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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Coordination effect-regulated CO2 capture with an alkali metal onium salts/crown ether system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A coordination effect was employed to realize equimolar CO2 absorption, adopting easily synthesized amino group containing absorbents (alkali metal onium salts). The essence of our strategy was to increase the steric hindrance of cations so as to enhance a carbamic acid pathway for CO2 capture. Our easily synthesized alkali metal amino acid salts or phenolates were coordinated with crown ethers, in which highly sterically hindered cations were obtained through a strong coordination effect of crown ethers with alkali metal cations. For example, a CO2 capacity of 0.99 was attained by potassium prolinate/18-crown-6, being characterized by NMR, FT-IR, and quantum chemistry calculations to go through a carbamic acid formation pathway. The captured CO2 can be stripped under very mild conditions (50 degrees C, N-2). Thus, this protocol offers an alternative for the development of technological innovation towards efficient and low energy processes for carbon capture and sequestration.

Yang, Zhen-Zhen [Nankai University China] [Nankai University China; Jiang, Deen [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhu, Xiang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tian, Chengcheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL] [ORNL; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh [The University of Tennessee] [The University of Tennessee; He, Liang-Nian [Nankai University China] [Nankai University China; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Determination of oxygen in molten alkali halide salts by proton activation analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have recently used a lanthanum fluoride precipitation method to separate /sup 18/F produced from proton activation of /sup 18/O in alkali chloride and fluoride salts. The procedure was developed for studying dissolved oxide species in alkali halide melts. Determination of oxygen in these systems is important for research in batteries and in extractive metallurgy utilizing molten salts as solvents. The details are given oxygen determination in alkali chloride and fluoride systems.

Wai, C.M.; Dysart, M.E.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Transport of Alkali Halides through a Liquid Organic Membrane Containing a Ditopic Salt-Binding Receptor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the solid state as contact ion pairs. Transport experiments, using a supported liquid membrane and high saltTransport of Alkali Halides through a Liquid Organic Membrane Containing a Ditopic Salt and anion receptors. All transport systems exhibit the same qualitative order of ion selectivity; that is

Smith, Bradley D.

4

Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

Moens, L.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

5

Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

Cassano, A.A.

1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

8

Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI)

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

9

Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

12

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

13

Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

15

In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

Wood, Bernard J. (Santa Clara, CA); Brittain, Robert D. (Cupertino, CA); Sancier, Kenneth M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell for acid and alkali production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical-production cell for acid and alkali production Xiuping Accepted 7 March 2013 Available online 15 March 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Reverse electrodialysis Bioenergy A new type of bioelectrochemical system, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis chemical

18

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali salt deposition Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

formation and salt ... Source: Zachariah, Michael R. - Departments of Chemistry & Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota Collection: Chemistry ; Materials Science...

19

Raman Analysis of Perrhenate and Pertechnetate in Alkali Salts and Borosilicate Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium borosilicate glasses containing various concentrations of rhenium or technetium were fabricated, and their vibrational spectra studied using a Raman microscope. Spectra were interpreted with reference to new high resolution measurements of alkali pertechnetates and perrhenates NaReO4, KReO4, NaTcO4, and KTcO4. At low concentrations of ReO4- or TcO4-, glass spectra show weak peaks superimposed on a dominant spectrum of glass characteristic of silicate and borate network vibrations. At high concentrations, sharp peaks characteristic of crystal field splitting and C4h symmetry dominate the spectra of glasses, indicating alkali nearby tetrahedral Re or Tc. Often peaks indicative of both the K and Na pertechnetates/ perrhenates are evident in the Raman spectrum, with the latter being favored at high additions of the source chemical, since Na is more prevalent in the glass and ion exchange takes place. These results have significance to immobilization of nuclear waste containing radioactive 99Tc in glass for ultimate disposal.

Gassman, Paul L.; McCloy, John S.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schweiger, Michael J.

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

20

Corrosion resistance of stainless steels during thermal cycling in alkali nitrate molten salts.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The corrosion behavior of three austenitic stainless steels was evaluated during thermal cycling in molten salt mixtures consisting of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3}. Corrosion tests were conducted with Types 316, 316L and 304 stainless steels for more than 4000 hours and 500 thermal cycles at a maximum temperature of 565 C. Corrosion rates were determined by chemically descaling coupons. Metal losses ranged from 5 to 16 microns and thermal cycling resulted in moderately higher corrosion rates compared to isothermal conditions. Type 316 SS was somewhat more corrosion resistant than Type 304 SS in these tests. The effect of carbon content on corrosion resistance was small, as 316L SS corroded only slightly slower than 316 SS. The corrosion rates increased as the dissolved chloride content of the molten salt mixtures increased. Chloride concentrations approximating 1 wt.%, coupled with thermal cycling, resulted in linear weight loss kinetics, rather than parabolic kinetics, which described corrosion rates for all other conditions. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis revealed that the corrosion products consisted of iron-chromium spinel, magnetite, and sodium ferrite, organized as separate layers. Microanalysis of the elemental composition of the corrosion products further demonstrated that the chromium content of the iron-chromium spinel layer was relatively high for conditions in which parabolic kinetics were observed. However, linear kinetics were observed when the spinel layer contained relatively little chromium.

Bradshaw, Robert W.; Goods, Steven Howard

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

22

Alkali salt ash formation during black liquor combustion at kraft recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recovery boiler is an essential part of paper pulping process, where waste sludge called black liquor is burned for chemical recovery and energy production. This study was carried out at an operating industrial recovery boiler in Finland. Measurement of aerosol particles was carried out at bullnose level of furnace, at boiler exit, and at outlet of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Aerosol mass size distributions in size range 0.02--50 {micro}m were measured with Berner type low pressure impactor (BLPI) operated with precyclone. BLPI samples were further analyzed with ion chromatography for water soluble Na, K, SO{sub 4}, and Cl. Particle morphology was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase composition of crystalline salts was measured with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particles larger than 1 {micro}m were analyzed with computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) to derive particle composition classes. At ESP inlet mass size distribution was bimodal with a major mode at about 1.2 {micro}m and a minor mode at about 5 {micro}m (aerodynamic diameter). At ESP outlet the mass size distribution showed only one peak at about 1.2 {micro}m. Both submicron and supermicron particles were agglomerates formed from 0.3 to 0.5 {micro}m spherical primary particles. XRD analyses indicated that particles were crystalline with two phases of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (thenardite and sodium sulphate) and K{sub 3}Na(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. CCSEM results of individual particles larger than 1 {micro}m showed that 79 to 88 volume percent of particles contained mainly Na and S, 7 to 10 volume percent Na, K, and S with minor amount of particles containing Na, S, and Ca.

Mikkanen, P. Kauppinen, E.I.; Pyykoenen, J.; Jokiniemi, J.K. [VTT (Finland); Maekinen, M. [Finnish Meterological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

E-Print Network 3.0 - acids lead salts Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ammonium...

24

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid ammonium salt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ammonium...

25

Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

26

Direct conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the fermentation conversion. In this case, fermentation broth contains ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium acetate, propionate, butyrate, pentanoate). Therefore, the downstream processing steps (including extraction, purification, esterification, and product... separation) must be compatible with the ammonium carboxylate salts formed in the fermentation. This research focuses on converting fermentation broth carboxylate salts into their corresponding acids via “acid springing.” Reactive extraction and thermal...

Xu, Xin

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

27

New method to minimize high-temperature corrosion resulting from alkali sulfate and chloride deposition in combustion systems. II. molybdenum salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of fuels other than natural gas in gas turbine generators still is fraught with blade corrosion problems that result from the formation of sodium sulfate or potassium sulfate, in the presence of chlorine. The present work illustrates that the addition of molybdenum salts to synthetic fuels (synfuels) modifies this deposition process and benign protective coatings of alkali polymolybdates are produced instead. This study is a follow-up to research published earlier in this journal that showed closely similar behavior with tungsten salt additives. In the case of molybdenum, a new preferential ranking of product formation on the surface is established that is closely related to the thermodynamic stabilities, namely, Na{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} {gt} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {gt} Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} {gt} NaCl and K{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}O{sub 13} {gt} K{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 10} {gt} K{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 7} {gt} K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {gt} K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} {gt} KCl. This chemistry exists under fuel-lean conditions and is otherwise not sensitive to the fuel, combustion conditions, surface temperature, or material. The required additive trace levels of molybdenum salt are on the order of twice that of the gaseous alkali, on an atomic basis. Consequently, when used as a final pre-gas turbine polishing technique and following other fuel precleaning methods, the approach offers a very practical and inexpensive solution. 63 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Keith Schofield [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Materials Research Laboratory

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

acid salt solutions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

29

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - acids xxiv alkali Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Group 1-A Group 1-B Acetylene sludge Acid sludge Alkaline caustic liquids Acid and water Alkaline... ... Source: Prentiss, Mara - Department of Physics,...

31

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

acid based alkali-free: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

unknown authors 340 Separation of Vitamin B2 and B12 by Impregnate HPTLC Plates with Boric Acid CiteSeer Summary: AbstractA high performance thin layer chromatography system...

33

acid sodium salt: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

34

acid zinc salt: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

35

acid sodium salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

36

acid trisodium salt: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

37

acid disodium salt: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

38

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass used in this study . . . 1-2 Approxitnate annual production and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1 Concentration... fermentation broth derived trom various wastes. Table 1-4 describes the studies performed for each fermentation broth, as well as reagent-grade chemicals. Table 1-3. Names used for biomass feedstocks. Sample Name MSW1 MSW2 MSW3 MSW4 MSWS PF/Biol PF...

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

39

Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio#  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of high acidity are observed in production of petroleum reserves. Naphthenic acids, which are generally experimental results on naphthenic acid/ naphthenate stabilized emulsions utilizing several model compounds

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

40

Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy storage applications Donghyun Shin, Debjyoti Banerjee for the anoma- lous enhancement of thermal conductivity over that of the neat solvent. Eastman et al. [5] reported thermal conductivity enhance- ment of 30% and 60% for water based nanofluids of Al2O3 and Cu

Banerjee, Debjyoti

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Lin, Yuehe (Moscow, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

43

Influence of admixtures of free naphthenic acids in zinc and cadmium salts on their activity in catalytic oxidation of isopropylbenzene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is confirmed that free naphthenic acids have a weak promoting effect on compounds of constant-valence metals. Free naphthenic acids have an activating effect only when present in 1.5-fold excess relative to the concentration of zinc or cadmium salt. The difference in catalytic activity of the naphthenates studied is due to the difference in the complex-forming properties of their cations.

Kozlov, S.K.; Potekhin, V.M.

1986-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

44

The results of HLW processing using zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Zirconium salt of dibutyl-phosphoric acid (ZS HDBP) dissolved in a diluent, is a promising solvent for liquid HLW processing. The investigations carried out earlier showed that ZS HDBP can recover a series of radionuclides (TPE, RE, U, Pu, Np, Sr) and some other elements (Mo, Ca, Fe) from aqueous solutions. The possibility of TPE and RE effective recovery and separation into appropriate fractions with high purification from each other was demonstrated as well. The results of extraction tests in the mixer-settlers in the course of liquid HLW treatment in hot cells, using ZS HDBP (0.4 M HDBP and 0.044 M Zr) dissolved in 30% TBP are presented. 30 liters of the feed solution containing TPE, RE, Sr and Cs with the total specific activity of 520 MBq/L and acidity of 2 M HNO{sub 3} were processed using the two-cycle flowsheet. TPE and RE recovery with subsequent stripping was realized in the first cycle, while Sr was recovered and concentrated in the second cycle. Raffinate of the latter contained almost all Cs. The degree of TPE and RE recovery was 104, and that of Sr was {approx}10. Decontamination factor of TPE and RE from Cs and Sr was 104, and that of Sr from TPE and Cs was 103. So, ZS HDBP can be used for separation of long-lived radionuclides from HLW with respect to radio-toxic category of the process products. (authors)

Fedorov, Yury; Zilberman, Boris; Shmidt, Olga; Saprikin, Vladimir; Ryasantsev, Valery [V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 194021, 28, 2nd Murinsky pr., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Methods of recovering alkali metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

46

Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

47

Low temperature oxidation using support molten salt catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molten salt reactions are performed by supporting the molten salt on a particulate support and forming a fluidized bed of the supported salt particles. The method is particularly suitable for combusting hydrocarbon fuels at reduced temperatures, so that the formation NO.sub.x species is reduced. When certain preferred salts are used, such as alkali metal carbonates, sulfur and halide species can be captured by the molten salt, thereby reducing SO.sub.x and HCl emissions.

Weimer, Alan W.; Czerpak, Peter J.; Hilbert, Patrick M.

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid monosodium salt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

per kg of premix: phosphorus... Alters Amino Acid, but Not Glucose, Metabolism by the Sheep Gastrointestinal Tract1,2 Samer W. El... , MD 20705 ABSTRACT This study was intended...

49

Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Direct Sulfonation of Methane to Methanesulfonic Acid with SO2 Using Ca Salts as Promoters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that CaCl2 can be employed as an initiator for the carbonylation of methane in trifluoroacetic acid minimally effective in promoting the formation of MSA, as compared to CaCl2 (Table 1, entries 1 is completely inactive, and CaBr2 and CaI2 are significantly less effective than CaCl2. Ca(OCl)2 and Ca(CF3COO)2

Bell, Alexis T.

51

Selective Solid-Liquid Extraction of Lithium Halide Salts Using a Ditopic Macrobicyclic Receptor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane and membrane transport, almost all reported efforts have focused on the transfer of lithium salts from this by binding the salts as contact ion pairs. Receptor 1 can also transport alkali metal halide salts out

Smith, Bradley D.

52

Salt Effect Model for Aqueous Solubility of TBP in a 5 to 100% TBP/n-Dodecane-Nitric Acid-Water Biphasic System at 298.2 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubilities of nonelectrolytes in aqueous electrolyte solutions have traditionally been modeled by using the Setschenow equation for salt effect. The aqueous solubility of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) during operating conditions of the Purex process is an important parameter for safety considerations. Use of the Setschenow equation for aqueous solubility of TBP under limited conditions has been reported in the literature. However, there is no general model available to account for the presence of the diluent and for the case of multicomponent electrolyte solutions in which only some electrolytes are solvated and extracted by TBP. An extended salt effect model is proposed for predicting the aqueous solubility of TBP in a 5 to 100% TBP/n-dodecane-nitric acid-water biphasic system at 298.2 K. The literature data on TBP solubility were correlated to aqueous acid concentration, diluent concentration in the solvents, and an interaction parameter for electrolytic solutes (extracted or not extracted by TBP)

Kumar, Shekhar; Koganti, Sudhir Babu [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (India)

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Purification of alkali metal nitrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Gregory, Kevin M. (Woodridge, IL)

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

54

Upgrading platform using alkali metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

Gordon, John Howard

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

55

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt...

56

Raman Analysis of Perrhenate and Pertechnetate in Alkali Salts...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at high additions of the source chemical, since Na is more prevalent in the glass and ion exchange takes place. These results have significance to immobilization of nuclear...

57

Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

alkali metal salt: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of each system, these reports can facilitate the evaluation of effective means of pollution control by those involved in metal finishing wastewater pollution control....

59

alkali metal salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of each system, these reports can facilitate the evaluation of effective means of pollution control by those involved in metal finishing wastewater pollution control....

60

Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lisic, Edward C. (Cookeville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Callahan, Alvin P. (Harriman, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lisic, Edward C. (Cookeville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Callahan, Alvin P. (Harriman, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

63

Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A generator system has been invented for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form. 1 figure.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

64

Chemical Name Container size Cabinet Level # of containers (Ethylenedinitrilo) tetraacetic acid, disodium salt 500g 2 B 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acetaldehyde 250g 6 A 2 Acetyl acetone 4 fl. Oz 6 A 5 Acid oxalic, crystal 1lbs 2 E 1 Acrolein 25ml 6 A 1

Capecchi, Mario R.

65

Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

Lee, S.H.D.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

66

Diamond films treated with alkali-halides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A secondary electron emitter is provided and includes a substrate with a diamond film, the diamond film is treated or coated with an alkali-halide. 5 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.W.

1997-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

67

Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

68

Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

Norton, G.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

70

Elemental and isotopic analysis of inorganic salts by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry is applied for the analysis of elements as well as their isotopic composition in different inorganic salts. At very low laser energies the inorganic ions are desorbed and ionized from the thin layer of the sample surface. The naturally occurring isotopes of alkali and silver ions are resolved using time of flight mass spectrometer. Further increase in laser energy shows the appearance of Al, Cr, and Fe ions in the mass spectra. This indicates the penetration laser beam beyond the sample surface leading to the ablation of sample target at higher energies. The simultaneous appearance of atomic ions from the sample target at relatively higher laser energies hampers the unambiguous identification of amino acid residues from the biomolecular ions in MALDI-MS.

Jayasekharan, T.; Sahoo, N. K. [Applied Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

71

Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

Bernal, Susan A., E-mail: s.bernal@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Gehman, John D. [School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)] [School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia) [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Duxson, Peter [Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia)] [Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia); Deventer, Jannie S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 (Australia)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

alkali-metal difluorodioxoperoxouranatevi monohydrates: Topics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NMR to explosives detec- tion and fundamental Romalis, Mike 2 Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with Alkali-Metal Vapors Physics Websites Summary: Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with...

73

Fate of alkalis in coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of these measurements and experiments provide a plausible way to begin an explanation for the distribution of alkali in the ash particulates. To summarize: (1) under typical coal combustion conditions in an atmosphere rich in CO/sub 2/ and/or SO/sub 2/, the alkalis in the organic fraction do not vaporize but remain bound in the ash as stable carbonates or sulfates; (2) the alkalis in the inorganic fraction diffuse to the surface producing enrichment by a factor of about 13 to a depth of about 100A. The results, however, do not provide conclusive evidence about the fate of the alkalis. The effect of water vapor in the combustion stream has not yet been studied. Clearly, water could have an important effect on the vaporization process. Furthermore, the reasoning we have followed to explain the absence of alkali enrichment in the submicron particles requires that the volatilization of the alkalis in both the organic and inorganic fraction not be significant (say less than 20%).

Stewart, G.W. (Aerodyne Research, Inc., Bedford, MA); Stinespring, C.D.; Davidovits, P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Selection of non-adsorbing alkali components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project consists of three phases of laboratory experimental study. In phase I (screening), eight candidate materials, 304SS (serves as a base material for comparison), Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy X, Haynes No. 188, Allonized 304SS, Pt-coated 304SS, and ceramic-coated 304SS, will be subjected to atmospheric TGA study under the simulated PFBC (oxidizing) environment with and without alkali vapor doping. Each candidate material will be evaluated for its resistance toward alkali-vapor capture. In addition, a post-test metallographic characterization of the sample will be performed to obtain a better understanding of the alkali capture mechanism and material behavior. The material(s) with little or no alkali-vapor adsorption will be selected as the promising material(s) for the Phase II study. In Phase II, the promising material(s) will be further tested in the TGA under elevated pressure to simulate the PFBC environment (in terms of temperature, pressure, and gas composition). The effect of pressure on the extent of alkali-vapor adsorption will be evaluated, and the test samples will be metallographically characterized. The most promising candidate material(s) will be identified and recommended for further tesfing in the actual PFBC environment. In Phase III, four materials will be selected from the eight candidate materials screened in the PFBC environment and will be evaluated for their alkali-vapor capture by atmospheric TGA under the coal gasification fuel gas (reducing) environment. The tested samples will also be metallographically characterized. The most promising material(s) will be identified and recommended for further testing in the actual coal gasification environment.

Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Selection of non-adsorbing alkali components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project consists of three phases of laboratory experimental study. In phase I (screening), eight candidate materials, 304SS (serves as a base material for comparison), Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy X, Haynes No. 188, Allonized 304SS, Pt-coated 304SS, and ceramic-coated 304SS, will be subjected to atmospheric TGA study under the simulated PFBC (oxidizing) environment with and without alkali vapor doping. Each candidate material will be evaluated for its resistance toward alkali-vapor capture. In addition, a post-test metallographic characterization of the sample will be performed to obtain a better understanding of the alkali capture mechanism and material behavior. The material(s) with little or no alkali-vapor adsorption will be selected as the promising material(s) for the Phase II study. In Phase II, the promising material(s) will be further tested in the TGA under elevated pressure to simulate the PFBC environment (in terms of temperature, pressure, and gas composition). The effect of pressure on the extent of alkali-vapor adsorption will be evaluated, and the test samples will be metallographically characterized. The most promising candidate material(s) will be identified and recommended for further tesfing in the actual PFBC environment. In Phase III, four materials will be selected from the eight candidate materials screened in the PFBC environment and will be evaluated for their alkali-vapor capture by atmospheric TGA under the coal gasification fuel gas (reducing) environment. The tested samples will also be metallographically characterized. The most promising material(s) will be identified and recommended for further testing in the actual coal gasification environment.

Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete containing high-alkali cement and granite aggregate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses results of the research into the influence of high-alkali Portland cement on granite aggregate. The deformation of the concrete structure occurred after 18 months. The research was carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high-energy dispersive X-ray analyzer that allowed observation of unpolished sections of concrete bars exhibiting the cracking pattern typical of the alkali-silica reaction. Both the microscopic observation and the X-ray elemental analysis confirm the presence of alkali-silica gel and secondary ettringite in the cracks.

Owsiak, Z

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

78

Molten alkali-alcohol and molten alkali treatment of lignite; A comparative study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of the Tun cedilla c bilek lignite is increased up to 100% on daf basis, after molten alkali-benzhydrol treatment. Meanwhile its oxygen, sulphur and ash-content are decreased considerably. Similar results are also obtained by simple molten alkali treatment of lignite, although the oxygen content was increased in the product. A reductive cleavage mechanism for the former but an oxydative cleavage mechanism for the latter process are suggested.

Balcioglu, N. (Dept. of Chemistry, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (TR)); Yilmaz, M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Selcuk Univ., Konya (TR))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX); Clavenna, LeRoy R. (Baytown, TX); Gorbaty, Martin L. (Fanwood, NJ); Tsou, Joe M. (Galveston, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Salt Waste Processing Initiatives  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1 Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One approach to fission power system design uses alkali metal heat pipes for the core primary heat-transfer system. Heat pipes may also be used as radiator elements or auxiliary thermal control elements. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where information that is more detailed can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstration purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Nasa Project Prometheus point designs. (author)

Reid, Robert S. [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid rain compliance Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produces salt and water. 2. Acid rain... is rain that is slightly acidic due to pollution in the air. Acid rain greatly affects the ecosystems... is acid ... Source:...

83

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic potassium permanganate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

State University General Guidelines Summary: acid Aminoalkanoic acids with 6 or fewer carbon atoms and the ammonium, sodium and potassium salts... of these acids. Amino acids...

84

Sorption of carboxylic acid from carboxylic salt solutions at pHs close to or above the pK[sub a] of the acid, with regeneration with an aqueous solution of ammonia or low-molecular-weight alkylamine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks at pHs close to or above the acids' pH[sub a] into a strongly basic organic liquid phase or onto a basic solid adsorbent or moderately basic ion exchange resin. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine or ammonia thus forming an alkylammonium or ammonium carboxylate which dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine or ammonia. 8 figs.

King, C.J.; Tung, L.A.

1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

85

Low temperature pyrolysis of black liquor and polymerization of products in alkali aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure pyrolysis for the production of liquids and gases from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate have been carried out in a little stainless steel tube. Yields, sum of liquid and gas products, from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate were 44.7%, 52.0% and 59.1% of dry basis respectively. The precipitates obtained from black liquor by acidifying with hydrochloric acid and passing carbon dioxide have been polymerized in aqueous acetone containing formaldehyde and ammonia, and converted a polymeric resin.

Demirbas, A. (Dept. of Chemical Education, Karadeniz Teknik Univ., Trabzon (TR)); Ucan, H. (Dept. of Chemistry, Selcuk Univ., Konya (TR))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950°C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from lwr fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl.sub.2 and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl.sub.2 having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO.sub.2. The Ca metal and CaCl.sub.2 is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including Mg Cl.sub.2 to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy.

Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl[sub 2] and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750 C to about 850 C to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl[sub 2] having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO[sub 2]. The Ca metal and CaCl[sub 2] is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including MgCl[sub 2] to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy. 2 figs.

Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.

1992-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

89

Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal picrates Sample Search Results  

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layers of alkali metals. 1. Introduction Optical... and Cu 6 by Chen et al. The adsorption of alkali atoms on transition metals is of great importance... . Secondharmonic...

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-aggregate reactions strengthening...  

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Durability Issues K.W. Neale1 Summary: conducted on the FRP rehabilitation of concrete beams suffering from alkali aggregate reaction damage... to alkali aggregate reactions. FRP...

92

Studies of non-proportionality in alkali halide and strontium iodide scintillators using SLYNCI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Alkali Halide and Strontium Iodide Scintillators Usingof europium doping level in strontium iodide. Directions offor several alkali halides, strontium iodide, and lanthanum

Ahle, Larry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali halide crystals Sample Search Results  

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STUDIES IN ALKALI HALIDES Summary: of the alkali halides (KC1) the introduction of vacancies by thermal quenching of unirra- diated crystals has... ANNIHILATION STUDIES IN...

94

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali chloride ternary Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

has been detected in alkali fluorides... that luminescence from alkali halides excited by ionizing radiation at low temperatures occurs through Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre...

95

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal hydrides Sample Search Results  

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Hf for selected alkali metal hydrides, alkaline earth metal hydrides, transition metal hydrides... of binary hydrides based on alkali metals, alkaline earth ... Source:...

96

Dual alkali approaches for the capture and separation of CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solvay process utilizes two alkalis in sequential order to convert CO{sub 2} to sodium carbonate for commercial use. The ability to transform CO{sub 2} into sodium carbonate cost-effectively would be a breakthrough in CO{sub 2} sequestration by providing benign long-term storage of CO{sub 2}. However, the Solvay process was not designed for CO{sub 2} sequestration and is not practical for use in the sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants. This paper investigates methods to modify the process in order to make it effective for the control of power plant CO{sub 2} emissions. The new modified process, called the Dual Alkali Approach, attempts to replace either or both bases, ammonia and lime, in the Solvay process with other compounds to make CO{sub 2} capture and separation efficient. Ammonia was replaced with different amines in aqueous solutions of salts and it was found that bicarbonate precipitation did occur. A method to regenerate the amine in the second step has not been implemented. However, the second step in Solvay Process has been implemented without using lime, namely, ammonia has been regenerated from an ammonium chloride solution using activated carbon. The HCl adsorbed in the activated carbon was removed by water to regenerate the activated carbon.

Huang, H.P.; Shi, Y.; Li, W.; Chang, S.G.

2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

97

Amphiphilic Maleic Acid-Containing Alternating Copolymers--2. Dilute Solution Characterization by Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polyelectrolyte. The copolymer of maleic acid­sodium salt and di-isobutylene (DIBMA-Na) has a similar salting

Colby, Ralph H.

98

Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

Siemer, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 12N 3167E, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Interactions of simulated high level waste (HLW) calcine with alkali borosilicate glass. S. Morgan, R. J. Hand, N. C. Hyatt and W. E. Lee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interactions of simulated high level waste (HLW) calcine with alkali borosilicate glass. S. Morgan, Mappin St, Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK ABSTRACT This study looks at the interactions between simulated calcined and a solution of lithium nitrate. The addition of sucrose reacts with the free nitric acid in the system

Sheffield, University of

100

alkali treated wheat: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is predicted in alkali metal clusters where it is represented by Ipi2- low-energy excitations of valence electrons with strong M2 transitions to the ground state. We...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

CHARGE TRANSFER BETWEEN POSITIVE ALKALI IONS AND ATOMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

average velocity of atoms , ::. : . . :. . in the oven. Thisfor a potassium ", . atom beam operating under conditionsPOSITIVE ALKALI IONS AND ATOMS I W. R. Gentry, Yuan-tseh L e

Gentry, W.R.; Lee, Yuan-tseh; Mahan, Bruce H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

alkali metal chlorides: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NMR to explosives detec- tion and fundamental Romalis, Mike 2 Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with Alkali-Metal Vapors Physics Websites Summary: Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with...

103

alkali metal chloride: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NMR to explosives detec- tion and fundamental Romalis, Mike 2 Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with Alkali-Metal Vapors Physics Websites Summary: Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with...

104

alkali metal ion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(more) Pramitha,V 2010-01-01 88 Ab initio prediction of thermodynamics in alkali metal-air batteries . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Electric vehicles ("EVs")...

105

alkali metal ions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(more) Pramitha,V 2010-01-01 88 Ab initio prediction of thermodynamics in alkali metal-air batteries . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Electric vehicles ("EVs")...

106

alkali silicate glasses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with two laser beams. In this regime, the two-photon detuning from the Raman resonance controls Yavuz, Deniz 412 1262 J. Phys. Chem. 1984, 88, 1262-1268 Alkali Oxides. Analysis...

107

alkali phosphate glasses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with two laser beams. In this regime, the two-photon detuning from the Raman resonance controls Yavuz, Deniz 242 1262 J. Phys. Chem. 1984, 88, 1262-1268 Alkali Oxides. Analysis...

108

alkali tellurite glasses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with two laser beams. In this regime, the two-photon detuning from the Raman resonance controls Yavuz, Deniz 196 1262 J. Phys. Chem. 1984, 88, 1262-1268 Alkali Oxides. Analysis...

109

alkali halides calorimetro: Topics by E-print Network  

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are considered. We predict the major alkali and halogen species in a Pele-like volcanic gas and the major alklai and halogen condensates. We also model disequilibrium chemistry...

110

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali vaporisation titandioxidadditiv...  

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PARTICULATES 4.2.2004 5-1 Chapter 5 Particulates Summary: hundred degrees lower than for coal in order to avoid loss of alkali by vaporisation. Typical values... , aluminum and...

111

Membrane Cells in Chlor Alkali Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cannot reject have to be very low, e.g., Ca/Mg contamination in the chloralkali cells are originated fwm salt (e.g., Ca, Mg, S04, AI, I), water and the used hardware. To prevent the electrolysis from any impurities... t:xisting transformerlrectifier Maximum reuse of the existing systems, e.g. the brine system Minimum space requirement Mininlllin proJuction loss during conversions Low investment costs for: ? Electrolyzer bypass switches ? BusbaIs ? Cell...

Lesker, K.

112

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

Erickson, D.C.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

113

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

114

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

115

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The reaction dynamics of alkali dimer molecules and electronically excited alkali atoms with simple molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation presents the results from the crossed molecular beam studies on the dynamics of bimolecular collisions in the gas phase. The primary subjects include the interactions of alkali dimer molecules with simple molecules, and the inelastic scattering of electronically excited alkali atoms with O{sub 2}. The reaction of the sodium dimers with oxygen molecules is described in Chapter 2. Two reaction pathways were observed for this four-center molecule-molecule reaction, i.e. the formations of NaO{sub 2} + Na and NaO + NaO. NaO{sub 2} products exhibit a very anisotropic angular distribution, indicating a direct spectator stripping mechanism for this reaction channel. The NaO formation follows the bond breaking of O{sub 2}, which is likely a result of a charge transfer from Na{sub 2} to the excited state orbital of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}. The scattering of sodium dimers from ammonium and methanol produced novel molecules, NaNH{sub 3} and Na(CH{sub 3}OH), respectively. These experimental observations, as well as the discussions on the reaction dynamics and the chemical bonding within these molecules, will be presented in Chapter 3. The lower limits for the bond dissociation energies of these molecules are also obtained. Finally, Chapter 4 describes the energy transfer between oxygen molecules and electronically excited sodium atoms.

Hou, H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Amine salts of nitroazoles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal iodogallates Sample Search...  

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to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

119

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal astatides Sample Search Results  

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to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal 2-aminonicotinates Sample...  

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to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

122

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal thermal-to-electric Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

123

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal perrhenate Sample Search Results  

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to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal diphenylamide Sample Search...  

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to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals analiz Sample Search Results  

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to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

126

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal isotopes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

127

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals sintez Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

128

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal intercalates Sample Search...  

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<< < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Work functions of pristine and alkali-metal intercalated carbon nanotubes and bundles Jijun Zhao,1, Summary: Work functions of pristine and alkali-metal...

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal alkaline Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with alkali-metals 9, loi, alkaline earth metals l,18 and some of other rare-earth elements 19, 20 have... alkali metals were doped into C60 solids 9 and...

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkalies Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: the results of a laboratory investigation for the use of high-volume clean-coal ash on mitigating alkali... alkali-silica reaction of the blends was determined...

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali substitutes technical Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on Fly Ash... the results of a laboratory investigation for the use of high-volume clean-coal ash on mitigating alkali... alkali-silica reaction of the blends was determined...

132

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: the results of a laboratory investigation for the use of high-volume clean-coal ash on mitigating alkali... alkali-silica reaction of the blends was determined...

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkalis tuhkan muuntuminen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: the results of a laboratory investigation for the use of high-volume clean-coal ash on mitigating alkali... alkali-silica reaction of the blends was determined...

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali pre-treatments producao Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: the results of a laboratory investigation for the use of high-volume clean-coal ash on mitigating alkali... alkali-silica reaction of the blends was determined...

135

Process and apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process for producing low cost, high purity solar grade Si wherein a reduction reaction, preferably the reduction of SiF.sub.4, by an alkali metal (Na preferred) is carried out inside a reaction chamber. The chamber wall and bottom surfaces are configured so as to facilitate the continuous separation of the products of reaction (Si and NaF) and removal of the molten salt by discharging the salt through one or more ports at the bottom of the reaction chamber. Such process is especially useful where it is desirable to discharge the reaction salt products from the reactor and retain silicon within the chamber for later removal.

Nanis, Leonard (Palo Alto, CA); Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA)

1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

Spin polarizations of photoelectrons emitted by alkali atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 55 LXS f OF %BURRS 1 Tso-photon ionization of an ~ atom. ~ . ~ ~ . . ~ ~, ~ 2 ihe photoelectron and the incident radiation. . . . . . ~ 3. ')he transitions fram the ground state substates of an alkali sterne...O and Qe2e ~ ~ ~ Ground state substate populations oi' the alkali atoms f' or &"/& -5o. I"p'- 0'4 ~ Ip? - 'fo ~ X" -0. 0~ 0. 2. . e. ee ~ e ~ e ~ ~ ~ . ~ e ~ e. eee ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t Spin polaris. zations of the photoelectrons forX. /X. 50e (p? ~10 Vo t 7...

Stuart, Kenneth Charles

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

Gordon, John Howard

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

138

Magnetic polarizations of electrons at dislocations in alkali halides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interval. 25 NAGNETIC POLARIZATIONS OF ELECTRONS AT DISLOCATIONS IN ALKALI HALIDES 1. INTRODUCTION. The new magnetic effects observed in our laboratory on a number of single crystals of alkali halides are thought to be caused by electrons trapped... on d1slocations. The magnet1c properties are perhaps more interesting as a bas1c contribution to the sc1ence of magnetism than to a knowledge of d. islocations 1n these very pure, optically clear, s1ngle crystals of alkal1 halides. The gross magnet...

McClurg, Gene Roark

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali activated slag Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Databases and Resources ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Geosciences 16 DATABASE FOR PREMATURE CONCRETE DETERIORATION Summary: -4085: Preventing Alkali-Silica...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-metal atoms li Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

93 Educational Multiwavelength Atomic Emission Spectrometer Summary: detector; Fiber optics; Alkali metals; Alkaline earth metals; Flame spectroscopy; Chemical education....

142

Fundamental Properties of Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid ammonium glycyrrhizate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquids, chlorates, nitrites, sulfur, finely... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... Ammonium...

144

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic transition metals Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquids, chlorates, nitrites, sulfur, finely... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... , copper,...

145

Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed there between. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants there through at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed there between. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal there between. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal. 4 figs.

Elkins, P.E.; Bell, J.E.; Harlow, R.A.; Chase, G.G.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

alkali earth metal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alkali earth metal First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Efficient qubit detection using...

147

alkali earth metals: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alkali earth metals First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Efficient qubit detection using...

148

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

377 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS H. STRUNK Max'importance croissante du durcissement de la solution solide. Abstract. 2014 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM Abstracts 7j66 - 7 I' 1. Introduction. - It is only some years ago that transmission electron microscopy

Boyer, Edmond

149

Core repulsion e ects in alkali trimers R. Gu erout  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.e. molecules exhibiting a permanent electric dipole moment). Elementary chemical reactions at very low separation, involved when the potential energy surfaces of alkali trimers are calculated with a quantum-parity violation [10, 11, 12], and the time-independence of the electron- to-nuclear and nuclear-to-nuclear mass

Recanati, Catherine

150

Gas releases from salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Radiolysis of Salts and Long-Term Storage Issues for Both Pure and Impure PuO{sub 2} Materials in Plutonium Storage Containers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) project sponsored a literature search on the effects of radiation on salts, with focus on alkali chlorides. The goal of the survey was to provide a basis for estimating the magnitude of {alpha} radiation effects on alkali chlorides that can accompany plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) into storage. Chloride radiolysis can yield potentially corrosive gases in plutonium storage containers that can adversely affect long-term stability. This literature search was primarily done to provide a tutorial on this topic, especially for personnel with nonradiation chemistry backgrounds.

Lav Tandon

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Ammoniated salt heat pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat.

Haas, W.R.; Jaeger, F.J.; Giordano, T.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Actinide removal from spent salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The unexpected properties of alkali metal iron selenide superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The iron-based superconductors that contain FeAs layers as the fundamental building block in the crystal structures have been rationalized in the past using ideas based on the Fermi surface nesting of hole and electron pockets when in the presence of weak Hubbard U interactions. This approach seemed appropriate considering the small values of the magnetic moments in the parent compounds and the clear evidence based on photoemission experiments of the required electron and hole pockets. However, recent results in the context of alkali metal iron selenides, with generic chemical composition AxFe2ySe2 (A alkali metal element), have challenged those previous ideas since at particular compositions y the low-temperature ground states are insulating and display antiferromagnetic order with large iron magnetic moments. Moreover, angle-resolved photoemission studies have revealed the absence of hole pockets at the Fermi level in these materials. The present status of this exciting area of research, with the potential to alter conceptually our understanding of the ironbased superconductors, is here reviewed, covering both experimental and theoretical investigations. Other recent related developments are also briefly reviewed, such as the study of selenide two-leg ladders and the discovery of superconductivity in a single layer of FeSe. The conceptual issues considered established for the alkali metal iron selenides, as well as several issues that still require further work, are discussed.

Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali- erdalkali- und Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from a potentially reactive state to an innocuous state. Researchers... Concrete, Coal Combustion By-Products, Fly Ash, High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete, Alkali-Silica...

157

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali modified sbn Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adsorbate is ionised on the surface and that the alkali core is not modified by the adsorption. We... Review Excited states in the alkalinoble ... Source: Bauer, Michael -...

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - anionic alkali mineral Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 17 Definitions CaX(s) + 90 Summary: by an activity coefficient, (. Alkali Metals - elements in the 1A...

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous alkali metal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mountain Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 16 Definitions CaX(s) + 90 Summary: by an activity coefficient, (. Alkali Metals - elements in the 1A...

160

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali- earth elements Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

earth elements Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkali- earth elements Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali alkaline earth Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Waterloo Collection: Chemistry 2 GEOL 305 Lecture 5 Felsic MaficIntermediate Summary: rare rhyolite Calc-alkaline and tholeiite basalts common, with less alkali basalt Mafic...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali ion scattering Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 Floppy modes and the Boson peak in crystalline and amorphous silicates: an inelastic neutron scattering study Summary: ion from Li+ to K+ in the alkali disilicate glasses,...

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali carbonate reactions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 14 REFRACTORIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION AN OVERVIEW Summary: to be upgraded. How ever, alkali reactions may still occur....

164

Accelerated test methods for evaluating alkali-silica reactivity of recycled concrete aggregates.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis reports the findings of a study carried out to determine the effectiveness of Accelerated Tests in evaluating the Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Recycled Concrete… (more)

Johnson, Robert C (Author)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali feldspars ii Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

leaching is spatially heterogeneous on some altered alkali Z .feldspar surfaces Gout et al., 1997 . Similar... weathering: II. Observation of feldspars from soils. Geochim....

166

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali halides irradiated Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

U ET ASSOCIATIONS DE CENTRES COLORES ATOMIC HYDROGEN CENTRES IN IONIC CRYSTALS Summary: . Abstract. - Experimental and theoretical work on atomic hydrogen centres in alkali halides...

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali vapor species Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Volume 4, novembre 1994 Summary: 60 specines aged at elevated temperatures in alkali-metal vapors have shown that such treatmerlt... -T superconductivity in C specimens annealed...

168

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal-doped organic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

appeared to be rich in alkali... CI), inorganic grains finely dispersed in the organic structure of these materials or as cations associated... with the organic structure...

169

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

170

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

172

Salt Waste Processing Initiatives  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September2-SCORECARD-01-24-13 Page 1 of 1 DepartmentSalt Waste1

173

Salt Selected (FINAL)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStoriesSANDIA1 0-SA-02and Technical Information SaltWHY

174

Ancient Salt Beds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmes Laboratory Site| DepartmentInformation Ancient Salt

175

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

176

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

177

Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

178

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

179

Chemistry and mechanism of molten-salt catalysts in coal-gasification processes. Final report, January 1984-January 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkali metal salts have been recognized as effective catalysts in coal gasification. However, the presence of reducing gases, in particular carbon monoxide, has recently been shown to have serious inhibitory effects on the catalyst performance. This program has addressed the question of the chemical interactions between carbon monoxide gas containing mixtures and the salt catalysts in liquid form by probing the solution chemistry by dynamic electrochemical techniques. The results of this study show that oxalate ions are formed by the reaction between carbonate ions and carbon monoxide gas. At temperatures above 700/sup 0/C, sulfate ions are directly attacked by carbon monoxide. The oxalate ions are electroactive and their electrochemistry has been studied and found to involve adsorption of oxalate and formation of reactive intermediates. The pathway likely involves an ECE sequence. The formation of active adsorbed species such as oxalate or sulfides at high temperature may be the means by which catalytic function of the salts is inhibited.

White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy conservation. In this program, the salt metal interactions were studies and the emissions at laboratory scale at OSU were monitored. The goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding, based on first principles, of the pollutant formation that occurs when the salts are used in furnaces. This information will be used to control process parameters so that emissions are consistently below the required levels. The information obtained in these experiments will be used in industrial furnaces at aluminum plants and which will help in optimizing the process.

Yogeshwar Sahai

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications. 6 figures.

Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.; Franco, S.C.S.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

182

Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications.

Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Knoxville, TN); Franco, Sofia C. S. (Santafe de Bogota, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Novel rubidium atomic beam with an alkali dispenser source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a novel atomic beam apparatus with a resistively heated alkali dispenser source and a cold-pumped intermediate chamber. Using laser fluorescence spectroscopy we have measured the atomic density to be 3x10{sup 11} atoms/m{sup 3} and the total flux to be 5x10{sup 8} atoms/s in a 0.3 cm diameter beam. We have also characterized the velocity distribution of the source based on the Doppler-shifted fluorescence spectrum. The compact geometry, flexibility, and simplicity of the beam may make it useful as an optical frequency reference or for experiments on atom-cooling.

Roach, Timothy M.; Henclewood, Dwayne [College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 (United States)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 January 2013 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department...

186

Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Fabrication of alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technique has been proposed for the fabrication of atmospheric corrosion resistant alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition. We produced photocathodes with a highly homogeneous photoemissive layer well-adherent to the substrate. The photocathodes were mounted in a vacuum photodiode, and a tungsten grid was used as an anode. Using pulsed UV lasers, we carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the quantum efficiency of the photocathodes. With a dc voltage applied between the photocathode and anode grid, we measured a shunt signal proportional to the total charge emitted by the cathode exposed to UV laser light. The proposed deposition technique enables one to produce photocathodes with photoemissive layers highly uniform in quantum efficiency, which is its main advantage over thin film growth by resistive evaporation. (laser technologies)

Brendel', V M; Bukin, V V; Garnov, Sergei V; Bagdasarov, V Kh; Denisov, N N; Garanin, Sergey G; Terekhin, V A; Trutnev, Yurii A

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references.

none,

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Use of precalciners to remove alkali from raw materials in the cement industry. Final report, July 1978-July 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to develop an efficient means of removing alkali metal compounds (alkalies) from high-alkali aluminosilicate raw materials of the type commonly used as part of cement raw mixes in order to increase the energy efficiency of cement manufacture. The intention of this project was to determine whether the high-alkali raw materials could be pyroprocessed separately to remove the alkalies before they entered the rotary kiln, where they would be mixed with the other raw feed components. If this could be achieved, considerable savings could be made in the energy required to remove alkalies, compared to conventional methods in which the cement raw mix must be treated as a whole. Two different methods of alkali removal were examined, namely, vaporization of alkalies at relatively low temperatures; and alkali-rich melt separation at relativey high temperatures. The results showed that the removal of alkalies by pyroprocessing of high-alkali raw feed components separate from the other cement raw mix components is not likely to be a practical alternative to the best available conventional precalciner technology. (LCL)

Gartner, E.M.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt mixtures and compared with sodium-based binary and higher order systems. Predictions and measurements were demonstrated for both salt systems and for some more complex silicate-bearing systems, substantially exceeding the original scope of this work. 4. A multi-dimensional model of char bed reactivity developed under this project demonstrated that essentially all reactions in char beds occur on or near the surface, with the internal portions of the bed being essentially inert. The model predicted composition, temperature, and velocity profiles in the bed and showed that air jet penetration is limited to the immediate vicinity of the char bed, with minimal impact on most of the bed. The modeling efforts substantially exceeded the original scope of this project. 5. Near the completion of this project, DOE withdrew the BYU portion of a multiparty agreement to complete this and additional work with no advanced warning, which compromised the integration of all of this material into a commercial computer code. However, substantial computer simulations of much of this work were initiated, but not completed. 6. The gasification modeling is nearly completed but was aborted near its completion according to a DOE redirection of funds. This affected both this and the previous tasks.

Baxter, Larry L.

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

191

Mixed ionic and electronic conducting electrode studies for an alkali metal thermal to electric converter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research focuses on preparation, kinetics, and performance studies of mixed ionic and electronic conducting electrodes (MIEE) applied in an alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC). Two types of MIEE, metal/sodium titanate and metal...

Guo, Yuyan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure and method of processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure are created using sol-gel processes. The processes have particular application in creating calcium magnesium zirconium phosphate, CMZP, coatings and foams.

Brown, Jr., Jesse J. (Christiansburg, VA); Hirschfeld, Deidre A. (Elliston, VA); Li, Tingkai (Blacksburg, VA)

1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

193

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-metal vapor density Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics 65 nature physics | VOL 3 | APRIL 2007 | www.nature.comnaturephysics 227 REVIEW ARTICLE Summary: in a high-density alkali-metal vapor in low magnetic fields. Phys....

194

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali earth aluminium Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 ThresholaStates of the Summary: of np(n + l)s and np n' d states of the alkaline earth elements do not apply directly to the alkali... earths. Moreover, as the nucleai...

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali ion beams Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

beams Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkali ion beams Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 METHOD FOR EFFICIENCY AND TIME RESPONSE...

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali ion exchange Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Sample search results for: alkali ion exchange Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Corrosion mechanisms of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil M.I. Ojovan1...

197

Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Process and apparatus for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for producing low cost, high purity solar grade Si wherein a reduction reaction, preferably the reduction of SiF.sub.4, by an alkali metal (Na preferred) is carried out inside a reaction chamber. The chamber wall and bottom surfaces are formed of graphite and configured with drainage channels so as to facilitate the continuous separation of the products of reaction (Si and NaF) and removal of the molten salt by discharging the salt through one or more ports at the bottom of the reaction chamber. Such process is especially useful where it is desirable to discharge the reaction salt products from the reactor and retain silicon within the chamber for later removal.

Nanis, Leonard (Palo Alto, CA); Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA)

1986-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

199

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Detection of alkali-silica reaction swelling in concrete by staining  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and rhodamine B is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

Guthrie, Jr., George D. (Santa Fe, NM); Carey, J. William (Santa Fe, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Detection of alkali-silica reaction swelling in concrete by staining  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobalt nitrite and rhodamine B is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na-K-Ca-Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca-Si gels are identified by pink staining.

Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Carey, J.W.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

202

Salt site performance assessment activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

A high frequency titration of indium with benzenephosphinic acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with ordinary oxidizing agents as hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid. (31) Michaells and Ananoff first reported the preparation and properties of benzenepbosphinic acid in 1874 (25). Kichaells prepared the potassium, barium, calcium, and iron salts... in approximately 25 milliliters of the acid These solutions were heated on a hot plate until dry. The salt was dissolved in dis- tilled water, and diluted to one liter in a volumetric flask. These solutions were standardised volumetrically with EDTA (13...

Keilt, Francis Xavier

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Ion-exchange selectivities of periderm and cuticular membranes toward alkali cations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ion-exchange selectivities of lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium on isolated potato periderm (Solanum tuberosum) and pear fruit cuticular membranes were investigated; the general order of preference both for cation selectivities and ion-exchange capacities was lithium > sodium > potassium > cesium. The potato periderm and pear fruit cuticular membranes exhibited a behavior typical of ion-exchange resins of the weak acid type. At constant pH 7, the ion-exchange capacities of periderm and cuticular membranes increased with hydrated ionic radius, and also with increasing pH and neutral salt concentration, and decreased with crystal ionic radius. Counterion selectivities also exhibited the same behavior. The ion-exchange properties are discussed in terms of the structure and function of potato periderm and pear fruit cuticular membranes.

Ersoz, M. [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkey); Duncan, H.J. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Alkali monolayers on transition metal surfaces: electronic promotion in catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potassium monolayers on the platinum (111) crystal surface were studied most extensively. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy showed a large decrease in the work function of the surface when potassium was adsorbed. The heat of desorption of potassium decreased with increasing coverage. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) showed that potassium forms hexagonal (close packed) overlayer structures. The effects of potassium on the chemisorption of various small molecules on Pt(111) were studied. Oxygen and nitric oxide were readily adsorbed and dissociated by potassium, forming stable potassium-oxide complexes on the surface. Adsorption heat of carbon monoxide on Pt(111) increased with potassium coadsorption. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that the carbon-oxygen bond of adsorbed carbon monoxide was weakened by potassium. Adsorption heat of benzene, however, was decreased by coadsorbed potassium. A molecular orbital explanation was given to explain the effects of potassium. CO hydrogenation reactions performed on metal foils showed that the addition of alkali adlayers tends to decrease the overall rate of reaction. Changes in selectivity were noted, shifting the product distribution in favor of higher molecular weight species and from alkanes to alkenes.

Garfunkel, E.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

207

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY11-FY12 Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, is currently investigating alternative waste forms for wastes generated from nuclear fuel processing. One such waste results from an electrochemical separations process, called the “Echem” process. The Echem process utilizes a molten KCl-LiCl salt to dissolve the fuel. This process results in a spent salt containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide halides and small quantities of actinide halides, where the primary halide is chloride with a minor iodide fraction. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is concurrently investigating two candidate waste forms for the Echem spent-salt: high-halide minerals (i.e., sodalite and cancrinite) and tellurite (TeO2)-based glasses. Both of these candidates showed promise in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY2010 with a simplified nonradioactive simulant of the Echem waste. Further testing was performed on these waste forms in FY2011 and FY2012 to assess the possibility of their use in a sustainable fuel cycle. This report summarizes the combined results from FY2011 and FY2012 efforts.

Riley, Brian J.; Mccloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lepry, William C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Pierce, David A.

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

208

Salt dome discoveries mounting in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exploratory drilling around piercement salt domes in Mississippi has met with a string of successes in recent months. Exploration of these salt features is reported to have been initiated through the review of non-proprietary, 2D seismic data and subsurface control. This preliminary data and work were then selectively upgraded by the acquisition of additional, generally higher quality, conventional 2D seismic lines. This current flurry of successful exploration and ensuing development drilling by Amerada Hess Corp. on the flanks of salt domes in Mississippi has resulted in a number of significant Hosston discoveries/producers at: Carson salt dome in Jefferson Davis County; Dry Creek salt dome in Covington County, Midway salt dome in lamar County, Monticello salt dome in Lawrence County, and Prentiss salt dome in Jefferson Davis County. The resulting production from these fields is gas and condensate, with wells being completed on 640 acre production units.

Ericksen, R.L. [Mississippi Office of Geology, Jackson, MS (United States)

1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

209

Radar investigation of the Hockley salt dome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Geophysics RADAR INVESTIGATION OF THE HOCKLEY SALT DOME A Thesis by UAMES ANDREW HLUCHANEK A'pproved as to style and content by: (Head of Departme t ? Member) May 1. 973 ABSTRACT Radar investigation of the Hockley Salt Dome. . (Nay, 1973) James.... THE PROBLEM. Page A. Probing into Unknown Areas in Salt. . B. Equipment Used. II. BACKGROUND MATERIAL. A. Geology of the Hockley Area. . . B. Economic History of the Hockley Dome Area. . 6 1. Oil 2. Gypsum. 3. Salt C. Geophysical Surveys Over...

Hluchanek, James Andrew

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A comparison of the products of the hydrolysis of cottonseed meats with acid and alkali  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Xae ~ Sew Yerky So To lpgp J po 554 (10) Ills, ~ii 1 Ol ~ ~ WS (19?) {11) S?Q?aaLhi, Siomhea4 5 ~, ~ 1 (1555) ~ Other ssi4s thea hy&rsohlorio sa& salfario qhat have book ass& fsr hy&rolyning prete1ns oro ferccio, ssotie, sad by&ref lasrio. Using... iatexpreting tho above stats- nsnt ~ each sf ths g elsssos ~ aside on4 bases, asst bo oonsi4oro& as a shale on4 aoi sny siaglo sei4 eoaporod cath any oiagle base. {1$} IhaoamlSl Merel, ~ll I, reaC. 144 }II (1}0$}. }lk} &liastr ~ Osallhos, Ideals ~ F ~SI...

Schoch, Henry Bernard

1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The direct observation of alkali vapor species in biomass combustion and gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes new data from screening various feedstocks for alkali vapor release under combustion conditions. The successful development of a laboratory flow reactor and molecular beam, mass spectrometer interface is detailed. Its application to several herbaceous and woody feedstocks, as well as a fast-pyrolysis oil, under 800 and 1,100{degrees}C batch combustion, is documented. Chlorine seems to play a large role in the facile mobilization of potassium. Included in the report is a discussion of relevant literature on the alkali problem in combustors and turbines. Highlighted are the phenomena identified in studies on coal and methods that have been applied to alkali speciation. The nature of binding of alkali in coal versus biomass is discussed, together with the implications for the ease of release. Herbaceous species and many agricultural residues appear to pose significant problems in release of alkali species to the vapor at typical combustor temperatures. These problems could be especially acute in direct combustion fired turbines, but may be ameliorated in integrated gasification combined cycles.

French, R.J.; Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Communication: Angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He){sub 200}, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe{sub 200} studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J. Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine [LCAR-IRSAMC, Université Toulouse 3 - Paul Sabatier and CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)] [LCAR-IRSAMC, Université Toulouse 3 - Paul Sabatier and CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

213

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid transport system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Biology and Medicine 57 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio Summary:...

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid requirements based Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Ecology ; Biology and Medicine 87 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio Summary:...

215

E-Print Network 3.0 - affects acid production Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 67 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio Summary:...

216

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid overcomes apoptosis-resistance Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine ; Biotechnology 23 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio Summary:...

217

E-Print Network 3.0 - acids structural requirements Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine ; Biotechnology 45 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio Summary:...

218

Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental work was carried out on a 17 kW, 600 cm long, gas laboratory combustor, to investigate the post flame reactive capture of alkali species by kaolinite. Emphasis was on alkali/sorbent interactions occurring in flue gas at temperatures above the alkali dewpoint and on the formation of water insoluble reaction products. Time-temperature studies were carried out by injecting kaolinite at different axial points along the combustor. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on alkali capture was investigated by doping the flame with SO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} gases to simulate coal flame environments. Particle time and temperature history was kept as close as possible to that which would ordinarily be found in a practical boiler. Experiments designed to extract apparent initial reaction rates were carried using a narrow range, 1-2 {mu}m modal size sorbent, while, a coarse, multi size sorbent was used to investigate the governing transport mechanisms. The capture reaction has been proposed to be between alkali hydroxide and activated kaolinite, and remains so in the presence of sulfur and chlorine. The presence of sulfur reduces sodium capture by under 10% at 1300{degree}C. Larger reductions at lower temperatures are attributed to the elevated dewpoint of sodium ({approximately}850{degree}C) with subsequent reduction in sorbent residence time in the alkali gas phase domain. Chlorine reduces sodium capture by 30% across the temperature range covered by the present experiments. This result has been linked to thermodynamic equilibria between sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and water.

Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Mwabe, P.O.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined and a Strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions. PACS numbers: 31.15.AR,31

220

The ground state of the polar alkali-Strontium molecules: potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ground state of the polar alkali-Strontium molecules: potential energy curve and permanent In this study, we investigate the structure of the polar alkali-Strontium diatomic molecules as possible already been reported, while quantum degeneracy in Ytterbium [22, 23], Calcium [24], and Strontium [25, 26

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Exciplex pumped alkali laser (XPAL) modeling and theory Andrew D. Palla, Joseph T. Verdeyen, and David L. Carroll  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exciplex pumped alkali laser (XPAL) modeling and theory Andrew D. Palla, Joseph T. Verdeyen pumped alkali laser (XPAL) system has been demonstrated in mixtures of Cs vapor, Ar, with and without ethane, by pumping Cs-Ar atomic collision pairs and subsequent dissociation of diatomic, electronically

Carroll, David L.

222

Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Potential Modulated Intercalation of Alkali Cations into Metal Hexacyanoferrate Coated Electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nickel hexacyanoferrate is a polynuclear inorganic ion intercalation material that loads (intercalates) and elutes (deintercalates) alkali cations from its structure when electrochemically reduced and oxidized, respectively. Nickel hexacyanoferrrate (NiHCF) is known to preferentially intercalate cesium over all other alkali cations, thus providing a basis for a separation scheme that can tackle DOE's radiocesium contamination problem. This program studied fundamental issues in alkalization intercalation and deintercalation in nickel hexacyanoferrate compounds, with the goal of (1) quantifying the ion exchange selectivity properties from cation mixtures, (2) enhancing ion exchange capacities, and (3) and understanding the electrochemically-switched ion exchange process (ESIX).

Daniel T. Schwartz; Bekki Liu; Marlina Lukman; Kavita M. Jeerage; William A. Steen; Haixia Dai; Qiuming Yu; J. Antonio Medina

2002-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

224

Catalytic and stoichiometric bromination of aromatic compounds in aqueous trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mono- and polybromination of benzene, halogenobenzenes, toluene, p-xylene, anisole, biphenyl, benzotrifluoride, benzoic acid, p-nitro- and p-carboxytoluene, p-methoxybenzonitrile, tetralin, and naphthalene were studied in trifluoroacetic acid and its aqueous solutions in systems containing stoichiometric amounts of bromine or alkali-metal bromide and stoichiometric or catalytic (in the presence of oxygen or air) amounts of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent (nitrogen(IV) oxide, alkali-metal nitrate or nitrite). It is suggested that the brominating agent under the investigated conditions is nitryl bromide NO/sub 2/Br. Under the conditions of catalytic bromination anthracene is oxidized to anthraquinone with a preparative yield.

Cheprakov, A.V.; Makhon'kov, D.I.; Rodkin, M.A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

1988-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

225

Effect of alkali metals on the interaction of O/sub 2/ and CO with some transition-metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interactions of O/sub 2/ and CO with alkali covered Ni, Ru, and Pt are reviewed with emphasis on the author's own studies. It is shown that the presence of alkalis changes the coadsorbates adsorption rates, heats of adsorption, and dissociative propensity, the strength of the effect depending on the alkali nature and coverage. The differences for the three substrates are interpreted comparing the properties of the clean surface. A detailed analysis of the coadsorbate--modifier interactions suggests that they depend on the adsorption state of the alkali species and the coadsorbate--substrate bond strength. Evidence of the formation of patches of ''surface complexes'' coexisting with the unperturbed surface is given and discussed in terms of strong direct alkali--coadsorbate interactions.

Kiskinova, M.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

acid production induced: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pot Experiments... Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach) 1909-01-01 275 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and...

227

acid ph refluxes: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sergio Borgia; Paul Hoffman; Clifford A. Lingwood 1996-01-01 35 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and...

228

acid substitution model: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of 17.2 mM). 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All Schnaufer, Achim 64 Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and...

229

Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, R.E. [Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Solubility of hydrocarbons in salt water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the design and operation of industrial processes, physical and thermodynamic property data are required. Increasingly stringent regulations are making water solubility of substances even more critical. Water solubility data of naphthenes, or cycloalkanes, is applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations, including water without salt to water saturated with salt. The results are intended for use in initial engineering and environmental applications. Solubility values from the correlation are useful in determining the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill on its contact with sea water. Solubility values at other salt concentrations also may be computed. Results are presented for water solubility of hydrocarbons (naphthenes) as a function of salt concentration (log(S) = A + BX + CX[sup 2]). The correlation constants, A, B and C, are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format that is applicable for rapid engineering use with the personal computer or hand-held calculator. The results for solubility in salt water are applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations. This range covers water without salt, X = 0, to water saturated with salt, X = 358,700 ppM(wt). Correlation and experimental results are in favorable agreement.

Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

Frank Hansen; Till Popp; Klaus Wieczorek; Dieter Stührenberg

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal li Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

them together with a variety of optical data for alkali metals, and for Li... mopt PH PJM Li 1.153 1.526 Na 1.049 1.040 K 1.014 0.983 Rb 0.977 0.909 Cs 0.983 0.872 55 13...

234

Method for inhibiting alkali metal corrosion of nickel-containing alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Structural components of nickel-containing alloys within molten alkali metal systems are protected against corrosion during the course of service by dissolving therein sufficient aluminum, silicon, or manganese to cause the formation and maintenance of a corrosion-resistant intermetallic reaction layer created by the interaction of the molten metal, selected metal, and alloy.

DeVan, Jackson H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Selle, James E. (Westminster, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

236

Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis; published 7 December 2010) Optical pumping of an optically thick atomic vapor typically requires a quenching the atoms. We show that optical pumping of a trace contamination of Rb present in K metal results in a 4

Romalis, Mike

237

Gas phase spectroscopy of alkali carbides: The pure rotational spectrum of KC ,,X 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

observation of potassium carbide, and of any alkali metal carbide species. The molecule was produced under d, and possible ways to better activate C­C and C­H bonds.1 Investigating metal carbide species also can lead- faces. Finally, it has recently been suggested that adding metal carbides to H2 may provide high energy

Ziurys, Lucy M.

238

A computational linear elastic fracture mechanics-based model for alkali-silica reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the case of a concrete made up of dense aggregates submitted to chemical attack. The chemistry condi- tions are required: high water content, high alkali concentration and reactive ag- gregates first fill the available porous space, and then tend to create microcracks which are thought to play

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Alignment of molecules in gaseous transport: Alkali dimers in supersonic nozzle beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alignment of molecules in gaseous transport: Alkali dimers in supersonic nozzle beams M. P. SinhaO) + a.P lcosO), where 0 is the angle between the angular momentum vector J of the molecule and the beam direction. This method is applied to determine the alignment of Na2 molecules in a supersonic nozzle beam

Zare, Richard N.

240

He polarization-dependent EPR frequency shifts of alkali-metal3 Earl Babcock,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3 He polarization-dependent EPR frequency shifts of alkali-metal­3 He pairs Earl Babcock,1 Ian A-dependent measurements of the EPR frequency shifts for Na, K, and Rb interacting with polarized 3 He. K and Na frequency also allowed us to extend the measured temperature dependence of the Rb EPR frequency shifts up to 350

Walker, Thad G.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Conditioning matrices from high level waste resulting from pyrochemical processing in fluorine salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separating the actinides from the fission products through reductive extraction by aluminium in a LiF/AlF{sub 3} medium is a process investigated for pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent fuel. The process involves separation by reductive salt-metal extraction. After dissolving the fuel or the transmutation target in a salt bath, the noble metal fission products are first extracted by contacting them with a slightly reducing metal. After extracting the metal fission products, then the actinides are selectively separated from the remaining fission products. In this hypothesis, all the unrecoverable fission products would be conditioned as fluorides. Therefore, this process will generate first a metallic waste containing the 'reducible' fission products (Pd, Mo, Ru, Rh, Tc, etc.) and a fluorine waste containing alkali-metal, alkaline-earth and rare earth fission products. Immobilization of these wastes in classical borosilicate glasses is not feasible due to the very low solubility of noble metals, and of fluoride in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been developed including silicate glass/ceramic system for fluoride fission products and metallic ones for noble metal fission products. These waste-forms were evaluated for their confinement properties like homogeneity, waste loading, volatility during the elaboration process, chemical durability, etc. using appropriate techniques. (authors)

Grandjean, Agnes; Advocat, Thierry; Bousquet, Nicolas [SCDV - Service de Confinement des Dechets et Vitrification - Laboratoire d'Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Jegou, Christophe [SECM - Service d'Etude du Confinement et Materiaux - Laboratoire des Materiaux et Procedes Actifs - CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

244

Solar Policy Environment: Salt Lake  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The overall objective of the “Solar Salt Lake” (SSL) team is to develop a fully-scoped city and county-level implementation plan that will facilitate at least an additional ten megawatts of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in the government, commercial, industrial, and residential sectors by 2015. To achieve this aggressive goal, the program strategy includes a combination of barrier identification, research, and policy analysis that utilizes the input of various stakeholders. Coupled with these activities will be the development and implementation of pilot installations in the government and residential sectors, and broad outreach to builders and potential practitioners of solar energy products in the process. In this way, while creating mechanisms to enable a demand for solar, SSL will also facilitate capacity building for suppliers, thereby helping to ensure long-term sustainability for the regional market.

245

Lubricant compositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricant compositions adapted for use under extreme pressure conditions are disclosed. They comprise a major proportion of a lubricating grease, and a minor proportion of an additive consisting essentially of a solid, oil insoluble arylene sulfide polymer, and a metal salt, particularly an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt, particularly an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt of a phosphorus acid, for example, mono- or dicalcium phosphate, or an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonate exemplified by calcium carbonate, or a mixture of such a phosphate salt and carbonate.

Johnson, A.L.; Lawson, R.D.; Root, J.C.

1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali iodides lii Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 2 Influence of Different Iodide Salts on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphazene-Based Nonvolatile Electrolytes Summary:...

247

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali sodic soil Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Renewable Energy 29 ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics Summary: of sodic soils in the Caspian region and India (Mishra and...

248

Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

Munson, D.E.

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

249

Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells At Salt Wells Area...

250

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes...

251

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

252

Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic...

253

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar...

254

alkaline salt solution: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

255

alkaline salt solutions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

256

alkyl ammonium salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

257

aqueous salt systems: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

258

aromatic diazonium salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

259

alkyl ester salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

260

allylic silanolate salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Source: PB Energy Storage Services Inc....

262

Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Halotechnics...

263

Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad NM Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire...

264

Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013...

265

Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Parsons Corp., Salt...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Parsons Corp., Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - May 2014 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Parsons Corp., Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction...

266

Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Electrochemical assembly of organic molecules by the reduction of iodonium salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for the electrochemical assembly of organic molecules on silicon, or other conducting or semiconducting substrates, using iodonium salt precursors. Iodonium molecules do not assemble on conducting surfaces without a negative bias. Accordingly, the iodonium salts are preferred for patterning applications that rely on direct writing with negative bias. The stability of the iodonium molecule to acidic conditions allows them to be used with standard silicon processing. As a directed assembly process, the use of iodonium salts provides for small features while maintaining the ability to work on a surface and create structures on a wafer level. Therefore, the process is amenable for mass production. Furthermore, the assembled monolayer (or multilayer) is chemically robust, allowing for subsequent chemical manipulations and the introduction of various molecular functionalities for various chemical and biological applications.

Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Howell, Stephen W. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

268

Technical report for the alkali lake ecological assessment, phase 1 reconnaissance (FY 91 and FY 92)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report summarizes the results of three field survey trips (June and September 1991, May 1992) taken to investigate the ecological effects associated with the release of over a million gallons of hazardous waste from herbicide production on the Alkali Lake playa. Sampling of soil, sediment, groundwater, soil-dwelling invertebrates and vegetation confirmed that hazardous materials from the waste disposal area are migrating westerly within the shallow aquifer to West Alkali Lake. Two areas of dead vegetation were identified and permanently marked to determine if these areas are changing in size and location. Preliminary calculations using a linear food-chain model suggested that small mammalian herbivores would probably not display adverse effects due to dietary exposures to the contaminants. However, nestling shorebirds may be exposed to concentrations potentially associated with adverse biological effects.

Linder, G.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

On the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies in Mixed Alkali Borate Glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed alkali effect in oxide based glasses is one of the current research activity and studies on the behavior of spectroscopic parameters in these systems are quite important to understand the basic nature of this phenomenon. EPR studies of mixed alkali glasses Li{sub 2}O-K{sub 2}O-ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped with Fe{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} were carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra show typical resonances of d{sup 5} system (Fe{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}) in all the measured glass specimens. Evaluated hyperfine constant, number of paramagnetic centers and paramagnetic susceptibility values show deviation from the linearity with the progressive substitution of the Li ion with K in glass network.

Padmaja, G. [Department of Physics, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506009 (India); Reddy, T. Goverdhan [Graphene Research Institute and Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kistaiah, P. [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

270

Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Effects from Alkali-Silica Reacton and Delayed Ettringite Formation on Reinforced Concrete Column Lap Splices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS FROM ALKALI-SILICA REACTION AND DELAYED ETTRINGITE FORMATION ON REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN LAP SPLICES A Thesis by MARY KATHLEEN ECK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... by MARY KATHLEEN ECK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Joseph M. Bracci Committee Members...

Eck, Mary

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

274

Structural Assessment of D-Regions Affected by Alkali-Silica Reaction/Delayed Ettringite Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF D-REGIONS AFFECTED BY ALKALI- SILICA REACTION/DELAYED ETTRINGITE FORMATION A Dissertation by SHIH-HSIANG LIU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Joseph M. Bracci Committee Members, John B. Mander Stefan Hurlebaus Harry A. Hogan Head of Department, John M. Niedzwecki December 2012 Major Subject: Civil...

Liu, Shih-Hsiang 1979-

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

275

The reaction of cesium hydroxide with 4-phenylvaleric acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but with other alkali metal ions. Also, it was desirable to learn more about the fundamental nature of the excess solubility of 4-phenylvaleric acid in aqueous cesium hydroxide. Of special interest was to deter- mine whether any n-bonding may be involved.... Similarly, nuclear magnetic resonance techniques may be used to determine whether any TT-bonding involving the phenyl ring of 4- phenylvaleric acid occurs during its reaction with cesium hydroxide. If any such bonding to the n-electrons of the ring occurs...

Caughfield, Arvie Jeane

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Novel coordination geometries in fluoroaluminate salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two tetramethylammonium salts of new fluoroaluminate species have been crystallographically characterized and reveal structural motifs previously unknown for such species. The elusive tetrahedral [AlF[sub 4][sup [minus

Herron, N.; Harlow, R.L.; Thorn, D.L. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Comp., Wilmington, DE (United States))

1993-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

278

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

280

Salt Lake City- High Performance Buildings Requirement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Salt Lake City's mayor issued an executive order in July 2005 requiring that all public buildings owned and controlled by the city be built or renovated to meet the requirements of LEED "silver"...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Effect of the TBP and Water on the Complexation of Uranyl Nitrate and the Dissolution of Nitric Acid into Supercritical CO2. A Theoretical Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

started from "random" mixtures of water, TBP, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate, complexation of uranyl to dissolve nitric acid in the supercritical phase. Indeed, without TBP, nitric acid alone self aggregates via containing the acid and uranyl salts. The simulations show that a high TBP/nitric acid ratio is needed

Boyer, Edmond

282

Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution {approx}40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO{sub 2}. On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO{sub 4} detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO{sub 4} is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl{sub 2}, and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Incompatible Chemicals The following list is to be used only as a general guideline. Please refer to your Material Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and sulfuric acid mixtures Alkali and alkaline earth metals Water, carbon tetrachloride or other chlorinated (white) Air, oxygen, alkalis, reducing agents Potassium Carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water Sodium nitrite Ammonium nitrate and other ammonium salts Sodium peroxide

Slatton, Clint

285

Effect of silicate modulus and metakaolin incorporation on the carbonation of alkali silicate-activated slags  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accelerated carbonation is induced in pastes and mortars produced from alkali silicate-activated granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS)-metakaolin (MK) blends, by exposure to CO{sub 2}-rich gas atmospheres. Uncarbonated specimens show compressive strengths of up to 63 MPa after 28 days of curing when GBFS is used as the sole binder, and this decreases by 40-50% upon complete carbonation. The final strength of carbonated samples is largely independent of the extent of metakaolin incorporation up to 20%. Increasing the metakaolin content of the binder leads to a reduction in mechanical strength, more rapid carbonation, and an increase in capillary sorptivity. A higher susceptibility to carbonation is identified when activation is carried out with a lower solution modulus (SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O ratio) in metakaolin-free samples, but this trend is reversed when metakaolin is added due to the formation of secondary aluminosilicate phases. High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffractometry of uncarbonated paste samples shows that the main reaction products in alkali-activated GBFS/MK blends are C-S-H gels, and aluminosilicates with a zeolitic (gismondine) structure. The main crystalline carbonation products are calcite in all samples and trona only in samples containing no metakaolin, with carbonation taking place in the C-S-H gels of all samples, and involving the free Na{sup +} present in the pore solution of the metakaolin-free samples. Samples containing metakaolin do not appear to have the same availability of Na{sup +} for carbonation, indicating that this is more effectively bound in the presence of a secondary aluminosilicate gel phase. It is clear that claims of exceptional carbonation resistance in alkali-activated binders are not universally true, but by developing a fuller mechanistic understanding of this process, it will certainly be possible to improve performance in this area.

Bernal, Susan A., E-mail: susana.bernal@gmail.co [Materials Engineering Department, Composite Materials Group, CENM, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Mejia de Gutierrez, Ruby [Materials Engineering Department, Composite Materials Group, CENM, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Provis, John L., E-mail: jprovis@unimelb.edu.a [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rose, Volker [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

DuraLith Alkali-Aluminosilicate Geopolymer Waste Form Testing for Hanford Secondary Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the work reported here was to develop additional information regarding the DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer as a waste form for liquid secondary waste to support selection of a final waste form for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary liquid wastes to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility on the Hanford Site. Testing focused on optimizing waste loading, improving waste form performance, and evaluating the robustness of the waste form with respect to waste variability.

Gong, W. L.; Lutz, Werner; Pegg, Ian L.

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

287

An investigation of the transfer of alkali metal chlorides from dimethyl sulfoxide to water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-to-back' with water as the solvent in one cell and a non- aqueous solvent in the other. The two cells used in this investigation were each composed of silver-silver chloride electrodes in the same solution with dropping alkali metal amalgam electrodes. The solute.... The dropping amalgam electrodes are written only once since they were connected by a common amalgam reservoir. When the external circuit between the two silver-silver chloride electrodes was closed a current flowed and the net result oi the electrode...

Williams, Roger

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

2-M Probe At Gabbs Alkali Flat Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende NewSowitec doWinvest HomeInformation Gabbs Alkali Flat

289

Geology of Damon Mound Salt Dome, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geological investigation of the stratigraphy, cap-rock characteristics, deformation and growth history, and growth rate of a shallow coastal diapir. Damon Mound salt dome, located in Brazoria County, has salt less than 600 feet and cap rock less than 100 feet below the surface; a quarry over the dome provides excellent exposures of cap rock as well as overlying Oligocene to Pleistocene strata. These conditions make it ideal as a case study for other coastal diapirs that lack bedrock exposures. Such investigations are important because salt domes are currently being considered by chemical waste disposal companies as possible storage and disposal sites. In this book, the author reviews previous research, presents additional data on the subsurface and surface geology at Damon Mound, and evaluates Oligocene to post-Pleistocene diapir growth.

Collins, E.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Control of Soluble Salts in Farming and Gardening.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

waters pass through beds of salt, dissolving appreciable quantities before they emerge and enter the rivers. Ocean waters, much too salty for irrigation, contain about 3 percent salt, or about 40 tons of salt per acre-foot of water... ater are applied each year are shown in Table 2. Salts I (.in ilrcnmulate very rapidly. The water containing 1 ton of jdt per acre-foot is generally considered to be good ,I~,~lit\\* water, yet in 2 years enough salt could accumu- I,ltr to harm salt...

Longenecker, D. E.; Lyerly, P. J.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Method for using salt deposits for storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for developing, evacuating, using, sealing, and re-entering multiple stacked cavities which are created from a single well in salt deposits. The cavities are created in a salt deposit by circulating raw water through concentric casing strings in the well. Each of the cavities is evacuated of liquids prior to use. After storage material is injected into a cavity, the cavity is sealed by setting a plug in the well bore above the top of the cavity. The cavities may be re-entered by drilling out the plug or by drilling a directional well directly into the cavity.

Hooper, M. W.; Voorhees, E. J.

1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

293

The Salt Industry at Sterling, Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Exhaust stean of the engine plant is ad- mitted to the first evaporator and warms the "brine, then passes to the second and warns it lesD and condenses, causing a partial vacuum in the first where the brine then boils violent- ly. The vapor thus... and is condensed by a jet condenser, whereupon the third boils. Each evaporator has its own electric prop- eller stirrers and its own electric elevator to remove the salt. Nearly all the handling is done by electric conveyors until the salt is discharged...

Horner, Robert Messenger

1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 58, NUMBER 2 15 JANUARY 1973 Internal state distribution of alkali dimers in supersonic nozzle beams*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of alkali dimers in supersonic nozzle beams* M. P. Sinha, A. Schultzt, and R. N. Zare Department o the white light and laser-induced fluorescence excited in a nozzle beam of Na2 molecules, we have measured beams with various stagnation pressures (50-240 torr) of alkali metal and with nozzles of different

Zare, Richard N.

295

Optically pumped alkali laser and amplifier using helium-3 buffer gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one embodiment, a laser oscillator is provided comprising an optical cavity, the optical cavity including a gain medium including an alkali vapor and a buffer gas, the buffer gas including .sup.3He gas, wherein if .sup.4He gas is also present in the buffer gas, the ratio of the concentration of the .sup.3He gas to the .sup.4He gas is greater than 1.37.times.10.sup.-6. Additionally, an optical excitation source is provided. Furthermore, the laser oscillator is capable of outputting radiation at a first frequency. In another embodiment, an apparatus is provided comprising a gain medium including an alkali vapor and a buffer gas including .sup.3He gas, wherein if .sup.4He gas is also present in the buffer gas, the ratio of the concentration of the .sup.3He gas to the .sup.4He gas is greater than 1.37.times.10.sup.-6. Other embodiments are also disclosed.

Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Page, Ralph (Castro Valley, CA); Soules, Thomas (Livermore, CA); Stappaerts, Eddy (San Ramon, CA); Wu, Sheldon Shao Quan (Livermore, CA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

296

Origin of alkali-feldspar granites: An example from the Poimena Granite, northeastern Tasmania, Australia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lottah Granite is a composite pluton of tin mineralized strongly peraluminous alkali-feldspar granite which intrudes the Poimena Granite, a major component of the mid-Devonian Blue Tier Batholith of northeastern Tasmania. Earlier workers interpreted the Lottah Granite as a metasomatised differentiate of the Poimena Granite. The Poimena Granite is a slightly peraluminous, felsic, I-type biotite granite which contains restite minerals and shows linear trends on Harker plots, both consistent with restite separation. The mineralogy, chemical variation, and isotopic characteristics of the Lottah Granite are consistent with origin as a magma genetically unrelated to the host granite. The Lottah Granite contains sanidine, albite, topaz, zinnwaldite and other minerals consistent with crystallization from a melt. Furthermore, Rb-Sr isotopic dating indicates that the Lottah Granite was emplaced about 10 Ma after the Poimena Granite, and initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicate that the Lottah Granite was derived from a higher-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, higher-{epsilon}Nd source composition. Chemical and mineralogical evolution of the Lottah Granite conform to the experimental behavior of Li-F-rich melts, and indicate a possible crystallization temperature range as extreme as 750-430{degree}C. Many other examples of alkali-feldspar granite, and much of the associated mineralization, are probably also of essentially primary magmatic origin rather than of metasomatic or hydrothermal origin as commonly interpreted. They may also be genetically unrelated to granites with which they are associated.

Mackenzie, D.E.; Black, L.P.; Sun, Shensu (Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Planning and Implementation of an Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) Field Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Warden ASP project has progressed from the initial planning stage to construction of an injection plant. An ASP chemical system was designed based on laboratory evaluations that included interfacial tension, mobility requirements, rock-alkali interaction, fluid capabilities, and core tests. Field cores were obtained from the Permian No. 5 and No. 6 sands on the Warden lease in Sho-Vel-Tum oil field. A separate tank battery for the pilot pattern area was installed, and a field tracer test is currently being evaluated. Tracer test results to date indicate that there is no major fracturing in the No. 5 sand. There is indication, however, of some channeling through high permeability sand. The field injection plant was designed, and construction is in progress. Several variations of injection plant design have been evaluated. Some plant design details, such as alkali storage, were found to be dependent on the availability of use equipment and project budget. The surfactant storage facility design was shown to be dependent on surfactant rheology.

French, T.

1999-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

298

3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, as well as for activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. The 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility (3718-F Facility), located in the 300 Area, was used to store and treat alkali metal wastes. Therefore, it is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous wastes. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 (Ecology 1989) and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy the thermal treatment facility closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the 3718-F Facility, the history of wastes managed, and the approach that will be followed to close the facility. Only hazardous constituents derived from 3718-F Facility operations will be addressed.

none,

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Hydration of a low-alkali CEM III/B-SiO{sub 2} cement (LAC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydration of a low-alkali cement based on CEM III/B blended with 10 wt.% of nanosilica has been studied. The nanosilica reacted within the first days and 90% of the slag reacted within 3.5 years. C-S-H (Ca/Si {approx} 1.2, Al/Si {approx} 0.12), calcite, hydrotalcite, ettringite and possibly straetlingite were the main hydrates. The pore water composition revealed ten times lower alkali concentrations than in Portland cements. Reducing conditions (HS{sup -}) and a pH value of 12.2 were observed. Between 1 month and 3.5 years of hydration more hydrates were formed due to the ongoing slag reaction but no significant differences in the composition of the pore solution or solid phase assemblage were observed. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations it is predicted that siliceous hydrogarnet could form in the long-term and, in the presence of siliceous hydrogarnet, also thaumasite. Nevertheless, even after 3.5 year hydration, neither siliceous hydrogarnet nor thaumasite have been observed.

Lothenbach, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.lothenbach@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Le Saout, Gwenn; Ben Haha, Mohsen; Figi, Renato [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Wieland, Erich [PSI, Laboratory for Waste Management, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Salt repository project closeout status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

NONE

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

304

Crushed-salt constitutive model update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1...

307

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : from high breeding to simplified reprocessing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : from high breeding to simplified reprocessing L. Mathieu, D. Heuer, A- ceptable. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) may contribute to solve these problems. The thorium cycle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

Colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles in molten salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salts are important heat transfer fluids used in nuclear, solar and other high temperature engineering systems. Dispersing nanoparticles in molten salts can enhance the heat transfer capabilities of the fluid. High ...

Somani, Vaibhav (Vaibhav Basantkumar)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Tank 41-H salt level fill history 1985 to 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fill rate of the evaporator drop waste tank (i.e., salt tank) at Savannah River Site contained in the Waste Management Technology (WMT) monthly data record is based upon a simple formula that apportioned 10 percent of the evaporator output concentrate to the salt fill volume. Periodically, the liquid level of the salt tank would be decanted below the salt level surface and a visual inspection of the salt profile would be accomplished. The salt volume of the drop tank would then be corrected, if necessary, based upon the visual elevation of the salt formation. This correction can erroneously indicate an excess amount of salt fill occurred in a short time period. This report established the correct fill history for Tank 41H.

Ross, R.H.

1996-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

311

Recipient: Lay of Salt Lake ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with this CX. Salt Lake City Traffic Signal Management B5.1 None. Salt Lake City Bicycle Transit Center Task as submitted is not within scope of FOA and not eligible for...

312

Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

Ally, Moonis R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braunstein, Jerry (Clinton, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars, site tours, presentations, and written correspondence.

Barnett, Kimberly

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

314

ALKALI – CATALYSED PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FUEL FROM NIGERIAN CITRUS SEEDS OIL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biodiesel production was investigated. Fatty acid alkyl esters were produced from orange seed oil, grape

unknown authors

315

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, HSO{sub 4}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CaHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, MgHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, HSiO{sub 3}{sup -}, and MgOH{sup +}); (2) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, mineral precipitation resulting from the evaporation of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (specifically, minerals of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O); (3) To provide a means for abstracting these effects into a set of lookup tables that provide input to downstream models used for performance assessment. The presence and composition of liquid water in the drift depend upon relative humidity, temperature, incoming water composition, in-drift gas composition, and relative rates of evaporation and seepage. In downstream applications of this model, intended input values for these parameters are abstracted results from thermal-hydrological-chemical models, water sample measurements, dust leachate samples, and values used in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses that encompass the expected ranges of these parameters.

P. Mariner

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

316

SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

Griswold, G. B.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Structural restoration of Louann Salt and overlying sediments, De Soto Canyon Salt Basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The continental margin of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is suited for seismic stratigraphic analysis and salt tectonism analysis. Jurassic strata include the Louann Salt on the continental shelf and upper slope of the Destin Dome OCS area...

Guo, Mengdong

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics of the Alaminos Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

morphology, salt structure, and suprasalt sediments indicate the majority of the slope is covered by a shallow salt canopy. The salt structure map indicates that the Alaminos Canyon study area represents a transition from a semi-continuous salt sheet...

Mechler, Suzanne Marie

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Interactions of hydrogen with alkali promoted Ru/SiO{sub 2} catalysts: A proton NMR study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Role of H spillover to the silica support was studied using chemisorption; a strongly bound component of spilled over H was found in the silica support which interfered with accurate measurements of active metal sites via volumetric strong H chemisorption. The volumetric chemisorption technique was modified so that measurement times were reduced from 12--36 h to 1 h. The active Ru surface was characterized means of changes in proton spin counts and NMR Knight shifts vs alkali loading. Na, K blocked the active surface of Ru metal, but Cs was pushed off by H chemisorption. The alkali promoters restricted H mobility on both metal surface and at the metal support interfaces; this is consistent with effects on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. {sup 1}H NMR was used to study the effect of the active metal and promoter on support hydroxyl groups. The OH group density in the silica support decreased with metal and/or promoter loading, but not on a one-to-one basis; the exchange efficiency of the hydroxyls decreased with atomic size of the alkali metal. An additional downfield proton resonance was detected which was assigned to the alkali hydroxide species in the support.

Ozbay, U.D.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

320

The influence of high quantity of fly ash on reducing the expansion due to ASR in the presence of alkalis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A testing program was devised to study the role of high volume fly ash (HVFA) in reducing the expansion caused by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). A series of modified ASTM C 1260 tests were performed, where the replacement of cement by Class F fly ash...

Mohidekar, Saleel D.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

DOI: 10.1002/chem.200702012 Properties of Alkali Metal Atoms Deposited on a MgO Surface: A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as in tungsten bronzes, this may turn a wide-gap insulating oxide into a material with metallic conductivity, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) on the surface of MgO powders and thin films has been stud- ied by means of EPR. These reductions in the hfccs are due to polarization effects and are not connected to ionization of the alkali

Gao, Hongjun

322

Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Dumanskii Institute of Colloid and Water Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Radar investigation of the Cote Blanche salt dome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE COTE BLANCHE SALT DOME. Geology of the Cote Blanche Salt-Dome Azea. . Economic History of the Cote BLanche Salt-Dome Azea, Salt. . Oil and gas. III. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION. . . Radar Speed in Air and in Salt. . . Velocity...' zznd i'r. mzznz 1959) . The east, south, end west flanks are nearly vertical. However, the north side oi the dome is characterised by a massive overhang. A well drilled by Shell Oil Company, Caffrey No. 1, confirmed the presence of a minimum of 3300...

Stewart, Robert Donald

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Structural features of alkali and barium aluminofluorophosphate glasses studied by IR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IR reflection spectra of the Al(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}-MeF{sub x} glasses (Me=Li, Na, K, Ba) with the maximum content of fluoride varied for each specific glass within certain concentration limits are considered. Analysis of the spectra for glasses obtained upon variation in the content of alkali metal fluoride introduced into these glasses has demonstrated that the increase in the MeF{sub x} content leads to breaking the chain groupings and forming the [PO{sub 3}F]{sup 2-} groups, whereas the rise in concentration of barium fluoride in the Al(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}-BaF{sub 2} glasses brings about the stabilization of the chain structures.

Urusovskaya, L.N.; Smirnova, E.V. [Research and Technological Institute of Optical Materials Science, State Scientific Center, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Carrier-wave Rabi flopping signatures in high-order harmonic generation for alkali atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first theoretical investigation of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in real atoms by employing numerical simulations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in alkali species. Given the short HHG cutoff, related to the low saturation intensity, we concentrate on the features of the third harmonic of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) atoms. For pulse areas of 2$\\pi$ and Na atoms, a characteristic unique peak appears, which, after analyzing the ground state population, we correlate with the conventional Rabi flopping. On the other hand, for larger pulse areas, carrier-wave Rabi flopping occurs, and is associated with a more complex structure in the third harmonic. These new characteristics observed in K atoms indicate the breakdown of the area theorem, as was already demonstrated under similar circumstances in narrow band gap semiconductors.

Ciappina, M F; Landsman, A S; Zimmermann, T; Lewenstein, M; Roso, L; Krausz, F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Diffusion and selective transport of alkali cations on cation-exchange membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The diffusion coefficients and selective transport for alkali metal cations through a charged polysulfonated ICE-450 ion-exchange membrane were measured as a function of pH at 25{degrees}C. The permeability and diffusion coefficients were found to increase in the sequence Cs{sup +} {ge} K{sup +} {ge} Na{sup +} {ge} Li{sup +}. The relationship between the permeability and the diffusion coefficients, and the hydrated radii of cations in the membrane were shown. This sequence was also explained by considering the hydration of ions in the membrane. The selectivity transport of K-Na and K-Li binary systems at various pH gradients through the membrane were also investigated under various conditions. In the selective transport of metal ions, the selectivity depended on both the hydrated ionic size and the interaction between the fixed groups in the membrane and the metal ions.

Ersoez, M. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Salt Wash Field, Grand Country, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salt Wash field is located 15 miles southeast of Green River, Utah, in the Paradox fold and fault belt. The field was discovered in 1961 and has produced over 1.3 million bbl of oil and 11.6 billion ft[sup 3] of gas from the Mississippian Leadville LImestone. The average surface elevation is 4389 ft above sea level, and the depth to the top of the oil production is form 8500 to 8914 ft. Salt Wash field is an anticline with over 200 ft of closure on top of the Leadville. The producing zone is in the lower Leadville with intercrystalline and vuggy porosity developed in limestone and crystalline dolomitic limestone. The produced oil is a 50 to 53 API gravity crude with a 40[degrees]F pour point. The gas, a mixture of two sources, is predominately nitrogen (>70[sup [approximately

Morgan, C.D. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO[sub 3]/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO{sub 3}/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Tichenor, Mark S. (San Diego, CA); Artau, Alexander (Humacao, PR)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

331

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

High thermal energy storage density molten salts for parabolic trough solar power generation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??New alkali nitrate-nitrite systems were developed by using thermodynamic modeling and the eutectic points were predicted based on the change of Gibbs energy of fusion.… (more)

Wang, Tao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Salt Tolerance of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TDOC Z TA245 .7 8873 NO.1651 ---- Salt Tolerance of yUayu{e ~" y r , B -1651 The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station? Charles J. Arntzen, Director? The Texas A&M University System? College Station, Texas (Blank Pille In Origblll.... ?JI. Z 0 t= -t Z :i a: w " 100~----------------------------~ 80 60 40 20 I SEmaln I SElub SELECTION o+-----~----~----~----_,----_, o 5 10 15 20 25 EC OF SOLUTION, dSm-' Figure 1. Seed germination of guayule selections as related...

Miyamoto, S.; Davis, J.; Madrid, L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF)  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

Sandia has developed a heat transfer fluid (HTF) for use at elevated temperatures that has a lower freezing point than any molten salt mixture available commercially. This allows the HTF to be used in applications in which the expensive parasitic energy costs necessary for freeze protection can be significantly reduced. The higher operating temperature limit significantly increases power cycle efficiency and overall power plan sun-to-net electric efficiency....

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

336

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

337

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

Reference repository design concept for bedded salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

1980-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

339

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal thermal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

340

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals phase Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal dimers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

342

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals final Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal complexes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

344

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal extraction Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , calcium hypochlorite, hydrogen fluoride (HF) Ammonium Nitrate acids, metal powders, flammable liquids... , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals...

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal carbonates Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

, sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals Calcium water, carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride... , acids, metal powders, sulfur, finely divided organics or...

346

Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

348

DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

349

Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Reavis, J.G.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mq A QTF *'. ' . - - . 1 bC1 r*. .. r * - .=.-ksl-, G v $. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATER ON RICE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President \\ STATION ,,,bfINISTRATION: *B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D.,, Director A B CONNER... Station, near R. k. HALL, b. S., ~u~eriniendent College Station. Brazos County: No. 2 Troup Smith County: R. M. SHERWOOD, M. S., Animal Husbanri- W.'S. EIOT&HKISS. Superintendent man In Charge of Farm No. 3, Angleton, Brazoria County: L. J. MCCALL...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Acoustic probing of salt using sonar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, glycerine, and s1li cone oil provi ded satisfactory performance. In spite of these results, Gupta did not develop a workable means of us1ng 11quid coupl1ng media under mine condit1ons. In his field tests, Gupta used dental impression plaster (a coupling... acoustic pulses which are coupled 1nto the salt via a castor oil coupling medium. The acoustic source signa'i is a square-enveloped pulse of compress1onal waves; a pulse duration of e1ther 0. 3 ms or 1. 1 ms is used. The ranges to discontinuities...

Butler, Kenneth Bryan

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Salt dome gas storage solves curtailment threat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In November 1981, Valero Transmission Co. (San Antonio, TX) opened two salt-dome storage caverns with a combined capacity of 5 billion CF (1.5 billion of cushion gas, 3.5 of working gas). The facility's maximum deliverability is 400 million CF/day for 9 days; when two more caverns are finished in late 1982, the $55 million complex will be able to sustain that level for 18 days, making Valero less dependent on linepacking and spot sales to avoid curtailing deliveries to its customers.

Watts, J.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Salt River Project electric vehicle program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric vehicles (EV) promise to be a driving force in the future of America. The quest for cleaner air and efforts to trim the nation's appetite for foreign oil are among the reasons why. America's EV future is rapidly approaching, with major automakers targeting EV mass production and sales before the end of the decade. This article describes the Salt River Project (SRP), a leader among electric utilities involved in EV research and development (R and D). R and D efforts are underway to plan and prepare for a significant number of EVs in SRP's service territory and to understand the associated recharging requirements for EVs.

Morrow, K.P.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Salt Wells Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardton Abbey Wind Farm(CTIhinderProject SmartSalt Wells

356

Sandia National Laboratories: Molten Salt Test Loop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS ExhibitIowaLosSandiaManagementMolecularFacilityMolten Salt

357

The Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScienceThe Life of EnricoFlickrPhysics LabSalt

358

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Sodium Chloride.--In order to test the recovery of added salt, several molasses feeds were selected, weighed out, and varying amounts of salt added, in the form of a N/10 solution of sodium chloride. The salt was added hy a different person from... ............................... . . Preliminary ~vork on laboratory methocls ........ . . ............................... Laboratory method adopted.. ............................. Tests of the laboratory niethod. ................... Application of the methold to feed mixtures...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The ground state of the polar alkali-Strontium molecules: potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, we investigate the structure of the polar alkali-Strontium diatomic molecules as possible candidates for the realization of samples of new species of ultracold polar molecules. Using a quantum chemistry approach based on Effective Core Potentials and Core Polarization Potentials, we model these systems as effective three valence electron systems, allowing for calculation of electronic properties with Full Configuration Interaction. The potential curve and the permanent dipole moment of the $^2\\Sigma^+$ ground state are determined as functions of the internuclear distances for LiSr, NaSr, KSr, RbSr, and CsSr molecules. These molecules are found to exhibit a significant permanent dipole moment, though smaller than those of the alkali-Rb molecules.

Romain Guérout; Mireille Aymar; Olivier Dulieu

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

362

Ground state of the polar alkali-metal-atom-strontium molecules: Potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we investigate the structure of the polar alkali-metal-atom-strontium diatomic molecules as possible candidates for the realization of samples of ultracold polar molecular species not yet investigated experimentally. Using a quantum chemistry approach based on effective core potentials and core polarization potentials, we model these systems as effective three-valence-electron systems, allowing for calculation of electronic properties with full configuration interaction. The potential curve and the permanent dipole moment of the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} ground state are determined as functions of the internuclear distance for LiSr, NaSr, KSr, RbSr, and CsSr molecules. These molecules are found to exhibit a significant permanent dipole moment, though smaller than those of the alkali-metal-atom-Rb molecules.

Guerout, R. [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, CNRS, ENS, Univ Pierre et Marie Curie case 74, Campus Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Aymar, M.; Dulieu, O. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, UPR3321, Bat. 505, Univ Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

Hsu, P.C.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

365

A trophic cascade regulates salt marsh primary production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Nutrient supply is widely thought to regulate primary production of many ecosystems including salt marshes, predator regulation of marine macrophyte production via trophic cascades (kelps, seagrasses, intertidal

Bertness, Mark D.

366

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA); Troup, R. Lee (Murrysville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Advanced Ceramic Materials and Packaging Technologies for Realizing Sensors for Concentrating Solar Power Systems...

368

Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

structural controls, and potential subsurface reservoir temperatures of geothermal fluids. An example is provided by the Salt Wells geothermal system in Churchill County,...

369

Method for the production of uranium chloride salt  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

370

Multispectral Imaging At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Shevenell...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Columbus Salt Marsh Area Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Usefulness useful...

371

Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

a lack of understanding about solar contributed to preventing the widespread adoption of solar energy in all markets. Salt Lake City's prior solar successes with support from...

372

Salt River Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Salt River Electric serves as the rural electric provider in Kentucky's Bullitt, Nelson, Spencer, and Washington counties. Residential customers are eligible for a variety of cash incentives for...

373

Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

including all molten salt components (receiver, field piping, thermal storage, and steam generator) and their integration with eSolar's heliostat technology and a conventional...

374

A computational analysis of the evaporator/artery of an alkali metal thermal to electric conversion (AMTEC) PX series cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, while minimizing mass. Current technology, such as Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's) are reliable, but do not supply the power conversion efficiencies desired for future space missions. That leads to Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric...-series cells to generate electricity for the deep space vehicle. The higher efficiency of AMTEC compared to other conversion technologies, such as Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's), results in less energy source material being launched...

Pyrtle, Frank

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Kinetic studies for elucidation of the promoter effect of alkali in Fischer-Tropsch iron catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of the formation of hydrocarbons in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and of consecutive reactions, i.e., hydrogenation and double bond isomerization of primarily formed 1-alkenes, were studied in a slurry-phase reactor using alkalized and nonalkalized precipitated iron catalysts. Both consecutive reactions have an order of about -2 with respect to carbon monoxide and an order of about 1 with respect to 1-alkenes. The order with respect to hydrogen is 1 for the hydrocarbon formation and also 1 for the consecutive hydrogenation, but 0 for the consecutive isomerization. The reaction orders are not changed by addition of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to the catalyst. The kinetics of consecutive reactions can be interpreted by competitive adsorption of 1-alkene and carbon monoxide. Alkali addition causes an increase in the strength of carbon monoxide adsorption and consequently a decrease in 1-alkene adsorption so that the rates of the consecutive reactions are reduced. This hypothesis could be proved by studies of 1-hexene hydrogenation in the presence and absence of carbon monoxide for alkalized and nonalkalized iron catalysts. The kinetics were studied in the ranges 1.3 < P{sub CO}(10{sup 5} Pa) < 7, 1.6 < P{sub H{sub 2}}(10{sup 5} Pa) < 9, and 490 K < T < 530 K.

Herzog, K.; Gaube, J. (Institut fuer Chemische Technologie der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt, Darmstadt (West Germany))

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (?500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico [Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Iannace, Salvatore [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples, Italy and IMAST SCRAL, Piazza Bovio 22 Napoli 80133 (Italy)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Prevention of Salt Damage inPrevention of Salt Damage in LimestoneLimestone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Introduction: Sources of Na2SO4 Acid rain deposits SO4 2- which combines with Na+ Na2SO4 enters with a solution of polyacrylic acid (PAA) will reduce the crystallization pressure. #12;Warping Experiment Experiment Sample Size ~ 10 x 2.5 x 1.0 cm 1. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) treatment 2. Dried at 105°C 3

Petta, Jason

378

Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkali con- alkali-soluble Seam coal over the temperaturefor the Pittsburgh Seam coal. Another important conclusionVI, Composition of Roland seam coal--ultimate analysis~ wt%,

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

The role of syn-kinematic sedimentation on early salt tectonic processes in the Post-Permian Salt Basin, Southern North Sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The role of syn-kinematic sedimentation on early salt tectonic processes in the Post-Permian Salt- Permian salt basin of the southernmost North Sea using 3D seismic interpretation, structural modelling mechanical concepts for the dynamics of salt structures and related depositional systems as well

Royal Holloway, University of London

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Laboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.3 Complex Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.4 Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.5 Coagulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4 Sea Salt AerosolsLaboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index Thesis submitted for the degree

Oxford, University of

382

ORIGINAL PAPER Geochemical Evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discipline, US Geological Survey, 2329 Orton Circle, Salt Lake City, UT 84119, USA R. J. Spencer GeoscienceORIGINAL PAPER Geochemical Evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA Blair F. Jones Ã? David L. Naftz Ã? Ronald J. Spencer Ã? Charles G. Oviatt Received: 13 June 2008 / Accepted: 10 November 2008

383

SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Fossum, A.F [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

385

Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Natural gas storage in bedded salt formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1990 Western Resources Inc. (WRI) identified the need for additional natural gas storage capacity for its intrastate natural gas system operated in the state of Kansas. Western Resources primary need was identified as peak day deliverability with annual storage balancing a secondary objective. Consequently, an underground bedded salt storage facility, Yaggy Storage Field, was developed and placed in operation in November 1993. The current working capacity of the new field is 2.1 BCF. Seventy individual caverns are in service on the 300 acre site. The caverns vary in size from 310,000 CF to 2,600,000 CF. Additional capacity can be added on the existing acreage by increasing the size of some of the smaller existing caverns by further solution mining and by development of an additional 30 potential well sites on the property.

Macha, G.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Metals concentration in salt marshes plants and kelp around San Diego: A window to environment quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in salt marshes plants and kelp around San Diego: A windowassessing levels of metals in kelp and salt marsh plants inmetals levels found in kelp and salt marsh plants reflect

Deheyn, Dimitri

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative salt transfer Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note (No. 11) De-icing salt... damage to trees De-icing Salt Damage to Trees Joan F Webber, David R Rose, Martin C ......

391

Testing of low-temperature stabilization alternatives for salt containing mixed wastes -- Approach and results to date  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through its annual process of identifying technology deficiencies associated with waste treatment, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) determined that the former DOE weapons complex lacks efficient mixed waste stabilization technologies for salt containing wastes. These wastes were generated as sludge and solid effluents from various primary nuclear processes involving acids and metal finishing; and well over 10,000 cubic meters exist at 6 sites. In addition, future volumes of these problematic wastes will be produced as other mixed waste treatment methods such as incineration and melting are deployed. The current method used to stabilize salt waste for compliant disposal is grouting with Portland cement. This method is inefficient since the highly soluble and reactive chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts interfere with the hydration and setting processes associated with grouting. The inefficiency results from having to use low waste loadings to ensure a durable and leach resistant final waste form. The following five alternatives were selected for MWFA development funding in FY97 and FY98: phosphate bonded ceramics; sol-gel process; polysiloxane; polyester resin; and enhanced concrete. Comparable evaluations were planned for the stabilization development efforts. Under these evaluations each technology stabilized the same type of salt waste surrogates. Final waste form performance data such as compressive strength, waste loading, and leachability could then be equally compared. Selected preliminary test results are provided in this paper.

Maio, V.; Loomis, G. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Smith, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Biyani, R.K. [SGN Eurisys Services Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

Munson, D.E.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Study of alkali- and sulfur-enhanced corrosion of advanced energy systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial stage of MHD anode corrosion process appears to be dominated by out-diffusion of metallic species into the powder deposit. In addition, K and S appear to diffuse into the native oxide and underlying metal substrate. The out-diffusion process clearly leads to a loss of metal species from either the native oxide or metal substrate, while in-diffusion leads to the formation of sulfides and possibly to the accumulation of K containing compounds which may ultimately flux the protective oxide scale. The results for MHD anodes may be compared with those from previous studies of alkali-sulfur enhanced corrosion of turbine alloys. Although the specific details of these studies differ, both agree that rapid or catastrophic corrosion is preceded by a variable length induction period. During this period, relatively small changes in weight are observed. However, the protective metal oxide scale is breached which establishes the condition for rapid direct attack by condensed corrosive deposits. Thus, the mechanisms and kinetics of processes associated with the induction period are of great interest in understanding the survivability of various alloys. In the corrosion modeling effort, it was found that a simple model which considered only the diffusion-limited corrosion of iron did not correctly predict the iron corrosion product species for iron-based alloys. This lack of agreement was due to the absence of the treatment of other metal constituents in the alloy which form corrosion products. A more detailed model which includes equilibrium and diffusion relations for all metal species is required for accurate modeling of the corrosion product composition. 14 refs.

Stinespring, C.; Annen, K.; Stewart, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative salt processing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assurance Salt Lake City UT Pricewaterhouse... salary) 11 Employment Information Armstrong, Johnson & Seatsen Accountant Salt Lake City UT Baird... Longyear Accounting...

395

Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area...

396

E-Print Network 3.0 - avoid salt induced Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with Salt Ions: An Electrostatic Theory for the Hofmeister Effect Summary: , an image charge is induced and a repulsive interaction between the salt ion and its image...

397

anion heavy-atom salt: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

398

Invasive Spartina densiflora Brongn. Reduces Primary Productivity in a Northern California Salt Marsh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh food webs:dynamics of benthic microalgae in salt marshes. Pages 81-106primary productivity of microalgae and cyanobacteria (Geider

Lagarde, Luc A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Levels of metals from salt marsh plants from Southern California, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodalterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodSpartina, but feed on microalgae (Currin,1990). Isotope

Hoyt, Kimberly Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Addendum to Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this addendum is to graphically publish data which indicate moisture in leakage and corrosion may have occurred during heating of the tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) for and during hydrofluorination, fluorination and transfer of uranium. Corrosion, especially by hydrofluoric acid, is not expected to occur uniformly over the tank and piping inner surfaces and therefore is not easily measured by nondestructive techniques that can measure only limited areas. The rate of corrosion exponentially escalates with both temperature and moisture. The temperature, pressure, and concentration data in this addendum indicate periods when elevated corrosion rates were likely to have been experienced. This data was not available in time to be considered as part of the evaluation that was the focus of the report. Pressure and temperature data were acquired via the LabView{trademark} Software, while concentration data was acquired from the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) system.

Wilson, Guy

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

404

Comparison of linear and nonlinear acoustic probing of rock salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equation (2) (3) where A = oo ~ = '0'0 0 (4) with c being the sound speed for 1nfin1tesimal-amplitude wave propa- 0 gation. The rat1o 8/A is the nonlinear ity parameter of liquids. It can be written as: where T 1s the absolute temperature c... equipment, Butler (1977) encountered difficulty in obtaining a narrow beam in salt. The sound speed i n salt is higher than the sound speed in the coupling fluid (castor oil or glycerin). Therefore, coupling sound energy into salt, with a coupling fluid...

Wang, Albert Min-Hao

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

406

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

407

The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Moving on from the MSBR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A re-evaluation of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor concept has revealed problems related to its safety and to the complexity of the reprocessing considered. A reflection is carried out anew in view of finding innovative solutions leading to the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. Several main constraints are established and serve as guides to parametric evaluations. These then give an understanding of the influence of important core parameters on the reactor's operation. The aim of this paper is to discuss this vast research domain and to single out the Molten Salt Reactor configurations that deserve further evaluation.

L. Mathieu; D. Heuer; R. Brissot; C. Le Brun; E. Liatard; J. M. Loiseaux; O. Méplan; E. Merle-Lucotte; A. Nuttin; J. Wilson; C. Garzenne; D. Lecarpentier; E. Walle; the GEDEPEON Collaboration

2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Rock Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.

Malama, Bwalya; Howard, Clifford L.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold Lithium or Rubidium atom and a Strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

Mireille Aymar; Romain Guérout; Olivier Dulieu

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

410

Structure of the alkali-metal-atom + strontium molecular ions: Towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold lithium or rubidium atom and a strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

Aymar, M.; Dulieu, O. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, UPR3321, Ba circumflex t. 505, Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Guerout, R. [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, CNRS, ENS, Univ Pierre et Marie Curie case 74, Campus Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

411

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold Lithium or Rubidium atom and a Strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material - There are likely multiple phases of material in the salt (metal or compound), either suspended through the salt matrix, layered in the bottom of the tank, or both. These phases may contribute to plugging during any planned transfer. There is not enough data to know for sure. (4) Probe heat trace - The alternate transfer method does not include heat tracing of the bottom of the probe. There is a concern that this may cool the salt and other phases of materials present enough to block the flow of salt. (5) Stress-corrosion cracking - Additionally, there is a concern regarding moisture that may have been introduced into the tanks. Due to time constraints, this concern was not validated. However, if moisture was introduced into the tanks and not removed during heating the tanks before HF and F2 sparging, there would be an additional concern regarding the potential for stress-corrosion cracking of the tank walls.

Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

413

Infrared spectra and structure of alkali-metal and alkaline-earth di-2-ethylhexylphosphates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The types of coordination of the di-2-ethylhexylphosphate anion (X/sup -/) to M/sup +/ (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and Mg/sup 2 +/ in solid salts and in their solutions in CCl/sub 4/ have been studied by IR spectroscopy (25-4000 cm/sup -1/). The combination LiX forms only polymers of type (I); NaX and KX form not only I, but also two types of monomers, (II) and (III), and RbX and CsX form practically only III and I to only a slight extent. The compound Mgx/sub 2/ forms linear polymeric molecules of the (MgX/sub 2/)/sub n/ type, in which the four oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of Mg/sup 2 +/ form a distorted tetrahedron. The forms CaX/sub 2/ and BaX/sub 2/ contain two or more inequivalent types of POO groups. The laws obtained for the variation of the types of coordination of POO groups to the M/sup +/ cation along the series from Li/sup +/ to Cs/sup +/ have been discussed in connection with the changes in the density of the charges on the M/sup +/ cations and their radii. It has been established that the interaction of the polymeric (LiX)/sub n/ molecules with pyridine (Py) results in the formation of short-chain (LiX 2Py)/sub n/ polymers and that the interaction in 100% pyridine results in the formation of long-chain polymers and monomeric molecules of type II. The properties of the salts studied and the corresponding carboxylates have been compared. The structure types are illustrated.

Stoyanov, E.S.; Mikhailov, V.A.; Popov, V.M.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Supported, Alkali-Promoted Cobalt Oxide Catalysts for NOx Removal from Coal Combustion Flue Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of cobalt oxide catalysts supported on alumina ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were synthesized with varying contents of cobalt and of added alkali metals, including lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. Unsupported cobalt oxide catalysts and several cobalt oxide catalysts supported ceria (CeO{sub 2}) with varying contents of cobalt with added potassium were also prepared. The catalysts were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy and were examined for NO{sub x} decomposition activity. The CoO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and particularly the CoO{sub x}/CeO{sub 2} catalysts show N{sub 2}O decomposition activity, but none of the catalysts (unsupported Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} or those supported on ceria or alumina) displayed significant, sustained NO decomposition activity. For the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported catalysts, N{sub 2}O decomposition activity was observed over a range of reaction temperatures beginning about 723 K, but significant (>50%) conversions of N{sub 2}O were observed only for reaction temperatures >900 K, which are too high for practical commercial use. However, the CeO{sub 2}-supported catalysts display N{sub 2}O decomposition rates similar to the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported catalysts at much lower reaction temperatures, with activity beginning at {approx}573 K. Conversions of >90% were achieved at 773 K for the best catalysts. Catalytic rates per cobalt atom increased with decreasing cobalt content, which corresponds to increasing edge energies obtained from the UV-visible spectra. The decrease in edge energies suggests that the size and dimensionality of the cobalt oxide surface domains increase with increasing cobalt oxide content. The rate data normalized per mass of catalyst that shows the activity of the CeO{sub 2}-supported catalysts increases with increasing cobalt oxide content. The combination of these data suggest that supported cobalt oxide species similar to bulk Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are inherently more active than more dispersed cobalt oxide species, but this effect was only observed with the CeO{sub 2}-supported catalysts.

Morris D. Argyle

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA(DOI-BLM...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program...

416

Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert and Adjacent Areas in Utah, Nevada, and...

417

Molten Salt Breeder Reactors Academia Sinica, ITRI, NTHU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten Salt Breeder Reactors HX Team* Academia Sinica, ITRI, NTHU 6 April 2012 *F. H. Shu, M. J MSRs Can Rid LWR Waste & Safely Breed for U-233 ­LWR spent fuel Th-232 Blanket ­U-238, U-235 in form

Wang, Ming-Jye

418

Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

To The Hydrocarbon Exploration In The Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

420

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

2014 April 2014 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Fire Protection Systems The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

from the salt coolant material testing by e and in other technical areas of mutual interest. "The United States is committed to working closely with the Czech Republic to...

422

Continuous Commissioning of Salt Lake Community College South City Campus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The State of Utah's Department of Natural Resources funded two projects in Salt Lake City to demonstrate the feasibility of the Continuous Commissioning® (CC®)1 process. The two sites selected were a modern state building, the Matheson Courthouse [1...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Hood, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a small scale prototype system. This includes investigations of plugging issues, heat transfer, pressure drop, and the corrosion and erosion of materials in the flowing system.

Mark Anderson; Kumar Sridhara; Todd Allen; Per Peterson

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

426

Study of maximizing acoustic energy coupling to salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem The knowledge of the geologic discontinuities in the salt which lie in front of a mining face is a great value for both economic and safety reasons. This knowledge can be obtained by core drilling... at the transducer/ coupling media and coupling media/salt boundaries can be considered as being separate and mutually independent. The coupling problem would then be treated by evaluating the normal incidence reflection coefficients at the transducer/ coupling...

Hwang, Yng-Jou

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Le Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Au del du MSBR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Le Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Au delà du MSBR L. Mathieu, D. Heuer, A. Billebaud, R. Brissot, C réflexion est menée afin de trou- ver des solutions et ainsi d'aboutir au concept du Thorium Mol- ten Salt optimale du minerai d'uranium ou de thorium, une conception résistante à la prolifération, une meilleur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

428

Vertebrate survey of a dredge spoil salt marsh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]ect: Wildlife and Fisheries Science VERTEBRATE SURVEY OF A DREDGE SPOIL SALT MARSH A Thesis by BETTY JO LEE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1976 ABSTRACT Vertebrate Survey... of this ecotone are salinity, amount of fresh water, agitation by tides and currents, temperatut'e, wind, and industrial pollutants (Odum 1971). Clark (1974) points out the environmental importance of salt marshes to the waters of estuaries and bays by acting...

Lee, Betty Jo

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel (SOFC) applications. The glass containing ~17 mole% alkalis (K2O and Na2O) remains vitreous and compliant during SOFC operation, unlike conventional SOFC sealing glasses, which experience substantial devitrification after the sealing process. The non-crystallizing compliant sealing glass has lower glass transition and softening temperatures since the microstructure remains glassy without significant crystallite formation, and hence can relieve or reduce residual stresses and also has the potential for crack healing. Sealing approaches based on compliant glass will also need to satisfy all the mechanical, thermal, chemical, physical, and electrical requirements for SOFC applications, not only in bulk properties but also at sealing interfaces. In this first of a series of papers we will report the thermal cycle stability of the glass when sealed between two SOFC components, i.e., a NiO/YSZ anode supported YSZ bilayer and a coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect material. High temperature leak rates were monitored versus thermal cycles between 700-850oC using back pressures ranging from 0.2 psi to 1.0 psi. Isothermal stability was also evaluated in a dual environment consisting of flowing dilute H2 fuel versus ambient air. In addition, chemical compatibility at the alumina and YSZ interfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shed new light on the topic of SOFC glass seal development.

Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Williams, Riley T.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, E.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Theoretical simulations of protective thin film Fabry-Pérot filters for integrated optical elements of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPAL)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lifetime of Diode-Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) is limited by damage initiated by reaction of the glass envelope of its gain medium with rubidium vapor. Rubidium is absorbed into the glass and the rubidium cations diffuse through the glass structure, breaking bridging Si-O bonds. A damage-resistant thin film was developed enhancing high-optical transmission at natural rubidium resonance input and output laser beam wavelengths of 780 nm and 795 nm, while protecting the optical windows of the gain cell in a DPAL. The methodology developed here can be readily modified for simulation of expected transmission performance at input pump and output laser wavelengths using different combination of thin film materials in a DPAL. High coupling efficiency of the light through the gas cell was accomplished by matching the air-glass and glass-gas interfaces at the appropriate wavelengths using a dielectric stack of high and low index of refraction materials selected to work at the laser energies and protected from the alkali metal vapor in the gain cell. Thin films as oxides of aluminum, zirconium, tantalum, and silicon were selected allowing the creation of Fabry-Perot optical filters on the optical windows achieving close to 100% laser transmission in a solid optic combination of window and highly reflective mirror. This approach allows for the development of a new whole solid optic laser.

Quarrie, L., E-mail: Lindsay.Quarrie@l-3com.com, E-mail: lindsay.o.quarrie@gmail.com [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Department of Materials Engineering, 801 LeRoy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RDLC Laser CoE, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cathodoluminescence microscopy and petrographic image analysis of aggregates in concrete pavements affected by alkali-silica reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various microscopic techniques (cathodoluminescence, polarizing and electron microscopy) were combined with image analysis with the aim to determine a) the modal composition and degradation features within concrete, and b) the petrographic characteristics and the geological types (rocks, and their provenance) of the aggregates. Concrete samples were taken from five different portions of Highway Nos. D1, D11, and D5 (the Czech Republic). Coarse and fine aggregates were found to be primarily composed of volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, as well as of quartz and feldspar aggregates of variable origins. The alkali-silica reaction was observed to be the main degradation mechanism, based upon the presence of microcracks and alkali-silica gels in the concrete. Use of cathodoluminescence enabled the identification of the source materials of the quartz aggregates, based upon their CL characteristics (i.e., color, intensity, microfractures, deformation, and zoning), which is difficult to distinguish only employing polarizing and electron microscopy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR in concrete pavements on the Highways Nos. D1, D5 and D11 (Czech Republic). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodoluminescence was combined with various microscopic techniques and image analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR was attributed to aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Source materials of aggregates were identified based on cathodoluminescence characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz comes from different volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic parent rocks.

Stastna, A., E-mail: astastna@gmail.com [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Sachlova, S.; Pertold, Z.; Prikryl, R. [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Leichmann, J. [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan; William M. Goodman

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

EIS-0099: Remedial Actions at the Former Vitro Chemical Company Site, South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of various scenarios associated with the cleanup of those residues remaining at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site located in South Salt Lake, Utah.

434

Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

437

Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

438

Mineralogical phase analysis of alkali and sulfate bearing belite rich laboratory clinkers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The activation of laboratory belite clinkers has been carried out by adding variable amounts of alkaline salts (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), and/or SO{sub 3} as gypsum in the raw materials but keeping almost constant the main elements ratios, Ca/Si/Al/Fe. Quantitative phase analyses by the Rietveld method using high resolution synchrotron and strictly monochromatic CuK{alpha}{sub 1} laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data has been performed. Quantitative phase analysis results have been compared to validate the protocol using laboratory X-ray data. The agreement in the results is noteworthy, which indicates that good quantitative phase analyses can be obtained from laboratory X-ray powder data. Qualitative studies have confirmed that the addition of alkaline salts to raw mixtures promotes the stabilization, at room temperature, of the highest temperature polymorphs: {alpha}'{sub H}-C{sub 2}S and {alpha}-C{sub 2}S. Quantitative studies gave the phase assemblage for ten different laboratory belite clinkers. As an example, an active belite clinker with 1.0 wt.% of K{sub 2}O and 1.0 wt.% of Na{sub 2}O (amounts added to the raw mixtures) contains 8.5(3) wt.% of {beta}-C{sub 2}S, 21.2(3) wt.% of {alpha}'{sub H}-C{sub 2}S, 24.1(2) wt.% of {alpha}-C{sub 2}S, 18.9(3) wt.% of total C{sub 3}S, 17.3(2) wt.% of C{sub 3}A and 10.0(2) wt.% of C{sub 4}AF. A belite clinker with 0.8 wt.% SO{sub 3} (nominal loading) contains 60.7(1) wt.% of {beta}-C{sub 2}S, 6.7(2) wt.% of {alpha}'{sub H}-C{sub 2}S, 12.3(7) wt.% of C{sub 3}S, 9.1(2) wt.% of C{sub 3}A and 11.2(2) wt.% of C{sub 4}AF. Overall, quantitative phase analyses have shown that alkaline oxides stabilize {alpha}'{sub H}-C{sub 2}S and {alpha}-C{sub 2}S, sulfur stabilizes {beta}-C{sub 2}S, with a large unit cell volume, and the joint presence of alkaline oxides and sulfur promotes mainly the stabilization of the {alpha}'{sub H}-C{sub 2}S polymorph.

Morsli, Khadija [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); L.P.C.M. Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida 24000 (Morocco); Torre, Angeles G. de la [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Zahir, Mohammed [L.P.C.M. Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida 24000 (Morocco); Aranda, Miguel A.G. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: g_aranda@uma.es

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate the values for the rest of the temperature range. Although such treatment contributes to uncertainty in model outputs, the model validation test cases indicate that the model, with its associated uncertainty, is valid for its intended use. The intended use of this model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period.

P. Mariner

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Evaluation of laboratory test method for determining the potential alkali contribution from aggregate and the ASR safety of the Three-Gorges dam concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The releasable alkali from granite, which was used in the Three-Gorges concrete dam project in China, and from gneiss and feldspar was estimated by extraction in distilled water and super-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. Results show that: i) the finer the particles and the higher the temperature, the greater and faster the release of alkali; ii) compared with extraction by distilled water, super-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution had a stronger activation on feldspar than on granite and gneiss; iii) for the three rocks tested, thermal activation had the largest effect on gneiss and a lower and similar effect on granite and feldspar. For very fine particles, temperature had a similar effect on the release of alkali by all three rocks. Because the aggregate used in the Three-Gorges dam concrete is non-reactive and a low calcium fly ash was used in the concrete, ASR would not be an issue for the dam, despite the release of alkali from the aggregate into the concrete.

Lu Duyou [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China)]. E-mail: duyoulu@njut.edu.cn; Zhou, Xiaoling [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Xu Zhongzi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Lan Xianghui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Tang Mingshu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xin Mafan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009 (China); Fournier, Benoit [ICON/CANMET, Natural Resources Canada, 405 Rocherster Street, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0G1 (Canada)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

443

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Method for making a uranium chloride salt product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

445

Mechanical modeling of the growth of salt structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2D numerical model for studying the morphology and history of salt structures by way of computer simulations is presented. The model is based on conservation laws for physical systems, a fluid marker equation to keep track of the salt/sediments interface, and two constitutive laws for rocksalt. When buoyancy alone is considered, the fluid-assisted diffusion model predicts evolution of salt structures 2.5 times faster than the power-law creep model. Both rheological laws predict strain rates of the order of 4.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}15}s{sup {minus}1} for similar structural maturity level of salt structures. Equivalent stresses and viscosities predicted by the fluid-assisted diffusion law are 10{sup 2} times smaller than those predicted by the power-law creep rheology. Use of East Texas Basin sedimentation rates and power-law creep rheology indicate that differential loading is an effective mechanism to induce perturbations that amplify and evolve to mature salt structures, similar to those observed under natural geological conditions.

Alfaro, R.A.M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Testing on Unplated and Electroless Gold-Plated Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) remediation requires that almost 40 kg of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) be converted to uranium oxide (UO). In the process of this conversion, six moles of hydrofluoric acid (HP) are produced for each mole of UF6 converted.

Osborne, P.E.; Icenhour, A.S.; Del Cul, G.D.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Oleic AcidDependent Modulation of NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED1 Protein Levels Regulates Nitric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Agriculture­Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University, Prosser, Washington 99350 acid, which induces anti-inflammatory effects (Denys et al., 2001). FAs also serve as alarm molecules also regulate salt, drought, and heavy metal tolerance as well as wounding-induced responses

Kachroo, Pradeep

449

Alkali injection system with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 ratios for combustion of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may...

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid calcium salt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Calcium oxide Water Carbon (activated) Calcium... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates ... Source: Hall, Sharon J. - School of Life...

452

Stress measurements in rock salt using hydraulic fracturing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing was applied in horizontal drillholes in the Salado salt formation near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Testing took place approximately 650 m below surface in order to support the design of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense activities of the United States. Hydraulic fracturing was performed primarily to determine whether the virgin in situ stress state at the WIPP site is isotropic and whether the magnitudes of the the virgin in situ stresses correspond to the weight of the overburden. Beyond these limited objectives, measurements are being analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of hydraulic fracturing in salt formations in general. Such measurements are desirable to determine stresses induced by mining and to monitor time-dependent stress changes around underground excavations in salt masses. Hydraulic fracturing measurements are also relevant to the evaluation of allowable pressures before fracturing is induced in pressurized boreholes and storage caverns.

Wawersik, W.R.; Stone, C.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Damage-induced nonassociated inelastic flow in rock salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model recently developed by CHAN, et al. (1992), for describing time-dependent, pressure-sensitive inelastic flow and damage evolution in crystalline solids was evaluated against triaxial creep experiments on rock salt. Guided by experimental observations, the kinetic equation and the flow law for damage-induced inelastic flow in the model were modified to account for the development of damage and inelastic dilatation in the transient creep regime. The revised model was then utilized to obtain the creep response and damage evolution in rock salt as a function of confining pressure and stress difference. Comparison between model calculation and experiment revealed that damage-induced inelastic flow is nonassociated, dilatational, and contributes significantly to the macroscopic strain rate observed in rock salt deformed at low confining pressures. The inelastic strain rate and volumetric strain due to damage decrease with increasing confining pressures, and all are suppressed at sufficiently high confining pressures.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Brodsky, N.S.; Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics along the Sigsbee Escarpment, southeastern Green Canyon region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nsobil layer of salt which has been emplaced at least 10 ? 15 km seav"ard as a result of sediment loading up dip by the Mississippi River. The tabular or lobate nature ol' salt in this region is nrarkedly different frona the typical domes and ridges... of salt domes as well as along the base of salt layers or tongues. The salt within the study area is generally tabular or tongue ? like in nature (as opposed to the predominantlv vertical salt spines and domes found on thc upper slope and shell). Since...

Swiercz, Alan Mark

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

ALKALI – CATALYSED PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FUEL FROM NIGERIAN CITRUS SEEDS OIL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The potential of oil extracted from the seeds of three different Nigerian citrus fruits for biodiesel production was investigated. Fatty acid alkyl esters were produced from orange seed oil, grape seed oil and tangerine seed oil by transesterification of the oils with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. In the conversion of the citrus seed oils to alkyl esters (biodiesel), the grape seed oil gave the highest yield of 90.6%, while the tangerine seed oil and orange seed oil gave a yield of 83.1 % and 78.5%, respectively. Fuel properties of the seed oil and its biodiesel were determined. The results showed that orange seed oil had a density of 730 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 36.5 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 14 o C; while its biodiesel fuel had a density of 892 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 5.60 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 25 o C. Grape seed oil had a density of 675 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 39.5 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 12 o C, while its biodiesel fuel had a density of 890 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 4.80 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 22 o C. Tangerine seed oil had an acid value of 1.40 mg/g, a density of 568 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 37.3 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 15 o C, while its biodiesel fuel had an acid value of 0.22 mg/g, a density of 895 Kg/m 3, a viscosity of 5.30 mm 2 /s, and a pour point of- 24 o C.

unknown authors

456

Capture and release of mixed acid gasses with binding organic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Reversible acid-gas binding organic liquid systems that permit separation and capture of one or more of several acid gases from a mixed gas stream, transport of the liquid, release of the acid gases from the ionic liquid and reuse of the liquid to bind more acid gas with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems. These systems utilize acid gas capture compounds made up of strong bases and weak acids that form salts when reacted with a selected acid gas, and which release these gases when a preselected triggering event occurs. The various new materials that make up this system can also be included in various other applications such as chemical sensors, chemical reactants, scrubbers, and separators that allow for the specific and separate removal of desired materials from a gas stream such as flue gas.

Heldebrant, David J. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

457

Heat driven heat pump using paired ammoniated salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cycle for a heat driven heat pump using two salts CaCl/sup 2/.8NH/sup 3/, and ZnCl/sup 2/.4NH3 which may reversibly react with ammonia with the addition or evolution of heat. These salts were chosen so that both ammoniation processes occur at the same temperature so that the heat evolved may be used for comfort heating. The heat to drive the system need only be slightly hotter than 122 C. The low temperature source need only be slightly warmer than 0 C.

Dunlap, R.M.

1980-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

458

Geology of the Salt Creek area, Mason County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and to the entrapment of. surface water in the fractures. GEOLXiBPBOLOGY The Salt Creek area in @aeon County, Texas is located on the southwestern flank of the Llano Uplift, a structural dome which has been reduced to a topographic basin by erosional processes.... STSUCT "SALCEOL00Y IIegional Structure The Llano region, which includes the Salt Creek area, is a structural dome which has been reduced to a topographic basin by erosional processes. The dose is roughly elliptical with a maximum diameter...

Harwood, William Eugene

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

A mechanical model of early salt dome growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Department) December 1988 A Mechanical Analysis of Early Salt Dome Growth. (December 1988) Frank Albert Irwin, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Raymond C. Fletcher A two-layer superposition model, the lower layer representing... of the sediments results in growth rates much higher than those observed. Analysis of the case with a diffusivity of 104m2/Ka agrees with all observa- tions. A range of diffusivities which will produce a realistic salt dome model is then determined. The lower...

Irwin, Frank Albert

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Analysis of salt concentrations in the Brazos River Basin, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oct 48 . Nov 51 Oct 48 Nov 51 08080540 NcDcnsld Creek Neer Post 080810DD Selt Fork Srszon River Neer I'escock MMI200 Croton Creek Neer Jsyton 08081500 Salt Croton Creek Near Aspermont 08082000 Salt Fork Srszos Aiver Near Anperamnt 103 4, 619 64..., 988 Nov 49 . Nov df- Oct 81 Sep Sl Sep 79 Sep 84 Nov 49 . Nov 67 . Oct 81 Scp 51 Sep 79 Sep 84 0808605 D 08086100 08086150 08086212 08086260 08086290 08086300 08086500 08087300 08088000 Deep Creek at Horan HiARerd Creek Near...

Ganze, Charles Keith

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Materials and methods for stabilizing nanoparticles in salt solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Sequence-specific polymers are proving to be a powerful approach to assembly and manipulation of matter on the nanometer scale. Ligands that are peptoids, or sequence-specific N-functional glycine oligomers, allow precise and flexible control over the arrangement of binding groups, steric spacers, charge, and other functionality. We have synthesized short peptoids that can prevent the aggregation of gold nanoparticles in high-salt environments including divalent salt, and allow co-adsorption of a single DNA molecule. This degree of precision and versatility is likely to prove essential in bottom-up assembly of nanostructures and in biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

Robinson, David Bruce; Zuckermann, Ronald; Buffleben, George M.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

462

Supporting Information for: Salt concentration differences alter membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The membrane area available for ion transport was 11.4 cm2 . Platinum mesh electrodes that spanned the crossS1 Supporting Information for: Salt concentration differences alter membrane resistance in reverse-814-867-1847 #12;S2 Membrane resistance measurement Without a concentration difference Membrane resistance

463

Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

ARE DEICING SALTS NECESSARY TO PROMOTE SCALING IN CONCRETE?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: Concrete, cryosuction, durability, frost, poromechanics, porous media, thermo- dynamics, spallingARE DEICING SALTS NECESSARY TO PROMOTE SCALING IN CONCRETE? A. Fabbri1,2 , O. Coussy1 , T. Fen of the different phases that form the porous material. It eventually predicts that a less perme- able sample

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

465

THORIUM FUEL CYCLES: A GRAPHITE-MODERATED MOLTEN SALT REACTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THORIUM FUEL CYCLES: A GRAPHITE-MODERATED MOLTEN SALT REACTOR VERSUS A FAST SPECTRUM SOLID FUEL is to compare two main options dedicated to long-term energy production with Thorium: solid fuel with fast its be- haviour until it reaches the 232Th/233U equilibrium from two di erent starting fuels: 232Th

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

466

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology by Dr. Nicolas Chignard shaped the way I perform my work today. Among many other examples, she showed me how to simply performed by students that I had the pleasure to supervise. I'm grateful to all of them. I especially would

Boyer, Edmond

468

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna* a Laboratoire de Physique or chlorides) have been taken in consideration very soon in nuclear energy production researches, thorium cycle 1. Introduction The main characteristic of nuclear energy production is the large energy

Boyer, Edmond

469

SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the annual technical progress report for Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT41026 entitled Proof-of-Concept Research for an Advanced Design Criterion to Improve Working Gas Capacity for Natural Gas Storage Caverns in Salt Formations. This report covers the reporting period from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001. During this reporting period, the project was initiated and work was performed to develop structural models that will be used to evaluate two compressed natural gas storage caverns in the McIntosh Dome northwest of Mobile, Alabama. Information necessary to define the structural models include site-specific stress, temperature, geometry, stratigraphy, and operating scenarios in the dome and for the caverns. Additionally, material model development for the salt at the McIntosh Dome was initiated. Material model development activities include acquisition of salt core for testing, laboratory testing, and regression analyses to determine site-specific model parameter values that describe the behavior of salt around a storage cavern. Although not performed during this reporting period, the information and models developed will be used to perform advanced design storage cavern analyses for the Bay Gas caverns to determine the operating pressure ranges to maintain stable conditions.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

Waldrip, Karen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Kerley, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

471

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees Isolation Plan (Plan) for identified nitrate salt bearing waste disposed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant detailed proposal for the expedited closure of underground Hazardous Waste Disposal Unit (HWDU) Panel 6, so

Napp, Nils

472

Simulation of salt migrations in density dependent groundwater flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and uses a finite element method for the simulation of groundwater flow in the lateral (2D) direction (third dimension) a finite difference method is used in the simula- tions. Numerical experiments are done of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities of modelling salt migrations in density dependent groundwater

Vuik, Kees

473

New Opportunities for Metals Extraction and Waste Treatment by Electrochemical Processing in Molten Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salt electrolysis is a proven technology for the extraction of metals -- all the world's primary aluminum is produced in this manner. The unique properties of molten salts also make them

Sadoway, Donald R.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Effects of Nutrient Additions on Three Coastal Salt Marsh Plants Found in Sunset Cove, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eutrophication, particularly due to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) input, has been massively altered by anthropogenic activities. Thus it is important to understand the impact on salt marsh plants; however studies on salt marsh plants within...

Rulon, Leslie

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

475

Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems This presentation was...

476

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution salt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

salt Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution salt Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Contact: Lori M. Quillen, Director of...

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - arutlus salt lake Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IN... Accounting Master's Degree Summary: salary) 11 Employment Information Armstrong, Johnson & Seatsen Accountant Salt Lake City UT Baird... Longyear Accounting...

478

E-Print Network 3.0 - awra salt lake Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IN... Accounting Master's Degree Summary: salary) 11 Employment Information Armstrong, Johnson & Seatsen Accountant Salt Lake City UT Baird... Longyear Accounting...

479

Water Balance, Salt Loading, and Salinity Control Options of Red Bluff Reservoir, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

objectives: i) to outline water balance of the reservoir, ii) to establish salt loading trends over the past several decades, and iii) to evaluate the impact of salt loading on salinity of the reservoir and its outflow. We also outlined the needs... presumably has less seepage losses. The study reported here was conducted i) for examining the reservoir water balance of Red Bluff over the past several decades, ii) for establishing salt loading trends, and iii) for evaluating the impact of salt...

Miyamoto, S.; Yuan, Fasong; Anand, Shilpa

480

Refueling Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR), also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. Depending upon goals, the peak coolant operating temperatures are between 700 and 1000 deg. C, with reactor outputs between 2400 and 4000 MW(t). Several fluoride salt coolants that are being evaluated have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum refueling temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. At operating conditions, the liquid salts are transparent and have physical properties similar to those of water. A series of refueling studies have been initiated to (1) confirm the viability of refueling, (2) define methods for safe rapid refueling, and (3) aid the selection of the preferred AHTR design. Three reactor cores with different fuel element designs (prismatic, pebble bed, and pin-type fuel assembly) are being evaluated. Each is a liquid-salt-cooled variant of a graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor. The refueling studies examined applicable refueling experience from high-temperature reactors (similar fuel element designs) and sodium-cooled fast reactors (similar plant design with liquid coolant, high temperatures, and low pressures). The findings indicate that refueling is viable, and several approaches have been identified. The study results are described in this paper. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cahalan, James E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Enneking, Jeffrey A. [Areva NP (United States); Phil MacDonald [Consultant, Cedar Hill, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acids alkalies salts" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

482

Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

Elder, H.H.

2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

484

Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

485

Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

486

THE THORIUM MOLTEN SALT REACTOR: LAUNCHING THE THORIUM CYCLE WHILE CLOSING THE CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE THORIUM MOLTEN SALT REACTOR: LAUNCHING THE THORIUM CYCLE WHILE CLOSING THE CURRENT FUEL CYCLE E ABSTRACT Molten salt reactors, in the configuration presented here and called Thorium Molten Salt Reactor on a Thorium base, i.e. started in the Th/Pu fuel cycle. We study the transition between the reactors of second

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

487

Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman of insulators in winter due to road salt. We have started a research project at Arizona State University are more concerned with the effect that the road salts have on insulators, both ceramic and composite

488

Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf production of microalgae. Salt groundwaters, available in this region, support a large part of four microalgae grown in two salt groundwaters or in enriched coastal seawater. Cultures of microalgae

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

489

Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years of measurements during heating and then subsequent cooling periods, and the eventual forensic mining back of the test bed to determine the multi-year behavior of the simulated waste/rock environment. Funding possibilities are described, and prospects for near term start-up are discussed. Mining of the access drifts required to create the test area in the WIPP underground began in November 2011. Because this mining uses existing WIPP infrastructure and labor, it is estimated to take about two years to complete the access drifts. WIPP disposal operations and facility maintenance activities will take priority over the SDI field test area mining. Funding of the SDI proposal was still being considered by DOE's Offices of Environmental Management and Nuclear Energy at the time this paper was written, so no specific estimates of the progress in 2012 have been included. (authors)

Nelson, Roger A. [DOE, Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad NM (United States); Buschman, Nancy [DOE, Office of Environmental Management, Washington DC (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

491

Testing of candidate materials for their resistance to alkali-vapor adsorption in PFBC and gasification environments. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory-scale studies were performed to identify metallic material(s) having no, or limited, affinity for alkali vapors in an environment of either the off-gas from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) or the fuel gas from coal gasification. Such materials would be potential candidates for use as components in advanced coal-utilization systems. The following materials were tested for adsorption of NaCl vapor at 870--875 C and atmospheric pressure in a simulated PFBC off-gas (oxidizing) doped with 80 ppmW NaCl vapor: iron-based Type 304 stainless steel (304 SS), nickel-based Hastelloy C-276 and Hastelloy X alloys, cobalt-based Haynes No. 188 alloy, noble-metal-coated 304 SS, aluminized 304 SS, and ZrO{sub 2}-coated 304 SS. The Haynes No. 188 alloy and the aluminized 304 SS were also tested for their NaCl-vapor adsorption in a simulated gasification fuel gas (reducing) under the same test conditions as in the PFBC off-gas test. After 100 h of testing, the specimens were analyzed with a SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, and by an AES. The aluminized 304 SS had the least tendency to adsorb NaCl vapor, as well as an excellent resistance to corrosion as a result of the formation of a protective layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on its surface. In the reducing environment, however, the aluminized 304 SS was badly corroded by H{sub 2}S attack. The Haynes No. 188 showed virtually no NaCl-vapor adsorption and only limited H{sub 2}S attack. The authors recommend further long-term parametric studies to quantitate alkali-vapor adsorption as a function of operating variables for (1) the aluminized 304 SS in the PFBC off-gas environment and (2) the Haynes No. 188 in the gasification fuel gas environment.

Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Temperature-dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts. Interest in raising the operating temperature of concentrating solar technologies and the incorporation of thermal storage has motivated studies on the implementation of molten salt as the system working fluid. Recently, salt has been considered for use in trough-based solar collectors and has been shown to offer a reduction in levelized cost of energy as well as increasing availability (Kearney et al., 2003). Concerns regarding the use of molten salt are often related to issues with salt solidification and recovery from freeze events. Differences among salts used for convective heat transfer and storage are typically designated by a comparison of thermal properties. However, the potential for a freeze event necessitates an understanding of salt mechanical properties in order to characterize and mitigate possible detrimental effects. This includes stress imparted by the expanding salt. Samples of solar salt, HITEC salt (Coastal Chemical Co.), and a low melting point quaternary salt were cast for characterization tests to determine unconfined compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Experiments were conducted at multiple temperatures below the melting point to determine temperature dependence.

Everett, Randy L.; Iverson, Brian D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Bronowski, David R.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Reply to N. C. Higgins' comment on origin of alkali-feldspar granites: An example from the Poimena Granite, northeastern Tasmania, Australia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper acts as a rebuttal to comments made by other scientists regarding the origin of the Poimena Granite as discussed in an earlier paper by these authors. The Lottah Granite and the enclosing Poimena Granite of northeastern Tasmania represent one of the best documented and most intensely Li-F-rich alkali-feldspar granite and its much more voluminous biotite granite host. The issue under debate is which of the two most generally supported models for the origin of Li-F-Sn granites-magmatic or metasomatic-hydrothermal-best explains the data obtained from the Lottah and Poimena Granites It is not the authors intent to imply that alkali-feldspar granites cannot be generated from granites similar to the Poimena Granite by fractional crystallization: the St. Austell Granite is an excellent example of such a relationship. Nor do the authors intend to imply that metasomatic and hydrothermal processes have not operated at all in the Lottah Granite. They seek rather to demonstrate that magmatic processes alone are capable of generating alkali-feldspar granites enriched in Sn, Li, Rb, F etc. and that such granites need not be genetically linked to spatially associated normal granites. Some of the arguments and data are subsequently presented in this paper.

MacKenzie, D.E.; Sun, S.S.; Black, L.P. (Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective alumina coating on electrical stability in dual environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alkali-containing silicate glass was recently proposed as a potential sealant for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The glass contains appreciable amount of alkalis and retains its glassy microstructure at elevated temperatures over time. It is more compliant as compared to conventional glass-ceramics sealants and could potentially heal cracks during thermal cycling. In previous papers the thermal cycle stability, thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and YSZ-coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we report the electrical stability of the compliant glass with aluminized AISI441 interconnect material under DC load in dual environment at 700-800oC. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two aluminized AISI441 metal coupons as well as plain AISI441 substrates. The results showed good electrical stability with the aluminized AISI441 substrate, while unstable behavior was observed for un-coated substrates. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the alumina coating demonstrated good chemical stability with the alkali-containing silicate sealing glass under DC loading.

Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine (9) when in chiral form (5).

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA. Application of RF for cesium removal in the Hanford WTP does not involve in-riser columns but does utilize the resin in large scale column configurations in a waste treatment facility. The basic conceptual design for SCIX involves the dissolution of saltcake in SRS Tanks 1-3 to give approximately 6 M sodium solutions and the treatment of these solutions for cesium removal using one or two columns supported within a high level waste tank. Prior to ion exchange treatment, the solutions will be filtered for removal of entrained solids. In addition to Tanks 1-3, solutions in two other tanks (37 and 41) will require treatment for cesium removal in the SCIX unit. The previous SCIX design (McCabe, 2005) utilized CST for cesium removal with downflow supernate processing and included a CST grinder following cesium loading. Grinding of CST was necessary to make the cesium-loaded material suitable for vitrification in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Because RF resin is elutable (and reusable) and processing requires conversion between sodium and hydrogen forms using caustic and acidic solutions more liquid processing steps are involved. The WTP baseline process involves a series of caustic and acidic solutions (downflow processing) with water washes between pH transitions across neutral. In addition, due to resin swelling during conversion from hydrogen to sodium form an upflow caustic regeneration step is required. Presumably, one of these basic processes (or some variation) will be utilized for MSP for the appropriate ion exchange technology selected. CST processing involves two primary waste products: loaded CST and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). RF processing involves three primary waste products: spent RF resin, DSS, and acidic cesium eluate, although the resin is reusable and typically does not require replacement until completion of multiple treatment cycles. CST processing requires grinding of the ion exchange media, handling of solids with high cesium loading, and handling of liquid wash and conditioning solutions. RF processing requires h

King, W

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

498

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

499

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z