National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for acoustic doppler current

  1. High-resolution velocimetry in energetic tidal currents using a convergent-beam acoustic Doppler profiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellar, Brian; Harding, Samuel F.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2015-07-16

    An array of convergent acoustic Doppler velocimeters has been developed and tested for the high resolution measurement of three-dimensional tidal flow velocities in an energetic tidal site. This configuration has been developed to increase spatial resolution of velocity measurements in comparison to conventional acoustic Doppler profilers (ADPs) which characteristically use diverging acoustic beams emanating from a single instrument. This is achieved using converging acoustic beams with a sample volume at the focal point of 0.03 m3. The array is also able to simultaneously measure three-dimensional velocity components in a profile throughout the water column, and as such is referred to herein as a converging-beam acoustic Doppler profiler (CADP). Mid-depth profiling is achieved through integration of the sensor platform with the operational Alstom 1MW DeepGen-IV Tidal Turbine. This proof-of-concept paper outlines system configuration and comparison to measurements provided by co-installed reference instrumentation. Comparison of CADP to standard ADP velocity measurements reveals a mean difference of 8 mm/s, standard deviation of 18 mm/s, and order-of-magnitude reduction in realizable length-scale. CADP focal point measurements compared to a proximal single-beam reference show peak cross-correlation coefficient of 0.96 over 4.0 s averaging period and a 47% reduction in Doppler noise. The dual functionality of the CADP as a profiling instrument with a high resolution focal point make this configuration a unique and valuable advancement in underwater velocimetry enabling improved turbulence, resource and structural loading quantification and validation of numerical simulations. Alternative modes of operation have been implemented including noise-reducing bi-static sampling. Since waves are simultaneously measured it is expected that derivatives of this system will be a powerful tool in wave-current interaction studies.

  2. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Surveys of Velocity Downstream of Albeni Falls Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, William A.; Titzler, P. Scott; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Kallio, Sara E.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2010-09-30

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Seattle District, is studying the potential to locate fish bypass systems at Albeni Falls Dam. The USACE requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to survey velocity magnitude and direction in the dam tailrace. The empirical data collected will be used to support future numerical modeling, physical modeling, and evaluation of fish bypass system alternatives. In May 2010, PNNL conducted velocity surveys of the Albeni Falls Dam using a boat-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. The surveys were conducted over three days (May 25 through 27). During the survey period, total river discharge at the dam varied between 30.2 and 31.0 kcfs. A small amount of spill discharge, 2 kcfs, was present on two days (May 26 and 27). This report presents data plots showing measured velocity direction and magnitude averaged over the entire depth and over 5-ft depth increments from 5 to 30 ft.

  3. Noise correction of turbulent spectra obtained from Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Richmond, Marshall C.; Polagye, Brian

    2014-03-02

    Accurately estimated auto-spectral density functions are essential for characterization of turbulent flows, and they also have applications in computational fluid dynamics modeling, site and inflow characterization for hydrokinetic turbines, and inflow turbulence generation. The Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) provides single-point temporally resolved data, that are used to characterize turbulent flows in rivers, seas, and oceans. However, ADV data are susceptible to contamination from various sources, including instrument noise, which is the intrinsic limit to the accuracy of acoustic velocity measurements. Due to the presence of instrument noise, the spectra obtained are altered at high frequencies. The focus of this study is to develop a robust and effective method for accurately estimating auto-spectral density functions from ADV data by reducing or removing the spectral contribution derived from instrument noise. For this purpose, the “Noise Auto-Correlation” (NAC) approach was developed, which exploits the correlation properties of instrument noise to identify and remove its contribution from spectra. The spectra estimated using the NAC approach exhibit increased fidelity and a slope of -5/3 in the inertial range, which is typically observed for turbulent flows. Finally, this study also compares the effectiveness of low-pass Gaussian filters in removing instrument noise with that of the NAC approach. For the data used in this study, both the NAC and Gaussian filter approaches are observed to be capable of removing instrument noise at higher frequencies from the spectra. However, the NAC results are closer to the expected frequency power of -5/3 in the inertial sub-range.

  4. MHK ISDB/Instruments/Nortek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Doppler Velocimeter < MHK ISDB Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database Menu Home Search Add Instrument Add Sensor Add Company Community FAQ Help...

  5. MHK ISDB/Instruments/ARGONAUT Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Doppler Velocimeter < MHK ISDB Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database Menu Home Search Add Instrument Add Sensor Add Company Community FAQ Help...

  6. Measuring Turbulence from Moored Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters A Manual to Quantifying Inflow at Tidal Energy Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measuring Turbulence from Moored Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters A Manual to Quantifying Inflow at Tidal Energy Sites Levi Kilcher National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jim Thomson, Joe Talbert, and Alex DeKlerk University of Washington NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  7. MHK ISDB/Instruments/Sontek 10 MHz Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  8. Numerical performance analysis of acoustic Doppler velocity profilers in the wake of an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Harding, Samuel F.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ

    2015-09-01

    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for the characterization of flow conditions in the vicinity of both experimental and full scale marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is becoming increasingly prevalent. The computation of a three dimensional velocity measurement from divergent acoustic beams requires the assumption that the flow conditions are homogeneous between all beams at a particular axial distance from the instrument. In the near wake of MHK devices, the mean fluid motion is observed to be highly spatially dependent as a result of torque generation and energy extraction. This paper examines the performance of ADCP measurements in such scenarios through the modelling of a virtual ADCP (VADCP) instrument in the velocity field in the wake of an MHK turbine resolved using unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is achieved by sampling the CFD velocity field at equivalent locations to the sample bins of an ADCP and performing the coordinate transformation from beam coordinates to instrument coordinates and finally to global coordinates. The error in the mean velocity calculated by the VADCP relative to the reference velocity along the instrument axis is calculated for a range of instrument locations and orientations. The stream-wise velocity deficit and tangential swirl velocity caused by the rotor rotation lead to significant misrepresentation of the true flow velocity profiles by the VADCP, with the most significant errors in the transverse (cross-flow) velocity direction.

  9. Laser-Doppler acoustic probing of granular media with in-depth property gradient and varying pore pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodet, L.; Dhemaied, A.; Mourgues, R.; Tournat, V.; Rejiba, F.

    2012-05-24

    Non-contacting ultrasonic techniques recently proved to be efficient in the physical modeling of seismic-wave propagation at various application scales, as for instance in the context of geological analogue and seismic modeling. An innovative experimental set-up is proposed here to perform laser-Doppler acoustic probing of unconsolidated granular media with varying pore pressures. The preliminary experiments presented here provide reproducible results and exploitable data, thus validating both the proposed medium preparation and pressure gradient generation procedure.

  10. Feasibility of Tital and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass,...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to field in late September to collect data on current velocities 6 A bottom-mounted ... Velocity measurements are made using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) ...

  11. Ion acoustic solitons in Earth's upward current region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Main, D. S.; Scholz, C.; Newman, D. L.; Ergun, R. E.

    2012-07-15

    The formation and evolution of ion acoustic solitons in Earth's auroral upward current region are studied using one- and two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. The one-dimensional simulations are confined to processes that occur in the auroral cavity and include four plasma populations: hot electrons, H{sup +} and O{sup +} anti-earthward ion beams, and a hot H{sup +} background population. Ion acoustic solitons are found to form for auroral-cavity ion beams consistent with acceleration through double-layer (DL) potentials measured by FAST. A simplified one-dimensional model simulation is then presented in order to isolate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the ion acoustic soliton. Results of a two-dimensional simulation, which include both the ionosphere and the auroral cavity, separated by a low-altitude DL, are then presented in order to confirm that the soliton forms in a more realistic 2D geometry. The 2D simulation is initialized with a U-shaped potential structure that mimics the inferred shape of the low altitude transition region based on observations. In this simulation, a soliton localized perpendicular to the geomagnetic field is observed to form and reside next to the DL. Finally, the 2D simulation results are compared with FAST data and it is found that certain aspects of the data can be explained by assuming the presence of an ion acoustic soliton.

  12. MHK ISDB/Instruments/Sontek 16 MHz Micro Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  13. Filamentation instability of current-driven dust ion-acoustic waves in a collisional dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghtalab, T.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, Birjand University, Birjand 97179-63384 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A theoretical investigation has been made of the dust ion-acoustic filamentation instability in an unmagnetized current-driven dusty plasma by using the Lorentz transformation formulas. The effect of collision between the charged particles with neutrals and their thermal motion on this instability is considered. Developing the filamentation instability of the current-driven dust ion-acoustic wave allows us to determine the period and the establishment time of the filamentation structure and threshold for instability development.

  14. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Luyi

    2013-05-17

    Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly

  15. Filamentation instability of nonextensive current-driven plasma in the ion acoustic frequency range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M. Rastbood, E.; Niknam, A. R.

    2014-12-15

    The filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities of nonextensive current-driven plasma in the ion acoustic frequency range have been studied using the Lorentz transformation formulas. Based on the kinetic theory, the possibility of filamentation instability and its growth rate as well as the ion acoustic instability have been investigated. The results of the research show that the possibility and growth rate of these instabilities are significantly dependent on the electron nonextensive parameter and drift velocity. Besides, the increase of electrons nonextensive parameter and drift velocity lead to the increase of the growth rates of both instabilities. In addition, the wavelength region in which the filamentation instability occurs is more stretched in the presence of higher values of drift velocity and nonextensive parameter. Finally, the results of filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities have been compared and the conditions for filamentation instability to be dominant mode of instability have been presented.

  16. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever fivemore » minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.« less

  17. Surface acoustic wave amplification by direct current-voltage supplied to graphene film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Insepov, Z.; Emelin, E.; Kononenko, O.; Roshchupkin, D. V.; Tnyshtykbayev, K. B.; Baigarin, K. A.

    2015-01-12

    Using a high-resolution X-Ray diffraction measurement method, the surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of a Ca{sub 3}TaGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14} (CTGS) piezoelectric crystal was investigated, where an external current was driven across the graphene film. Here, we show that the application of the DC field leads to a significant enhancement of the SAW magnitude and, as a result, to amplification of the diffraction satellites. Amplification of 33.2 dB/cm for the satellite +1, and of 13.8 dB/cm for the satellite +2, at 471 MHz has been observed where the external DC voltage of +10 V was applied. Amplification of SAW occurs above a DC field much smaller than that of a system using bulk semiconductor. Theoretical estimates are in reasonable agreement with our measurements and analysis of experimental data for other materials.

  18. Doppler flowmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karplus, H.H.B.; Raptis, A.C.

    1981-11-13

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  19. Doppler flowmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karplus, Henry H. B.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  20. Current-driven ion-acoustic and potential-relaxation instabilities excited in plasma plume during electron beam welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trushnikov, D. N.; Mladenov, G. M. Koleva, E. G.; Belenkiy, V. Ya. Varushkin, S. V.

    2014-04-15

    Many papers have sought correlations between the parameters of secondary particles generated above the beam/work piece interaction zone, dynamics of processes in the keyhole, and technological processes. Low- and high-frequency oscillations of the current, collected by plasma have been observed above the welding zone during electron beam welding. Low-frequency oscillations of secondary signals are related to capillary instabilities of the keyhole, however; the physical mechanisms responsible for the high-frequency oscillations (>10 kHz) of the collected current are not fully understood. This paper shows that peak frequencies in the spectra of the collected high-frequency signal are dependent on the reciprocal distance between the welding zone and collector electrode. From the relationship between current harmonics frequency and distance of the collector/welding zone, it can be estimated that the draft velocity of electrons or phase velocity of excited waves is about 1600 m/s. The dispersion relation with the properties of ion-acoustic waves is related to electron temperature 10 000 K, ion temperature 2 400 K and plasma density 10{sup 16} m{sup ?3}, which is analogues to the parameters of potential-relaxation instabilities, observed in similar conditions. The estimated critical density of the transported current for creating the anomalous resistance state of plasma is of the order of 3 Am{sup ?2}, i.e. 8 mA for a 310 cm{sup 2} collector electrode. Thus, it is assumed that the observed high-frequency oscillations of the current collected by the positive collector electrode are caused by relaxation processes in the plasma plume above the welding zone, and not a direct demonstration of oscillations in the keyhole.

  1. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  2. Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, RK

    2012-02-13

    The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of radial velocity and attenuated backscatter. The principle of operation is similar to radar in that pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is inferred. The radial or line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers is determined from the Doppler frequency shift of the backscattered radiation. The DL uses a heterodyne detection technique in which the return signal is mixed with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. An onboard signal processing computer then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectra of the heterodyne signal. The energy content of the Doppler spectra can also be used to determine attenuated backscatter.

  3. ARM - Measurement - Radar Doppler

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CSAPR : C-Band ARM Precipitation Radar DL : Doppler Lidar KAZR : Ka ARM Zenith Radar KASACR : Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar MWACR :...

  4. Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar Title: Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar This doppler lidar system provides co-polar and cross polar attenuated ...

  5. Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewan OConnor

    2015-03-27

    This doppler lidar system provides co-polar and cross polar attenuated backscatter coefficients,signal strength, and doppler velocities in the cloud and in the boundary level, including uncertainties for all parameters. Using the doppler beam swinging DBS technique, and Vertical Azimuthal Display (VAD) this system also provides vertical profiles of horizontal winds.

  6. Doppler electron velocimetry : notes on creating a practical tool.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reu, Phillip L.; Milster, Tom

    2008-11-01

    The Doppler electron velocimeter (DEV) has been shown to be theoretically possible. This report attempts to answer the next logical question: Is it a practical instrument? The answer hinges upon whether enough electrons are available to create a time-varying Doppler current to be measured by a detector with enough sensitivity and bandwidth. The answer to both of these questions is a qualified yes. A target Doppler frequency of 1 MHz was set as a minimum rate of interest. At this target a theoretical beam current signal-to-noise ratio of 25-to-1 is shown for existing electron holography equipment. A detector is also demonstrated with a bandwidth of 1-MHz at a current of 10 pA. Additionally, a Linnik-type interferometer that would increase the available beam current is shown that would offer a more flexible arrangement for Doppler electron measurements over the traditional biprism.

  7. TTU Advanced Doppler Radar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TTU Advanced Doppler Radar - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  8. Acoustic telemetry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  9. Method and apparatus for ultrasonic doppler velocimetry using speed of sound and reflection mode pulsed wideband doppler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shekarriz, Alireza; Sheen, David M.

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a method and apparatus rely upon tomographic measurement of the speed of sound and fluid velocity in a pipe. The invention provides a more accurate profile of velocity within flow fields where the speed of sound varies within the cross-section of the pipe. This profile is obtained by reconstruction of the velocity profile from the local speed of sound measurement simultaneously with the flow velocity. The method of the present invention is real-time tomographic ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry utilizing a to plurality of ultrasonic transmission and reflection measurements along two orthogonal sets of parallel acoustic lines-of-sight. The fluid velocity profile and the acoustic velocity profile are determined by iteration between determining a fluid velocity profile and measuring local acoustic velocity until convergence is reached.

  10. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Qwner contacted n yes Current: ---------------------L---- if yes, date contacted Research & Development cl Facility Type 0 . Productioff 0 Di 3pcsal /Storage TYPE OF CONTRACT ---------------- q Prime q Subcontractor 0 Purchase Order 0 Other information (i.e. q cast + fixed fee, unit piice, time & material, etr) ------- ------_-----_--------------- 0 Production scale testing 0 Pilot Scale 0 Bench Scale Process a Theoretical Studies Sample & Analysis rcc t O' L~1 q Manufacturing 0

  11. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    OWNE3 (55) -------- past: _--_-------------------- Current: Owner contacted I-J yes ,Fqna; ------------_------------- if yes, date contacted TYPE OF OPEF(ATION ---__-------_____ c] Research & Development -4 Facility Type ci Production scale testing 0 Pilbt Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Theoretical Studies 0 Sample & Analysis C Productian E Disposal/Storage TYPE OF CONTRACi _------_-------_ tlanuf acturi ng University Research Organizaticn q Prime --. _' cl Other information (i.e., cost

  12. Current

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dollars in Thousands) FY 2014 Current FY 2015 Enacted FY 2016 Request Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) 27,100 32,100 45,000 Hydrothermal 10,300 12,500 36,500 Low Temperature and Coproduced 4,700 6,000 9,000 Systems Analysis 3,700 3,900 5,000 NREL Sitewide 0 500 500 Total, Geothermal Technologies 45,800 55,000 96,000 The Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) accelerates deployment of clean, domestic geothermal energy by supporting innovative technologies that reduce the cost and risks of

  13. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  14. MHK ISDB/Instruments/Sontek Acoustic Doppler Profiler | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Pneumatic), Flow Rate (Pneumatic), Tank Level (Pneumatic), 3-axis Acceleration (Translation), 2-axis Acceleration (Translation), 1-axis Acceleration (Translation), 3-axis...

  15. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  16. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and validation * Acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) and Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) need data QAQC and to output relevant information to estimate: o Power ...

  17. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.

    1990-03-20

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.

  18. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Chou, Ching H.

    1990-01-01

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens.

  19. Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product RK Newsom C Sivaraman TR Shippert LD Riihimaki ... DOESC-ARMTR-148 Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product Version 1.0 RK Newsom C Sivaraman ...

  20. Field Measurements at River and Tidal Current Sites for Hydrokinetic Energy Development: Best Practices Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neary, Vincent S; Gunawan, Budi

    2011-09-01

    In this report, existing data collection techniques and protocols for characterizing open channel flows are reviewed and refined to further address the needs of the MHK industry. The report provides an overview of the hydrodynamics of river and tidal channels, and the working principles of modern acoustic instrumentation, including best practices in remote sensing methods that can be applied to hydrokinetic energy site characterization. Emphasis is placed upon acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and acoustic-Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instruments, as these represent the most practical and economical tools for use in the MHK industry. Incorporating the best practices as found in the literature, including the parameters to be measured, the instruments to be deployed, the instrument deployment strategy, and data post-processing techniques. The data collected from this procedure aims to inform the hydro-mechanical design of MHK systems with respect to energy generation and structural loading, as well as provide reference hydrodynamics for environmental impact studies. The standard metrics and protocols defined herein can be utilized to guide field experiments with MHK systems.

  1. Acoustic transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1997-12-30

    An acoustic transducer is described comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2,000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers. 4 figs.

  2. Acoustic transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic transducer comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers.

  3. Electromagnetic acoustic transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alers, George A.; Burns, Jr., Leigh R.; MacLauchlan, Daniel T.

    1988-01-01

    A noncontact ultrasonic transducer for studying the acoustic properties of a metal workpiece includes a generally planar magnetizing coil positioned above the surface of the workpiece, and a generally planar eddy current coil between the magnetizing coil and the workpiece. When a large current is passed through the magnetizing coil, a large magnetic field is applied to the near-surface regions of the workpiece. The eddy current coil can then be operated as a transmitter by passing an alternating current therethrough to excite ultrasonic waves in the surface of the workpiece, or operated as a passive receiver to sense ultrasonic waves in the surface by measuring the output signal. The geometries of the two coils can be varied widely to be effective for different types of ultrasonic waves. The coils are preferably packaged in a housing which does not interfere with their operation, but protects them from a variety of adverse environmental conditions.

  4. Acoustic cryocooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  5. Acoustic cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Martin, R.A.; Radebaugh, R.

    1989-09-26

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintain a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K. 3 figs.

  6. Acoustic cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Martin, R.A.; Radebaugh, R.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes an acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effect to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15--60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintain a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  7. Acoustic transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    2000-01-01

    An active acoustic transducer tool for use down-hole applications. The tool includes a single cylindrical mandrel including a shoulder defining the boundary of a narrowed portion over which is placed a sandwich-style piezoelectric tranducer assembly. The piezoelectric transducer assembly is prestressed by being placed in a thermal interference fit between the shoulder of the mandrel and the base of an anvil which is likewise positioned over the narrower portion of the mandrel. In the preferred embodiment, assembly of the tool is accomplished using a hydraulic jack to stretch the mandrel prior to emplacement of the cylindrical sandwich-style piezoelectric transducer assembly and anvil. After those elements are positioned and secured, the stretched mandrel is allowed to return substantially to its original (pre-stretch) dimensions with the result that the piezoelectric transducer elements are compressed between the anvil and the shoulder of the mandrel.

  8. Nonlinear characterization of a single-axis acoustic levitator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Ramos, Tiago S.; Okina, Fbio T. A.; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2014-04-15

    The nonlinear behavior of a 20.3 kHz single-axis acoustic levitator formed by a Langevin transducer with a concave radiating surface and a concave reflector is experimentally investigated. In this study, a laser Doppler vibrometer is applied to measure the nonlinear sound field in the air gap between the transducer and the reflector. Additionally, an electronic balance is used in the measurement of the acoustic radiation force on the reflector as a function of the distance between the transducer and the reflector. The experimental results show some effects that cannot be described by the linear acoustic theory, such as the jump phenomenon, harmonic generation, and the hysteresis effect. The influence of these nonlinear effects on the acoustic levitation of small particles is discussed.

  9. Optimization of Concurrent Deployments of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System and Other Hydroacoustic Equipment at John Day Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jina; Lamarche, Brian L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Choi, Eric Y.; Faber, Derrek M.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Fischer, Eric S.; Cushing, Aaron W.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the acoustic optimization study conducted at John Day Dam during January and February 2008. The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods to minimize electrical and acoustic interference from various other acoustic sampling devices. Thereby, this would allow concurrent sampling by active and passive acoustic methods during the formal evaluations of the prototype surface flow outlets at the dam during spring and summer outmigration seasons for juvenile salmonids. The objectives for the optimization study at John Day Dam were to: 1. Design and test prototypes and provide a total needs list of pipes and trolleys to deploy JSATS hydrophones on the forebay face of the powerhouse and spillway. 2. Assess the effect on mean percentage decoded of JSATS transmissions from tags arrayed in the forebay and detected on the hydrophones by comparing: turbine unit OFF vs. ON; spill bay OPEN vs. CLOSED; dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) both OFF vs. ON at a spill bay; and, fixed-aspect hydroacoustic system OFF vs. ON at a turbine unit and a spill bay. 3. Determine the relationship between fixed-aspect hydroacoustic transmit level and mean percentage of JSATS transmissions decoded. The general approach was to use hydrophones to listen for transmissions from JSATS tags deployed in vertical arrays in a series perpendicular to the face of the dam. We used acoustic telemetry equipment manufactured by Technologic and Sonic Concepts. In addition, we assessed old and new JSATS signal detectors and decoders and two different types of hydrophone baffling. The optimization study consisted of a suite of off/on tests. The primary response variable was mean percentage of tag transmissions decoded. We found that there was no appreciable adverse effect on mean percentage

  10. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  11. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics ... Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. ...

  12. SOLAR H{alpha} OSCILLATIONS FROM INTENSITY AND DOPPLER OBSERVATIONS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOLAR Halpha OSCILLATIONS FROM INTENSITY AND DOPPLER OBSERVATIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SOLAR Halpha OSCILLATIONS FROM INTENSITY AND DOPPLER OBSERVATIONS ...

  13. Browsing a wealth of millimeter-wavelength doppler spectra data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    doppler spectra data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Browsing a wealth of millimeter-wavelength doppler spectra data The ARM Climate Research Facility ...

  14. Investigation and Analytical Description of Acoustic Production by Magneto-Acoustic Mixing Technology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Henderson, Hunter Bryant; Rios, Orlando; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Manuel, Michele V.

    2015-05-07

    Magneto-Acoustic Mixing Technology (MAMT) is a novel manufacturing method that combines two magnetic fields to produce high-intensity sonication for liquid-state materials processing. This method may be adapted to the manufacture of various materials that benefit from a combination of high temperature, magnetic fields, and acoustic energy. In this work, the acoustic generation mechanism is described in detail and found to be dependent on the skin depth of the induction currents. Analytical models of acoustic pressure are derived, based on two mutually exclusive vibration modes, crucible vibration and melt vibration. Additionally, grain size evidence of acoustic pressure distribution is presented asmore » model validation.« less

  15. Acoustic non-diffracting Airy beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhou; Guo, Xiasheng Tu, Juan; Ma, Qingyu; Wu, Junru; Zhang, Dong

    2015-03-14

    The acoustic non-diffracting Airy beam as its optical counterpart has unique features of self-bending and self-healing. The complexity of most current designs handicaps its applications. A simple design of an acoustic source capable of generating multi-frequency and broad-band acoustic Airy beam has been theoretically demonstrated by numerical simulations. In the design, a piston transducer is corrugated to induce spatial phase variation for transducing the Airy function. The piston's surface is grooved in a pattern that the width of each groove corresponds to the half wavelength of Airy function. The resulted frequency characteristics and its dependence on the size of the piston source are also discussed. This simple design may promote the wide applications of acoustic Airy beam particularly in the field of medical ultrasound.

  16. Low frequency acoustic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1986-11-04

    A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

  17. Inline Ultrasonic Rheometry by Pulsed Doppler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfund, David M.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Pappas, Richard A.

    2006-12-22

    This will be a discussion of the non-invasive determination of the viscosity of a non-Newtonian fluid in laminar pipe flow over the range of shear rates present in the pipe. The procedure used requires knowledge of the flow profile in and the pressure drop along a long straight run of pipe. The profile is determined by using a pulsed ultrasonic Doppler velocimeter. This approach is ideal for making non-invasive, real-time measurements for monitoring and control. Rheograms of a shear thinning, thixotropic gel will be presented. The operating parameters and limitations of the Doppler-based instrument will be discussed. The most significant limitation is velocity gradient broadening of the Doppler spectra near the walls of the pipe. This limitation can be significant for strongly shear thinning fluids (depending also on the ratio of beam to pipe diameter and the transducer's insertion angle).

  18. Systems and methods of monitoring acoustic pressure to detect a flame condition in a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Krull, Anthony Wayne; Healy, Timothy Andrew , Yilmaz, Ertan

    2011-05-17

    A method may detect a flashback condition in a fuel nozzle of a combustor. The method may include obtaining a current acoustic pressure signal from the combustor, analyzing the current acoustic pressure signal to determine current operating frequency information for the combustor, and indicating that the flashback condition exists based at least in part on the current operating frequency information.

  19. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofler, Thomas J.; Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  20. Texas Tech University mobile doppler radars provide unique wind...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Texas Tech University mobile doppler radars provide unique wind measurements to multi-instrument DOE Field Campaign HomeWind Energy, Wind NewsTexas Tech University mobile doppler ...

  1. Comments on: Texas Tech University mobile doppler radars provide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    texas-tech-university-mobile-doppler-radars-provide-unique-wind-measurements-to-multi-instrument-doe-field-campaign...

  2. Acoustic well cleaner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maki, Jr., Voldi E.; Sharma, Mukul M.

    1997-01-21

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for cleaning the wellbore and the near wellbore region. A sonde is provided which is adapted to be lowered into a borehole and which includes a plurality of acoustic transducers arranged around the sonde. Electrical power provided by a cable is converted to acoustic energy. The high intensity acoustic energy directed to the borehole wall and into the near wellbore region, redissolves or resuspends the material which is reducing the permeability of the formation and/or restricting flow in the wellbore.

  3. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  4. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  5. Acoustic sensors using microstructures tunable with energy other...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with energy other than acoustic energy A sensor for detecting acoustic energy includes a ... When acoustic energy strikes the acoustic sensor, acoustic energy having a predetermined ...

  6. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  7. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  8. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  9. Acoustic imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  10. Property:ExternalInput | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + trigger + MHK ISDBInstrumentsNortek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter + 2 Analog +, 0-5 V +, 16 bit AD + MHK ISDBInstrumentsNortek Acoustic Wave and Current Meter + 2 Analog...

  11. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device Title: Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic ...

  12. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn 1 ; State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 2 ; Zhou, Chen ; Wei, Qi ; Wu, DaJian 1 +...

  13. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  14. Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, R. K.; Sivaraman, C.; Shippert, T. R.; Riihimaki, L. D.

    2015-07-01

    Wind speed and direction, together with pressure, temperature, and relative humidity, are the most fundamental atmospheric state parameters. Accurate measurement of these parameters is crucial for numerical weather prediction. Vertically resolved wind measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer are particularly important for modeling pollutant and aerosol transport. Raw data from a scanning coherent Doppler lidar system can be processed to generate accurate height-resolved measurements of wind speed and direction in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  15. Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Acoustic Building Infilitration Measurement System project is developing an acoustic method of measuring the infiltration of a building envelope.

  16. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Multiplexing Techniques: Evaluation of Photonic Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Daykin

    2012-05-24

    This poster reports progress related to photonic technologies. Specifically, the authors developed diagnostic system architecture for a Multiplexed Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (MPDV) that incorporates frequency and time-division multiplexing into existing PDV methodology to provide increased channel count. Current MPDV design increases number of data records per digitizer channel 8x, and also operates as a laser-safe (Class 3a) system. Further, they applied heterodyne interferometry to allow for direction-of-travel determination and enable high-velocity measurements (>10 km/s) via optical downshifting. They also leveraged commercially available, inexpensive and robust components originally developed for telecom applications. Proposed MPDV architectures employ only commercially available, fiber-coupled hardware.

  17. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  18. Upstream Measurements of Wind Profiles with Doppler Lidar for Improved Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Frehlich

    2012-10-30

    New upstream measurements of wind profiles over the altitude range of wind turbines will be produced using a scanning Doppler lidar. These long range high quality measurements will provide improved wind power forecasts for wind energy integration into the power grid. The main goal of the project is to develop the optimal Doppler lidar operating parameters and data processing algorithms for improved wind energy integration by enhancing the wind power forecasts in the 30 to 60 minute time frame, especially for the large wind power ramps. Currently, there is very little upstream data at large wind farms, especially accurate wind profiles over the full height of the turbine blades. The potential of scanning Doppler lidar will be determined by rigorous computer modeling and evaluation of actual Doppler lidar data from the WindTracer system produced by Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies, Inc. of Louisville, Colorado. Various data products will be investigated for input into numerical weather prediction models and statistically based nowcasting algorithms. Successful implementation of the proposed research will provide the required information for a full cost benefit analysis of the improved forecasts of wind power for energy integration as well as the added benefit of high quality wind and turbulence information for optimal control of the wind turbines at large wind farms.

  19. Prediction of Acoustic Noise in Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B

    2014-03-01

    Prediction of acoustic noise distribution generated by electric machines has become an integral part of design and control in noise sensitive applications. This paper presents a fast and precise acoustic noise imaging technique for switched reluctance machines (SRMs). This method is based on distribution of radial vibration in the stator frame of the SRM. Radial vibration of the stator frame, at a network of probing points, is computed using input phase current and phase voltage waveforms. Sequentially, the acceleration of the probing network will be expanded to predict full acceleration on the stator frame surface, using which acoustic noise emission caused by the stator can be calculated using the boundary element method.

  20. Acoustics- Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model acoustic sensors and acoustic sources (hearable) in Umbra. It is typically used to represent hearing in characters within Umbra. Typically, the acoustic sensors detect acoustic sources at a given point; however, it also contains the capability to detect bullet cracks by detecting the sound along the bullet path that is closest to the sensor. A memory module, acoustic memory, represents remembered sounds within a given character. Over time, themore » sounds are removed, as a character forgets what it has heard.« less

  1. MHK ISDB/Instruments/TRDI Doppler Volume Sampler | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Doppler Volume Sampler < MHK ISDB Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database Menu Home Search Add Instrument Add Sensor Add Company Community FAQ Help...

  2. Sandia Is Developing a Doppler Global Velocimetry System to Understand...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Is Developing a Doppler Global Velocimetry System to Understand Fundamental Wind-Turbine ... System to Understand Fundamental Wind-Turbine Wake Phenomena HomeComputational ...

  3. Imaging doppler velocimeter with downward heterodyning in the optical domain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reu, Phillip L; Hansche, Bruce D

    2013-05-21

    In a Doppler velocimeter, the incoming Doppler-shifted beams are heterodyned to reduce their frequencies into the bandwidth of a digital camera. This permits the digital camera to produce at every sampling interval a complete two-dimensional array of pixel values. This sequence of pixel value arrays provides a velocity image of the target.

  4. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  5. A study of cloud and drizzle properties in the Azores using Doppler...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Azores using Doppler Radar spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A study of cloud and drizzle properties in the Azores using Doppler Radar spectra ...

  6. Truck acoustic data analyzer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Howard D.; Akerman, Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2006-07-04

    A passive vehicle acoustic data analyzer system having at least one microphone disposed in the acoustic field of a moving vehicle and a computer in electronic communication the microphone(s). The computer detects and measures the frequency shift in the acoustic signature emitted by the vehicle as it approaches and passes the microphone(s). The acoustic signature of a truck driving by a microphone can provide enough information to estimate the truck speed in miles-per-hour (mph), engine speed in rotations-per-minute (RPM), turbocharger speed in RPM, and vehicle weight.

  7. Guided acoustic wave inspection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane J.

    2004-10-05

    A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.

  8. Transition section for acoustic waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karplus, H.H.B.

    1975-10-28

    A means of facilitating the transmission of acoustic waves with minimal reflection between two regions having different specific acoustic impedances is described comprising a region exhibiting a constant product of cross-sectional area and specific acoustic impedance at each cross-sectional plane along the axis of the transition region. A variety of structures that exhibit this feature is disclosed, the preferred embodiment comprising a nested structure of doubly reentrant cones. This structure is useful for monitoring the operation of nuclear reactors in which random acoustic signals are generated in the course of operation.

  9. Microscale Heat Conduction Models and Doppler Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this project is to establish an approach for providing the fundamental input that is needed to estimate the magnitude and time-dependence of the Doppler feedback mechanism in Very High Temperature reactors. This mechanism is the foremost contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Therefore, its correct prediction is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. Since the effect is directly dependent on the actual temperature reached by the fuel during transients, the underlying phenomena of heat deposition, heat transfer and temperature rise must be correctly predicted. To achieve the above objective, this project will explore an approach that accounts for lattice effects as well as local temperature variations and the correct definition of temperature and related local effects.

  10. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantea, Cristian

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  11. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  12. Investigation and Analytical Description of Acoustic Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Investigation and Analytical Description of Acoustic Production by Magneto-Acoustic Mixing Technology Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become...

  13. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  14. The electron geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Guzdar, P. N. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-09-15

    In this report, a novel new mode, named the electron geodesic acoustic mode, is presented. This mode can occur in toroidal plasmas like the conventional geodesic acoustic mode (GAM). The frequency of this new mode is much larger than that of the conventional GAM by a factor equal to the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio.

  15. Opto-acoustic thrombolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter; Da Silva, Luiz; Glinsky, Michael; London, Richard; Maitland, Duncan; Matthews, Dennis; Fitch, Pat

    2000-01-01

    This invention is a catheter-based device for generating an ultrasound excitation in biological tissue. Pulsed laser light is guided through an optical fiber to provide the energy for producing the acoustic vibrations. The optical energy is deposited in a water-based absorbing fluid, e.g. saline, thrombolytic agent, blood or thrombus, and generates an acoustic impulse in the fluid through thermoelastic and/or thermodynamic mechanisms. By pulsing the laser at a repetition rate (which may vary from 10 Hz to 100 kHz) an ultrasonic radiation field can be established locally in the medium. This method of producing ultrasonic vibrations can be used in vivo for the treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans, particularly for dissolving thrombus or treating vasospasm. The catheter can also incorporate thrombolytic drug treatments as an adjunct therapy and it can be operated in conjunction with ultrasonic detection equipment for imaging and feedback control and with optical sensors for characterization of thrombus type and consistency.

  16. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  17. Apparatus and method for noninvasive particle detection using doppler spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2016-05-31

    An apparatus and method for noninvasively detecting the presence of solid particulate matter suspended in a fluid flowing through a pipe or an oil and gas wellbore are described. Fluid flowing through a conduit containing the particulate solids is exposed to a fixed frequency (>1 MHz) of ultrasonic vibrations from a transducer attached to the outside of the pipe. The returning Doppler frequency shifted signal derived from the scattering of sound from the moving solid particles is detected by an adjacent transducer. The transmitted signal and the Doppler signal are combined to provide sensitive particulate detection. The magnitude of the signal and the Doppler frequency shift are used to determine the particle size distribution and the velocity of the particles. Measurement of the phase shift between the applied frequency and the detected Doppler shifted may be used to determine the direction of motion of the particles.

  18. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    49 Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product RK Newsom C Sivaraman TR Shippert LD Riihimaki July 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work...

  19. ARM - PI Product - Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsFinnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar Citation DOI: 10.54391177194 What is this? ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send...

  20. Implementation of On-the-Fly Doppler Broadening in MCNP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementation of On-the-Fly Doppler Broadening in MCNP William R. Martin and Scott Wilderman Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences University of Michigan wrm@umich.edu; sjwnc@umich.edu Forrest B. Brown Los Alamos National Laboratory fbrown@lanl.gov Gokhan Yesilyurt Argonne National Laboratory gyesilyurt@anl.gov ABSTRACT A new method to obtain Doppler broadened cross sections has been implemented into MCNP, removing the need to generate cross sections for isotopes at

  1. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.; Jordan, Jay D.; Kim, Theodore J.

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  2. Doppler-resolved kinetics of saturation recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forthomme, Damien; Hause, Michael L.; Yu, Hua -Gen; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Sears, Trevor J.; Hall, Gregory E.

    2015-04-08

    Frequency modulated laser transient absorption has been used to monitor the ground state rotational energy transfer rates of CN radicals in a double-resonance, depletion recovery experiment. When a pulsed laser is used to burn a hole in the equilibrium ground state population of one rotational state without velocity selection, the population recovery rate is found to depend strongly on the Doppler detuning of a narrow-band probe laser. Similar effects should be apparent for any relaxation rate process that competes effectively with velocity randomization. Alternative methods of extracting thermal rate constants in the presence of these non-thermal conditions are evaluated. Total recovery rate constants, analogous to total removal rate constants in an experiment preparing a single initial rotational level, are in good agreement with quantum scattering calculations, but are slower than previously reported experiments and show qualitatively different rotational state dependence between Ar and He collision partners. As a result, quasi-classical trajectory studies confirm that the differing rotational state dependence is primarily a kinematic effect.

  3. Doppler-resolved kinetics of saturation recovery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Forthomme, Damien; Hause, Michael L.; Yu, Hua -Gen; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Sears, Trevor J.; Hall, Gregory E.

    2015-04-08

    Frequency modulated laser transient absorption has been used to monitor the ground state rotational energy transfer rates of CN radicals in a double-resonance, depletion recovery experiment. When a pulsed laser is used to burn a hole in the equilibrium ground state population of one rotational state without velocity selection, the population recovery rate is found to depend strongly on the Doppler detuning of a narrow-band probe laser. Similar effects should be apparent for any relaxation rate process that competes effectively with velocity randomization. Alternative methods of extracting thermal rate constants in the presence of these non-thermal conditions are evaluated. Totalmore » recovery rate constants, analogous to total removal rate constants in an experiment preparing a single initial rotational level, are in good agreement with quantum scattering calculations, but are slower than previously reported experiments and show qualitatively different rotational state dependence between Ar and He collision partners. As a result, quasi-classical trajectory studies confirm that the differing rotational state dependence is primarily a kinematic effect.« less

  4. Acoustic sensors using microstructures tunable with energy other than acoustic energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panagiotis G.

    2003-11-25

    A sensor for detecting acoustic energy includes a microstructure tuned to a predetermined acoustic frequency and a device for detecting movement of the microstructure. A display device is operatively linked to the movement detecting device. When acoustic energy strikes the acoustic sensor, acoustic energy having a predetermined frequency moves the microstructure, where the movement is detected by the movement detecting device.

  5. Acoustic sensors using microstructures tunable with energy other than acoustic energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panagiotis G.

    2005-06-07

    A sensor for detecting acoustic energy includes a microstructure tuned to a predetermined acoustic frequency and a device for detecting movement of the microstructure. A display device is operatively linked to the movement detecting device. When acoustic energy strikes the acoustic sensor, acoustic energy having a predetermined frequency moves the microstructure, where the movement is detected by the movement detecting device.

  6. PROBLEM DEPENDENT DOPPLER BROADENING OF CONTINUOUS ENERGY CROSS SECTIONS IN THE KENO MONTE CARLO COMPUTER CODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, S. W. D.; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Celik, Cihangir; Leal, Luiz C

    2014-01-01

    For many Monte Carlo codes cross sections are generally only created at a set of predetermined temperatures. This causes an increase in error as one moves further and further away from these temperatures in the Monte Carlo model. This paper discusses recent progress in the Scale Monte Carlo module KENO to create problem dependent, Doppler broadened, cross sections. Currently only broadening the 1D cross sections and probability tables is addressed. The approach uses a finite difference method to calculate the temperature dependent cross-sections for the 1D data, and a simple linear-logarithmic interpolation in the square root of temperature for the probability tables. Work is also ongoing to address broadening theS (alpha , beta) tables. With the current approach the temperature dependent cross sections are Doppler broadened before transport starts, and, for all but a few isotopes, the impact on cross section loading is negligible. Results can be compared with those obtained by using multigroup libraries, as KENO currently does interpolation on the multigroup cross sections to determine temperature dependent cross-sections. Current results compare favorably with these expected results.

  7. NW-MILO Acoustic Data Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matzner, Shari; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Jones, Mark E.

    2010-02-17

    signatures of small vessels. The sampling rate of 8 kHz and low pass filtering to 2 kHz results in an alias-free signal in the frequency band that is appropriate for small vessels. Calibration was performed using a Lubell underwater speaker so that the raw data signal levels can be converted to sound pressure. Background noise is present due to a nearby pump and as a result of tidal currents. More study is needed to fully characterize the noise, but it does not pose an obstacle to using the acoustic data for the purposes of vessel detection and signature analysis. The detection range for a small vessel was estimated using the calibrated voltage response of the system and a cylindrical spreading model for transmission loss. The sound pressure of a typical vessel with an outboard motor was found to be around 140 dB mPa, and could theoretically be detected from 10 km away. In practical terms, a small vessel could reliably be detected from 3 - 5 km away. The data is archived in netCDF files, a standard scientific file format that is "self describing". This means that each data file contains the metadata - timestamps, units, origin, etc. - needed to make the data meaningful and portable. Other file formats, such as XML, are also supported. A visualization tool has been developed to view the acoustic data in the form of spectrograms, along with the coincident radar track data and camera images.

  8. Acoustic Logs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    different types of acoustic logs are used, based on the frequencies used, the way the signal is recorded, and the purpose of the log. All these logs require fluid in the well to...

  9. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  10. Shear waves in acoustic anisotropic media (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shear waves in acoustic anisotropic media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shear waves in acoustic anisotropic media Acoustic transversely isotropic (TI) media are ...

  11. Effects on Aquatic Organisms (EMF, Acoustics and Physical Interaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aquatic Organisms (EMF, Acoustics and Physical Interaction) Effects on Aquatic Organisms (EMF, Acoustics and Physical Interaction) Effects on Aquatic Organisms (EMF, Acoustics and ...

  12. Contour mode resonators with acoustic reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H.; Fleming, James G.; Tuck, Melanie R.

    2008-06-10

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator is disclosed which has a linear or ring-shaped acoustic resonator suspended above a substrate by an acoustic reflector. The acoustic resonator can be formed with a piezoelectric material (e.g. aluminum nitride, zinc oxide or PZT), or using an electrostatically-actuated material. The acoustic reflector (also termed an acoustic mirror) uses alternating sections of a relatively low acoustic impedance Z.sub.L material and a relatively high acoustic impedance Z.sub.H material to isolate the acoustic resonator from the substrate. The MEM resonator, which can be formed on a silicon substrate with conventional CMOS circuitry, has applications for forming oscillators, rf filters, and acoustic sensors.

  13. Quasioptical design of integrated Doppler backscattering and correlation electron cyclotron emission systems on the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, T. L.; Peebles, W. A.; Nguyen, X.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Wang, G.; White, A. E.

    2010-10-15

    The quasioptical design of a new integrated Doppler backscattering (DBS) and correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) system is presented. The design provides for simultaneous measurements of intermediate wavenumber density and long wavelength electron temperature turbulence behavior. The Doppler backscattering technique is sensitive to plasma turbulence flow and has been utilized to determine radial electric field, geodesic acoustic modes, zonal flows, and intermediate scale (k{approx}1-6 cm{sup -1}) density turbulence. The correlation ECE system measures a second turbulent field, electron temperature fluctuations, and is sensitive to long poloidal wavelength (k{<=}1.8 cm{sup -1}). The integrated system utilizes a newly installed in-vessel focusing mirror that produces a beam waist diameter of 3.5-5 cm in the plasma depending on the frequency. A single antenna (i.e., monostatic operation) is used for both launch and receive. The DBS wavenumber is selected via an adjustable launch angle and variable probing frequency. Due to the unique system design both positive and negative wavenumbers can be obtained, with a range of low to intermediate wavenumbers possible (approximately -3 to 10 cm{sup -1}). A unique feature of the design is the ability to place the DBS and CECE measurements at the same radial and poloidal locations allowing for cross correlation studies (e.g., measurement of nT cross-phase).

  14. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  15. A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanin, M.L.; Garnier, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Porteneuve, J. )

    1989-11-01

    The possibility of measuring winds in the middle atmosphere with a Doppler lidar has just been demonstrated. It is aimed at studying the wave-mean flow interaction, when used is association with the Rayleigh lidar providing density and temperature profiles and their fluctuations. The new Doppler lidar relies on the Rayleigh scattering from air molecules is designed to cover the height range 25-60 km, a region where radars cannot operate. The Doppler shift to the backscattered echo is measured by inter-comparing the signal detected through each of the two high-resolution, narrow band-pass Fabry-Perot interferometers tuned on either side of the emitted laser line.

  16. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  17. Analog circuit for controlling acoustic transducer arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1991-01-01

    A simplified ananlog circuit is presented for controlling electromechanical transducer pairs in an acoustic telemetry system. The analog circuit of this invention comprises a single electrical resistor which replaces all of the digital components in a known digital circuit. In accordance with this invention, a first transducer in a transducer pair of array is driven in series with the resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is then amplified and used to drive the second transducer. The voltage drop across the resistor is proportional and in phase with the current to the transducer. This current is approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the driving voltage to the transducer. This phase shift replaces the digital delay required by the digital control circuit of the prior art.

  18. MHK ISDB/Instruments/Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current Meter ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    operation in tough underwater environments. Plastic and titanium parts avoid corrosion. The AWAC is available in three transmit frequencies for operational ranges spanning...

  19. Imaging doppler lidar for wind turbine wake profiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossert, David J.

    2015-11-19

    An imaging Doppler lidar (IDL) enables the measurement of the velocity distribution of a large volume, in parallel, and at high spatial resolution in the wake of a wind turbine. Because the IDL is non-scanning, it can be orders of magnitude faster than conventional coherent lidar approaches. Scattering can be obtained from naturally occurring aerosol particles. Furthermore, the wind velocity can be measured directly from Doppler shifts of the laser light, so the measurement can be accomplished at large standoff and at wide fields-of-view.

  20. Multigroup Free-atom Doppler-broadening Approximation. Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Mark Girard

    2015-11-06

    Multigroup cross sections at a one target temperature can be Doppler-broadened to multigroup cross sections at a higher target temperature by matrix multiplication if the group structure suf- ficiently resolves the original temperature continuous energy cross section. Matrix elements are the higher temperature group weighted averages of the integral over the lower temperature group boundaries of the free-atom Doppler-broadening kernel. The results match theory for constant and 1/v multigroup cross sections at 618 lanl group structure resolution.

  1. Acoustic emission: The first half century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouillard, T.F.

    1994-08-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) is approaching the half century mark, having had its beginning in 1950 with the work of Joseph Kaiser. During the 1950s and 1960s researchers delved into the fundamentals of acoustic emission, developed instrumentation specifically for AE, and characterized the AE behavior of many materials. AE was starting to be recognized for its unique capabilities as an NDT method for monitoring dynamic processes. In the decade of the 1970s research activities became more coordinated and directed with the formation of the working groups, and its use as an NDT method continued to increase for industrial applications. In the 1980s the computer became a basic component for both instrumentation and data analysis, and today it has sparked a resurgence of opportunities for research and development. Today we are seeing a transition to waveform-based AE analysis and a shift in AE activities with more emphasis on applications than on research. From the beginning, we have been fortunate to have had so many dedicated savants with different fields of expertise contribute in a collective way to bring AE to a mature, fully developed technology and leave a legacy of knowledge recorded in its literature. AE literature has been a key indicator of the amount of activity, the proportion of research to application, the emphasis on what was of current interest, and the direction AE has taken. The following is a brief survey of the history of acoustic emission with emphasis on development of the infrastructure over the past half century.

  2. Acoustic data transmission through a drill string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-04-21

    Acoustical signals are transmitted through a drill string by canceling upward moving acoustical noise and by preconditioning the data in recognition of the comb filter impedance characteristics of the drill string. 5 figs.

  3. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, H. Dale; Busse, Lawrence J.; Lemon, Douglas K.

    1985-01-01

    Defects in a structure are imaged as they propagate, using their emitted acoustic energy as a monitored source. Short bursts of acoustic energy propagate through the structure to a discrete element receiver array. A reference timing transducer located between the array and the inspection zone initiates a series of time-of-flight measurements. A resulting series of time-of-flight measurements are then treated as aperture data and are transferred to a computer for reconstruction of a synthetic linear holographic image. The images can be displayed and stored as a record of defect growth.

  4. Particle analysis in an acoustic cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for acoustically manipulating one or more particles. Acoustically manipulated particles may be separated by size. The particles may be flowed in a flow stream and acoustic radiation pressure, which may be radial, may be applied to the flow stream. This application of acoustic radiation pressure may separate the particles. In one embodiment, the particles may be separated by size, and as a further example, the larger particles may be transported to a central axis.

  5. Computational and experimental techniques for coupled acoustic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; ACOUSTICS; ALGORITHMS; BOUNDARY CONDITIONS; DAMPING; KNUDSEN FLOW; ...

  6. Dual beam translator for use in Laser Doppler anemometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brudnoy, David M.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively translating the path of at least one pair of light beams in a Laser Doppler anemometry device whereby the light paths are translated in a direction parallel to the original beam paths so as to enable attainment of spacial coincidence of the two intersection volumes and permit accurate measurements of Reynolds shear stress.

  7. Dual beam translator for use in Laser Doppler anemometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brudnoy, D.M.

    1984-04-12

    A method and apparatus for selectively translating the path of at least one pair of light beams in a Laser Doppler anemometry device whereby the light paths are translated in a direction parallel to the original beam paths so as to enable attainment of spacial coincidence of the two intersection volumes and permit accurate measurements of Reynolds shear stress.

  8. Research on Fast-Doppler-Broadening of neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.; Wang, K.; Yu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A Fast-Doppler-Broadening method is developed in this work to broaden Continuous Energy neutron cross-sections for Monte Carlo calculations. Gauss integration algorithm and parallel computing are implemented in this method, which is unprecedented in the history of cross section processing. Compared to the traditional code (NJOY, SIGMA1, etc.), the new Fast-Doppler-Broadening method shows a remarkable speedup with keeping accuracy. The purpose of using Gauss integration is to avoid complex derivation of traditional broadening formula and heavy load of computing complementary error function that slows down the Doppler broadening process. The OpenMP environment is utilized in parallel computing which can take full advantage of modern multi-processor computers. Combination of the two can reduce processing time of main actinides (such as {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U) to an order of magnitude of 1{approx}2 seconds. This new method is fast enough to be applied to Online Doppler broadening. It can be combined or coupled with Monte Carlo transport code to solve temperature dependent problems and neutronics-thermal hydraulics coupled scheme which is a big challenge for the conventional NJOY-MCNP system. Examples are shown to determine the efficiency and relative errors compared with the NJOY results. A Godiva Benchmark is also used in order to test the ACE libraries produced by the new method. (authors)

  9. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  10. An Automatic Doppler Spectrum Classifier for the MMCRs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Automatic Doppler Spectrum Classifier for the MMCRs Luke, Edward Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory Clothiaux, Eugene The Pennsylvania State University Johnson, Karen Brookhaven National Laboratory Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Widener, Kevin Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Category: Instruments The ARM MMCR receivers at the SGP, NSA

  11. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  12. Observation of Doppler broadening in β -delayed proton- γ decay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwartz, S. B.; Wrede, C.; Bennett, M. B.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Bowe, A.; Chen, A. A.; Chipps, K. A.; Cooper, N.; Irvine, D.; et al

    2015-09-14

    Background: The Doppler broadening of gamma-ray peaks is due to nuclear recoil from beta-delayed nucleon emission can be used to measure the energies of the nucleons. This method has never been tested using beta-delayed proton emission or applied to a recoil heavier than A = 10. Purpose: To test and apply this Doppler broadening method using gamma-ray peaks from the P-26(beta p gamma)Al-25 decay sequence. Methods: A fast beam of P-26 was implanted into a planar Ge detector, which was used as a P-26 beta-decay trigger. The SeGA array of high-purity Ge detectors was used to detect gamma rays frommore » the P-26(beta p gamma)Al-25 decay sequence. Results: Radiative Doppler broadening in beta-delayed proton-gamma decay was observed for the first time. Moreover, the Doppler broadening analysis method was verified using the 1613-keV gamma-ray line for which the proton energies were previously known. The 1776-keV gamma ray de-exciting the 2720 keV Al-25 level was observed in P-26(beta p gamma)Al-25 decay for the first time and used to determine that the center-of-mass energy of the proton emission feeding the 2720-keV level is 5.1 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.6 (syst.) MeV, corresponding to a Si-26 excitation energy of 13.3 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.6 (syst.) MeV for the proton-emitting level. Conclusions: Finally, the Doppler broadening method has been demonstrated to provide practical measurements of the energies for beta-delayed nucleon emissions populating excited states of nuclear recoils at least as heavy as A = 25.« less

  13. Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catena, Riccardo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Notari, Alessio E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it E-mail: arenzi@pd.infn.it

    2013-09-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on non-Gaussianity estimators f{sub NL}. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax = 2000) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Using the value v/c = 1.23 × 10{sup −3} for our peculiar velocity, we found that the aberration/Doppler induced non-Gaussian signal is at most of about half of the cosmic variance σ for f{sub NL} both in a full-sky and in a cut-sky experimental configuration, for local, equilateral and orthogonal estimators. We conclude therefore that when estimating f{sub NL} it is safe to ignore aberration and Doppler effects if the primordial map is already Gaussian. More work is necessary however to assess whether a map which contains non-Gaussianity can be significantly distorted by a peculiar velocity.

  14. Reference Model #1 - Tidal Energy: Resource Dr. Brian Polagye

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This also reduces ensemble Doppler noise (n ensemble ) by a factor of N 12 relative the ... Terray, E.A. Performance of a Broad-Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, IEEE Journal ...

  15. SANDIA REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 28 7 NOMENCLATURE ADCP Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler ... ME Mean error or bias MHK Marine hydrokinetic devices ... Prediction NDBC National Data Buoy Center NOAA National ...

  16. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AND TEMPORAL AVERAGING OF ACOUSTIC DOPPLER CURRENT PROFILER ... and MATLAB Algorithms for MHK Site Flow and Turbulence Analysis (99) ORNL data post-processing methods for ...

  17. A technique for measuring winds in the lower atmosphere using incoherent Doppler lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, D.H.; Slaughter, D.R.; Tulloch, W.M.; White, W.E.

    1993-04-14

    Wind speed is useful from a meteorological standpoint, in atmospheric modeling, and assessment of trace gas dispersal. A continuing effort is involved in improving the sensitivity of such measurements, and is exemplified by the literature. The Mobile Atmospheric Research Laboratory (MARL) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing a method to improve the sensitivity of wind sounding in the lower through middle atmosphere using a pair of Fabry- Perot interferometers in parallel. This technique, first described by Chanin, et al., for the middle atmosphere using Doppler Rayleigh lidar, can be applied to the lower atmosphere where Mie (aerosol) backscatter is strong. Elastic events, inherent in both Rayleigh and Mie backscatter, dominate the return signal throughout the atmosphere. Both are susceptible to local wind vectors; which will Doppler shift the laser frequency proportional to the wind velocity. A pair of Fabry-Perot interferometers, tuned to either side of the laser frequency, will provide necessary data to determine the shift in frequency of the backscattered signal. Spectral drift and jitter of the laser and a lack of data points to determine the wind vector place limits on the sensitivity of the system. A method to minimize each of these is presented.

  18. A technique for measuring winds in the lower atmosphere using incoherent Doppler lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, D.H.; Slaughter, D.R.; Tulloch, W.M.; White, W.E.

    1993-04-14

    Wind speed is useful from a meteorological standpoint, in atmospheric modeling, and assessment of trace gas dispersal. A continuing effort is involved in improving the sensitivity of such measurements, and is exemplified by the literature. The Mobile Atmospheric Research Laboratory (MARL) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing a method to improve the sensitivity of wind sounding in the lower through middle atmosphere using a pair of Fabry-Perot interferometers in parallel. This technique, first described by Chanin, et al., for the middle atmosphere using Doppler Rayleigh lidar, can be applied to the lower atmosphere where Mie (aerosol) backscatter is strong. Elastic events, inherent in both Rayleigh and Mie backscatter, dominate the return signal throughout the atmosphere. Both are susceptible to local wind vectors; which will Doppler shift the laser frequency proportional to the wind velocity. A pair of Fabry-Perot interferometers, tuned to either side of the laser frequency, will provide necessary data to determine the shift in frequency of the backscattered signal. Spectral drift and jitter of the laser and a lack of data points to determine the wind vector place limits on the sensitivity of the system. A method to minimize each of these is presented.

  19. Method and apparatus for generating acoustic energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Hector N.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for generating and emitting amplified coherent acoustic energy. A cylindrical transducer is mounted within a housing, the transducer having an acoustically open end and an acoustically closed end. The interior of the transducer is filled with an active medium which may include scattering nuclei. Excitation of the transducer produces radially directed acoustic energy in the active medium, which is converted by the dimensions of the transducer, the acoustically closed end thereof, and the scattering nuclei, to amplified coherent acoustic energy directed longitudinally within the transducer. The energy is emitted through the acoustically open end of the transducer. The emitted energy can be used for, among other things, effecting a chemical reaction or removing scale from the interior walls of containment vessels.

  20. A generalised background correction algorithm for a Halo Doppler lidar and its application to data from Finland

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Manninen, Antti J.; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Vakkari, Ville; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2016-03-03

    Current commercially available Doppler lidars provide an economical and robust solution for measuring vertical and horizontal wind velocities, together with the ability to provide co- and cross-polarised backscatter profiles. The high temporal resolution of these instruments allows turbulent properties to be obtained from studying the variation in radial velocities. However, the instrument specifications mean that certain characteristics, especially the background noise behaviour, become a limiting factor for the instrument sensitivity in regions where the aerosol load is low. Turbulent calculations require an accurate estimate of the contribution from velocity uncertainty estimates, which are directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio. Anymore » bias in the signal-to-noise ratio will propagate through as a bias in turbulent properties. In this paper we present a method to correct for artefacts in the background noise behaviour of commercially available Doppler lidars and reduce the signal-to-noise ratio threshold used to discriminate between noise, and cloud or aerosol signals. Lastly, we show that, for Doppler lidars operating continuously at a number of locations in Finland, the data availability can be increased by as much as 50 % after performing this background correction and subsequent reduction in the threshold. The reduction in bias also greatly improves subsequent calculations of turbulent properties in weak signal regimes.« less

  1. Current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  2. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, R. K.; Sivaraman, C.; Shippert, T. R.; Riihimaki, L. D.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate height-resolved measurements of higher-order statistical moments of vertical velocity fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  3. Multipoint photonic doppler velocimetry using optical lens elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frogget, Brent Copely; Romero, Vincent Todd

    2014-04-29

    A probe including a fisheye lens is disclosed to measure the velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the surface and then reflected back from the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface, collected into fisheye lens, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to an index-matching lens and eventually to a fisheye lens. The fiber array flat polished and coupled to the index-matching lens using index-matching gel. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays through the fisheye lens which in turn project many measurement points at numerous different locations to establish surface coverage over a hemispherical shape with very little crosstalk.

  4. Photonic Doppler velocimetry lens array probe incorporating stereo imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Robert M.; Kaufman, Morris I.

    2015-09-01

    A probe including a multiple lens array is disclosed to measure velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the moving surface is reflected back from the surface and is Doppler shifted, collected into the array, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to the multiple lens array. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays to establish many measurement points at numerous different locations. One or more lens groups may be replaced with imaging lenses so a stereo image of the moving surface can be recorded. Imaging a portion of the surface during initial travel can determine whether the surface is breaking up.

  5. Doppler lidar for measurement of atmospheric wind fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menzies, R.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of wind fields in the earth's troposphere with daily global coverage is widely considered as a significant advance for forecasting and transport studies. For optimal use by NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) models the horizontal and vertical resolutions should be approximately 100 km and 1 km, respectively. For boundary layer studies vertical resolution of a few hundred meters seems essential. Earth-orbiting Doppler lidar has a unique capability to measure global winds in the troposphere with the high vertical resolution required. The lidar approach depends on transmission of pulses with high spectral purity and backscattering from the atmospheric aerosol particles or layered clouds to provide a return signal. Recent field measurement campaigns using NASA research aircraft have resulted in collection of aerosol and cloud data which can be used to optimize the Doppler lidar instrument design and measurement strategy. 5 refs.

  6. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2002-01-01

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  7. Sandia Is Developing a Doppler Global Velocimetry System to Understand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fundamental Wind-Turbine Wake Phenomena Is Developing a Doppler Global Velocimetry System to Understand Fundamental Wind-Turbine Wake Phenomena - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage

  8. A Fisheye Lens as a Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frogget, B. C.

    2012-08-16

    These presentation visuals report an instrument that, by use of a fish-eye lens, generates a beat signal using fiber mixing of unshifted light with Doppler-shifted light and measures the beat frequency. Ray trace diagrams are shown to illustrate advantages and disadvantages. The authors find their instrument has a long tracking distance, and large angle coverage. Index matching eases assembly, reduces return loss and flattens the field.

  9. The Doppler paradigm and the APEX-EPOS-ORANGE quandary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    The experimental detection of the sharp lines of the (e{sup +}e{sup -}) Puzzle is viewed as a struggle against Doppler broadening. Gedanken experiments which are realistic in zeroth order of detail are analyzed to show that the ORANGE and EPOS/I geometries select narrower slices of a Doppler broadened line than spherically inclusive (APEX and EPOS/II -like) apparati. Roughly speaking, the latter require event-by-event Doppler reconstruction simply to regain an even footing with the former. This suggests that APEX` or EPOS/II`s coincident pair distributions must be statistically superior to those of EPOS/I or ORANGE in order to support a comparable inference about sharp structure. Under such circumstances, independent alternative data is invaluable. Therefore, a corroboration of Sakai`s 330.1 keV (< 3 keV wide) electron line in few MeV e{sup +} or e{sup -} bombardments of U and Th targets could prove crucial.

  10. Incoherent Doppler lidar for measurement of atmospheric winds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, W.R.; Hays, P.B.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual space-based incoherent Doppler lidar wind measurement system is described. The system employs a Fabry-Perot interferometer to detect the Doppler shift of the backscattered laser line, and uses two channels, one for aerosol and one for molecular backscatter. Previous investigations have considered only the aerosol backscatter as the means to determine the Doppler shift. Several studies have demonstrated that aerosol backscatter, particularly over the oceans and in the southern hemisphere, can be extremely low in the free troposphere. The two channel configuration permits acceptable measurements regardless of the aerosol loading. The system operates in the near UV, which is eye safe and provides a large molecular backscatter. With a 20 Watt laser, 1 meter diameter collecting telescope, and 5 seconds integration time, the horizontal line of sight wind errors would be less than 1 m/s with aerosols typical of a continental loading from the surface to the stratosphere. Areas of low aerosol loading would have errors of about 3 m/s.

  11. Acoustic Inspection Device V1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-01-16

    The Acoustic Inspection Device (AID) is an instrument used to interrogate materials with ultrasonic acoustic waves. The AID application software program runs under the Microsoft Windows 98 or Windows 2000 operating system. Is serves as the instrument controller and provides the user interface for the instrument known as the Acoustic Inspection Device (AID). The program requests, acquires, and analyzes acoustic waveforms from the AID hardware (pulser/receiver module, digitizer, and communications link). Graphical user displays ofmore » the AID application program include the real-time display of ultrasonic acoustic waveforms and analytical results including acoustic time-of-flight, velocity, and material identification. This program utilizes a novel algorithm, developed at PNNL, that automatically extracts the time-of-flight and amplitude data from the raw waveform and compares the extracted data to a material database.« less

  12. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  13. Acoustic resonance frequency locked photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.

    2003-09-09

    A photoacoustic spectroscopy method and apparatus for maintaining an acoustic source frequency on a sample cell resonance frequency comprising: providing an acoustic source to the sample cell, the acoustic source having a source frequency; repeatedly and continuously sweeping the source frequency across the resonance frequency at a sweep rate; and employing an odd-harmonic of the source frequency sweep rate to maintain the source frequency sweep centered on the resonance frequency.

  14. Acoustic resonance phase locked photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.

    2003-08-19

    A photoacoustic spectroscopy method and apparatus for maintaining an acoustic source frequency on a sample cell resonance frequency comprising: providing an acoustic source to the sample cell to generate a photoacoustic signal, the acoustic source having a source frequency; continuously measuring detection phase of the photoacoustic signal with respect to source frequency or a harmonic thereof; and employing the measured detection phase to provide magnitude and direction for correcting the source frequency to the resonance frequency.

  15. Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear ...

  16. Microfluidic device for acoustic cell lysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch, Darren W.; Cooley, Erika Jane; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe; James, Conrad D.; McClain, Jaime L.

    2015-08-04

    A microfluidic acoustic-based cell lysing device that can be integrated with on-chip nucleic acid extraction. Using a bulk acoustic wave (BAW) transducer array, acoustic waves can be coupled into microfluidic cartridges resulting in the lysis of cells contained therein by localized acoustic pressure. Cellular materials can then be extracted from the lysed cells. For example, nucleic acids can be extracted from the lysate using silica-based sol-gel filled microchannels, nucleic acid binding magnetic beads, or Nafion-coated electrodes. Integration of cell lysis and nucleic acid extraction on-chip enables a small, portable system that allows for rapid analysis in the field.

  17. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  18. Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polagye, Brian

    2011-11-01

    This presentation from the Water Peer Review highlights one of the program's marine and hyrokinetics environmental projects to determine the likely acoustic effects from a tidal energy device.

  19. Acoustic Enhancement of Photodetecting Devices - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by an electromechanical acoustic resonator, such as a quartz crystal tuning fork or a piezoelectric actuator. Dampening the electronic signal increases the signal-to-noise ratio. ...

  20. Acoustic transducer for nuclear reactor monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahlgren, Frederic F.; Scott, Paul F.

    1977-01-01

    A transducer to monitor a parameter and produce an acoustic signal from which the monitored parameter can be recovered. The transducer comprises a modified Galton whistle which emits a narrow band acoustic signal having a frequency dependent upon the parameter being monitored, such as the temperature of the cooling media of a nuclear reactor. Multiple locations within a reactor are monitored simultaneously by a remote acoustic receiver by providing a plurality of transducers each designed so that the acoustic signal it emits has a frequency distinct from the frequencies of signals emitted by the other transducers, whereby each signal can be unambiguously related to a particular transducer.

  1. Category:Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log page? For detailed information on Cross-Dipole Acoustic Log,...

  2. Cloud Properties from Doppler Radar Spectra - a Growing Suite of Information Extraction Algorithms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Doppler Radar Spectra - a Growing Suite of Information Extraction Algorithms Edward Luke 1 , Pavlos Kollias 2 , Matthew Shupe 3 , Karen Johnson 1 , Eugene Clothiaux 4 1. Brookhaven National Laboratory 2. McGill University 3. CIRES/NOAA/ETL 4. Penn State University C F B A E D Lidar Prediction Algorithm Depolarization C F B A E D Backscatter DOPPLER RADAR SPECTRA HYDROMETEOR PHASE CLASSIFICATION MIXED LIQUID SOLID MIXED LIQUID SOLID Shupe Multi-instrument Technique Doppler Radar Spectra

  3. Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolt, Thomas L.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the conduction of high current densities. With the superconducting metal oxide in the form of a ceramic slip which has not yet set, orientation of the crystal basal planes parallel with the direction of desired current flow is accomplished by an applied acoustic plane wave in the acoustic or ultrasonic frequency range (either progressive or standing) in applying a torque to each crystal particle. The ceramic slip is then set and fired by conventional methods to produce a conductor with preferentially oriented grains and substantially enhanced current carrying capacity.

  4. The acoustic finite integration technique for waves of cylindrical symmetry (CAFIT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peiffer, A.; Koehler, B.; Petzold, S.

    1997-08-01

    Many ultrasonic nondestructive testing applications have cylindrical geometries. Examples involve the excitation of ultrasound by cylindrical piezoelectic probes or by laser, x rays, electron beams [A. C. Tam, Rev. Mod. Phys. {bold 58}, 381{endash}431 (1986)], or ion beams [L. Sulak {ital et al.}, Nucl. Instrum. Methods {bold 161}, 203{endash}217 (1979)]. Thus, calculations of cylindrical wave propagation are important for a better understanding and interpretation of many testing situations. This paper deals with the AFIT Code or finite volume method for numerical simulation of sound propagation in fluids adapted to cylindrical geometries (CAFIT). A comparison is made with standard difference-equations techniques also utilized for cylindrical geometries. Two examples are dealt with: (1) The sound generation by a high energy beam of heavy ions stopping in water; (2) the multimode sound propagation in a medical doppler injection device excited by a disk probe. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  5. Balancing I/Q data in radar range-Doppler images. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Balancing IQ data in radar range-Doppler images. Abstract not provided. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter Publication Date: 2015-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1244856 Report ...

  6. Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wind Value-Added Product Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product Wind speed and direction, together with pressure, temperature, and ...

  7. Cooperative control of vehicle swarms for acoustic target recognition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for acoustic target recognition by energy flows. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cooperative control of vehicle swarms for acoustic target recognition by energy flows. ...

  8. An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media ...

  9. Photo of the Week: Acoustic Levitation for Medicine | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This acoustic levitator was originally developed to help NASA simulate microgravity ... This acoustic levitator was originally developed to help NASA simulate microgravity ...

  10. Implementation of on-the-fly doppler broadening in MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, W. R.; Wilderman, S.; Brown, F. B.; Yesilyurt, G.

    2013-07-01

    A new method to obtain Doppler broadened cross sections has been implemented into MCNP, removing the need to generate cross sections for isotopes at problem temperatures. When a neutron of energy E enters a material region that is at some temperature T, the cross sections for that material at temperature T are immediately obtained 'on-the-fly' (OTF) by interpolation using a high order functional expansion for the temperature dependence of the Doppler-broadened cross section for that isotope at the neutron energy E. The OTF cross sections agree with the NJOY-based cross sections for all neutron energies and all temperatures in the range specified by the user, e.g., 250 K - 3200 K. The OTF methodology has been successfully implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code and has been tested on several test problems by comparing MCNP with conventional ACE cross sections versus MCNP with OTF cross sections. The test problems include the Doppler defect reactivity benchmark suite and two full-core VHTR configurations, including one with multiphysics coupling using RELAP5-3D/ATHENA for the thermal-hydraulic analysis. The comparison has been excellent, verifying that the OTF libraries can be used in place of the conventional ACE libraries generated at problem temperatures. In addition, it has been found that the OTF methodology greatly reduces the complexity of the input for MCNP, resulting in an order of magnitude decrease in the number of input lines for full-core configurations. Finally, for full-core problems with multiphysics feedback, the memory required to store the cross section data is considerably reduced with OTF cross sections and the additional computational effort with OTF is modest, on the order of 10-15%. (authors)

  11. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H.

    2011-02-15

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  12. Multigroup Free-atom Doppler-broadening Approximation. Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Mark Girard

    2015-11-06

    The multigroup energy Doppler-broadening approximation agrees with continuous energy Dopplerbroadening generally to within ten percent for the total cross sections of 1H, 56Fe, and 235U at 250 lanl. Although this is probably not good enough for broadening from room temperature through the entire temperature range in production use, it is better than any interpolation scheme between temperatures proposed to date, and may be good enough for extrapolation from high temperatures. The method deserves further study since additional improvements are possible.

  13. INTRODUCTION TO DOPPLER RADAR Pavlos Kollias McGill University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOPPLER RADAR Pavlos Kollias McGill University radarscience.weebly.com 15 March 2016 ARM Summer Training and Science Applications GRANT CHALLENGES OF RADARS 15 March 2016 ARM Summer Training and Science Applications Cloud Radars The use of letters for radar frequency bands and decibels The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that expresses the ratio of two values of a physical quantity, often power or intensity. 3 dB is a factor of 2 !! 15 March 2016 ARM Summer Training and Science Applications

  14. A novel photonic Doppler velocimetry for transverse velocity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Guanghua; Wang Detian; Liu Jun; Meng Jianhua; Liu Shouxian; Yang Qingguo

    2013-01-15

    A fiber interferometry for transverse velocity measurement has been developed. This diagnostic is similar to photonic Doppler velocimetry in the way in which laser propagates and couples. The interferometer mainly consists of a fiber coupler, an emitting probe, and two receiving probes. A pair of scattered laser beams mix in the coupler and generates fringes with frequency proportional to transverse velocity. Measurement of transverse velocity is independent of longitudinal velocity. The feasibility of the technique has been verified by rotating wheel experiment and shock loading experiment.

  15. Method and means for measuring acoustic emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, Jr., Claus J.

    1976-01-06

    The detection of acoustic emissions emanating from an object is achieved with a capacitive transducer coupled to the object. The capacitive transducer is charged and then allowed to discharge with the rate of discharge being monitored. Oscillations in the rate of discharge about the normally exponential discharge curve for the capacitive transducer indicate the presence of acoustic emissions.

  16. ACOUSTIC FORMING FOR ENHANCED DEWATERING AND FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cyrus K Aidun

    2007-11-30

    The next generation of forming elements based on acoustic excitation to increase drainage and enhances formation both with on-line control and profiling capabilities has been investigated in this project. The system can be designed and optimized based on the fundamental experimental and computational analysis and investigation of acoustic waves in a fiber suspension flow and interaction with the forming wire.

  17. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  18. Interpretation of Synthetic Aperture Radar measurements of ocean currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rufenach, C.L.; Shuchman, R.A.; Lyzenga, D.R.

    1983-02-28

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) experiments hae been performed over the last few years to measure ocean currents inferred from shifts in the Doppler spectral peak. Interpretations of aircraft SAR measurements, when compared with limited surface values, tend to underestimate the currents by about 25%. A theory is developed that modifies the classical Doppler expression showing that the radar measurements are dependent on the radar processor (system) bandwidth and the received signal bandwidth. Measured bandwidths give a correction that increases the inferred current values by about 25%, bringing the measurements into good agreement. This new correction lends credence to the theory and increases the potential for application of SAR systems to future ocean current measurements. SAR measurements should include the determination of processor and signal bandwidths such that this correction can be applied.

  19. Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-07-07

    Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

  20. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-11-23

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  1. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  2. Design, Assembly, and Testing of a Photon Doppler Velocimetry Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Robert M; Cox, Brian C; Daykin, Edward P; DeVore, Douglas O; Esquibel, David L; Frayer, Daniel K; Frogget, Brent C; Gallegos, Cenobio H; Kaufman, Morris I; McGillivray, Kevin D; Romero, Vincent T; Briggs, Matthew E; Furlanetto, Michael R; Holtkamp, David B; Pazuchanics, Peter; Primas, Lori E; Shinas, Michael A

    2011-08-21

    A novel fiber-optic probe measures the velocity distribution of an imploding surface along many lines of sight. Reflected light from each spot on the moving surface is Doppler shifted with a small portion of this light propagating backwards through the launching fiber. The reflected light is mixed with a reference laser in a technique called photon Doppler velocimetry, providing continuous time records. Within the probe, a matrix array of 56 single-mode fibers sends light through an optical relay consisting of three types of lenses. Seven sets of these relay lenses are grouped into a close-packed array allowing the interrogation of seven regions of interest. A six-faceted prism with a hole drilled into its center directs the light beams to the different regions. Several types of relay lens systems have been evaluated, including doublets and molded aspheric singlets. The optical design minimizes beam diameters and also provides excellent imaging capabilities. One of the fiber matrix arrays can be replaced by an imaging coherent bundle. This close-packed array of seven relay systems provides up to 476 beam trajectories. The pyramid prism has its six facets polished at two different angles that will vary the density of surface point coverage. Fibers in the matrix arrays are angle polished at 8{sup o} to minimize back reflections. This causes the minimum beam waist to vary along different trajectories. Precision metrology on the direction cosine trajectories is measured to satisfy environmental requirements for vibration and temperature.

  3. A Fisheye Lens as a Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frogget, B C; Cox, B C; DeVore, D O; Esquibel, D L; Frayer, D K; Furlanetto, M R; Holtkamp, D B; Kaufman, M I; Malone, R M

    2012-09-01

    A new fisheye lens design is used as a miniature probe to measure the velocity distribution of an imploding surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed and scattered back along each beam on the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface and collected into the launching fiber. The received light is mixed with reference laser light in each optical fiber in a technique called photonic Doppler velocimetry, providing a continuous time record. An array of single-mode optical fibers sends laser light through the fisheye lens. The lens consists of an index-matching positive element, two positive doublet groups, and two negative singlet elements. The optical design minimizes beam diameters, physical size, and back reflections for excellent signal collection. The fiber array projected through the fisheye lens provides many measurement points of surface coverage over a hemisphere with very little crosstalk. The probe measures surface movement with only a small encroachment into the center of the cavity. The fiber array is coupled to the index-matching element using index-matching gel. The array is bonded and sealed into a blast tube for ease of assembly and focusing. This configuration also allows the fiber array to be flat polished at a common object plane. In areas where increased measurement point density is desired, the fibers can be close packed. To further increase surface density coverage, smaller-diameter cladding optical fibers may be used.

  4. Micro-battery Development for Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Honghao; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Qiang; Lozano, Terence J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Li, Huidong; Chen, Xilin; Yuan, Yong; Gross, Mark E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-21

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. This study focuses on the optimization of microbattery design based on Li/CFx chemistry. Through appropriate modifications, a steady high-rate pulse current with desirable life time has been achieved while the weight and volume of the battery is largely reduced. The impedance variation in as-designed microbatteries is systematically compared with that of currently used watch batteries in JSATS with an attempt to understand the intrinsic factors that control the performances of microbatteries under the real testing environments.

  5. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  6. Material fabrication using acoustic radiation forces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Naveen N.; Sinha, Dipen N.; Goddard, Gregory Russ

    2015-12-01

    Apparatus and methods for using acoustic radiation forces to order particles suspended in a host liquid are described. The particles may range in size from nanometers to millimeters, and may have any shape. The suspension is placed in an acoustic resonator cavity, and acoustical energy is supplied thereto using acoustic transducers. The resulting pattern may be fixed by using a solidifiable host liquid, forming thereby a solid material. Patterns may be quickly generated; typical times ranging from a few seconds to a few minutes. In a one-dimensional arrangement, parallel layers of particles are formed. With two and three dimensional transducer arrangements, more complex particle configurations are possible since different standing-wave patterns may be generated in the resonator. Fabrication of periodic structures, such as metamaterials, having periods tunable by varying the frequency of the acoustic waves, on surfaces or in bulk volume using acoustic radiation forces, provides great flexibility in the creation of new materials. Periodicities may range from millimeters to sub-micron distances, covering a large portion of the range for optical and acoustical metamaterials.

  7. Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2014-05-07

    A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.

  8. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J.

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  9. James TenCate elected Acoustical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    James TenCate elected Acoustical Society of America fellow August 30, 2016 LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Aug. 30, 2016-Los Alamos National Laboratory mechanical engineer James TenCate was recently elected fellow by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). TenCate, who leads the Modeling and Simulation Team in the Geophysics Group in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Division (EES), was honored for his contributions to nonlinear acoustics of earth materials. "Jim's research over the years has been

  10. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  11. Acoustic resonance in heat exchanger tube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blevins, R.D. )

    1994-02-01

    A series of experiments has been made on aeroacoustic tones produced by flow over tubes in a duct. The sound is characterized by the onset of a loud and persistent acoustic resonance. The acoustic resonance occurs at the frequency of the acoustic modes. The magnitude and extent of the resonance are functions of tube pattern and tube pitch. The sound levels increase in proportion with Mach number, dynamic head and pressure drop. A design procedure for predicting the magnitude of the sound within the tube array is presented. Methods of resonance avoidance are illustrated. An example is made for a large petrochemical heat exchanger.

  12. Speaker verification system using acoustic data and non-acoustic data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gable, Todd J.; Ng, Lawrence C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Burnett, Greg C.

    2006-03-21

    A method and system for speech characterization. One embodiment includes a method for speaker verification which includes collecting data from a speaker, wherein the data comprises acoustic data and non-acoustic data. The data is used to generate a template that includes a first set of "template" parameters. The method further includes receiving a real-time identity claim from a claimant, and using acoustic data and non-acoustic data from the identity claim to generate a second set of parameters. The method further includes comparing the first set of parameters to the set of parameters to determine whether the claimant is the speaker. The first set of parameters and the second set of parameters include at least one purely non-acoustic parameter, including a non-acoustic glottal shape parameter derived from averaging multiple glottal cycle waveforms.

  13. Photonic-Doppler-Velocimetry, Paraxial-Scalar Diffraction Theory and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, W. P.

    2015-07-20

    In this report I describe current progress on a paraxial, scalar-field theory suitable for simulating what is measured in Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) experiments in three dimensions. I have introduced a number of approximations in this work in order to bring the total computation time for one experiment down to around 20 hours. My goals were: to develop an approximate method of calculating the peak frequency in a spectral sideband at an instant of time based on an optical diffraction theory for a moving target, to compare the ‘measured’ velocity to the ‘input’ velocity to gain insights into how and to what precision PDV measures the component of the mass velocity along the optical axis, and to investigate the effects of small amounts of roughness on the measured velocity. This report illustrates the progress I have made in describing how to perform such calculations with a full three dimensional picture including tilted target, tilted mass velocity (not necessarily in the same direction), and small amounts of surface roughness. With the method established for a calculation at one instant of time, measured velocities can be simulated for a sequence of times, similar to the process of sampling velocities in experiments. Improvements in these methods are certainly possible at hugely increased computational cost. I am hopeful that readers appreciate the insights possible at the current level of approximation.

  14. Coplanar Doppler Lidar Retrieval of Rotors from T-REX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Michael; Calhoun, Ron; Fernando, H. J. S.; Wieser, Andreas; Dornbrack, Andreas; Weissmann, Martin; Mayr, G.; Newsom, Rob K.

    2010-03-01

    Two coherent Doppler lidars were deployed during the Terrain-induced Rotor EXperiment (T-REX). Coplanar Range Height Indicator (RHI) scans by the lidars (along the same azimuthal angle) allowed retrieval of two-dimensional velocity vectors on a vertical/cross-barrier plane using the least squares method. Vortices are shown to evolve and advect in the flow field, allowing analysis of their behavior in the mountain-wave-boundary layer system. The locations, magnitudes, and evolution of the vortices can be studied through calculated fields of velocity, vorticity, streamlines, and swirl. Two classes of vortical motions are identified: rotors and sub-rotors, which differ in scale and behavior. The level of coordination of the two lidars and the nature of the output (i.e., in range-gates) creates inherent restrictions on the spatial and temporal resolution of retrieved fields.

  15. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  16. AN ACOUSTICALLY DRIVEN MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laberge, Michel

    2009-07-26

    We propose a new acoustic compression scheme for a MTF power plant. A strong acoustic wave is produced by piston impacts. The wave focuses in liquid PbLi to compress a pre-formed FRC plasma. Simulations indicate the possibility of building an economical 60 MWe power plant. A proof-of-principle experiment produces a small D-D fusion yield of 2000 neutrons per shot.

  17. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ``false negative or false positive`` indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments.

  18. Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Samuel C.

    1984-01-01

    A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at 180.degree. intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.

  19. Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, S.C.

    1982-10-21

    A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at 180/sup 0/ intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.

  20. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical modeling of drizzle evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, P.; Luke, E.; Szyrmer, W.; Rmillard, J.

    2011-07-02

    In part I, the influence of cloud microphysics and dynamics on the shape of cloud radar Doppler spectra in warm stratiform clouds was discussed. The traditional analysis of radar Doppler moments was extended to include skewness and kurtosis as additional descriptors of the Doppler spectrum. Here, a short climatology of observed Doppler spectra moments as a function of the radar reflectivity at continental and maritime ARM sites is presented. The evolution of the Doppler spectra moments is consistent with the onset and growth of drizzle particles and can be used to assist modeling studies of drizzle onset and growth. Time-height radar observations are used to exhibit the coherency of the Doppler spectra shape parameters and demonstrate their potential to improve the interpretation and use of radar observations. In addition, a simplified microphysical approach to modeling the vertical evolution of the drizzle particle size distribution in warm stratiform clouds is described and used to analyze the observations. The formation rate of embryonic drizzle droplets due to the autoconversion process is not calculated explicitly; however, accretion and evaporation processes are explicitly modeled. The microphysical model is used as input to a radar Doppler spectrum forward model, and synthetic radar Doppler spectra moments are generated. Three areas of interest are studied in detail: early drizzle growth near the cloud top, growth by accretion of the well-developed drizzle, and drizzle depletion below the cloud base due to evaporation. The modeling results are in good agreement with the continental and maritime observations. This demonstrates that steady state one-dimensional explicit microphysical models coupled with a forward model and comprehensive radar Doppler spectra observations offer a powerful method to explore the vertical evolution of the drizzle particle size distribution.

  1. Acoustic emission non-destructive testing of structures using source location techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beattie, Alan G.

    2013-09-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) testing has been advanced and used at Sandia for the past 40 years. AE has been used on structures including pressure vessels, fire bottles, wind turbines, gas wells, nuclear weapons, and solar collectors. This monograph begins with background topics in acoustics and instrumentation and then focuses on current acoustic emission technology. It covers the overall design and system setups for a test, with a wind turbine blade as the object. Test analysis is discussed with an emphasis on source location. Three test examples are presented, two on experimental wind turbine blades and one on aircraft fire extinguisher bottles. Finally, the code for a FORTRAN source location program is given as an example of a working analysis program. Throughout the document, the stress is on actual testing of real structures, not on laboratory experiments.

  2. A nondestructive test for aircraft Halon bottles, the development of an acoustic emission application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beattie, A.G.

    1996-12-01

    An acoustic emission test for aircraft Halon bottles has been developed in response to a need expressed by the US Airline Industry. During this development many choices had to be made about test methods, procedures and analysis techniques. This paper discusses these choices and how successful they were. The test itself was designed to replace the currently required hydrostatic test for these bottles. The necessary load is applied by heating the sealed bottles. Acoustic emission is monitored, during the heating, by six sensors held in position by a special fixture. A prototype of the test apparatus was constructed and used in two commercial Halon bottle repair and test facilities. Results to date indicate that about 97% of the bottles tested show no indications of flaws. The other 3% have had indications of possible flaws in non-critical areas of the bottles. All bottles tested to date have passed the hydrostatic test subsequent to the acoustic emission test.

  3. Application of electro acoustics for dewatering pharmaceutical sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golla, P.S.; Johnson, H.W. ) Senthilnathan, P.R. )

    1992-02-01

    Application of electro acoustic principles for dewatering has been developed by Battelle Institute. The Department of Energy, Battelle Institute, and Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley, have jointly developed an Electro Acoustic Dewatering press (EAD press). The EAD press applies a combination of mechanical pressure, electrical current and ultrasonics. This press is utilized after conventional dewatering devices and can remove up to 50% water from filtered sludge cake at a fraction of the cost incurred in existing thermal drying devices. The dominant mechanism of sludge dewatering by EAD press is electro-osmosis due to the application of a direct current field. Electro-osmosis is caused by an electrical double layer of oppositely charged ions formed at the solid liquid interface, which is characterized by zeta potential. The ultrasonic fields help electro-osmosis by consolidation of the filter cake and by release of inaccessible liquid. The EAD press has been tested successfully on a variety of materials including apple pomace, corn gluten, sewage sludge, and coal fines. A three week long full scale trial was conducted successfully at a pharmaceutical industry to determine the application of this technology for dewatering waste activated sludge.

  4. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-17

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  5. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D.

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  6. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2014-10-21

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  7. Current Titles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  8. Current Contracts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Contracts U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Management & Operating Contractor for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contract Number DE-EM0001971 Fee Payment Information (Nuclear Waste Partnership, LLC.) U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Transportation Contractors for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contract Number DE-EM0001840 (Visionary Solutions, LLC) Contract Number DE-EM0001819 (CAST Specialty Transportation Services, Inc.) U.S. Department of Energy

  9. Current Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Research The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) has established its only high-performance computing and engineering analysis research facility at Argonne National Laboratory to provide applications support in key areas of applied research and development for the USDOT community. The Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) features a state-of-the-art massively parallel computer system, advanced scientific visualization capability, high-speed network

  10. A NOVEL X-RAY IMAGING CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A NOVEL X-RAY IMAGING CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS OF ION TEMPERATURE AND PLASMA ROTATION VELOCITY PROFILES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A NOVEL X-RA...

  11. A study of cloud and drizzle properties in the Azores using Doppler...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A study of cloud and drizzle properties in the Azores using Doppler Radar spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A study of cloud and drizzle properties in the Azores using ...

  12. A NOVEL X-RAY IMAGING CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-RAY IMAGING CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS OF ION TEMPERATURE AND PLASMA ROTATION VELOCITY PROFILES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A NOVEL X-RAY ...

  13. On-the-Fly Doppler Broadening for Monte Carlo Codes (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: On-the-Fly Doppler Broadening for Monte Carlo Codes Authors: Yesilyurt, G. ; Martin, W. ; Brown, F. 1 ; Univ. of Michigan) 2 ; Los Alamos National Laboratory) 2 + Show ...

  14. Laser and acoustic lens for lithotripsy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R.; Makarewicz, Anthony J.; London, Richard A.; Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2002-01-01

    An acoustic focusing device whose acoustic waves are generated by laser radiation through an optical fiber. The acoustic energy is capable of efficient destruction of renal and biliary calculi and deliverable to the site of the calculi via an endoscopic procedure. The device includes a transducer tip attached to the distal end of an optical fiber through which laser energy is directed. The transducer tip encapsulates an exogenous absorbing dye. Under proper irradiation conditions (high absorbed energy density, short pulse duration) a stress wave is produced via thermoelastic expansion of the absorber for the destruction of the calculi. The transducer tip can be configured into an acoustic lens such that the transmitted acoustic wave is shaped or focused. Also, compressive stress waves can be reflected off a high density/low density interface to invert the compressive wave into a tensile stress wave, and tensile stresses may be more effective in some instances in disrupting material as most materials are weaker in tension than compression. Estimations indicate that stress amplitudes provided by this device can be magnified more than 100 times, greatly improving the efficiency of optical energy for targeted material destruction.

  15. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  16. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  17. Method and apparatus of spectro-acoustically enhanced ultrasonic detection for diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Norton, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting a discontinuity in a material includes a source of electromagnetic radiation has a wavelength and an intensity sufficient to induce an enhancement in contrast between a manifestation of an acoustic property in the material and of the acoustic property in the discontinuity, as compared to when the material is not irradiated by the electromagnetic radiation. An acoustic emitter directs acoustic waves to the discontinuity in the material. The acoustic waves have a sensitivity to the acoustic property. An acoustic receiver receives the acoustic waves generated by the acoustic emitter after the acoustic waves have interacted with the material and the discontinuity. The acoustic receiver also generates a signal representative of the acoustic waves received by the acoustic receiver. A processor, in communication with the acoustic receiver and responsive to the signal generated by the acoustic receiver, is programmed to generate informational output about the discontinuity based on the signal generated by the acoustic receiver.

  18. Wind Measurements from Arc Scans with Doppler Wind Lidar

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Clifton, Andy; Pryor, S. C.

    2015-11-25

    When defining optimal scanning geometries for scanning lidars for wind energy applications, we found that it is still an active field of research. Our paper evaluates uncertainties associated with arc scan geometries and presents recommendations regarding optimal configurations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The analysis is based on arc scan data from a Doppler wind lidar with one elevation angle and seven azimuth angles spanning 30° and focuses on an estimation of 10-min mean wind speed and direction. When flow is horizontally uniform, this approach can provide accurate wind measurements required for wind resource assessments in part because of itsmore » high resampling rate. Retrieved wind velocities at a single range gate exhibit good correlation to data from a sonic anemometer on a nearby meteorological tower, and vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, though derived from range gates located on a conical surface, match those measured by mast-mounted cup anemometers. Uncertainties in the retrieved wind velocity are related to high turbulent wind fluctuation and an inhomogeneous horizontal wind field. Moreover, the radial velocity variance is found to be a robust measure of the uncertainty of the retrieved wind speed because of its relationship to turbulence properties. It is further shown that the standard error of wind speed estimates can be minimized by increasing the azimuthal range beyond 30° and using five to seven azimuth angles.« less

  19. Wind Measurements from Arc Scans with Doppler Wind Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Clifton, Andy; Pryor, S. C.

    2015-11-25

    When defining optimal scanning geometries for scanning lidars for wind energy applications, we found that it is still an active field of research. Our paper evaluates uncertainties associated with arc scan geometries and presents recommendations regarding optimal configurations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The analysis is based on arc scan data from a Doppler wind lidar with one elevation angle and seven azimuth angles spanning 30° and focuses on an estimation of 10-min mean wind speed and direction. When flow is horizontally uniform, this approach can provide accurate wind measurements required for wind resource assessments in part because of its high resampling rate. Retrieved wind velocities at a single range gate exhibit good correlation to data from a sonic anemometer on a nearby meteorological tower, and vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, though derived from range gates located on a conical surface, match those measured by mast-mounted cup anemometers. Uncertainties in the retrieved wind velocity are related to high turbulent wind fluctuation and an inhomogeneous horizontal wind field. Moreover, the radial velocity variance is found to be a robust measure of the uncertainty of the retrieved wind speed because of its relationship to turbulence properties. It is further shown that the standard error of wind speed estimates can be minimized by increasing the azimuthal range beyond 30° and using five to seven azimuth angles.

  20. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  1. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km3 of Sea Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy...

  2. Methods and apparatus for multi-parameter acoustic signature inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Samuel, Todd J.; Valencia, Juan D.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Tucker, Brian J.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Skorpik, James R.; Reid, Larry D.; Munley, John T.; Pappas, Richard A.; Wright, Bob W.; Panetta, Paul D.; Thompson, Jason S.

    2007-07-24

    A multiparameter acoustic signature inspection device and method are described for non-invasive inspection of containers. Dual acoustic signatures discriminate between various fluids and materials for identification of the same.

  3. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  4. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Parent, Philippe; Reinholdtsen, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respected to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations.

  5. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Parent, P.; Reinholdtsen, P.A.

    1991-02-26

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method are described in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respect to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations. 7 figures.

  6. Effects on Aquatic Organisms (EMF, Acoustics and Physical Interaction) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Aquatic Organisms (EMF, Acoustics and Physical Interaction) Effects on Aquatic Organisms (EMF, Acoustics and Physical Interaction) Effects on Aquatic Organisms (EMF, Acoustics and Physical Interaction) 59_emf_pnnl_copping_v3.ppt (1.88 MB) More Documents & Publications Effects on Aquatic Organisms (Acoustics and Toxicity) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) Categorizing and Evaluating the Effects of Stressors (all Conceptual

  7. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring Novel sensor design based on acoustics. Determine in real-timeand in a single sensor packagemultiple parameters: temperature, pressure, fluid flow; and fluid properties, such as density, viscosity, fluid composition. high_pantea_acoustic_sensor.pdf (829.2 KB) More Documents & Publications Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager Waveguide-based Ultrasonic and

  8. Acoustic aspects of MEMS devices. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; ACOUSTICS; MICROELECTRONIC ...

  9. Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System Transmitter Downsize Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Myjak, Mitchell J.

    2010-04-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated the use of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to reduce the weight and volume of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters while retaining current functionality. Review of the design of current JSATS transmitters identified components that could be replaced by an ASIC while retaining the function of the current transmitter and offering opportunities to extend function if desired. ASIC design alternatives were identified that could meet transmitter weight and volume targets of 200 mg and 100 mm3. If alternatives to the cylindrical batteries used in current JSATS transmitters can be identified, it could be possible to implant ASIC-based JSATS transmitters by injection rather than surgery. Using criteria for the size of fish suitable for surgical implantation of current JSATS transmitters, it was concluded that fish as small as 70 mm in length could be implanted with an ASIC-based transmitter, particularly if implantation by injection became feasible.

  10. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, P.; Luke, E.; Rmillard, J.; Szyrmer, W.

    2011-07-02

    Several aspects of spectral broadening and drizzle growth in shallow liquid clouds remain not well understood. Detailed, cloud-scale observations of microphysics and dynamics are essential to guide and evaluate corresponding modeling efforts. Profiling, millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three moments of the recorded cloud radar Doppler spectra, the radar reflectivity, mean Doppler velocity, and spectrum width, are often used to retrieve cloud microphysical and dynamical properties. Such retrievals are subject to errors introduced by the assumptions made in the inversion process. Here, we introduce two additional morphological parameters of the radar Doppler spectrum, the skewness and kurtosis, in an effort to reduce the retrieval uncertainties. A forward model that emulates observed radar Doppler spectra is constructed and used to investigate these relationships. General, analytical relationships that relate the five radar observables to cloud and drizzle microphysical parameters and cloud turbulence are presented. The relationships are valid for cloud-only, cloud mixed with drizzle, and drizzle-only particles in the radar sampling volume and provide a seamless link between observations and cloud microphysics and dynamics. The sensitivity of the five observed parameters to the radar operational parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio and Doppler spectra velocity resolution are presented. The predicted values of the five observed radar parameters agree well with the output of the forward model. The novel use of the skewness of the radar Doppler spectrum as an early qualitative predictor of drizzle onset in clouds is introduced. It is found that skewness is a parameter very sensitive to early drizzle generation. In addition, the significance of the five parameters of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum for constraining drizzle microphysical retrievals is discussed.

  11. Current Schedule of Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    current schedule of experiments Current Schedule of Experiments Current Schedule of Experiments - Updated 4/2016

  12. Acoustic streaming jets: A scaling and dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botton, V. Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Ben-Hadid, H.; Garandet, J. P.

    2015-10-28

    We present our work on acoustic streaming free jets driven by ultrasonic beams in liquids. These jets are steady flows generated far from walls by progressive acoustic waves. As can be seen on figure 1, our set-up, denominated AStrID for Acoustic Streaming Investigation Device, is made of a water tank in which a 29 mm plane source emits continuous ultrasonic waves at typically 2 MHz. Our approach combines an experimental characterization of both the acoustic pressure field (hydrophone) and the obtained acoustic streaming velocity field (PIV visualization) on one hand, with CFD using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on the other hand.

  13. Method and apparatus for acoustic imaging of objects in water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2005-01-25

    A method, system and underwater camera for acoustic imaging of objects in water or other liquids includes an acoustic source for generating an acoustic wavefront for reflecting from a target object as a reflected wavefront. The reflected acoustic wavefront deforms a screen on an acoustic side and correspondingly deforms the opposing optical side of the screen. An optical processing system is optically coupled to the optical side of the screen and converts the deformations on the optical side of the screen into an optical intensity image of the target object.

  14. Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Moiz; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 10{sup 6} per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton-acoustic

  15. Current to Current | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Current Jump to: navigation, search Name: Current to Current Address: 35 Corporate Dr Place: Burlington Zip: 1803 Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone...

  16. Low-frequency acoustic atomization with oscillatory flow around micropillars in a microfluidic device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Yin Nee E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg; Wong, Teck Neng E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg; Nguyen, Nam Trung

    2014-10-06

    This letter reports a low frequency acoustic atomization technique with oscillatory extensional flow around micropillars. Large droplets passing through two micropillars are elongated. Small droplets are then produced through the pinch-off process at the spindle-shape ends. As the actuation frequency increases, the droplet size decreases with increasing monodispersity. This method is suitable for in-situ mass production of fine droplets in a multi-phase environment without external pumping. Small particles encapsulation was demonstrated with the current technique.

  17. Doppler spectroscopy and D-alpha emission diagnostics for the C-2 FRC plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Paganini, E.; Bonelli, L.; Deng, B. H.; Gornostaeva, O.; Hayashi, R.; Knapp, K.; McKenzie, M.; Pousa-Hijos, R.; Primavera, S.; Schroeder, J.; Tuszewski, M.; Balvis, A.; Giammanco, F.; Marsili, P.

    2010-10-15

    Two Doppler spectroscopy diagnostics with complementary capabilities are developed to measure the ion temperatures and velocities of FRC plasmas in the C-2 device. First, the multichord ion doppler diagnostic can simultaneously measure 15 chords of the plasma using an image intensified camera. Second, a single-chord fast-response ion Doppler diagnostic provides much higher faster time response by using a 16-channel photo-multiplier tube array. To study the neutral density of deuterium under different wall and plasma conditions, a highly sensitive eight-channel D-alpha diagnostic has been developed and calibrated for absolute radiance measurements. These spectroscopic diagnostics capabilities, combined with other plasma diagnostics, are helping to understand and improve the field reversed configuration plasmas in the C-2 device.

  18. A Method for the Automatic Detection of Insect Clutter in Doppler-Radar Returns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.

    2006-06-12

    The accurate detection and removal of insect clutter from millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR) returns is of high importance to boundary layer cloud research (e.g., Geerts et al., 2005). When only radar Doppler moments are available, it is difficult to produce a reliable screening of insect clutter from cloud returns because their distributions overlap. Hence, screening of MMCR insect clutter has historically involved a laborious manual process of cross-referencing radar moments against measurements from other collocated instruments, such as lidar. Our study looks beyond traditional radar moments to ask whether analysis of recorded Doppler spectra can serve as the basis for reliable, automatic insect clutter screening. We focus on the MMCR operated by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility in Oklahoma. Here, archiving of full Doppler spectra began in September 2003, and during the warmer months, a pronounced insect presence regularly introduces clutter into boundary layer returns.

  19. Ultraviolet high-spectral-resolution Doppler lidar for measuring wind field and aerosol optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imaki, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Takao

    2005-10-01

    An ultraviolet incoherent Doppler lidar that incorporates the high-spectral-resolution (HSR) technique has been developed for measuring the wind field and aerosol optical properties in the troposphere. An injection seeded and tripled Nd:YAG laser at an ultraviolet wavelength of 355 nm was used in the lidar system. The HRS technique can resolve the aerosol Mie backscatter and the molecular Rayleigh backscatter to derive the signal components. By detecting the Mie backscatter, a great increase in the Doppler filter sensitivity was realized compared to the conventional incoherent Doppler lidars that detected the Rayleigh backscatter. The wind velocity distribution in a two-dimensional cross section was measured. By using the HSR technique, multifunction and absolute value measurements were realized for aerosol extinction, and volume backscatter coefficients; the laser beam transmittance, the lidar ratio, and the backscatter ratio are derived from these measurements.

  20. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation, and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  1. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation,more » and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.« less

  2. Methods And Apparatus For Acoustic Fiber Fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brodeur, Pierre

    1999-11-09

    Methods and apparatus for acoustic fiber fractionation using a plane ultrasonic wave field interacting with water suspended fibers circulating in a channel flow using acoustic radiation forces to separate fibers into two or more fractions based on fiber radius, with applications of the separation concept in the pulp and paper industry. The continuous process relies on the use of a wall-mounted, rectangular cross-section piezoelectric ceramic transducer to selectively deflect flowing fibers as they penetrate the ultrasonic field. The described embodiment uses a transducer frequency of approximately 150 kHz. Depending upon the amount of dissolved gas in water, separation is obtained using a standing or a traveling wave field.

  3. Acoustic data transmission through a drillstring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-07-07

    A method and apparatus for acoustically transmitting data along a drillstring are presented. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, acoustic data signals are conditioned to counteract distortions caused by the drillstring. Preferably, this conditioning step comprises multiplying each frequency component of the data signal by exp ([minus]ikL) where L is the transmission length of the drillstring, k is the wave number in the drillstring at the frequency of each component and i is ([minus]1)[sup 1/2]. In another embodiment of this invention, data signals having a frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring are generated preferably traveling in only one direction (e.g., up the drillstring) while echoes in the drillstring resulting from the data transmission are suppressed. 20 figs.

  4. Electron acoustic soliton in a quantum magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masood, W.; Mushtaq, A.

    2008-02-15

    A theoretical investigation is carried out for the first time to understand the linear and nonlinear properties of obliquely propagating electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) in a two-electron population quantum magnetoplasma. A dispersion relation in the linear regime and the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation in the nonlinear regime are derived by using a quantum hydrodynamic set of equations. It is observed that the magnetic field contributes in the wave dispersion through the weakly transverse direction in the ZK equation. It is also found that propagation characteristics of the EASW are significantly affected by the presence of quantum corrections and the ratio of hot to cold electron concentration. The results presented in this study may be helpful to understand the salient features of the finite-amplitude localized electron acoustic solitary pulses in a two-population electron Fermi gas observed in laser-produced plasmas.

  5. Acoustic data transmission through a drillstring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for acoustically transmitting data along a drillstring is presented. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, acoustic data signals are conditioned to counteract distortions caused by the drillstring. Preferably, this conditioning step comprises multiplying each frequency component of the data signal by exp (-ikL) where L is the transmission length of the drillstring, k is the wave number in the drillstring at the frequency of each component and i is (-1).sup.1/2. In another embodiment of this invention, data signals having a frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring are generated preferably traveling in only one direction (e.g., up the drillstring) while echoes in the drillstring resulting from the data transmission are suppressed.

  6. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N.

    1993-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  7. Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N.; Chandran, Ravi

    1994-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

  8. Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ralph T Muehleisen, rmuehleisen@anl.gov Argonne National Laboratory Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS): New Project 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Wireless Transmission Sound Leaks / Infiltration Sites Microphone Array Analysis Computer Powered Speaker Interior Microphone Oscillator Infiltration Properties Out 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 10/1/2014 Planned end date: 9/30/2015 Key Milestones 1. Full Computer Simulation: 9/30/2014 2. First Prototype

  9. Acoustic enhancement for photo detecting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thundat, Thomas G; Senesac, Lawrence R; Van Neste, Charles W

    2013-02-19

    Provided are improvements to photo detecting devices and methods for enhancing the sensitivity of photo detecting devices. A photo detecting device generates an electronic signal in response to a received light pulse. An electro-mechanical acoustic resonator, electrically coupled to the photo detecting device, damps the electronic signal and increases the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the electronic signal. Increased photo detector standoff distances and sensitivities will result.

  10. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iaccarino, Vittorio Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  11. Attune acoustic focusing cytometer brings technology developed at LANL to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the marketplace Attune acoustic focusing cytometer Attune acoustic focusing cytometer brings technology developed at LANL to the marketplace Life Technologies Corporation recently announced the release of the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer. January 7, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  12. Electret Acoustic Transducer Array For Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Thomas L.; Fisher, Karl A.

    2005-08-09

    An electret-based acoustic transducer array is provided and may be used in a system for examining tissue. The acoustic transducer array is formed with a substrate that has a multiple distinct cells formed therein. Within each of the distinct cells is positioned an acoustic transducing element formed of an electret material. A conductive membrane is formed over the distinct cells and may be flexible.

  13. Acoustic agglomeration of power plant fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reethof, G.; McDaniel, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    The work has shown that acoustic agglomeration at practical acoustic intensities and frequencies is technically and most likely economically viable. The following studies were performed with the listed results: The physics of acoustic agglomeration is complex particularly at the needed high acoustic intensities in the range of 150 to 160 dB and frequencies in the 2500 Hz range. The analytical model which we developed, although not including nonlinear acoustic efforts, agreed with the trends observed. We concentrated our efforts on clarifying the impact of high acoustic intensities on the generation of turbulence. Results from a special set of tests show that although some acoustically generated turbulence of sorts exists in the 150 to 170 dB range with acoustic streaming present, such turbulence will not be a significant factor in acoustic agglomeration compared to the dominant effect of the acoustic velocities at the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. Studies of the robustness of the agglomerated particles using the Anderson Mark III impactor as the source of the shear stresses on the particles show that the agglomerates should be able to withstand the rigors of flow through commercial cyclones without significant break-up. We designed and developed a 700/sup 0/F tubular agglomerator of 8'' internal diameter. The electrically heated system functioned well and provided very encouraging agglomeration results at acoustic levels in the 150 to 160 dB and 2000 to 3000 Hz ranges. We confirmed earlier results that an optimum frequency exists at about 2500 Hz and that larger dust loadings will give better results. Studies of the absorption of acoustic energy by various common gases as a function of temperature and humidity showed the need to pursue such an investigation for flue gas constituents in order to provide necessary data for the design of agglomerators. 65 references, 56 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Validation of a radar doppler spectra simulator using measurements from the ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remillard, J.; Luke, E.; Kollias, P.

    2010-03-15

    The use of forward models as an alternative approach to compare models with observations contains advantages and challenges. Radar Doppler spectra simulators are not new; their application in high- resolution models with bin microphysics schemes could help to compare model output with the Doppler spectra recorded from the vertically pointing cloud radars at the ARM Climate Research Facility sites. The input parameters to a Doppler spectra simulator are both microphysical (e.g., particle size, shape, phase, and number concentration) and dynamical (e.g., resolved wind components and sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy). Libraries for spherical and non-spherical particles are then used to compute the backscattering cross-section and fall velocities, while the turbulence is parameterized as a Gaussian function with a prescribed width. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is used to determine the amount of noise added throughout the spectrum, and the spectral smoothing due to spectral averages is included to reproduce the averaging realized by cloud radars on successive returns. Thus, realistic Doppler spectra are obtained, and several parameters that relate to the morphological characteristics of the synthetically generated spectra are computed. Here, the results are compared to the new ARM microARSCL data products in an attempt to validate the simulator. Drizzling data obtained at the SGP site by the MMCR and the AMF site at Azores using the WACR are used to ensure the liquid part and the turbulence representation part of the simulator are properly accounted in the forward model.

  15. An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media A finite-difference method for computing the first arrival traveltimes ...

  16. Massively Parallel LES of Azimuthal Thermo-Acoustic Instabilities...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Massively Parallel LES of Azimuthal Thermo-Acoustic Instabilities in Annular Gas Turbines Authors: Wolf, P., Staffelbach, G., Roux, A., Gicquel, L., Poinsot, T., Moureau, V. ...

  17. Acoustic Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1977) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Acoustic Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso...

  18. Acoustic Logs At Newberry Caldera Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes The acoustic borehole televiewer (BHTV) was run twice in the wellbore with limited success. There were several problems with the tool's...

  19. Acoustic Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (2005) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Acoustic Logs At Coso Geothermal Area (2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso...

  20. James TenCate elected Acoustical Society of America fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TenCate elected Acoustical Society of America fellow James TenCate elected Acoustical Society of America fellow TenCate's research focuses on nonlinear acoustics and elasticity, seismology and nonlinear imaging. August 30, 2016 James TenCate James TenCate Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "We are thrilled to see Jim receive this recognition from the acoustics community for his efforts." LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Aug. 30, 2016-Los Alamos National Laboratory

  1. Nondestructive acoustic electric field probe apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, Albert

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a nondestructive acoustic electric field probe and its method of use. A source of acoustic pulses of arbitrary but selected shape is placed in an oil bath along with material to be tested across which a voltage is disposed and means for receiving acoustic pulses after they have passed through the material. The received pulses are compared with voltage changes across the material occurring while acoustic pulses pass through it and analysis is made thereof to determine preselected characteristics of the material.

  2. COMPARISON OF ACOUSTIC AND ELECTRICAL IMAGE LOGS FROM THE COSO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    image log, but locally approach 100%. This fabric is unlikely to contribute to permeability in the reservoir. Acoustic image logs reveal a similar natural fracture population,...

  3. Acoustic Logs At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Acoustic Logs At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Exploration...

  4. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  5. Performance Bounds on Micro-Doppler Estimation and Adaptive Waveform Design Using OFDM Signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Satyabrata; Barhen, Jacob; Glover, Charles Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a wideband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in estimating the micro-Doppler frequency of a target having multiple rotating scatterers (e.g., rotor blades of a helicopter, propellers of a submarine). The presence of rotating scatterers introduces Doppler frequency modulation in the received signal by generating sidebands about the transmitted frequencies. This is called the micro-Doppler effects. The use of a frequency-diverse OFDM signal in this context enables us to independently analyze the micro-Doppler characteristics with respect to a set of orthogonal subcarrier frequencies. Therefore, to characterize the accuracy of micro-Doppler frequency estimation, we compute the Cram er-Rao Bound (CRB) on the angular-velocity estimate of the target while considering the scatterer responses as deterministic but unknown nuisance parameters. Additionally, to improve the accuracy of the estimation procedure, we formulate and solve an optimization problem by minimizing the CRB on the angular-velocity estimate with respect to the transmitting OFDM spectral coefficients. We present several numerical examples to demonstrate the CRB variations at different values of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of OFDM subcarriers. The CRB values not only decrease with the increase in the SNR values, but also reduce as we increase the number of subcarriers implying the significance of frequency-diverse OFDM waveforms. The improvement in estimation accuracy due to the adaptive waveform design is also numerically analyzed. Interestingly, we find that the relative decrease in the CRBs on the angular-velocity estimate is more pronounced for larger number of OFDM subcarriers.

  6. Event identification by acoustic signature recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dress, W.B.; Kercel, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Many events of interest to the security commnnity produce acoustic emissions that are, in principle, identifiable as to cause. Some obvious examples are gunshots, breaking glass, takeoffs and landings of small aircraft, vehicular engine noises, footsteps (high frequencies when on gravel, very low frequencies. when on soil), and voices (whispers to shouts). We are investigating wavelet-based methods to extract unique features of such events for classification and identification. We also discuss methods of classification and pattern recognition specifically tailored for acoustic signatures obtained by wavelet analysis. The paper is divided into three parts: completed work, work in progress, and future applications. The completed phase has led to the successful recognition of aircraft types on landing and takeoff. Both small aircraft (twin-engine turboprop) and large (commercial airliners) were included in the study. The project considered the design of a small, field-deployable, inexpensive device. The techniques developed during the aircraft identification phase were then adapted to a multispectral electromagnetic interference monitoring device now deployed in a nuclear power plant. This is a general-purpose wavelet analysis engine, spanning 14 octaves, and can be adapted for other specific tasks. Work in progress is focused on applying the methods previously developed to speaker identification. Some of the problems to be overcome include recognition of sounds as voice patterns and as distinct from possible background noises (e.g., music), as well as identification of the speaker from a short-duration voice sample. A generalization of the completed work and the work in progress is a device capable of classifying any number of acoustic events-particularly quasi-stationary events such as engine noises and voices and singular events such as gunshots and breaking glass. We will show examples of both kinds of events and discuss their recognition likelihood.

  7. Imaging of SCC with Acoustic Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA UNCLASSIFIED NDE Solutions Imaging SCC with Acoustic Techniques Marcel Remillieux, TJ Ulrich, Pierre-Yves Le Bas Slide 2 Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA UNCLASSIFIED Context * 2014 meeting at EPRI resulted in a 5 year plan to: - Provide point inspection on SCC  once an area of concern has been identified visually (e.g., camera), can we interrogate this

  8. Sound Science: Taking Action with Acoustics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sinha, Dipen

    2014-07-21

    From tin whistles to sonic booms, sound waves interact with each other and with the medium through which they travel. By observing these interactions, we can identify substances that are hidden in sealed containers and obtain images of buried objects. By manipulating the ability of sound to push matter around, we can create novel structures and unique materials. Join the Lab's own sound hound, Dipen Sinha, as he describes how he uses fundamental research in acoustics for solving problems in industry, security and health.

  9. Acoustic analogues of black hole singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Mignemi, Salvatore

    2005-10-15

    We search for acoustic analogues of a spherical symmetric black hole with a pointlike source. We show that the gravitational system has a dynamical counterpart in the constrained, steady motion of a fluid with a planar source. The equations governing the dynamics of the gravitational system can be exactly mapped in those governing the motion of the fluid. The different meaning that singularities and sources have in fluid dynamics and in general relativity is also discussed. Whereas in the latter a pointlike source is always associated with a (curvature) singularity in the former the presence of sources does not necessarily imply divergences of the fields.

  10. Acoustic resonator and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kline, G.R.; Lakin, K.M.

    1983-10-13

    A method of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered Al/AlN structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an AlN layer between two Al layers and another layer of AlN on an exterior of one of said Al layers.

  11. Superconducting fault current controller/current controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Yung S.

    2004-06-15

    A superconducting fault current controller/current controller employs a superconducting-shielded core reactor (SSCR) with a variable impedance in a secondary circuit to control current in a primary circuit such as an electrical distribution system. In a second embodiment, a variable current source is employed in a secondary circuit of an SSCR to control current in the primary circuit. In a third embodiment, both a variable impedance in one secondary circuit and a variable current source in a second circuit of an SSCR are employed for separate and independent control of current in the primary circuit.

  12. Interaction of externally-driven acoustic waves with compressible convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P. ); Merryfield, W. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Toomre, J. )

    1992-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to examine the interaction of acoustic waves with a compressible convecting fluid. Acoustic waves are forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagate through a three-layer system undergoing vigorous penetrative convection. Energy exchange between the wave and the fluid is analyzed using a work integral formulation.

  13. Interaction of externally-driven acoustic waves with compressible convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.; Merryfield, W.; Toomre, J.

    1992-12-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to examine the interaction of acoustic waves with a compressible convecting fluid. Acoustic waves are forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagate through a three-layer system undergoing vigorous penetrative convection. Energy exchange between the wave and the fluid is analyzed using a work integral formulation.

  14. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kent, William H.; Mitchell, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propagated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  15. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nardi, Anthony P.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting a resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF THE INTERACTION OF ACOUSTIC WAVES AND SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN A QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitta, Lakshmi Pradeep; Kariyappa, R.; Jain, Rekha; Jefferies, Stuart M. E-mail: rkari@iiap.res.in E-mail: stuartj@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2012-01-10

    The effect of the magnetic field on photospheric intensity and velocity oscillations at the sites of small-scale magnetic fields (SMFs) in a quiet Sun near the solar disk center is studied. We use observations made by the G-band filter in the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode for intensity oscillations; Doppler velocity, magnetic field, and continuum intensity are derived from an Ni I photospheric absorption line at 6767.8 A using the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Our analysis shows that both the high-resolution intensity observed in the G band and velocity oscillations are influenced by the presence of a magnetic field. While intensity oscillations are suppressed at all frequencies in strong magnetic field regions compared to weak magnetic field regions, velocity oscillations show an enhancement of power in the frequency band 5.5-7 mHz. We find that there is a drop of 20%-30% in the p-mode power of velocity oscillations within the SMFs when compared to the regions surrounding them. Our findings indicate that the nature of the interaction of acoustic waves with the quiet Sun SMFs is similar to that of large-scale magnetic fields in active regions. We also report the first results of the center-to-limb variation of such effects using the observations of the quiet Sun from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The independent verification of these interactions using SDO/HMI suggests that the velocity power drop of 20%-30% in p-modes is fairly constant across the solar disk.

  17. CX-000541: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Checkout of StreamPro ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) Velocity MeterCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 11/16/2009Location(s): Aiken, South CarolinaOffice(s): Environmental Management, Savannah River Operations Office

  18. Opto-acoustic transducer for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William; Celliers, Peter; Da Silva, Luiz; Glinsky, Michael; London, Richard; Maitland, Duncan; Matthews, Dennis; Krulevich, Peter; Lee, Abraham

    1999-01-01

    This invention is an optically activated transducer for generating acoustic vibrations in a biological medium. The transducer is located at the end of a fiber optic which may be located within a catheter. Energy for operating the transducer is provided optically by laser light transmitted through the fiber optic to the transducer. Pulsed laser light is absorbed in the working fluid of the transducer to generate a thermal pressure and consequent adiabatic expansion of the transducer head such that it does work against the ambient medium. The transducer returns to its original state by a process of thermal cooling. The motion of the transducer within the ambient medium couples acoustic energy into the medium. By pulsing the laser at a high repetition rate (which may vary from CW to 100 kHz) an ultrasonic radiation field can be established locally in the medium. This method of producing ultrasonic vibrations can be used in vivo for the treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans, particularly for dissolving thrombus. The catheter may also incorporate anti-thrombolytic drug treatments as an adjunct therapy and it may be operated in conjunction with ultrasonic detection equipment for imaging and feedback control.

  19. Opto-acoustic transducer for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, W.; Celliers, P.; Da Silva, L.; Glinsky, M.; London, R.; Maitland, D.; Matthews, D.; Krulevich, P.; Lee, A.

    1999-08-31

    This invention is an optically activated transducer for generating acoustic vibrations in a biological medium. The transducer is located at the end of a fiber optic which may be located within a catheter. Energy for operating the transducer is provided optically by laser light transmitted through the fiber optic to the transducer. Pulsed laser light is absorbed in the working fluid of the transducer to generate a thermal pressure and consequent adiabatic expansion of the transducer head such that it does work against the ambient medium. The transducer returns to its original state by a process of thermal cooling. The motion of the transducer within the ambient medium couples acoustic energy into the medium. By pulsing the laser at a high repetition rate (which may vary from CW to 100 kHz) an ultrasonic radiation field can be established locally in the medium. This method of producing ultrasonic vibrations can be used in vivo for the treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans, particularly for dissolving thrombus. The catheter may also incorporate anti-thrombolytic drug treatments as an adjunct therapy and it may be operated in conjunction with ultrasonic detection equipment for imaging and feedback control. 7 figs.

  20. Opto-acoustic transducer for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William; Celliers, Peter; Da Silva, Luiz; Glinsky, Michael; London, Richard; Maitland, Duncan; Matthews, Dennis; Krulevich, Peter; Lee, Abraham

    2002-01-01

    This invention is an optically activated transducer for generating acoustic vibrations in a biological medium. The transducer is located at the end of a fiber optic which may be located within a catheter. Energy for operating the transducer is provided optically by laser light transmitted through the fiber optic to the transducer. Pulsed laser light is absorbed in the working fluid of the transducer to generate a thermal pressure and consequent adiabatic expansion of the transducer head such that it does work against the ambient medium. The transducer returns to its original state by a process of thermal cooling. The motion of the transducer within the ambient medium couples acoustic energy into the medium. By pulsing the laser at a high repetition rate (which may vary from CW to 100 kHz) an ultrasonic radiation field can be established locally in the medium. This method of producing ultrasonic vibrations can be used in vivo for the treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans, particularly for dissolving thrombus. The catheter may also incorporate anti-thrombolytic drug treatments as an adjunct therapy and it may be operated in conjunction with ultrasonic detection equipment for imaging and feedback control.

  1. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M.

    2014-07-15

    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of ? radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  2. Acoustic-velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, E.F.

    1982-09-30

    Acoustic energy is propatated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  3. Acoustic velocity measurements in materials using a regenerative method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, Edwin F.

    1986-01-01

    Acoustic energy is propagated through earth material between an electro-acoustic generator and a receiver which converts the received acoustic energy into electrical signals. A closed loop is formed by a variable gain amplifier system connected between the receiver and the generator. The gain of the amplifier system is increased until sustained oscillations are produced in the closed loop. The frequency of the oscillations is measured as an indication of the acoustic propagation velocity through the earth material. The amplifier gain is measured as an indication of the acoustic attenuation through the earth materials. The method is also applicable to the non-destructive testing of structural materials, such as steel, aluminum and concrete.

  4. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Shanshan; Li, Pei; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai

    2014-12-15

    In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies.

  5. Scaling and dimensional analysis of acoustic streaming jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudjed, B.; Botton, V.; Henry, D.; Ben Hadid, H.

    2014-09-15

    This paper focuses on acoustic streaming free jets. This is to say that progressive acoustic waves are used to generate a steady flow far from any wall. The derivation of the governing equations under the form of a nonlinear hydrodynamics problem coupled with an acoustic propagation problem is made on the basis of a time scale discrimination approach. This approach is preferred to the usually invoked amplitude perturbations expansion since it is consistent with experimental observations of acoustic streaming flows featuring hydrodynamic nonlinearities and turbulence. Experimental results obtained with a plane transducer in water are also presented together with a review of the former experimental investigations using similar configurations. A comparison of the shape of the acoustic field with the shape of the velocity field shows that diffraction is a key ingredient in the problem though it is rarely accounted for in the literature. A scaling analysis is made and leads to two scaling laws for the typical velocity level in acoustic streaming free jets; these are both observed in our setup and in former studies by other teams. We also perform a dimensional analysis of this problem: a set of seven dimensionless groups is required to describe a typical acoustic experiment. We find that a full similarity is usually not possible between two acoustic streaming experiments featuring different fluids. We then choose to relax the similarity with respect to sound attenuation and to focus on the case of a scaled water experiment representing an acoustic streaming application in liquid metals, in particular, in liquid silicon and in liquid sodium. We show that small acoustic powers can yield relatively high Reynolds numbers and velocity levels; this could be a virtue for heat and mass transfer applications, but a drawback for ultrasonic velocimetry.

  6. Acoustic streaming, fluid mixing, and particle transport by a Gaussian ultrasound beam in a cylindrical container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Wu, Junru

    2015-10-15

    A computational study is reported of the acoustic streaming flow field generated by a Gaussian ultrasound beam propagating normally toward the end wall of a cylindrical container. Particular focus is given to examining the effectiveness of the acoustic streaming flow for fluid mixing within the container, for deposition of particles in suspension onto the bottom surface, and for particle suspension from the bottom surface back into the flow field. The flow field is assumed to be axisymmetric with the ultrasound transducer oriented parallel to the cylinder axis and normal to the bottom surface of the container, which we refer to as the impingement surface. Reflection of the sound from the impingement surface and sound absorption within the material at the container bottom are both accounted for in the computation. The computation also accounts for thermal buoyancy force due to ultrasonic heating of the impingement surface, but over the time period considered in the current simulations, the flow is found to be dominated by the acoustic streaming force, with only moderate effect of buoyancy force.

  7. Acoustically enhanced remediation of contaminated soils and ground water. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The Phase 1 laboratory bench-scale investigation results have shown that acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology can significantly accelerate the ground water remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in unconsolidated soils. The testing also determined some of the acoustic parameters which maximize fluid and contaminant extraction rates. A technology merit and trade analysis identified the conditions under which AER could be successfully deployed in the field, and an analysis of existing acoustical sources and varying methods for their deployment found that AER technology can be successfully deployed in-situ. Current estimates of deployability indicate that a NAPL plume 150 ft in diameter can be readily remediated. This program focused on unconsolidated soils because of the large number of remediation sites located in this type of hydrogeologic setting throughout the nation. It also focused on NAPLs and low permeability soil because of the inherent difficult in the remediation of NAPLs and the significant time and cost impact caused by contaminated low permeability soils. This overall program is recommended for Phase 2 which will address the technology scaling requirements for a field scale test.

  8. Commercial Current Promotions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture This page features all current special promotions for commercial programs....

  9. Method and system to measure temperature of gases using coherent anti-stokes doppler spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark

    2013-12-17

    A method of measuring a temperature of a noble gas in a chamber includes providing the noble gas in the chamber. The noble gas is characterized by a pressure and a temperature. The method also includes directing a first laser beam into the chamber and directing a second laser beam into the chamber. The first laser beam is characterized by a first frequency and the second laser beam is characterized by a second frequency. The method further includes converting at least a portion of the first laser beam and the second laser beam into a coherent anti-Stokes beam, measuring a Doppler broadening of the coherent anti-Stokes beam, and computing the temperature using the Doppler broadening.

  10. Comparing Pulsed Doppler LIDAR with SODAR and Direct Measurements for Wind Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Scott, G. N.; Pichugina, Y. L.

    2007-07-01

    There is a pressing need for good wind-speed measurements at greater and greater heights to assess the availability of the resource in terms of power production and to identify any frequently occurring atmospheric structural characteristics that may create turbulence that impacts the operational reliability and lifetime of wind turbines and their components. In this paper, we summarize the results of a short study that compares the relative accuracies of wind speeds derived from a high-resolution pulsed Doppler LIDAR operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and a midrange Doppler SODAR with wind speeds measured by four levels of tower-based sonic anemometry up to a height of 116 m.

  11. Thermometric- and Acoustic-Based Beam Power Monitor for Ultra-Bright X-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentsen, Gregory; /Rochester U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A design for an average beam power monitor for ultra-bright X-ray sources is proposed that makes simultaneous use of calorimetry and radiation acoustics. Radiation incident on a solid target will induce heating and ultrasonic vibrations, both of which may be measured to give a fairly precise value of the beam power. The monitor is intended for measuring ultra-bright Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-ray beams, for which traditional monitoring technologies such as photo-diodes or scintillators are unsuitable. The monitor consists of a Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) target designed to absorb most of the incident beam's energy. Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and piezoelectric actuators are mounted on the outward faces of the target to measure the temperature changes and ultrasonic vibrations induced by the incident beam. The design was tested using an optical pulsed beam (780 nm, 120 and 360 Hz) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at several energies between 0.8 and 2.6 mJ. The RTDs measured an increase in temperature of about 10 K over a period of several minutes. The piezoelectric sensors recorded ringing acoustic oscillations at 580 {+-} 40 kHz. Most importantly, the amplitude of the acoustic signals was observed to scale linearly with beam power up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. Above this pulse energy, the vibrational signals became nonlinear. Several causes for this nonlinearity are discussed, including amplifier saturation and piezoelectric saturation. Despite this nonlinearity, these measurements demonstrate the feasibility of such a beam power measurement device. The advantage of two distinct measurements (acoustic and thermometric) provides a useful method of calibration that is unavailable to current LCLS diagnostics tools.

  12. Remote Sensing of Complex Flows by Doppler Wind Lidar: Issues and Preliminary Recommendations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remote Sensing of Complex Flows by Doppler Wind Lidar: Issues and Preliminary Recommendations Lead Author: Andrew Clifton National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5000-64634 December 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.

  13. Attenuated Vector Tomography -- An Approach to Image Flow Vector Fields with Doppler Ultrasonic Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Qiu; Peng, Qiyu; Huang, Bin; Cheryauka, Arvi; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-05-15

    The measurement of flow obtained using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound is formulated as a directional projection of a flow vector field. When a continuous ultrasound wave bounces against a flowing particle, a signal is backscattered. This signal obtains a Doppler frequency shift proportional to the speed of the particle along the ultrasound beam. This occurs for each particle along the beam, giving rise to a Doppler velocity spectrum. The first moment of the spectrum provides the directional projection of the flow along theultrasound beam. Signals reflected from points further away from the detector will have lower amplitude than signals reflected from points closer to the detector. The effect is very much akin to that modeled by the attenuated Radon transform in emission computed tomography.A least-squares method was adopted to reconstruct a 2D vector field from directional projection measurements. Attenuated projections of only the longitudinal projections of the vector field were simulated. The components of the vector field were reconstructed using the gradient algorithm to minimize a least-squares criterion. This result was compared with the reconstruction of longitudinal projections of the vector field without attenuation. Ifattenuation is known, the algorithm was able to accurately reconstruct both components of the full vector field from only one set of directional projection measurements. A better reconstruction was obtained with attenuation than without attenuation implying that attenuation provides important information for the reconstruction of flow vector fields.This confirms previous work where we showed that knowledge of the attenuation distribution helps in the reconstruction of MRI diffusion tensor fields from fewer than the required measurements. In the application of ultrasound the attenuation distribution is obtained with pulse wave transmission computed tomography and flow information is obtained with continuous wave Doppler.

  14. Large doppler shift in radar detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    Radar detection of cosmic ray air showers has been discussed for 60 years, but never clearly observed. The topic was reexamined by Gorham in 2001 and some serious simulations were done by Takai, who also initiated the Mariachi project utilizing commercial television transmissions as a signal source. The air showers from ultra-high energy cosmic rays are expected to generate a plasma with plasma frequency in the high VHF region. One factor limiting the received signal strength is the short ion recombination time in air at low altitude. However, a major factor which has not been the center of attention so far is the possible large Doppler shifts for non-specular reflection, and the soft transition between specular and diffuse for small objects and short time scales. We discuss recent work on receivers, and simulations of the Doppler shift. These simulations assume a very short ion recombination time in the lower atmosphere, and use an extremely simple mathematical model. A central feature of our simulations is large Doppler shift from non-moving material.

  15. Turbine-scale wind field measurements using dual-Doppler lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, Rob K.; Berg, Larry K.; Shaw, William J.; Fischer, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Spatially resolved measurements of micro-scale winds are retrieved using scanning dual-Doppler lidar, and validated against independent in situ wind measurements. Data for this study were obtained during a month-long field campaign conducted at a site in north-central Oklahoma in November of 2010. Observational platforms include one heavily instrumented 60-m meteorological tower and two scanning coherent Doppler lidars. The lidars were configured to perform coordinated dual-Doppler scans surrounding the 60-m tower, and the resulting radial velocity observations were processed to retrieve the 3-component velocity vector field on surfaces defined by the intersecting scan planes. Raw radial velocity measurements from the lidars were calibrated by direct comparison to a sonic anemometer located at the 60 m level on the tower. Wind retrievals were performed using both calibrated and uncalibrated measurements, and validated against the 60-m sonic anemometer observations. Retrievals using uncalibrated radial velocity data show a significant slow bias in the wind speed of about 14%; whereas the retrievals using the calibrated data show a much smaller slow bias of 1.2%. Retrievals using either the calibrated or uncalibrated data exhibit negligible bias in the wind direction (<0.2o), and excellent correlation in the wind speeds (>0.96).

  16. Method and apparatus for optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, John Stuart; Milner, Thomas Edward; Chen, Zhongping

    1999-01-01

    Optical Doppler tomography permits imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media. The tomography system combines Doppler velocimetry with high spatial resolution of partially coherent optical interferometry to measure fluid flow velocity at discrete spatial locations. Noninvasive in vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics and tissue structures with high spatial resolutions of the order of 2 to 10 microns is achieved in biological systems. The backscattered interference signals derived from the interferometer may be analyzed either through power spectrum determination to obtain the position and velocity of each particle in the fluid flow sample at each pixel, or the interference spectral density may be analyzed at each frequency in the spectrum to obtain the positions and velocities of the particles in a cross-section to which the interference spectral density corresponds. The realized resolutions of optical Doppler tomography allows noninvasive in vivo imaging of both blood microcirculation and tissue structure surrounding the vessel which has significance for biomedical research and clinical applications.

  17. Acoustic sand detector for fluid flowstreams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beattie, Alan G. (Corrales, NM); Bohon, W. Mark (Frisco, TX)

    1993-01-01

    The particle volume and particle mass production rate of particulate solids entrained in fluid flowstreams such as formation sand or fracture proppant entrained in oil and gas production flowstreams is determined by a system having a metal probe interposed in a flow conduit for transmitting acoustic emissions created by particles impacting the probe to a sensor and signal processing circuit which produces discrete signals related to the impact of each of the particles striking the probe. The volume or mass flow rate of particulates is determined from making an initial particle size distribution and particle energy distribution and comparing the initial energy distribution and/or the initial size distribution with values related to the impact energies of a predetermined number of recorded impacts. The comparison is also used to recalibrate the system to compensate for changes in flow velocity.

  18. Electromechanical transducer for acoustic telemetry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1993-01-01

    An improved electromechanical transducer is provided for use in an acoustic telemetry system. The transducer of this invention comprises a stack of ferroelectric ceramic disks interleaved with a plurality of spaced electrodes which are used to electrically pole the ceramic disks. The ceramic stack is housed in a metal tubular drill collar segment. The electrodes are preferably alternatively connected to ground potential and driving potential. This alternating connection of electrodes to ground and driving potential subjects each disk to an equal electric field; and the direction of the field alternates to match the alternating direction of polarization of the ceramic disks. Preferably, a thin metal foil is sandwiched between electrodes to facilitate the electrical connection. Alternatively, a thicker metal spacer plate is selectively used in place of the metal foil in order to promote thermal cooling of the ceramic stack.

  19. Electromechanical transducer for acoustic telemetry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1993-06-22

    An improved electromechanical transducer is provided for use in an acoustic telemetry system. The transducer of this invention comprises a stack of ferroelectric ceramic disks interleaved with a plurality of spaced electrodes which are used to electrically pole the ceramic disks. The ceramic stack is housed in a metal tubular drill collar segment. The electrodes are preferably alternatively connected to ground potential and driving potential. This alternating connection of electrodes to ground and driving potential subjects each disk to an equal electric field; and the direction of the field alternates to match the alternating direction of polarization of the ceramic disks. Preferably, a thin metal foil is sandwiched between electrodes to facilitate the electrical connection. Alternatively, a thicker metal spacer plate is selectively used in place of the metal foil in order to promote thermal cooling of the ceramic stack.

  20. Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbines in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Polagye; Jim Thomson; Chris Bassett; Jason Wood; Dom Tollit; Robert Cavagnaro; Andrea Copping

    2012-03-30

    Hydrokinetic turbines will be a source of noise in the marine environment - both during operation and during installation/removal. High intensity sound can cause injury or behavioral changes in marine mammals and may also affect fish and invertebrates. These noise effects are, however, highly dependent on the individual marine animals; the intensity, frequency, and duration of the sound; and context in which the sound is received. In other words, production of sound is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for an environmental impact. At a workshop on the environmental effects of tidal energy development, experts identified sound produced by turbines as an area of potentially significant impact, but also high uncertainty. The overall objectives of this project are to improve our understanding of the potential acoustic effects of tidal turbines by: (1) Characterizing sources of existing underwater noise; (2) Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring technologies to characterize underwater noise and marine mammal responsiveness to noise; (3) Evaluating the sound profile of an operating tidal turbine; and (4) Studying the effect of turbine sound on surrogate species in a laboratory environment. This study focuses on a specific case study for tidal energy development in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA), but the methodologies and results are applicable to other turbine technologies and geographic locations. The project succeeded in achieving the above objectives and, in doing so, substantially contributed to the body of knowledge around the acoustic effects of tidal energy development in several ways: (1) Through collection of data from Admiralty Inlet, established the sources of sound generated by strong currents (mobilizations of sediment and gravel) and determined that low-frequency sound recorded during periods of strong currents is non-propagating pseudo-sound. This helped to advance the debate within the marine and hydrokinetics acoustic

  1. Scientific Solutions (TRL 5 6 Component)- Underwater Active Acoustic Monitoring Network for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Scientific Solutions (TRL 5 6 Component) - Underwater Active Acoustic Monitoring Network for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

  2. Acoustic stabilization of electric arc instabilities in nontransferred plasma torches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rat, V.; Coudert, J. F.

    2010-03-08

    Electric arc instabilities in dc plasma torches lead to nonhomogeneous treatments of nanosized solid particles or liquids injected within thermal plasma jets. This paper shows that an additional acoustic resonator mounted on the cathode cavity allows reaching a significant damping of these instabilities, particularly the Helmholtz mode of arc oscillations. The acoustic resonator is coupled with the Helmholtz resonator of the plasma torch limiting the amplitude of arc voltage variations. It is also highlighted that this damping is dependent on friction effects in the acoustic resonator.

  3. Acoustics topic of upcoming Frontiers in Science series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acoustics topic of upcoming Frontiers in Science Acoustics topic of upcoming Frontiers in Science series Dipen Sinha will discuss acoustics and its applications, including how it is possible to use sound to solve problems in health, national security and for industry. July 24, 2014 Whenever an object vibrates, it creates sound, vibrations can 0:19 be detected. Besides just listening to it, we can detect it with various sensors. We 0:25 can tell what's inside a single container from the sound or

  4. Design and demonstration of broadband thin planar diffractive acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2014-09-08

    We present here two diffractive acoustic lenses with subwavelength thickness, planar profile, and broad operation bandwidth. Tapered labyrinthine unit cells with their inherently broadband effective material properties are exploited in our design. Both the measured and the simulated results are showcased to demonstrate the lensing effect over more than 40% of the central frequency. The focusing of a propagating Gaussian modulated sinusoidal pulse is also demonstrated. This work paves the way for designing diffractive acoustic lenses and more generalized phase engineering diffractive elements with labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials.

  5. Dust-acoustic shock waves in a charge varying electronegative magnetized dusty plasma with suprathermal electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Bacha, Mustapha

    2012-12-15

    The combined effects of an oblique magnetic field and electron suprathermality on weak dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a charge varying electronegative dusty plasmas with application to the Halley Comet are investigated. The correct suprathermal electron charging current is derived based on the orbit-motion limited approach. A weakly nonlinear analysis is carried out to derive a Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation. The electron suprathermality, the obliqueness, and magnitude of the magnetic field are found to modify the dispersive properties of the DA shock structure. Our results may aid to explain and interpret the nonlinear oscillations that may occur in the Halley Comet plasma.

  6. System and method for sonic wave measurements using an acoustic beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2015-08-11

    A method and system for investigating structure near a borehole are described herein. The method includes generating an acoustic beam by an acoustic source; directing at one or more azimuthal angles the acoustic beam towards a selected location in a vicinity of a borehole; receiving at one or more receivers an acoustic signal, the acoustic signal originating from a reflection or a refraction of the acoustic wave by a material at the selected location; and analyzing the received acoustic signal to characterize features of the material around the borehole.

  7. ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-15

    During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has made higher

  8. Current to Current Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 1803 Sector: Ocean Product: Developing a technology which generates power from ocean currents : Submersible Power Generators (SPG). Coordinates: 44.446275,...

  9. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation.

  10. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation. 9 figures.

  11. Acoustic Logs At Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    acoustic borehole televiewer (BHTV) yielded wellbore images down to 520';and a Sandia memory tool gave pressuretemperature data for a shut-in test at the end of the project....

  12. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  13. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in 1500 Km3 of Sea Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km3 of Sea Water Authors: Kurahashi, ...

  14. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S.; Haas, F.

    2014-10-15

    Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for appropriate boundary conditions and nonlinear periodic wave solutions are obtained. The corresponding analytical solution and numerical plots of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons in the phase plane are presented using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach. The variations in the nonlinear potential of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are studied at different values of quantum parameter H{sub e} which is the ratio of electron plasmon energy to electron Fermi energy defined for degenerate electrons. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter. The dependence of the wavelength and frequency on nonlinear wave amplitude is also presented.

  15. COLLOQUIUM: Ocean Acoustic Ecology: Great Whales, Ocean Scales...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 23, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Ocean Acoustic Ecology: Great Whales, Ocean Scales, Big Data Dr. Christopher Clark Cornell University ...

  16. Nonlinear acoustics experimental characterization of microstructure evolution in Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Xiaochu; Liu, Yang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2014-02-18

    Inconel 617 is a candidate material for the intermediate heat exchanger in a very high temperature reactor for the next generation nuclear power plant. This application will require the material to withstand fatigue-ratcheting interaction at temperatures up to 950°C. Therefore nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring are important capabilities. Acoustic nonlinearity (which is quantified in terms of a material parameter, the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β) has been proven to be sensitive to microstructural changes in material. This research develops a robust experimental procedure to track the evolution of damage precursors in laboratory tested Inconel 617 specimens using ultrasonic bulk waves. The results from the acoustic non-linear tests are compared with stereoscope surface damage results. Therefore, the relationship between acoustic nonlinearity and microstructural evaluation can be clearly demonstrated for the specimens tested.

  17. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  18. Current measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, David A.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  19. Current measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  20. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  1. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  2. Current measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  3. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  4. Acoustic energy-driven fluid pump and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janus, Michael C.; Richards, George A.; Robey, Edward H.

    1997-12-01

    Bulk fluid motion is promoted in a gaseous fluid contained within a conduit system provided with a diffuser without the need for a mean pressure differential across the conduit system. The contacting of the gaseous fluid with unsteady energy at a selected frequency and pressure amplitude induces fluid flow through the conical diffuser. The unsteady energy can be provided by pulse combustors, thermoacoustic engines, or acoustic energy generators such as acoustic speakers.

  5. Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, K.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2016-07-08

    We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosionmore » yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (<10 km) and provided reasonable yield estimates (<~30% error) in the presence of realistic topography and atmospheric structure. In conclusion, the presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.« less

  6. ACTIVE REGION MOSS: DOPPLER SHIFTS FROM HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, Durgesh [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007 (India); Mason, Helen E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Klimchuk, James A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper, we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode on 2007 December 12 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low-density cutoff as derived by Tripathi et al. in 2010. We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described by Young et al. in 2012. For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km s{sup -1} with an estimated error of 4-5 km s{sup -1}. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blueshift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries toward blueshift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. However, the fact that there are a significant number of pixels showing velocity amplitudes that exceed the uncertainty of 5 km s{sup -1} is suggestive of impulsive heating. Clearly, further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  7. Portable Doppler interferometer system for shock diagnostics and high speed motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, K.J.; Crump, O.B. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a system that uses the Doppler effect and is widely used for measuring the velocity of projectiles, detonations, flying plates, shock pressures (particle velocity) and other high speed/high acceleration motion. Other methods of measurement such as accelerometers and pressure gauges have disadvantages in that they are sensitive to radiation, electromagnetic pulses, and their mass can drastically alter the velocity of the projectile. VISAR uses single frequency-single mode laser fight focused onto a target of interest. Reflected fight from the target is collected and sent through a modified, unequal leg Michelson interferometer. In the interferometer the light is split into two components which travel through the legs of the interferometer cavity and are then recombined. When the light recombines, an interference pattern is created which can range from dark (destructive interference) to bright (constructive interference). When the target moves, the reflected laser light experiences a frequency shift (increase) with respect to the frequency from the target in a static condition. Since the Doppler shifted light is split and routed through an unequal leg interferometer cavity, there is a time lag of the light containing the Doppler information at the recombination point in the interferometer. The effect of the time lag is to create a sinusoidally changing interference pattern (commonly called fringes). Since the interferometer time delay, laser wavelength, and the speed of light are known, an accurate measurement of target velocity/acceleration may be measured by analyzing both the number of tinges and the speed of tinge generation (system accuracy is 3--4%).

  8. Use of a laser doppler vibrometer for high frequency accelerometer characterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, V.I.; Hansche, B.D.; Solomon, O.M.

    1995-12-31

    A laser doppler vibrometer (LDV) is being used for high frequency characterizations of accelerometers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). A LDV with high frequency (up to 1.5 MHz) and high velocity (10 M/s) capability was purchased from a commercial source and has been certified by the Primary Electrical Standards Department at SNL. The method used for this certification and the certification results are presented. Use of the LDV for characterization of accelerometers at high frequencies and of accelerometer sensitivity to cross-axis shocks on a Hopkinson bar apparatus is discussed.

  9. Convergence of Legendre Expansion of Doppler-Broadened Double Differential Elastic Scattering Cross Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbanas, Goran; Dunn, Michael E; Larson, Nancy M; Leal, Luiz C; Williams, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Convergence properties of Legendre expansion of a Doppler-broadened double-differential elastic neutron scattering cross section of {sup 238}U near the 6.67 eV resonance at temperature 10{sup 3} K are studied. A variance of Legendre expansion from a reference Monte Carlo computation is used as a measure of convergence and is computed for as many as 15 terms in the Legendre expansion. When the outgoing energy equals the incoming energy, it is found that the Legendre expansion converges very slowly. Therefore, a supplementary method of computing many higher-order terms is suggested and employed for this special case.

  10. MEASUREMENTS OF ANISOTROPIC ION TEMPERATURES, NON-THERMAL VELOCITIES, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS IN A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2013-02-15

    We present a new diagnostic allowing one to measure the anisotropy of ion temperatures and non-thermal velocities, as well as Doppler shifts with respect to the ambient magnetic field. This method provides new results, as well as an independent test for previous measurements obtained with other techniques. Our spectral data come from observations of a low-latitude, on-disk coronal hole. A potential field source surface model was used to calculate the angle between the magnetic field lines and the line of sight for each spatial bin of the observation. A fit was performed to determine the line widths and Doppler shifts parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For each line width component we derived ion temperatures T {sub i,} and T {sub i, Parallel-To} and non-thermal velocities v {sub nt,} and v {sub nt, Parallel-To }. T {sub i,} was cooler than off-limb polar coronal hole measurements, suggesting increasing collisional cooling with decreasing height. T {sub i, Parallel-To} is consistent with a uniform temperature of (1.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K for each ion. Since parallel ion heating is expected to be weak, this ion temperature should reflect the proton temperature. A comparison between our results and others implies a large proton temperature gradient around 1.02 R {sub Sun }. The non-thermal velocities are thought to be proportional to the amplitudes of various waves. Our results for v {sub nt,} agree with Alfven wave amplitudes inferred from off-limb polar coronal hole line width measurements. Our v {sub nt, Parallel-To} results are consistent with slow magnetosonic wave amplitudes inferred from Fourier analysis of time-varying intensity fluctuations. Doppler shift measurements yield outflows of Almost-Equal-To 5 km s{sup -1} for ions formed over a broad temperature range. This differs from other studies that found a strong Doppler shift dependence on formation temperature.

  11. Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry-Perot optical system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry- Perot optical system M. M. Baltzer, D. Craig, D. J. Den Hartog, T. Nishizawa, and M. D. Nornberg Citation: Review of Scientific Instruments 87, 11E509 (2016); doi: 10.1063/1.4955491 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4955491 View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/rsi/87/11?ver=pdfcov Published by the AIP Publishing Articles you may be interested in Development of a tunable

  12. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency and the second frequency; and transmitting the collimated beam through a diverging acoustic lens to compensate for a refractive effect caused by the curvature of the borehole.

  13. Dust acoustic solitons in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benzekka, Moufida; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2013-08-15

    Dust acoustic (DA) solitons are addressed in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity. A physically meaningful nonthermal nonextensive ion distribution is outlined. The correct non-Maxwellian ion charging current is derived based on the orbit-limited motion theory. Under grain-current balance, the variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function. It is found that nonthermality and its nonextensive nature may act concurrently and influence the restoring force and hence the soliton profile. Due to the flexibility provided by the nonextensive parameter, we think that our model should provide a better fit of the space observations.

  14. Acoustic wave propagation in uniform glow discharge plasma at an arbitrary angle between the electric field and wave vectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhomlinov, Vladimir; Gerasimov, Nikolay; Sheverev, Valery A.

    2008-08-15

    This paper extends the recently reported one-dimensional model for sound propagation in glow discharge plasma to arbitrary mutual orientation of the plasma electric field and acoustic wave vectors. The results demonstrate that an acoustic wave in plasma may amplify, attenuate, or remain unchanged depending on the angle between these vectors and on the power input into the discharge. Quantitative evaluations indicate that for glow discharge plasma of a self-sustained discharge in air at the electric current densities of the order of 100 mA cm{sup -2}, a gain of as much as 1 m{sup -1} at 0 deg. angle between the vectors changes to similar strength attenuation for the 90 deg. angle.

  15. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  16. A misaligned prograde orbit for Kepler-13 Ab via doppler tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Cochran, William D.; Gullikson, Kevin; Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.

    2014-07-20

    Transiting planets around rapidly rotating stars are not amenable to precise radial velocity observations, such as are used for planet candidate validation, as they have wide, rotationally broadened stellar lines. Such planets can, however, be observed using Doppler tomography, wherein stellar absorption line profile distortions during transit are spectroscopically resolved. This allows the validation of transiting planet candidates and the measurement of the stellar spin-planetary orbit (mis)alignment, which is an important statistical probe of planetary migration processes. We present Doppler tomographic observations that provide direct confirmation of the hot Jupiter Kepler-13 Ab and also show that the planet has a prograde, misaligned orbit with λ = 58.°6 ± 2.°0. Our measured value of the spin-orbit misalignment is in significant disagreement with the value of λ = 23° ± 4° previously measured by Barnes et al. (2011) from the gravity-darkened Kepler light curve. We also place an upper limit of 0.75 M{sub ☉} (95% confidence) on the mass of Kepler-13 C, the spectroscopic companion to Kepler-13 B, which is the proper-motion companion of the planet host star Kepler-13 A.

  17. Linearly Organized Turbulence Structures Observed Over a Suburban Area by Dual-Doppler Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, Rob K.; Calhoun, Ron; Ligon, David; Allwine, K Jerry

    2008-04-01

    Dual-Doppler lidar observations are used to investigate the structure and evolution of surface layer flow over a suburban area. The observations were made during the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field experiment in Oklahoma City in the summer of 2003. This study focuses specifically on a 10-hour sequence of scan data beginning shortly after noon local time on July 7, 2003. During this period two coherent Doppler lidars performed overlapping low elevation angle sector scans upwind and south of Oklahoma Citys central business district (CBD). Radial velocity data from the two lidars are processed to reveal the structure and evolution of the horizontal velocity field in the surface layer throughout the afternoon and evening transition periods. The retrieved velocity fields clearly show a tendency for turbulence structures to be elongated in the direction of the mean flow throughout the entire 10-hour study period. As the stratification changed from unstable to weakly stable the turbulence structures became increasingly more linearly organized, and the cross-stream separation between high- and low-speed regoins decreased. The spatially resolved velocity fields are used to estimate streamwise and cross-stream turbulence length scales as functions of stability.

  18. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is

  19. About Direct Current

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about Direct Current -- a podcast about the energy that lights our homes, powers our lives and shapes our world.

  20. Heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert; Hofler, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir.

  1. An on-line acoustic fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Egorov, K.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoro-propane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}) evaporative cooling fluid - to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoro-ethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} mixture ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound 'chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures. (authors)

  2. CIRCUITS FOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    Circuits are presented for measurement of a logarithmic scale of current flowing in a high impedance. In one form of the invention the disclosed circuit is in combination with an ionization chamber to measure lonization current. The particular circuit arrangement lncludes a vacuum tube having at least one grid, an ionization chamber connected in series with a high voltage source and the grid of the vacuum tube, and a d-c amplifier feedback circuit. As the ionization chamber current passes between the grid and cathode of the tube, the feedback circuit acts to stabilize the anode current, and the feedback voltage is a measure of the logaritbm of the ionization current.

  3. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensormore » with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.« less

  4. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.

  5. Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.

    2015-07-30

    Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wavemore » disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.« less

  6. Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.

    2015-07-30

    Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.

  7. Dust acoustic dressed soliton with dust charge fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.

    2010-06-15

    Modeling of dust acoustic solitons observed in dusty plasma experiment [Bandyopadhyay et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 065006 (2008)] using the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation showed significant discrepancies in the regime of large amplitudes (or high soliton speed). In this paper, higher order perturbation corrections to the standard KdV soliton are proposed and the resulting dressed soliton is shown to describe the experimental data better, in particular, at high soliton speed. The effects of dust charge fluctuations on the dust acoustic dressed soliton in a dusty plasma system are also investigated. The KdV equation and a linear inhomogeneous equation, governing the evolution of first and second order potentials, respectively, are derived for the system by using reductive perturbation technique. Renormalization procedure is used to obtain nonsecular solutions of these coupled equations. The characteristics of dust acoustic dressed solitons with and without dust charge fluctuations are discussed.

  8. (Collection of high quality acoustical records for honeybees)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, H.T.; Buchanan, M.E.

    1987-02-19

    High quality acoustical data records were collected for both European and Africanized honeybees under various field conditions. This data base was needed for more rigorous evaluation of a honeybee identification technique previously developed by the travelers from preliminary data sets. Laboratory-grade recording equipment was used to record sounds made by honeybees in and near their nests and during foraging flights. Recordings were obtained from European and Africanized honeybees in the same general environment. Preliminary analyses of the acoustical data base clearly support the general identification algorithm: Africanized honeybee noise has significantly higher frequency content than does European honeybee noise. As this algorithm is refined, it may result in the development of a simple field-portable device for identifying subspecies of honeybees. Further, the honeybee's acoustical signals appear to be correlated with specific colony conditions. Understanding these variations may have enormous benefit for entomologists and for the beekeeping industry.

  9. Impedance matched joined drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, William C.

    2000-01-01

    An impedance matched jointed drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission. A passive means and method that maximizes the amplitude and minimize the temporal dispersion of acoustic signals that are sent through a drill string, for use in a measurement while drilling telemetry system. The improvement in signal transmission is accomplished by replacing the standard joints in a drill string with joints constructed of a material that is impedance matched acoustically to the end of the drill pipe to which it is connected. Provides improvement in the measurement while drilling technique which can be utilized for well logging, directional drilling, and drilling dynamics, as well as gamma-ray spectroscopy while drilling post shot boreholes, such as utilized in drilling post shot boreholes.

  10. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Chirstopher

    2013-10-15

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency range and the second frequency, and wherein the non-linear medium has a velocity of sound between 100 m/s and 800 m/s.

  11. Acoustic cross-correlation flowmeter for solid-gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1984-05-14

    Apparatus for measuring particle velocity in a solid-gas flow within a pipe includes: first and second transmitting transducers for transmitting first and second ultrasonic signals into the pipe at first and second locations, respectively, along the pipe; an acoustic decoupler, positioned between said first and second transmitting transducers, for acoustically isolating said first and second signals from one another; first and second detecting transducers for detecting said first and second signals and for generating first and second detected signals; and means for cross-correlating said first and second output signals.

  12. Acoustic cross-correlation flowmeter for solid-gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring particle velocity in a solid-gas flow within a pipe includes: first and second transmitting transducers for transmitting first and second ultrasonic signals into the pipe at first and second locations, respectively, along the pipe; an acoustic decoupler, positioned between said first and second transmitting transducers, for acoustically isolating said first and second signals from one another; first and second detecting transducers for detecting said first and second signals and for generating first and second detected signals in response to said first and second detected signals; and means for cross-correlating said first and second output signals.

  13. Ion acoustic shocks in magneto rotating Lorentzian plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N.; Hasnain, H.

    2014-12-15

    Ion acoustic shock structures in magnetized homogeneous dissipative Lorentzian plasma under the effects of Coriolis force are investigated. The dissipation in the plasma system is introduced via dynamic viscosity of inertial ions. The electrons are following the kappa distribution function. Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation is derived by using reductive perturbation technique. It is shown that spectral index, magnetic field, kinematic viscosity of ions, rotational frequency, and effective frequency have significant impact on the propagation characteristic of ion acoustic shocks in such plasma system. The numerical solution of KdVB equation is also discussed and transition from oscillatory profile to monotonic shock for different plasma parameters is investigated.

  14. Final Report: Guided Acoustic Wave Monitoring of Corrosion in Recovery Boiler Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinn, D J; Quarry, M J; Rose, J L

    2005-03-31

    Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the cold side or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications. This technique appears very promising for recovery boiler tube application, potentially expediting annual inspection of tube integrity.

  15. Staggered-grid finite-difference acoustic modeling with the Time-Domain Atmospheric Acoustic Propagation Suite (TDAAPS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldridge, David Franklin; Collier, Sandra L.; Marlin, David H.; Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Symons, Neill Phillip; Wilson, D. Keith

    2005-05-01

    This document is intended to serve as a users guide for the time-domain atmospheric acoustic propagation suite (TDAAPS) program developed as part of the Department of Defense High-Performance Modernization Office (HPCMP) Common High-Performance Computing Scalable Software Initiative (CHSSI). TDAAPS performs staggered-grid finite-difference modeling of the acoustic velocity-pressure system with the incorporation of spatially inhomogeneous winds. Wherever practical the control structure of the codes are written in C++ using an object oriented design. Sections of code where a large number of calculations are required are written in C or F77 in order to enable better compiler optimization of these sections. The TDAAPS program conforms to a UNIX style calling interface. Most of the actions of the codes are controlled by adding flags to the invoking command line. This document presents a large number of examples and provides new users with the necessary background to perform acoustic modeling with TDAAPS.

  16. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  17. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  18. System And Method For Characterizing Voiced Excitations Of Speech And Acoustic Signals, Removing Acoustic Noise From Speech, And Synthesizi

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-04-25

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  19. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  20. Electric current locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul E.; Woodside, Charles Rigel

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  1. Current Solicitations - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE-RL Contracts/Procurements Current Solicitations DOE-RL Contracts/Procurements RL Contracts & Procurements Home Prime Contracts Current Solicitations Other Sources DOE RL Contracting Officers DOE RL Contracting Officer Representatives Current Solicitations Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size The Richland Operations Office uses Fedconnect (https://www.fedconnect.net) to post solicitations on FedBizOps. Quotes/proposals are also received using

  2. Measurement of Ultracold Neutrons Produced by Using Doppler-shifted Bragg Reflection at a Pulsed-neutron Source

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Brun, T. O.; Carpenter, J. M.; Krohn, V. E.; Ringo, G. R.; Cronin, J. W.; Dombeck, T. W.; Lynn, J. W.; Werner, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    Ultracold neutrons (UCN) have been produced at the Argonne pulsed-neutron source by the Doppler shift of 400-m/s neutrons Bragg reflected from a moving crystal. The peak density of UCN produced at the crystal exceeds 0.1 n/cm{sup 3}.

  3. Fault Current Limiters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Other benefits include: &17; Enhanced system safety, stability, and efficiency of the power ... large fault current desaturates the iron core of the series AC coils and the increased ...

  4. Current Testbed Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Testbed Research Previous Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Dark Fiber Testbed Federated Testbed Circuits Test Circuit Service Performance (perfSONAR)...

  5. Current Annualized Request

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Appropriation FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Current Annualized Request CR % Energy And Water Development, And Related Agencies Energy Programs Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  6. RF current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  7. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, L. Peebles, W. A.; Ruskov, E.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Tuszewski, M.; Douglass, J.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.

    2014-11-15

    A versatile heterodyne Doppler Backscattering (DBS) system is used to measure density fluctuation levels (in the wavenumber range kρ{sub s} ≤ 50), and the toroidal E × B flow velocity in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). Six tunable frequencies in three waveguide bands (26 GHz ≤ f ≤ 90 GHz) are launched using monostatic beam optics, via a quasi-optical beam combiner/polarizer and an adjustable parabolic focusing mirror (inside the vacuum enclosure) achieving Gaussian beam spot sizes of 3–5.5 cm at the X/O-mode cutoff. The DBS system covers plasma densities of 0.8 × 10{sup 13} ≤ n{sub e} ≤ 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}, and provides access to the FRC core (up to the field null) and across the FRC separatrix into the scrape-off layer plasma.

  8. Analysis of Doppler Lidar Data Acquired During the Pentagon Shield Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, Rob K.

    2011-04-14

    Observations from two coherent Doppler lidars deployed during the Pentagon Shield field campaign are analyzed in conjunction with other sensors to characterize the overall boundary-layer structure, and identify the dominant flow characteristics during the entire two-week field campaign. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights and cloud base heights (CBH) are estimated from an analysis of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and mean wind profiles are computed using a modified velocity-azimuth-display (VAD) algorithm. Three-dimensional wind field retrievals are computed from coordinated overlapping volume scans, and the results are analyzed by visualizing the flow in horizontal and vertical cross sections. The VAD winds show that southerly flows dominate during the two-week field campaign. Low-level jets (LLJ) were evident on all but two of the nights during the field campaign. The LLJs tended to form a couple hours after sunset and reach maximum strength between 03 and 07 UTC. The surface friction velocities show distinct local maxima during four nights when strong LLJs formed. Estimates of the convective boundary layer height and residual layer height are obtained through an analysis of the vertical gradient of the lidar signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). Strong minimum in the SNR gradient often develops just above the surface after sunrise. This minimum is associated with the developing CBL, and increases rapidly during the early portion of the daytime period. On several days, this minimum continues to increase until about sunset. Secondary minima in the SNR gradient were also observed at higher altitudes, and are believed to be remnants of the CBL height from previous days, i.e. the residual layer height. The dual-Doppler analysis technique used in this study makes use of hourly averaged radial velocity data to produce three-dimensional grids of the horizontal velocity components, and the horizontal velocity variance. Visualization of horizontal and vertical cross

  9. Measurements of Wind and Turbulence Profiles with Scanning Doppler Lidar for Wind Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frehlich, R.; Kelley, N.

    2008-03-01

    High-quality profiles of mean and turbulent statistics of the wind field upstream of a wind farm can be produced using a scanning Doppler lidar. Careful corrections for the spatial filtering of the wind field by the lidar pulse produce turbulence estimates equivalent to point sensors but with the added advantage of a larger sampling volume to increase the statistical accuracy of the estimates. For a well-designed lidar system, this permits accurate estimates of the key turbulent statistics over various subdomains and with sufficiently short observation times to monitor rapid changes in conditions. These features may be ideally suited for optimal operation of wind farms and also for improved resource assessment of potential sites.

  10. On the measurement of wind speeds in tornadoes with a portable CW/FM-CW Doppler radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bluestein, H.B. . School of Meteorology); Unruh, W.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Both the formation mechanism and structure of tornadoes are not yet well understood. The Doppler radar is probably the best remote-sensing instrument at present for determining the wind field in tornadoes. Although much has been learned about the non-supercell tornado from relatively close range using Doppler radars at fixed sites, close-range measurements in supercell tornadoes are relatively few. Doppler radar can increase significantly the number of high-resolution, sub-cloud base measurements of both the tornado vortex and its parent vortex in supercells, with simultaneous visual documentation. The design details and operation of the CW/FM-CW Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and used by storm-intercept teams at the Univ. of Oklahoma are described elsewhere. The radar transmits 1 W at 3 cm, and can be switched back and forth between CW and FM-CW modes. In the FM-CW mode the sweep repetition frequency is 15.575 kHz and the sweep width 1.9 MHz; the corresponding maximum unambiguous range and velocity, and range resolution are 5 km, {plus minus} 115 m s{sup {minus}1}, and 78 m respectively. The bistatic antennas, which have half-power beamwidths of 5{degree}, are easily pointed wit the aid of a boresighted VCR. FM-CW Data are recorded on the VCR, while voice documentation is recorded on the audio tape; video is recorded on another VCR. The radar and antennas are easily mounted on a tripod, and can be set up by three people in a minute or two. The purpose of this paper is to describe the signal processing techniques used to determine the Doppler spectrum in the FM-CW mode and a method of its interpretation in real time, and to present data gathered in a tornadic storm in 1990. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Current level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  12. Ultracapacitor current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jerabek, Elihu Calfin (Glenmont, NY); Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-10-16

    An ultracapacitor having two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. At least one of the current collectors comprises a conductive metal substrate coated with a metal nitride, carbide or boride coating.

  13. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Nathan E.

    2012-03-12

    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives

  14. Superconducting current transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil.

  15. Voltage controlled current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  16. Acoustic Detection of Phase Transitions at the Nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Khassaf, Hamidreza; Cao, Ye; Zhang, Shujun; Tselev, Alexander; Carmichael, Ben D.; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Chen, Long-Qing; Alpay, S. Pamir; et al

    2016-01-25

    On page 478, N. Bassiri-Gharb and co-workers demonstrate acoustic detection in nanoscale volumes by use of an atomic force microscope tip technique. Elastic changes in volume are measured by detecting changes in resonance of the cantilever. Also, the electric field in this case causes a phase transition, which is modeled by Landau theory.

  17. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-10-31

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  18. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-12-01

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  19. Quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations in metallic nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-05-15

    The low-frequency electrostatic waves in metallic nanowires are studied using the quantum hydrodynamic model, in which the electron and ion components of the system are regarded as a two-species quantum plasma system. The Poisson equation as well as appropriate quantum boundary conditions give the analytical expressions of dispersion relations of the surface and bulk quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations.

  20. Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christov, Ivan; Christov, C. I.; Jordan, P. M.

    2014-12-18

    This article presents errors, corrections, and additions to the research outlined in the following citation: Christov, I., Christov, C. I., & Jordan, P. M. (2007). Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 60(4), 473-495.

  1. Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.

    2011-06-15

    Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.

  2. Cavitation controlled acoustic probe for fabric spot cleaning and moisture monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a fabric. An acoustic probe generates acoustic waves relative to the fabric. An acoustic sensor, such as an accelerometer is coupled to the acoustic probe for generating a signal representative of cavitation activity in the fabric. The generated cavitation activity representative signal is processed to indicate moisture content of the fabric. A feature of the invention is a feedback control signal is generated responsive to the generated cavitation activity representative signal. The feedback control signal can be used to control the energy level of the generated acoustic waves and to control the application of a cleaning solution to the fabric.

  3. Propagation and oblique collision of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty electronegative plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Behery, E. E.; El-Shamy, E. F.; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004 Abha

    2013-12-15

    The propagation and oblique collision of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves in a magnetized dusty electronegative plasma consisting of cold mobile positive ions, Boltzmann negative ions, Boltzmann electrons, and stationary positive/negative dust particles are studied. The extended Poincar-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equations and the corresponding expressions for the phase shifts after collision between two IA solitary waves. It turns out that the angle of collision, the temperature and density of negative ions, and the dust density of opposite polarity have reasonable effects on the phase shift. Clearly, the numerical results demonstrated that the IA solitary waves are delayed after the oblique collision. The current finding of this work is applicable in many plasma environments having negative ion species, such as D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere and some laboratory plasma experiments.

  4. Method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns using acoustical energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, S.H.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.; Kupperman, D.S.

    1998-05-19

    A slashing process is disclosed for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations including the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns. 2 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns using acoustical energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Kupperman, David S.

    1998-01-01

    A slashing process for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations including the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns.

  6. Characterization of acoustic effects on flame structures by beam deflection technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedat, B.; Kostiuk, L.W.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-10-01

    This work shows that the acoustic effects are the causes of the small amplitude flame wrinkling and movements seen in all the different gravitational conditions. The comparison between the acoustic velocity and beam deflection spectra for the two conditions studied (glass beads and fiber glass) demonstrates clearly this flame/acoustic coupling. This acoustic study shows that the burner behaves like a Helmholtz resonator. The estimated resonance frequency corresponds well to the experimental measurements. The fiber glass damps the level of the resonance frequency and the flame motion. The changes shown in normalized beam deflection spectra give further support of this damping. This work demonstrates that the acoustics has a direct influence on flame structure in the laminar case and the preliminary results in turbulent case also show a strong coupling. The nature of this flame/acoustic coupling are still not well understood. Further investigation should include determining the frequency limits and the sensitivity of the flame to acoustic perturbations.

  7. THE ACOUSTIC CUTOFF FREQUENCY OF THE SUN AND THE SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, A.; Palle, P. L.; Garcia, R. A.

    2011-12-20

    The acoustic cutoff frequency-the highest frequency for acoustic solar eigenmodes-is an important parameter of the solar atmosphere as it determines the upper boundary of the p-mode resonant cavities. At frequencies beyond this value, acoustic disturbances are no longer trapped but are traveling waves. Interference among them gives rise to higher-frequency peaks-the pseudomodes-in the solar acoustic spectrum. The pseudomodes are shifted slightly in frequency with respect to p-modes, making possible the use of pseudomodes to determine the acoustic cutoff frequency. Using data from the GOLF and VIRGO instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, we calculate the acoustic cutoff frequency using the coherence function between both the velocity and intensity sets of data. By using data gathered by these instruments during the entire lifetime of the mission (1996 until the present), a variation in the acoustic cutoff frequency with the solar magnetic activity cycle is found.

  8. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  9. Current Financial Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Current hydrogen-related funding opportunities through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office are listed below. The Fuel Cell Technologies Office offers opportunities for both financial and technical assistance.

  10. Current Annualized Request

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Organization FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Current Annualized Request CR % National Security Weapons Activities* 7,214,834 7,557,342 7,868,409 +311,067 +4.1% Defense Nuclear...

  11. Current control circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S.

    2005-03-15

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor (30), a servo device (40), and a current source (50). The servo device (40) is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor (30) by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base (32b). The current source (150) is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor (30). A first device (24) provides an input signal to an electrical node (70) positioned between the emitter (32e) of the transistor (30) and the current source (50). A second device (26) receives an output signal from the collector (32c) of the transistor (30).

  12. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  13. Superconducting current transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    The construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor is described. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil. The C shaped half toroids can be separated and brought precisely together from outside the cryostat. The Hall probe is energized and sensed by a lock-in amplifier whose output drives a bipolar power supply which feeds the compensating coil. The output is the voltage across a resistor in this feedback circuit. Currents of up to 10 kA can be measured with a precision of 150 mA. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Beam current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.

    1984-09-28

    A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.

  15. Beam current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  16. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  17. Frequencies of the geodesic acoustic mode and Alfvn gap modes in high-q{sup 2}? plasmas with non-circular cross section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesenyuk, O. P.; Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.; National University of Kyiv Mohyla Academy, Vul. Skovorody 2, Kyiv 04070

    2013-12-15

    This work generalizes recent results [O. P. Fesenyuk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085014 (2012)] to plasmas with elongated cross section. It suggests new expressions for the frequencies of the geodesic acoustic mode and Alfvn gap modes in tokamaks, with a large ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure and a large safety factor (q?1, which takes place in discharges with reversed-shear configuration and, especially, in hollow-current discharges)

  18. Mutual inductance current transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemminger, R.C.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a mutual inductance differential current transducer for producing an analog voltage output signal in response to, and having a level varying linearly with respect to, and having a level varying linearly with respect to, the magnitude and rate of change of a flow of current supplied by an alternating current power line distribution system. It comprises: an elongated current conductor having first and second ends and a substantially straight axial portion therebetween of a predetermined length and defining a central axis; a generally cylindrical sleeve of conductive material of substantially the predetermined length, received coaxially over the elongated current conductor in the straight axial portion thereof and electrically insulated therefrom; a toroidal sensor coil defining a central axis and having an axial length less than approximately one-third the length of the generally cylindrical sleeve and an internal diameter substantially the same as the outer diameter of the cylindrical sleeve and sufficient to position the coil coaxially on the cylindrical sleeve. The coil being positioned coaxially thereon and generally centrally of the length thereof.

  19. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  20. Clean Currents | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Currents Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Clean Currents Name: Clean Currents Address: 155 Gibbs St. Suite 425 Place: Rockville, Maryland Zip: 20850 Sector: Wind energy...

  1. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  2. Using Doppler spectra to separate hydrometeor populations and analyze ice precipitation in multilayered mixed-phase clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rambukkange, Mahlon P.; Verlinde, J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Flynn, Connor J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2011-01-31

    Multimodality of cloud radar Doppler spectra is used to partition cloud particle phases and to separate distinct ice populations in the radar sample volume, thereby facilitating analysis of individual ice showers in multilayered mixed-phase clouds. A 35-GHz cloud radar located at Barrow, Alaska, during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment collected the Doppler spectra. Data from a pair of collocated depolarization lidars confirmed the presence of two liquid cloud layers reported in this study. Surprisingly, both of these cloud layers were embedded in ice precipitation yet maintained their liquid. Our spectral separation of the ice precipitation yielded two distinct ice populations: ice initiated within the two liquid cloud layers and ice precipitation formed in higher cloud layers. Comparisons of ice fall velocity versus radar reflectivity relationships derived for distinct showers reveal that a single relationship might not properly represent the ice showers during this period.

  3. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  4. Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-28

    We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data andmore » calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D<40 nm.« less

  5. Mechanical and acoustic properties of weakly cemented granular rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.

    2001-05-09

    This paper presents the results of laboratory measurements on the mechanical and acoustic properties of weakly cemented granular rock. Artificial rock samples were fabricated by cementing sand and glass beads with sodium silicate binder. During uniaxial compression tests, the rock samples showed stress-strain behavior which was more similar to that of soils than competent rocks, exhibiting large permanent deformations with frictional slip. The mechanical behavior of the samples approached that of competent rocks as the amount of binder was increased. For very weak samples, acoustic waves propagating in these rocks showed very low velocities of less than 1000 m/sec for compressional waves. A borehole made within this weakly cemented rock exhibited a unique mode of failure that is called ''anti-KI mode fracture'' in this paper. The effect of cementation, grain type, and boundary conditions on this mode of failure was also examined experimentally.

  6. Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-28

    We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D<40 nm.

  7. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: Fabrication and Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Malone, Vanessa

    2012-02-01

    We report on the development of harsh-environment surface acoustic wave sensors for wired and wireless operation. Surface acoustic wave devices with an interdigitated transducer emitter and multiple reflectors were fabricated on langasite substrates. Both wired and wireless temperature sensing was demonstrated using radar-mode (pulse) detection. Temperature resolution of better than 0.5C was achieved between 200C and 600C. Oxygen sensing was achieved by depositing a layer of ZnO on the propagation path. Although the ZnO layer caused additional attenuation of the surface wave, oxygen sensing was accomplished at temperatures up to 700C. The results indicate that langasite SAW devices are a potential solution for harsh-environment gas and temperature sensing.

  8. Acoustic methods to monitor sliver linear density and yarn strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for monitoring sliver and yarn characteristics. Transverse waves are generated relative to the sliver or yarn. At least one acoustic sensor is in contact with the sliver or yarn for detecting waves coupled to the sliver or yarn and for generating a signal. The generated signal is processed to identify the predefined characteristics including sliver or yarn linear density. The transverse waves can be generated with a high-powered acoustic transmitter spaced relative to the sliver or yarn with large amplitude pulses having a central frequency in a range between 20 KHz and 40 KHz applied to the transmitter. The transverse waves can be generated by mechanically agitating the sliver or yarn with a tapping member.

  9. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, E.S.

    1980-05-09

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  10. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

  11. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  12. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch, Darren W

    2014-03-11

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  13. Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Edward S.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

  14. Piezoelectric transducer design for a miniaturized injectable acoustic transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huidong; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-10-07

    Acoustic telemetry has been an important tool in the last 20 years for studying fish survival and migration behaviors during and after dam passage. This technology uses implantable acoustic transmitters as tags to three-dimensionally track the movement of fish. However, the relatively large weights and sizes of commercially available transmitters limit the populations of fish that could be studied. The surgical implantation procedures required may also injure fish and also incur a significant amount of labor. Therefore, a smaller, lighter, and injectable tag was needed, and similar or better acoustic performance and service life over that provided by existing commercial tags was desired. To develop such a small transmitter, a number of technical challenges, including design optimization of the piezoelectric transducer, needed to be overcome. The goal of our efforts to optimize the transducer focused on improving the average source level in the 180° range in which the transmitter was facing the receiving hydrophone, so as to increase the transmitter’s detection probability. This paper reports the techniques that were explored and developed to achieve this goal. We found that a novel off-center tube transducer improved the average source level of the front half of the transducer by 1.5 dB. An acoustic reflector attached to the back of the transducer also improved the source level by 3 dB when the transducer was pointed toward the receiving hydrophone, although the source level on the sides of the transducer was reduced. We found that too small a gap between the transducer and the component placed behind it resulted in distortion of the beam pattern. To overcome that issue, we connected a tuning inductor in series with the transducer to help optimize the source level. The findings and techniques developed in this work contributed to the successful development and implementation of a new injectable transmitter.

  15. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Kulikov, Stanislav; Osorio, Ivan; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  16. Massively Parallel LES of Azimuthal Thermo-Acoustic Instabilities in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annular Gas Turbines | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Massively Parallel LES of Azimuthal Thermo-Acoustic Instabilities in Annular Gas Turbines Authors: Wolf, P., Staffelbach, G., Roux, A., Gicquel, L., Poinsot, T., Moureau, V. Increasingly stringent regulations and the need to tackle rising fuel prices have placed great emphasis on the design of aeronautical gas turbines, which are unfortunately more and more prone to combustion instabilities. In the particular field of annular

  17. Piezoelectric transducer design for a miniaturized injectable acoustic transmitter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Huidong; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun D.

    2015-10-07

    Acoustic telemetry has been an important tool in the last 20 years for studying fish survival and migration behaviors during and after dam passage. This technology uses implantable acoustic transmitters as tags to three-dimensionally track the movement of fish. However, the relatively large weights and sizes of commercially available transmitters limit the populations of fish that could be studied. The surgical implantation procedures required may also injure fish and also incur a significant amount of labor. Therefore, a smaller, lighter, and injectable tag was needed, and similar or better acoustic performance and service life over that provided by existing commercialmore » tags was desired. To develop such a small transmitter, a number of technical challenges, including design optimization of the piezoelectric transducer, needed to be overcome. The goal of our efforts to optimize the transducer focused on improving the average source level in the 180° range in which the transmitter was facing the receiving hydrophone, so as to increase the transmitter’s detection probability. This paper reports the techniques that were explored and developed to achieve this goal. We found that a novel off-center tube transducer improved the average source level of the front half of the transducer by 1.5 dB. An acoustic reflector attached to the back of the transducer also improved the source level by 3 dB when the transducer was pointed toward the receiving hydrophone, although the source level on the sides of the transducer was reduced. We found that too small a gap between the transducer and the component placed behind it resulted in distortion of the beam pattern. To overcome that issue, we connected a tuning inductor in series with the transducer to help optimize the source level. Furthermore, the findings and techniques developed in this work contributed to the successful development and implementation of a new injectable transmitter.« less

  18. Piezoelectric transducer design for a miniaturized injectable acoustic transmitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huidong; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun D.

    2015-10-07

    Acoustic telemetry has been an important tool in the last 20 years for studying fish survival and migration behaviors during and after dam passage. This technology uses implantable acoustic transmitters as tags to three-dimensionally track the movement of fish. However, the relatively large weights and sizes of commercially available transmitters limit the populations of fish that could be studied. The surgical implantation procedures required may also injure fish and also incur a significant amount of labor. Therefore, a smaller, lighter, and injectable tag was needed, and similar or better acoustic performance and service life over that provided by existing commercial tags was desired. To develop such a small transmitter, a number of technical challenges, including design optimization of the piezoelectric transducer, needed to be overcome. The goal of our efforts to optimize the transducer focused on improving the average source level in the 180° range in which the transmitter was facing the receiving hydrophone, so as to increase the transmitter’s detection probability. This paper reports the techniques that were explored and developed to achieve this goal. We found that a novel off-center tube transducer improved the average source level of the front half of the transducer by 1.5 dB. An acoustic reflector attached to the back of the transducer also improved the source level by 3 dB when the transducer was pointed toward the receiving hydrophone, although the source level on the sides of the transducer was reduced. We found that too small a gap between the transducer and the component placed behind it resulted in distortion of the beam pattern. To overcome that issue, we connected a tuning inductor in series with the transducer to help optimize the source level. Furthermore, the findings and techniques developed in this work contributed to the successful development and implementation of a new injectable transmitter.

  19. Piezoelectric transducer design for a miniaturized injectable acoustic transducer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Huidong; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-10-07

    Acoustic telemetry has been an important tool in the last 20 years for studying fish survival and migration behaviors during and after dam passage. This technology uses implantable acoustic transmitters as tags to three-dimensionally track the movement of fish. However, the relatively large weights and sizes of commercially available transmitters limit the populations of fish that could be studied. The surgical implantation procedures required may also injure fish and also incur a significant amount of labor. Therefore, a smaller, lighter, and injectable tag was needed, and similar or better acoustic performance and service life over that provided by existing commercialmore » tags was desired. To develop such a small transmitter, a number of technical challenges, including design optimization of the piezoelectric transducer, needed to be overcome. The goal of our efforts to optimize the transducer focused on improving the average source level in the 180° range in which the transmitter was facing the receiving hydrophone, so as to increase the transmitter’s detection probability. This paper reports the techniques that were explored and developed to achieve this goal. We found that a novel off-center tube transducer improved the average source level of the front half of the transducer by 1.5 dB. An acoustic reflector attached to the back of the transducer also improved the source level by 3 dB when the transducer was pointed toward the receiving hydrophone, although the source level on the sides of the transducer was reduced. We found that too small a gap between the transducer and the component placed behind it resulted in distortion of the beam pattern. To overcome that issue, we connected a tuning inductor in series with the transducer to help optimize the source level. The findings and techniques developed in this work contributed to the successful development and implementation of a new injectable transmitter.« less

  20. Acoustic emission monitoring for assessment of steel bridge details

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosnik, D. E.; Corr, D. J.; Hopwood, T.

    2011-06-23

    Acoustic emission (AE) testing was deployed on details of two large steel Interstate Highway bridges: one cantilever through-truss and one trapezoidal box girder bridge. Quantitative measurements of activity levels at known and suspected crack locations were made by monitoring AE under normal service loads (e.g., live traffic and wind). AE indications were used to direct application of radiography, resulting in identification of a previously unknown flaw, and to inform selection of a retrofit detail.

  1. Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Shewy, E. K.; Abdelwahed, H. G.; Elmessary, M. A.

    2011-11-15

    The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.

  2. Dielectric permittivity tensor and low frequency instabilities of a magnetoactive current-driven plasma with nonextensive distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R.; Rastbood, E.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.

    2015-12-15

    The dielectric permittivity tensor of a magnetoactive current-driven plasma is obtained by employing the kinetic theory based on the Vlasov equation and Lorentz transformation formulas with an emphasize on the q-nonextensive statistics. By deriving the q-generalized dispersion relation of the low frequency modes in this plasma system, the possibility and properties of filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities are then studied. It is shown that the occurrence and the growth rate of these instabilities depend strongly on the nonextensive parameters, external magnetic field strength, and drift velocity. It is observed that the growth rate of ion acoustic instability is affected by the magnetic field strength much more than that of the filamentation instability in the low frequency range. The external magnetic field facilitates the development of the ion-acoustic instability. It is also shown that the filamentation is the dominant instability only for the high value of drift velocity.

  3. Dynamic Rotor Deformation and Vibration Monitoring Using a Non-Incremental Laser Doppler Distance Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister, Thorsten; Guenther, Philipp; Dreier, Florian; Czarske, Juergen

    2010-05-28

    Monitoring rotor deformations and vibrations dynamically is an important task for improving the safety and the lifetime as well as the energy efficiency of motors and turbo machines. However, due to the high rotor speed encountered in particular at turbo machines, this requires concurrently a high measurement rate and high accuracy, which can not be fulfilled by most commercially available sensors. To solve this problem, we developed a non-incremental laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is able to measure simultaneously the in-plane velocity and the out-of-plane position of moving rough solid objects with micrometer precision. In addition, this sensor concurrently offers a high temporal resolution in the microsecond range, because its position uncertainty is in principle independent of the object velocity in contrast to conventional distance sensors, which is a unique feature of the LDDS. Consequently, this novel sensor enables precise and dynamic in-process deformation and vibration measurements on rotating objects, such as turbo machine rotors, even at very high speed. In order to evidence the capability of the LDDS, measurements of rotor deformations (radial expansion), vibrations and wobbling motions are presented at up to 50,000 rpm rotor speed.

  4. Phonon characteristics of high {Tc} superconductors from neutron Doppler broadening measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trela, W.J.; Kwei, G.H.; Lynn, J.E.; Meggers, K.

    1994-12-01

    Statistical information on the phonon frequency spectrum of materials can be measured by neutron transmission techniques if they contain nuclei with low energy resonances, narrow enough to be Doppler-broadened, in their neutron cross sections. The authors have carried out some measurements using this technique for materials of the lanthanum barium cuprate class, La{sub 2{minus}x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. Two samples with slightly different concentrations of oxygen, one being superconductive, the other not, were examined. Pure lanthanum cuprate was also measured. Lanthanum, barium and copper all have relatively low energy narrow resonances. Thus it should be possible to detect differences in the phonons carried by different kinds of atom in the lattice. Neutron cross section measurements have been made with high energy resolution and statistical precision on the 59m flight path of LANSCE, the pulsed spallation neutron source at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Measurements on all three materials were made over a range of temperatures from 15K to 300K, with small steps through the critical temperature region near 27K. No significant changes in the mean phonon energy of the lanthanum atoms were observed near the critical temperature of the super-conducting material. It appears however that the mean phonon energy of lanthanum in the superconductor is considerably higher than that in the non-superconductors. The samples used in this series of experiments were too thin in barium and copper to determine anything significant about their phonon spectra.

  5. Detonation wave profiles measured in plastic bonded explosives using 1550 nm photon doppler velocimetry (PDV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Richard L; Bartram, Brian D; Sanchez, Nathaniel J

    2009-01-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in two TATB based explosives and two HMX based explosives. Profiles were measured at the interface of the explosive and a Lithium-Fluoride (LiF) window using 1550 nm Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with a projectile launched in a gas-gun. The impact state was varied to produce varied distance to detonation, and therefore varied support of the Taylor wave following the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) or sonic state. Profiles from experiments with different support should be the same between the Von-Neumann (VN) spike and CJ state and different thereafter. Comparison of profiles with differing support, therefore, allows us to estimate reaction zone lengths. For the TATB based explosive, a reaction zone length of {approx} 3.9 mm, 500 ns was measured in EDC-35, and a reaction zone length of {approx} 6.3 mm, 800 ns was measured in PBX 9502 pre-cooled to -55 C. The respective VN spike state was 2.25 {+-} 0.05 km/s in EDC-35 and 2.4 {+-} 0.1 km/s in the cooled PBX 9502. We do not believe we have resolved either the VN spike state (> 2.6 km/s) nor the reaction zone length (<< 50 ns) in the HMX based explosives.

  6. In-field use of laser Doppler vibrometer on a wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rumsey, M.; Hurtado, J.; Hansche, B.

    1998-12-31

    One of our primary goals was to determine how well a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) could measure the structural dynamic response of a wind turbine that was parked in the field. We performed a series of preliminary tests in the lab to determine the basic limitations of the LDV for this application. We then instrumented an installed parked horizontal axis wind turbine with accelerometers to determine the natural frequencies, damping, and mode shapes of the wind turbine and rotor as a baseline for the LDV and our other tests. We also wanted to determine if LDV modal information could be obtained from a naturally (wind) excited wind turbine. We compared concurrently obtained accelerometer and LDV data in an attempt to assess the quality of the LDV data. Our test results indicate the LDV can be successfully used in the field environment of an installed wind turbine, but with a few restrictions. We were successful in obtaining modal information from a naturally (wind) excited wind turbine in the field, but the data analysis requires a large number of averaged data sets to obtain reasonable results. An ultimate goal of this continuing project is to develop a technique that will monitor the health of a structure, detect damage, and hopefully predict an impending component failure.

  7. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  8. Estimations of atmospheric boundary layer fluxes and other turbulence parameters from Doppler lidar data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzvi Galchen; Mei Xu ); Eberhard, W.L. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. Here the authors present results on doppler LIDAR measurements used to measure a range of turbulence parameters in the region of the unstable planetary boundary layer (PBL). The parameters include, averaged velocities, cartesian velocities, variances in velocities, parts of the covariance associated with vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum, and third moments of the vertical velocity. They explain their analysis technique, especially as it relates to error reduction of the averaged turbulence parameters from individual measurements with relatively large errors. The scales studied range from 150m to 12km. With this new diagnostic they address questions about the behavior of the convectively unstable PBL, as well as the stable layer which overlies it.

  9. Coherent population trapping resonances at lower atomic levels of Doppler broadened optical lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ahin, E; Hamid, R; elik, M; zen, G; Izmailov, A Ch

    2014-11-30

    We have detected and analysed narrow high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances, which are induced in absorption of a weak monochromatic probe light beam by counterpropagating two-frequency pump radiation in a cell with rarefied caesium vapour. The experimental investigations have been performed by the example of nonclosed three level ?-systems formed by spectral components of the D{sub 2} line of caesium atoms. The applied method allows one to analyse features of the CPT phenomenon directly at a given low long-lived level of the selected ?-system even in sufficiently complicated spectra of atomic gases with large Doppler broadening. We have established that CPT resonances in transmission of the probe beam exhibit not only a higher contrast but also a much lesser width in comparison with well- known CPT resonances in transmission of the corresponding two-frequency pump radiation. The results obtained can be used in selective photophysics, photochemistry and ultra-high resolution atomic (molecular) spectroscopy. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Electrostatic supersolitons and double layers at the acoustic speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.

    2015-01-15

    Supersolitons are characterized by subsidiary extrema on the sides of a typical bipolar electric field signature or by association with a root beyond double layers in the fully nonlinear Sagdeev pseudopotential description. It has been proven that supersolitons may exist in several plasmas having at least three constituent species, but they cannot be found in weakly nonlinear theory. Another recent aspect of pseudopotential theory is that in certain plasma models and parameter regimes solitons and/or double layers can exist at the acoustic speed, having no reductive perturbation counterparts. Importantly, they signal coexistence between solitons having positive and negative polarity, in that one solution can be realized at a time, depending on infinitesimal perturbations from the equilibrium state. Weaving the two strands together, we demonstrate here that one can even find supersolitons and double layers at the acoustic speed, as illustrated using the model of cold positive and negative ions, in the presence of nonthermal electrons following a Cairns distribution. This model has been discussed before, but the existence and properties of supersolitons at the acoustic speed were not established at the time of publication.

  11. Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-07-02

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. As part of the transmitter downsizing effort some of the design parameters of the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic tube transducer in the transmitter were studied, including the type of PZT, the backing material, the necessary drive voltage, the transmitting bandwidth and the length of the transducer. It was found that, to satisfy the 156-dB source level requirement of JSATS, a square wave with a 10-volt amplitude is required to drive 'soft' PZT transducers. PZT-5H demonstrated the best source level performance. For Navy types I and II, 16 volts or 18 volts were needed. Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) closed-cell foam was found to be the backing material providing the highest source level. The effect of tube length on the source level is also demonstrated in this paper, providing quantitative information for downsizing of small piezoelectric transmitters.

  12. Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G.

    2004-06-29

    A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.

  13. Motor Current Data Collection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-01

    The Motor Current Data Collection System (MCDCS) uses IBM compatible PCs to collect, process, and store Motor Current Signature information.

  14. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  15. Fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  16. Real-time observation of coherent acoustic phonons generated by an acoustically mismatched optoacoustic transducer using x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persson, A. I. H.; Andreasson, B. P.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Larsson, J.

    2015-11-14

    The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Measurements of Concentration Distributions in Acoustic Focusing Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, K A; Fisher, K; Jung, B; Ness, K; Mariella Jr., R P

    2008-06-16

    We describe a modeling approach to capture the particle motion within an acoustic focusing microfluidic device. Our approach combines finite element models for the acoustic forces with analytical models for the fluid motion and uses these force fields to calculate the particle motion in a Brownian dynamics simulation. We compare results for the model with experimental measurements of the focusing efficiency within a microfabricated device. The results show good qualitative agreement over a range of acoustic driving voltages and particle sizes.

  18. Resonant acoustic transducer and driver system for a well drilling string communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chanson, Gary J.; Nicolson, Alexander M.

    1981-01-01

    The acoustic data communication system includes an acoustic transmitter and receiver wherein low frequency acoustic waves, propagating in relatively loss free manner in well drilling string piping, are efficiently coupled to the drill string and propagate at levels competitive with the levels of noise generated by drilling machinery also present in the drill string. The transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring piezoelectric transmitter and amplifier combination that permits self-oscillating resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  19. The application of compressed sensing to long-term acoustic emission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structural health monitoring Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The application of compressed sensing to long-term acoustic emission-based structural health monitoring ...

  20. Acoustic Logs At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Acoustic Logs At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  1. Current status of APEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betts, R.R.

    1993-10-01

    The ATLAS Positron Experiment (APEX) is designed to investigate narrow structures observed in the energy spectra of positions and positron-electron coincidences produced in collisions of high Z ions with high Z targets at Coulomb barrier energies. The apparatus consists of a large diameter uniform-field solenoid mounted transverse to the beam direction. Scattered heavy ions are detected in a gas-counter array. Electrons and positrons transversing the solenoid are detected in highly segmented silicon arrays surrounded by position sensitive NaI detectors for positron identification. The concept of APEX and the current status of the apparatus will be discussed.

  2. Current Annualized Request

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appropriation FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Current Annualized Request CR $ % Energy And Water Development, And Related Agencies Energy Programs Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 1,780,548 1,820,713 2,775,700 +995,152 +55.9% Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability 136,178 139,954 169,015 +32,837 +24.1% Nuclear Energy 760,466 770,075 735,460 -25,006 -3.3% Race to the Top for Energy Efficiency and Grid Modernization 0 0 200,000 +200,000 N/A Fossil Energy Programs Fossil Energy Research and

  3. STRONG CONSTRAINTS TO THE PUTATIVE PLANET CANDIDATE AROUND VB 10 USING DOPPLER SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Thompson, Ian B.; Osip, David J.; Debes, John H. E-mail: shkolnik@dtm.ciw.edu E-mail: ian@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: john.H.debes@nasa.gov

    2010-03-01

    We present new radial velocity (RV) measurements of the ultra-cool dwarf VB 10, which was recently announced to host a giant planet detected with astrometry. The new observations were obtained using optical spectrographs (MIKE/Magellan and ESPaDOnS/CFHT) and cover 65% of the reported period of 270 days. The nominal precision of the new Doppler measurements is about 150 m s{sup -1} while their standard deviation is 250 m s{sup -1}. However, there are indications that such a larger variation is due to uncontrolled systematic errors. We apply least-squares periodograms to identify the most significant signals and evaluate their false alarm probabilities (FAPs). We show that this method is the proper generalization to astrometric data because (1) it mitigates the coupling of the orbital parameters with the parallax and proper motion, and (2) it permits a direct generalization to include nonlinear Keplerian parameters in a combined fit to astrometry and RV data. Our analysis of the astrometry alone uncovers the reported 270 day period and an even stronger signal at {approx}50 days. We estimate the uncertainties in the parameters using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Although the new data alone cannot rule out the presence of a candidate, when combined with published RV measurements, the FAPs of the best solutions grow to unacceptable levels strongly suggesting that the observed astrometric wobble is not due to an unseen companion. The new measurements put an upper limit of m sin i {approx} 2.5 m {sub jup} for a companion with a period shorter than one year and moderate eccentricities.

  4. Retrieval of Urban Boundary Layer Structures from Doppler Lidar Data. Part I: Accuracy Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Quanxin; Lin, Ching Long; Calhoun, Ron; Newsom, Rob K.

    2008-01-01

    Two coherent Doppler lidars from the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Arizona State University (ASU) were deployed in the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion field experiment (JU2003) held in Oklahoma City. The dual lidar data are used to evaluate the accuracy of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) method and identify the coherent flow structures in the urban boundary layer. The objectives of the study are three-fold. The first objective is to examine the effect of eddy viscosity models on the quality of retrieved velocity data. The second objective is to determine the fidelity of single-lidar 4DVAR and evaluate the difference between single- and dual-lidar retrievals. The third objective is to correlate the retrieved flow structures with the ground building data. It is found that the approach of treating eddy viscosity as part of control variables yields better results than the approach of prescribing viscosity. The ARL single-lidar 4DVAR is able to retrieve radial velocity fields with an accuracy of 98% in the along-beam direction and 80-90% in the cross-beam direction. For the dual-lidar 4DVAR, the accuracy of retrieved radial velocity in the ARL cross-beam direction improves to 90-94%. By using the dual-lidar retrieved data as a reference, the single-lidar 4DVAR is able to recover fluctuating velocity fields with 70-80% accuracy in the along-beam direction and 60-70% accuracy in the cross-beam direction. Large-scale convective roll structures are found in the vicinity of downtown airpark and parks. Vortical structures are identified near the business district. Strong updrafts and downdrafts are also found above a cluster of restaurants.

  5. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  6. Current Annualized Request

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 Current Annualized Request CR $ % National Security Weapons Activities* 7,214,834 7,557,342 7,868,409 +311,067 +4.1% Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation 2,300,950 2,409,930 2,140,142 -160,808 -7.0% Naval Reactors 1,080,000 1,086,610 1,246,134 +166,134 +15.4% Office of the Administrator 410,000 412,509 397,784 -12,216 -3.0% Total, National Nuclear Security Administration 11,005,784 11,466,391 11,652,469 +304,177 +2.8% Energy and Environment Energy Efficiency and

  7. Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

  8. Method for chemically analyzing a solution by acoustic means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, L.S.

    1997-04-22

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining a type of solution and the concentration of that solution by acoustic means. Generally stated, the method consists of: immersing a sound focusing transducer within a first liquid filled container; locating a separately contained specimen solution at a sound focal point within the first container; locating a sound probe adjacent to the specimen, generating a variable intensity sound signal from the transducer; measuring fundamental and multiple harmonic sound signal amplitudes; and then comparing a plot of a specimen sound response with a known solution sound response, thereby determining the solution type and concentration. 10 figs.

  9. Method for chemically analyzing a solution by acoustic means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, Laurence S.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining a type of solution and the concention of that solution by acoustic means. Generally stated, the method consists of: immersing a sound focusing transducer within a first liquid filled container; locating a separately contained specimen solution at a sound focal point within the first container; locating a sound probe adjacent to the specimen, generating a variable intensity sound signal from the transducer; measuring fundamental and multiple harmonic sound signal amplitudes; and then comparing a plot of a specimen sound response with a known solution sound response, thereby determining the solution type and concentration.

  10. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lani, Shane W. E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu Sabra, Karim G.; Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer; Levent Degertekin, F.

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  11. Electron geodesic acoustic modes in electron temperature gradient mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Johan; Nordman, Hans [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Singh, Raghvendra; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, the first demonstration of an electron branch of the geodesic acoustic mode (el-GAM) driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes is presented. The work is based on a fluid description of the ETG mode retaining non-adiabatic ions and the dispersion relation for el-GAMs driven nonlinearly by ETG modes is derived. A new saturation mechanism for ETG turbulence through the interaction with el-GAMs is found, resulting in a significantly enhanced ETG turbulence saturation level compared to the mixing length estimate.

  12. Acoustical, morphological and optical properties of oral rehydration salts (ORS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Preetha Mary E-mail: jayakumars030@gmail.com; Divya, P.; Jayakumar, S. E-mail: jayakumars030@gmail.com; Subhashree, N. S.; Ahmed, M. Anees

    2015-06-24

    Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity were measured in different concentrations of oral rehydration salts (ORS) at room temperature 303 k. From the experimental data other related thermodynamic parameters, viz adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, acoustic impedence, relaxation time are calculated. The experimental data were discussed in the light of molecular interaction existing in the liquid mixtures. The results have been discussed in terms of solute-solvent interaction between the components. Structural characterization is important for development of new material. The morphology, structure and grain size of the samples are investigated by SEM. The optical properties of the sample have been studied using UV Visible spectroscopy.

  13. Noninvasive identification of fluids by swept-frequency acoustic interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    1998-01-01

    A method for rapid, noninvasive identification and monitoring of chemicals in sealed containers or containers where direct access to the chemical is not possible is described. Multiple ultrasonic acoustic properties (up to four) of a fluid are simultaneously determined. The present invention can be used for chemical identification and for determining changes in known chemicals from a variety of sources. It is not possible to identify all known chemicals based on the measured parameters, but known classes of chemicals in suspected containers, such as in chemical munitions, can be characterized. In addition, a large number of industrial chemicals can be identified.

  14. Currents, Berkeley Lab's Biweekly Newspaper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Currents Index A-Z Index Search Phone Book Comments Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Search Currents Back Issues (1994 to present) Search Lab science articles...

  15. Corrections to Morse and Ingard's variational-based treatment of weakly-nonlinear acoustics in lossless gases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Jordan, Pedro M.

    2015-07-17

    Errors in Morse and Ingards treatment of the topic of weakly-nonlinear acoustics in 6.2 of their book [Theoretical Acoustics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968)] are noted and corrected.

  16. Corrections to Morse and Ingard's variational-based treatment of weakly-nonlinear acoustics in lossless gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Jordan, Pedro M.

    2015-07-17

    Errors in Morse and Ingard’s treatment of the topic of weakly-nonlinear acoustics in §6.2 of their book [Theoretical Acoustics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968)] are noted and corrected.

  17. Implementation of On-the-Fly Doppler Broadening in MCNP5 for Multiphysics Simulation of Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Martin

    2012-11-16

    A new method to obtain Doppler broadened cross sections has been implemented into MCNP, removing the need to generate cross sections for isotopes at problem temperatures. Previous work had established the scientific feasibility of obtaining Doppler-broadened cross sections "on-the-fly" (OTF) during the random walk of the neutron. Thus, when a neutron of energy E enters a material region that is at some temperature T, the cross sections for that material at the exact temperature T are immediately obtained by interpolation using a high order functional expansion for the temperature dependence of the Doppler-broadened cross section for that isotope at the neutron energy E. A standalone Fortran code has been developed that generates the OTF library for any isotope that can be processed by NJOY. The OTF cross sections agree with the NJOY-based cross sections for all neutron energies and all temperatures in the range specified by the user, e.g., 250K - 3200K. The OTF methodology has been successfully implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code and has been tested on several test problems by comparing MCNP with conventional ACE cross sections versus MCNP with OTF cross sections. The test problems include the Doppler defect reactivity benchmark suite and two full-core VHTR configurations, including one with multiphysics coupling using RELAP5-3D/ATHENA for the thermal-hydraulic analysis. The comparison has been excellent, verifying that the OTF libraries can be used in place of the conventional ACE libraries generated at problem temperatures. In addition, it has been found that using OTF cross sections greatly reduces the complexity of the input for MCNP, especially for full-core temperature feedback calculations with many temperature regions. This results in an order of magnitude decrease in the number of input lines for full-core configurations, thus simplifying input preparation and reducing the potential for input errors. Finally, for full-core problems with multiphysics

  18. Calculation of aerosol backscatter from airborne continuous wave focused CO sub 2 Doppler lidar measurements. 1. Algorithm description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothermel, J. ); Bowdle, D.A. ); Vaughan, J.M.; Brown, D.W. ); Woodfield, A.A. )

    1991-03-20

    Since 1981 the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment and the Royal Aircraft Establishment, United Kingdom, have made vertical and horizontal sounding measurements of aerosol backscatter coefficients at 10.6 {mu}m using an airborne continuous wave focused CO{sub 2} Doppler lidar, the Laser True Airspeed System (LATAS). The heterodyne signal from the LATAS detector is spectrally analyzed. Then, in conjunction with aircraft flight parameters, the data are processed in a six-stage computer algorithm: Set search window, search for peak signal, test peak signal, measure total signal, calculate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and calculate backscatter coefficient.

  19. Estimation of the mixing layer height over a high altitude site in Central Himalayan region by using Doppler lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Newsom, Rob K.; Kumar, Niranjan; Ratnam, Venkat; Naja, M.; Singh, Narendra

    2014-03-01

    A Doppler lidar was installed at Manora Peak, Nainital (29.4 N; 79.2 E, 1958 amsl) to estimate mixing layer height for the first time by using vertical velocity variance as basic measurement parameter for the period September-November 2011. Mixing layer height is found to be located ~0.57 +/- 0.1and 0.45 +/- 0.05km AGL during day and nighttime, respectively. The estimation of mixing layer height shows good correlation (R>0.8) between different instruments and with different methods. Our results show that wavelet co-variance transform is a robust method for mixing layer height estimation.

  20. Modified ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas with field-aligned shear flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleem, H.; Haque, Q.

    2015-08-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a plasma having field-aligned shear flow. A Korteweg-deVries-type nonlinear equation for a modified ion-acoustic wave is obtained which admits a single pulse soliton solution. The theoretical result has been applied to solar wind plasma at 1 AU for illustration.

  1. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first broad-band acoustic pulse at a first broad-band frequency range having a first central frequency and a first bandwidth spread; generating a second broad-band acoustic pulse at a second broad-band frequency range different than the first frequency range having a second central frequency and a second bandwidth spread, wherein the first acoustic pulse and second acoustic pulse are generated by at least one transducer arranged on a tool located within the borehole; and transmitting the first and the second broad-band acoustic pulses into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated pulse by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic pulses, wherein the collimated pulse has a frequency equal to the difference in frequencies between the first central frequency and the second central frequency and a bandwidth spread equal to the sum of the first bandwidth spread and the second bandwidth spread.

  2. Acoustic-wave sensor for ambient monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Hoyt, A.E.; Frye, G.C.

    1998-08-18

    The acoustic-wave sensor is disclosed. The acoustic-wave sensor is designed for ambient or vapor-phase monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), ethoxyethylpropionate (EEP) or the like. The acoustic-wave sensor comprises an acoustic-wave device such as a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device, a flexural-plate-wave (FPW) device, an acoustic-plate-mode (APM) device, or a thickness-shear-mode (TSM) device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance or QCM) having a sensing region on a surface thereof. The sensing region includes a sensing film for sorbing a quantity of the photoresist-stripping agent, thereby altering or shifting a frequency of oscillation of an acoustic wave propagating through the sensing region for indicating an ambient concentration of the agent. According to preferred embodiments of the invention, the acoustic-wave device is a SAW device; and the sensing film comprises poly(vinylacetate), poly(N-vinylpyrrolidinone), or poly(vinylphenol). 3 figs.

  3. Acoustic-wave sensor for ambient monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Hoyt, Andrea E.; Frye, Gregory C.

    1998-01-01

    The acoustic-wave sensor. The acoustic-wave sensor is designed for ambient or vapor-phase monitoring of a photoresist-stripping agent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), ethoxyethylpropionate (EEP) or the like. The acoustic-wave sensor comprises an acoustic-wave device such as a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device, a flexural-plate-wave (FPW) device, an acoustic-plate-mode (APM) device, or a thickness-shear-mode (TSM) device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance or QCM) having a sensing region on a surface thereof. The sensing region includes a sensing film for sorbing a quantity of the photoresist-stripping agent, thereby altering or shifting a frequency of oscillation of an acoustic wave propagating through the sensing region for indicating an ambient concentration of the agent. According to preferred embodiments of the invention, the acoustic-wave device is a SAW device; and the sensing film comprises poly(vinylacetate), poly(N-vinylpyrrolidinone), or poly(vinylphenol).

  4. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver Deployment and Mooring Techniques for Use in Large Rivers and Estuaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titzler, P. Scott; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Carter, Jessica A.

    2010-08-01

    Autonomous acoustic receivers are often deployed across a range of aquatic habitats to study aquatic species. The Juvenile Salmon Telemetry System autonomous acoustic receiver packages we deployed in the Columbia River and its estuary were comprised of an acoustic receiver, acoustic release, and mooring line sections and were deployed directly on the river bottom. Detection ranges and reception data from past optimization deployments helped determine acoustic receiver spacing in order to achieve acceptable detection probabilities for juvenile salmon survival estimation. Methods used in 2005, which resulted in a high equipment loss rate, were modified and used between 2006 and 2008 to increase crew safety and optimize receiver deployment and recovery operations in a large river system. By eliminating surface buoys and taglines (for anchor recovery), we experienced a recovery success rate greater than previous acoustic receiver deployment techniques used in the Columbia River and elsewhere. This autonomous acoustic receiver system has optimized deployment, recovery, and servicing efficiency to successfully detect acoustic-tagged salmonids in a variety of river environments.

  5. Generation and amplification of acoustic waves by thermal process - 2. Thermoacoustics effects in combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abugov, D.I.; Obrezkov, O.I.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of a theoretical analysis of thermoacoustic effects observed during combustion, i.e., turbulent flame noise, amplification of acoustic waves by the combustion front, and acoustic instability of combustion in through-flow chambers. Relations are obtained which describe these phenomena. 8 refs.

  6. Methods And Systems For Using Reference Images In Acoustic Image Processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Thomas L.; Barter, Robert Henry

    2005-01-04

    A method and system of examining tissue are provided in which a field, including at least a portion of the tissue and one or more registration fiducials, is insonified. Scattered acoustic information, including both transmitted and reflected waves, is received from the field. A representation of the field, including both the tissue and the registration fiducials, is then derived from the received acoustic radiation.

  7. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  8. NONDESTRUCTIVE EDDY CURRENT TESTING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, C.J. Jr.

    1961-05-23

    An eddy current testing device is described for measuring metal continuity independent of probe-to-sample spacing. An inductance would test probe is made a leg of a variable impedance bridge and the bridge is balanced with the probe away from the sample. An a-c signal is applied across the input terminals of the bridge circuit. As the probe is brought into proximity with the metal sample, the resulting impedance change in the probe gives an output signal from the bridge whose phase angle is proportional to the sample continuity and amplitude is proportional to the probe-tosample spacing. The output signal from the bridge is applied to a compensating network where, responsive to amplitude changes from the bridge output signal, a constant phased voltage output is maintained when the sample is continuous regardless of probe-to-sample spacing. A phase meter calibrated to read changes in resistivity of the metal sample measures the phase shift between the output of the compensating network and the original a-c signal applied to the bridge.

  9. Prufer Transformations for the Normal Modes in Ocean Acoustics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baggeroer, Arthur B.

    2010-09-06

    In 1926 Prufer introduced a method of transforming the second order Sturm-Liouville (SL) equation into two nonlinear first order differential equations for the phase oe and ''magnitude'', |oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}| for a Poincare phase space representation, (oe,oe). The useful property is the phase equation decouples from the magnitude one which leads to a nonlinear, two point boundary value problem for the eigenvalues, or SL numbers. The transformation has been used both theoretically, e.g. Atkinson, [1960] to prove certain properties of SL equations as well as numerically e.g Bailey [1978]. This paper examines the utility of the Prufer transformation in the context of numerical solutions for modes of the ocean acoustic wave equation. (Its use is certainly not well known in the ocean acoustics community.) Equations for the phase, oe, and natural logarithm of the ''magnitude'', ln(|oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}|) lead to same decoupling and a fast and efficient numerical solution with the SL eigenvalues mapping to the horizontal wavenubers. The Prufer transformation has stabilty problems for low order modes at high frequecies, so a numerically stable method of integrating the phase equation is derived. This seems to be the first time the these stability issues have been highlighted to provide a robust algorthim for the modes.

  10. Classification of heart valve condition using acoustic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G.

    1994-11-15

    Prosthetic heart valves and the many great strides in valve design have been responsible for extending the life spans of many people with serious heart conditions. Even though the prosthetic valves are extremely reliable, they are eventually susceptible to long-term fatigue and structural failure effects expected from mechanical devices operating over long periods of time. The purpose of our work is to classify the condition of in vivo Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) heart valves by processing acoustic measurements of heart valve sounds. The structural failures of interest for Bscc valves is called single leg separation (SLS). SLS can occur if the outlet strut cracks and separates from the main structure of the valve. We measure acoustic opening and closing sounds (waveforms) using high sensitivity contact microphones on the patient`s thorax. For our analysis, we focus our processing and classification efforts on the opening sounds because they yield direct information about outlet strut condition with minimal distortion caused by energy radiated from the valve disc.

  11. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, R. S.; Jain, S. L.; Mishra, M. K.

    2011-08-15

    Characteristics of ion-acoustic soliton in dusty plasma, including the dynamics of heavily charged massive dust grains, are investigated following the Sagdeev Potential formalism. Retaining fourth order nonlinearities of electric potential in the expansion of the Sagdeev Potential in the energy equation for a pseudo particle and integrating the resulting energy equation, large amplitude soliton solution is determined. Variation of amplitude (A), half width (W) at half maxima and the product P = AW{sup 2} of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV), dressed and large amplitude soliton as a function of wide range of dust concentration are numerically studied for recently observed parameters of dusty plasmas. We have also presented the region of existence of large amplitude ion-acoustic soliton in the dusty plasma by analyzing the structure of the pseudo potential. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains, system supports only compressive solitons, on the other hand, in the presence of negatively charged dust grains, the system supports compressive solitons up to certain critical concentration of dust grains and above this critical concentration, the system can support rarefactive solitons also. The effects of dust concentration, charge, and mass of the dust grains, on the characteristics of KdV, dressed and large amplitude the soliton, i.e., amplitude (A), half width at half maxima (W), and product of amplitude (A) and half width at half maxima (P = AW{sup 2}), are discussed in detail.

  12. Accuracy of cosmological parameters using the baryon acoustic scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thepsuriya, Kiattisak; Lewis, Antony E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info

    2015-01-01

    Percent-level measurements of the comoving baryon acoustic scale standard ruler can be used to break degeneracies in parameter constraints from the CMB alone. The sound horizon at the epoch of baryon drag is often used as a proxy for the scale of the peak in the matter density correlation function, and can conveniently be calculated quickly for different cosmological models. However, the measurements are not directly constraining this scale, but rather a measurement of the full correlation function, which depends on the detailed evolution through decoupling. We assess the level of reliability of parameter constraints based on a simple approximation of the acoustic scale compared to a more direct determination from the full numerical two-point correlation function. Using a five-parameter fitting technique similar to recent BAO data analyses, we find that for standard ΛCDM models and extensions with massive neutrinos and additional relativistic degrees of freedom, the approximation is at better than 0.15% for most parameter combinations varying over reasonable ranges.

  13. INTERFERENCE FRINGES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES AROUND SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Dean-Yi; Zhao Hui; Yang, Ming-Hsu; Liang, Zhi-Chao

    2012-10-20

    Solar acoustic waves are scattered by a sunspot due to the interaction between the acoustic waves and the sunspot. The sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave. The scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave around the sunspot. The interference fringes between the scattered wave and the incident wave are visible in the intensity of the total wave because the coherent time of the incident wave is of the order of a wave period. The strength of the interference fringes anti-correlates with the width of temporal spectra of the incident wave. The separation between neighboring fringes increases with the incident wavelength and the sunspot size. The strength of the fringes increases with the radial order n of the incident wave from n = 0 to n = 2, and then decreases from n = 2 to n = 5. The interference fringes play a role analogous to holograms in optics. This study suggests the feasibility of using the interference fringes to reconstruct the scattered wavefields of the sunspot, although the quality of the reconstructed wavefields is sensitive to the noise and errors in the interference fringes.

  14. Acoustic Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Hanna, Luke A.; DeChello, Nicole L.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-10-31

    The DeepCwind consortium, led by the University of Maine, was awarded funding under the US Department of Energy’s Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Program to develop two floating offshore wind turbines in the Gulf of Maine equipped with Goldwind 6 MW direct drive turbines, as the Aqua Ventus I project. The Goldwind turbines have a hub height of 100 m. The turbines will be deployed in Maine State waters, approximately 2.9 miles off Monhegan Island; Monhegan Island is located roughly 10 miles off the coast of Maine. In order to site and permit the offshore turbines, the acoustic output must be evaluated to ensure that the sound will not disturb residents on Monhegan Island, nor input sufficient sound levels into the nearby ocean to disturb marine mammals. This initial assessment of the acoustic output focuses on the sound of the turbines in air by modeling the assumed sound source level, applying a sound propagation model, and taking into account the distance from shore.

  15. Existence domains of slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons in two-ion space plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V. Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-03-15

    A study of large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons is conducted for a model composed of cool and hot ions and cool and hot electrons. Using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential formalism, the scope of earlier studies is extended to consider why upper Mach number limitations arise for slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons. Treating all plasma constituents as adiabatic fluids, slow ion-acoustic solitons are limited in the order of increasing cool ion concentrations by the number densities of the cool, and then the hot ions becoming complex valued, followed by positive and then negative potential double layer regions. Only positive potentials are found for fast ion-acoustic solitons which are limited only by the hot ion number density having to remain real valued. The effect of neglecting as opposed to including inertial effects of the hot electrons is found to induce only minor quantitative changes in the existence regions of slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons.

  16. Systems and methods for biometric identification using the acoustic properties of the ear canal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1998-07-28

    The present invention teaches systems and methods for verifying or recognizing a person`s identity based on measurements of the acoustic response of the individual`s ear canal. The system comprises an acoustic emission device, which emits an acoustic source signal s(t), designated by a computer, into the ear canal of an individual, and an acoustic response detection device, which detects the acoustic response signal f(t). A computer digitizes the response (detected) signal f(t) and stores the data. Computer-implemented algorithms analyze the response signal f(t) to produce ear-canal feature data. The ear-canal feature data obtained during enrollment is stored on the computer, or some other recording medium, to compare the enrollment data with ear-canal feature data produced in a subsequent access attempt, to determine if the individual has previously been enrolled. The system can also be adapted for remote access applications. 5 figs.

  17. Systems and methods for biometric identification using the acoustic properties of the ear canal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    1998-01-01

    The present invention teaches systems and methods for verifying or recognizing a person's identity based on measurements of the acoustic response of the individual's ear canal. The system comprises an acoustic emission device, which emits an acoustic source signal s(t), designated by a computer, into the ear canal of an individual, and an acoustic response detection device, which detects the acoustic response signal f(t). A computer digitizes the response (detected) signal f(t) and stores the data. Computer-implemented algorithms analyze the response signal f(t) to produce ear-canal feature data. The ear-canal feature data obtained during enrollment is stored on the computer, or some other recording medium, to compare the enrollment data with ear-canal feature data produced in a subsequent access attempt, to determine if the individual has previously been enrolled. The system can also be adapted for remote access applications.

  18. Acoustic effects at interaction of laser radiation with a liquid accompanied by optical breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulanov, A. V.; Nagorny, I. G.

    2012-09-04

    The experimental researches of acoustic emission from optical breakdown in liquids are presented. Spectral characteristics and power of the acoustic waves generated in a liquid by optical breakdown at interaction of laser radiation with the wavelength of 532 nanometers were studied. It is shown, that two spectral maxima characterizing acoustic emission are observed. The shift of low-frequency maximum depending on the laser energy pulse is observed. As a whole, the linear dependence of acoustic pressure on the energy of laser pulse is observed. It is shown, that using acoustic data it is possible to reproduce function R(t) which will be in accord with characteristic dependences R(t), obtained from optical data. The last is especially important for breakdown studying in opaque environments.

  19. Direct-field acoustic testing of a flight system : logistics, challenges, and results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stasiunas, Eric Carl; Gurule, David Joseph; Babuska, Vit; Skousen, Troy J.

    2010-10-01

    Before a spacecraft can be considered for launch, it must first survive environmental testing that simulates the launch environment. Typically, these simulations include vibration testing performed using an electro-dynamic shaker. For some spacecraft however, acoustic excitation may provide a more severe loading environment than base shaker excitation. Because this was the case for a Sandia Flight System, it was necessary to perform an acoustic test prior to launch in order to verify survival due to an acoustic environment. Typically, acoustic tests are performed in acoustic chambers, but because of scheduling, transportation, and cleanliness concerns, this was not possible. Instead, the test was performed as a direct field acoustic test (DFAT). This type of test consists of surrounding a test article with a wall of speakers and controlling the acoustic input using control microphones placed around the test item, with a closed-loop control system. Obtaining the desired acoustic input environment - proto-flight random noise input with an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 146.7 dB-with this technique presented a challenge due to several factors. An acoustic profile with this high OASPL had not knowingly been obtained using the DFAT technique prior to this test. In addition, the test was performed in a high-bay, where floor space and existing equipment constrained the speaker circle diameter. And finally, the Flight System had to be tested without contamination of the unit, which required a contamination bag enclosure of the test unit. This paper describes in detail the logistics, challenges, and results encountered while performing a high-OASPL, direct-field acoustic test on a contamination-sensitive Flight System in a high-bay environment.

  20. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  1. Oscillatory nonhmic current drive for maintaining a plasma current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method of the invention maintain a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

  2. Oscillatory nonohomic current drive for maintaining a plasma current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are described for maintaining a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

  3. Galvanic currents and hydrogen permeation currents caused by galvanic coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armacanquil, M.E. ); Harasyn, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper reports on galvanic coupling and hydrogen permeation experiments performed in a Devanathan-Stachurski cell to measure simultaneously the galvanic currents and the hydrogen permeation currents in an attempt to determine the extent of hydrogen charging into noble metals as a result of galvanic coupling. Large amounts of hydrogen permeated through the more noble element of the couple. The magnitude of the hydrogen permeation flux varied depending on the galvanic coupling conditions. No simple direct relationship between galvanic currents and hydrogen permeation currents was observed, although large hydrogen permeation currents were usually developed whenever large galvanic currents were established.

  4. Wind flow in the Fraser Valley as measured by a pulsed CO{sub 2} Doppler lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, L.D.; Banta, R.M.; Hardesty, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    The Vancouver, British Columbia metropolitan area, with a population close to 1.5 million people, experiences high levels of tropospheric ozone during the summer months. The transport of pollution, including tropospheric ozone, in the Vancouver area, is influenced by a local land/sea breeze circulation, the valley flows associated with the Lower Fraser River Valley to the east of the city, and the complex terrain to the north and northeast of the city. In July and August of 1993, an experiment was conducted in the Vancouver area to assess the distribution and transport of tropospheric ozone. Wind flow and aerosol measurements were obtained with a pulsed CO(sub 2) Doppler lidar and wind fields and their interactions with the complex terrain were mapped. The combination of Doppler lidar measurements of wind velocity and backscattered signal intensity, obtained simultaneously, will help identify wind flow patterns that enhanced the transport of urban pollution from the city of Vancouver to the Lower Fraser River Valley, and the possible recirculation of these pollutants back into Vancouver.

  5. Frequency-dependent damping in propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Banerjee, D.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2014-07-10

    Propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves are often observed in polar plumes and active region fan loops. The observed periodicities of these waves range from a few minutes to a few tens of minutes and their amplitudes were found to decay rapidly as they travel along the supporting structure. Previously, thermal conduction, compressive viscosity, radiation, density stratification, and area divergence were identified to be some of the causes for change in the slow wave amplitude. Our recent studies indicate that the observed damping in these waves is frequency-dependent. We used imaging data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to study this dependence in detail and for the first time via observations we attempted to deduce a quantitative relation between the damping length and frequency of these oscillations. We developed a new analysis method to obtain this relation. The observed frequency dependence does not seem to agree with the current linear wave theory and it was found that the waves observed in the polar regions show a different dependence from those observed in the on-disk loop structures despite the similarity in their properties.

  6. Overstability of acoustic waves in strongly magnetized anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic shear flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchava, E. S.; Shergelashvili, B. M.; Tevzadze, A. G.; Poedts, S.

    2014-08-15

    We present a linear stability analysis of the perturbation modes in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows with velocity shear and strong magnetic field. Collisionless or weakly collisional plasma is described within the 16-momentum MHD fluid closure model that takes into account not only the effect of pressure anisotropy but also the effect of anisotropic heat fluxes. In this model, the low frequency acoustic wave is revealed into a standard acoustic mode and higher frequency fast thermo-acoustic and lower frequency slow thermo-acoustic waves. It is shown that thermo-acoustic waves become unstable and grow exponentially when the heat flux parameter exceeds some critical value. It seems that velocity shear makes thermo-acoustic waves overstable even at subcritical heat flux parameters. Thus, when the effect of heat fluxes is not profound acoustic waves will grow due to the velocity shear, while at supercritical heat fluxes the flow reveals compressible thermal instability. Anisotropic thermal instability should be also important in astrophysical environments, where it will limit the maximal value of magnetic field that a low density ionized anisotropic flow can sustain.

  7. Experimental and theoretical demonstration of acoustic Bloch oscillations in porous silicon structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazcano, Z.; Arriaga, J.; Aliev, G. N.

    2014-04-21

    We report the theoretical calculations and the experimental demonstration of acoustic Bloch oscillations and Wannier-Stark ladders in linear tilted multilayer structures based on porous silicon. The considered structures consist of layers with constant porosity alternated by layers with a linear gradient in the parameter η=1/v{sub L}{sup 2} along the growth direction in order to tilt the acoustic band gap. The purpose of this gradient is to mimic the tilted electronic miniband structure of a superlattice semiconductor under an external electric field. In this way, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders of equidistant modes are formed and they were experimentally confirmed in the transmission spectrum around 1.2 GHz. Their frequency separation defines the period of the acoustic Bloch oscillations. We fabricated three different structures with the same thicknesses but different values in the η parameter to observe the effect on the period of the Bloch oscillations. We measured the acoustic transmission spectra in the frequency domain, and by using the Fourier transform, we obtained the transmission in the time domain. The transmission spectra of the fabricated samples show acoustic Bloch oscillations with periods of 27, 24, and 19 ns. The experimental results are in good agreement with the transfer matrix calculations. The observed phenomenon is the acoustic counterpart of the well known electronic Bloch oscillations.

  8. Acoustic and electrical properties of Mexican geothermal rock samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contreras, E.A.; King, M.S.

    1984-12-01

    Acoustic compressional and shear-wave velocities have been measured on a suite of ten sandstone samples obtained from wells in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field and on two rock samples from other Mexican geothermal fields. The samples were tested in both their dry and fully brine-saturated states at uniaxial stresses to 15 MPa. Electrical resistivities and associated phase angles have been measured on the same core samples as a function of frequency in the range 10 Hz to 10/sup 5/ Hz under drained conditions at hydrostatic confining stresses to 10 MPa. The electrical properties were measured on samples tested in their fully saturated state, using brines of two different concentrations.

  9. Nonlinear electron acoustic waves in presence of shear magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Manjistha; Khan, Manoranjan; Ghosh, Samiran; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-12-15

    Nonlinear electron acoustic waves are studied in a quasineutral plasma in the presence of a variable magnetic field. The fluid model is used to describe the dynamics of two temperature electron species in a stationary positively charged ion background. Linear analysis of the governing equations manifests dispersion relation of electron magneto sonic wave. Whereas, nonlinear wave dynamics is being investigated by introducing Lagrangian variable method in long wavelength limit. It is shown from finite amplitude analysis that the nonlinear wave characteristics are well depicted by KdV equation. The wave dispersion arising in quasineutral plasma is induced by transverse magnetic field component. The results are discussed in the context of plasma of Earth's magnetosphere.

  10. Existence domains of dust-acoustic solitons and supersolitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2013-08-15

    Using the Sagdeev potential method, the existence of large amplitude dust-acoustic solitons and supersolitons is investigated in a plasma comprising cold negative dust, adiabatic positive dust, Boltzmann electrons, and non-thermal ions. This model supports the existence of positive potential supersolitons in a certain region in parameter space in addition to regular solitons having negative and positive potentials. The lower Mach number limit for supersolitons coincides with the occurrence of double layers whereas the upper limit is imposed by the constraint that the adiabatic positive dust number density must remain real valued. The upper Mach number limits for negative potential (positive potential) solitons coincide with limiting values of the negative (positive) potential for which the negative (positive) dust number density is real valued. Alternatively, the existence of positive potential solitons can terminate when positive potential double layers occur.

  11. Pattern recognition and tomography using crosswell acoustic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, J.N.; Terry, D.A.; Bradley, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the travel time of acoustic signals transmitted between wells at the Department of Energy Multi-Well Experiment site (MWX) near Rifle, Colorado, are processed and analyzed. Interpretations relevant to sand geometry and continuity have proved possible through inspection of the signal travel time plotted against the coordinates of transmitter and receiver wellbore positions, or against the depth of receiver and ray path inclination. The continuity of several sands between wells is corroborated. A major lenticular sand terminating between wells could be inferred. To explore the possible distortions in tomographic images derived from crosswell data, synthetic tomographs are constructed from computed travel times of signals transmitted through idealized models from stratigraphy thought to be present at the MWX site. The synthetic tomographs, although preserving the general character of the model stratigraphy, are distorted enough that detailed interpretations are not possible. Horizontal distortions predominate in reconstructions of flat-lying stratigraphy. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Oceanic ambient noise as a background to acoustic neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurahashi, Naoko; Gratta, Giorgio

    2008-11-01

    Ambient noise measured in the deep ocean is studied in the context of a search for signals from ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray neutrinos. The spectral shape of the noise at the relevant high frequencies is found to be very stable for an extensive data set collected over several months from 49 hydrophones mounted near the bottom of the ocean at {approx}1600 m depth. The slopes of the ambient noise spectra above 15 kHz are found to roll off faster than the -6 dB/octave seen in Knudsen spectra. A model attributing the source to a uniform distribution of surface noise that includes frequency-dependent absorption at large depth is found to fit the data well up to 25 kHz. This depth-dependent model should therefore be used in analysis methods of acoustic neutrino pulse detection that require the expected noise spectra.

  13. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Sensors: Modeling and Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2013-01-01

    We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.

  14. Vorticity Preserving Flux Corrected Transport Scheme for the Acoustic Equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lung, Tyler B.; Roe, Phil; Morgan, Nathaniel R.

    2012-08-15

    Long term research goals are to develop an improved cell-centered Lagrangian Hydro algorithm with the following qualities: 1. Utilizes Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) to achieve second order accuracy with multidimensional physics; 2. Does not rely on the one-dimensional Riemann problem; and 3. Implements a form of vorticity control. Short term research goals are to devise and implement a 2D vorticity preserving FCT solver for the acoustic equations on an Eulerian mesh: 1. Develop a flux limiting mechanism for systems of governing equations with symmetric wave speeds; 2. Verify the vorticity preserving properties of the scheme; and 3. Compare the performance of the scheme to traditional MUSCL-Hancock and other algorithms.

  15. Acoustic Array Development for Wind Turbine Noise Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, S.; Roadman, J.; Moriarty, P.; Palo, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report discusses the design and use of a multi-arm, logarithmic spiral acoustic array by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for measurement and characterization of wind turbine-generated noise. The array was developed in collaboration with a team from the University of Colorado Boulder. This design process is a continuation of the elliptical array design work done by Simley. A description of the array system design process is presented, including array shape design, mechanical design, design of electronics and the data acquisition system, and development of post-processing software. System testing and calibration methods are detailed. Results from the initial data acquisition campaign are offered and discussed. Issues faced during this initial deployment of the array are presented and potential remedies discussed.

  16. Trapping of dust and dust acoustic waves in laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhakara, H.R.; Tanna, V.L. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)

    1996-08-01

    Trapping of negatively charged dust particles is observed in a hot cathode plasma discharge when a layer of dust is exposed to the plasma. The particles are visible in the scattered He{endash}Ne laser light. The trajectories of individual particles have been photographed. The dust particles are excluded from the sheath region of any object in the plasma. The intensity of scattered light as well as the potential on a floating Langmuir probe show coherent fluctuations in the frequency range 1{endash}15 Hz. After several hours of exposure to the plasma, the dust layer develops striations similar to those on sand dunes. Trapping of dust particles by the plasma and the possible identification of the observed low-frequency fluctuations with dust acoustic waves are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

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    Financial Opportunities » Current Opportunities Current Opportunities No funding opportunities available at this time. Solid-State Lighting Home About the Solid-State Lighting Program Research & Development SSL Basics Using LEDs Information Resources Financial Opportunities Current Opportunities DOE Selections Related Opportunities

  19. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale Invariance in the Timing of Ruptures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niccolini, G.; Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Manuello, A.

    2011-03-11

    We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of magnitude scales. This evidence suggests a correlation between the aging process of the temple and the local seismic activity.

  20. Cylindrical and spherical electron acoustic solitary waves with nonextensive hot electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakzad, Hamid Reza

    2011-08-15

    Nonlinear propagation of cylindrical and spherical electron-acoustic solitons in an unmagnetized plasma consisting cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a nonextensive distribution and stationary ions, are investigated. For this purpose, the standard reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the cylindrical/spherical Korteweg-de-Vries equation, which governs the dynamics of electron-acoustic solitons. The effects of nonplanar geometry and nonextensive hot electrons on the behavior of cylindrical and spherical electron acoustic solitons are also studied by numerical simulations.