: EU Energy (Wind) Limited Place: Central Milton Keynes, United Kingdom Zip: K9 1LH Sector: Wind energy Product: The company will be...

  20. Lead Hero Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hero Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lead Hero Limited Place: China Product: China-based company that holds a 100% interest in XiAn Lv Jing and a 15.05% interest in...

  1. Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1J 8DY Product: London-based company focused on trading of biodiesel....

  2. IT Power Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IT Power Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: IT Power Limited Place: Basingstoke, England, United Kingdom Zip: RG24 8AG Sector: Renewable Energy Product: IT Power is a...

  3. Limited English Proficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Limited English Proficiency Limited English Proficiency On August 11, 2000, President Clinton signed Executive Order 13166, "Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency." The Executive Order requires federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to examine the programs and services they provide, to determine whether there is a need for language assistance for persons with Limited English proficiency (LEP) related to their programs and services, and

  4. Exorka International Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exorka International Limited is a specialist developer of low-temperature geothermal electricity generation, incorporated in England. References: Exorka International...

  5. Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Student Programs (505) 665-0987 Email Time limits The length of participation in the undergraduate program is limited to a maximum of six years for students pursuing a bachelor's degree and three years for students pursuing an

  6. EERE Success Story-Reaching New Limits with Solar Storage | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Reaching New Limits with Solar Storage EERE Success Story-Reaching New Limits with Solar Storage February 25, 2016 - 10:49am Addthis Sunlight reflected from heliostats is shining directly on the particle receiver, which is currently being tested on top of the solar tower at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility. Sunlight reflected from heliostats is shining directly on the particle receiver, which is currently being tested on top of the solar tower at the National Solar Thermal

  7. Current Obsession: AC/DC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Though humans have been harnessing water to perform work for thousands of years, the evolution of modern hydropower began in the late 1800’s–coincidentally at the same time that Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla were embroiled in a battle now known as the War of the Currents.

  8. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  9. Current Mode Logic Fan Out

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-05-07

    Current mode logic is used in high speed timing systems for particle accelerators due to the fast rise time of the electrical signal. This software provides the necessary documentation to produce multiple copies of a single input for distribution to multiple devices. This software supports the DOE mission by providing a method for producing high speed signals in accelerator timing systems.

  10. High critical current superconducting tapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-09-23

    Improvements in critical current capacity for superconducting film structures are disclosed and include the use of a superconducting RE-BCO layer including a mixture of rare earth metals, e.g., yttrium and europium, where the ratio of yttrium to europium in the RE-BCO layer ranges from about 3 to 1 to from about 1.5 to 1.

  11. Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

  12. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerenser, R.J.; Littauer, E.L.

    1983-08-23

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application. 6 figs.

  13. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerenser, Robert J.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1983-01-01

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application.

  14. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duann, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

  15. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1983-09-27

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current. 11 figs.

  16. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karlicek, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current.

  17. High bandwidth beam current monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Ekdahl, C.A. ); Cooper, R.G. . Santa Barbara Operations); Peterson, E.; Warn, C.E. . Las Vegas Operations)

    1993-01-01

    A stripline directional coupler beam current monitor capable of measuring the time structure of a 30-ps electron beam bunch has been developed. The time response performance of the monitor compares very well with Cherenkov light produced in quartz by the electron beam. The four-pickup monitor is now used on a routine basis for measuring the beam duration, tuning for optimized beam bunching, and centering the bunch in the beam pipe.

  18. High bandwidth beam current monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Peterson, E.; Warn, C.E.

    1993-06-01

    A stripline directional coupler beam current monitor capable of measuring the time structure of a 30-ps electron beam bunch has been developed. The time response performance of the monitor compares very well with Cherenkov light produced in quartz by the electron beam. The four-pickup monitor is now used on a routine basis for measuring the beam duration, tuning for optimized beam bunching, and centering the bunch in the beam pipe.

  19. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  20. For current viewing resistor loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Gregory R.; Hass, Jay B.

    2011-04-19

    The invention comprises a terminal unit for a flat cable comprising a BNC-PCB connector having a pin for electrically contacting one or more conducting elements of a flat cable, and a current viewing resistor having an opening through which the pin extends and having a resistor face that abuts a connector face of the BNC-PCB connector, wherein the device is a terminal unit for the flat cable.

  1. Current dependence of spin torque switching rate based on Fokker-Planck approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro Imamura, Hiroshi

    2014-05-07

    The spin torque switching rate of an in-plane magnetized system in the presence of an applied field is derived by solving the Fokker-Planck equation. It is found that three scaling currents are necessary to describe the current dependence of the switching rate in the low-current limit. The dependences of these scaling currents on the applied field strength are also studied.

  2. Interpretation of Synthetic Aperture Radar measurements of ocean currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rufenach, C.L.; Shuchman, R.A.; Lyzenga, D.R.

    1983-02-28

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) experiments hae been performed over the last few years to measure ocean currents inferred from shifts in the Doppler spectral peak. Interpretations of aircraft SAR measurements, when compared with limited surface values, tend to underestimate the currents by about 25%. A theory is developed that modifies the classical Doppler expression showing that the radar measurements are dependent on the radar processor (system) bandwidth and the received signal bandwidth. Measured bandwidths give a correction that increases the inferred current values by about 25%, bringing the measurements into good agreement. This new correction lends credence to the theory and increases the potential for application of SAR systems to future ocean current measurements. SAR measurements should include the determination of processor and signal bandwidths such that this correction can be applied.

  3. Green Heat Solutions Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Green Heat Solutions Limited Region: Scotland Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  4. Acquasol Infrastructure Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Acquasol Infrastructure Limited Place: Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Zip: 5000 Sector: Solar Product: Adelaide based solar thermal project and...

  5. Carnegie Wave Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Address: 1 124 Stirling Highway Place: North Fremantle Zip: 6159 Region: Australia Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Year Founded: 1993 Website: www.carnegiewave.com...

  6. Power Paper Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Paper Limited Place: Kiryat Arye, Petah Tikva, Israel Zip: 49130 Product: Power Paper is a developer of next-generation, printable...

  7. Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Limited MAHAGENCO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Limited (MAHAGENCO) Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400051 Product: Power generating firm planning to set up a...

  8. Hebei Hydroelectric Company Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China Zip: 50011 Sector: Hydro Product: China-based small hydro project developer. References: Hebei Hydroelectric Company Limited1 This...

  9. Proactive Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Product: Scotland-based renewable energy company that is developing a 5MW biogas plant in South Lanarkshire. References: Proactive Energy Limited1 This article is a...

  10. Colony Mills Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Lahore, Pakistan Sector: Solar Product: Yarn manufacturer, plans to set up solar thermal plant. References: Colony Mills Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help...