National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for acid methyl ester

  1. Experimental and Computational Thermochemical Study of 2-and 3-Thiopheneacetic Acid Methyl Esters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Experimental and Computational Thermochemical Study of 2- and 3-Thiopheneacetic Acid Methyl Esters an experimental and computational thermochemical study on the relative stabilities of 2- and 3-thiopheneacetic acid methyl esters. The enthalpies of combustion and vaporization were measured by a rotating

  2. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuadrado, Irene [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cidre, Florencia; Herranz, Sandra [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)] [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Estevez-Braun, Ana [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain) [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigaciones del Cáncer (ICIC) (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)] [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE{sub 2} production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-?B signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of I?B? and I?B?, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-? and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-?). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ? LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. ? IL-6, TNF-? and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ? Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ? LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ? LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-?).

  3. Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

  4. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohl, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  5. Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a Motored Engine Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a Motored Engine qThe alkyl chain...

  6. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ?2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  7. Low Temperature Autoignition of C8H16O2 Ethyl and Methyl Esters in a Motored Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The alkyl chain of fatty acid esters experience the typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequence; the alkyl chain length of fatty acid esters has a crucial impact on the ignition behavior of fatty acid esters

  8. Selective Monoarylation of Acetate Esters and Aryl Methyl Ketones Using Aryl Chlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biscoe, Mark R.

    Simple, efficient procedures for the monoarylation of acetate esters and aryl methyl ketones using aryl chlorides are presented. Previously, no general method was available to ensure the highly selective monoarylation of ...

  9. Preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakar (Durham, NC); Spivey, James Jerry (Cary, NC); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  10. Preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-09-15

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  11. Process for the generation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters using niobium catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav (Durham, NC); Spivey, James Jerome (Cary, NC); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A process using a niobium catalyst includes the step of reacting an ester or carboxylic acid with oxygen and an alcohol in the presence a niobium catalyst to respectively produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ester or carboxylic acid. Methanol may be used as the alcohol, and the ester or carboxylic acid may be passed over the niobium catalyst in a vapor stream containing oxygen and methanol. Alternatively, the process using a niobium catalyst may involve the step of reacting an ester and oxygen in the presence the niobium catalyst to produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acid. In this case the ester may be a methyl ester. In either case, niobium oxide may be used as the niobium catalyst with the niobium oxide being present on a support. The support may be an oxide selected from the group consisting of silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst may be formed by reacting niobium fluoride with the oxide serving as the support. The niobium catalyst may contain elemental niobium within the range of 1 wt % to 70 wt %, and more preferably within the range of 10 wt % to 30 wt %. The process may be operated at a temperature from 150 to 450.degree. C. and preferably from 250 to 350.degree. C. The process may be operated at a pressure from 0.1 to 15 atm. absolute and preferably from 0.5-5 atm. absolute. The flow rate of reactants may be from 10 to 10,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h, and preferably from 100 to 1,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h.

  12. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  13. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: D. Lipkind et al., The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated fatty acids methyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated fatty acids methyl esters by correlation gas­8 Thermochimica Acta xxx (2007) xxx­xxx The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated- vonate (methyl Z 15-tetracosenoate) are evaluated at T = 298.15 and vapor pressures are evaluated over

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE -Aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester induce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lübbert, Hermann

    tumours, psoriasis and related conditions (MacCormack 2008). PpIX can be generated inside target cells

  15. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  16. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  17. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

    2009-12-04

    Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents opposed-flow diffusion flame data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and uses the experiments to validate an improved skeletal mechanism consisting of 648 species and 2998 reactions. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  18. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  19. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  20. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  1. Effects of Turbulence on the Combustion Properties of Partially Premixed Flames of Canola Methyl Ester and Diesel Blends

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dhamale, N.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Canola methyl ester (CME) is a biofuel that is a renewable alternative energy resource and is produced by the transesterification of canola oil. The objective of this study was to document the effects of turbulence on the combustion characteristics of blends of CME and No 2 diesel fuel in a partially-premixed flame environment. The experiments were conducted with mixtures of pre-vaporized fuel and air at an initial equivalence ratio of 7 and three burner exit Reynolds numbers, 2700, 3600, and 4500. Three blends with 25, 50, and 75% volume concentration of CME were studied. The soot volume fraction was highestmore »for the pure diesel flames and did not change significantly with Reynolds number due to the mutually compensating effects of increased carbon input rate and increased air entrainment as the Reynolds number was increased. The global NOx emission index was highest and the CO emission index was the lowest for the pure CME flame, and varied non-monotonically with biofuel content in the blend The mean temperature and the NOx concentration at three-quarter flame height were generally correlated, indicating that the thermal mechanism of NOx formation was dominant in the turbulent biofuel flames also.« less

  2. The influence of molecular structure of fatty acid monoalkyl esters on diesel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenborn, Alessandro; Ladommatos, Nicos [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Williams, John; Allan, Robert; Rogerson, John [BP Oil UK Limited, Technology Centre, Whitchurch Hill, Pangbourne, Reading, RG8 7QR (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The subject of this paper is a series of experiments conducted on a single-cylinder research engine investigating the influence of molecular structure on the combustion behaviour of fatty acid alcohol ester (biodiesel) molecules under diesel engine conditions. The fuels employed in these experiments comprised various samples of pure individual fatty acid alcohol ester molecules of different structure, as well as several mixtures of such molecules. The latter consisted in biodiesel fuels produced by the transesterification of naturally occurring plant oils or animal fat with a monohydric alcohol. It was observed that the molecular structure of the fuel significantly influenced the formation of NO{sub x} and particulate matter and their respective concentration in the exhaust gas. The influence on the formation of NO{sub x} in particular, appeared to be exerted first through the effect which the molecular structure had on the auto-ignition delay occurring after the fuel was injected into the combustion chamber, and second through the flame temperature at which the various molecules burned. The emission of particulates on the other hand showed correlation with the number of double bonds in the fuel molecules for the case of larger accumulation mode particles, and with the boiling point of the fuel samples for the case of the smaller, nucleation mode particles. The effect of ignition delay on the exhaust emissions of these pollutants was isolated by adding the ignition promoting molecule 2-ethylhexyl nitrate to some of the fuel samples in closely specified concentrations, so as to equalise the ignition delay for the relevant fuel samples. The removal of the ignition delay as a main influence on the combustion process enabled the observation of the lesser effects of adiabatic flame temperature. (author)

  3. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements ofCOMPOSITION OF VAPORSSeries)SupportedDavidA - L

  4. Heavy-atom isotope effects on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl benzoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlier, J.F.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1981-05-08

    Results of the use of a previously reported technique of four-heavy atom isotope effects for study of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl benzoate are reported. Ether oxygen and methyl carbon isotope effects on the reaction were measured by the usual natural-abundance isotope-ratio technique. The carbonyl oxygen isotope effect was measured by the pseudo-natural-abundance double-label method as was the carbonyl carbon isotope effect. The results led to the assumption that the hydrolysis of methyl benzoate proceeds by way of a tetrahedral intermediate. The small amount of oxygen exchange with the solvent that accompanies the hydrolysis indicated that it is intermediate formation rather than decomposition that is rate determining. The small magnitude of the observed carbon isotope effect on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl benzoate compared to carbon isotope effects on other reactions of this compound indicate that the transition state is relatively reactant-like. (BLM)

  5. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

    2010-02-19

    Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  6. An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase capable of methylating farnesoic acid q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pichersky, Eran

    : Plant biochemistry; Secondary metabolism; Plant defense; Methyl farnesoate; Terpenes; Insect juvenile Arbor, MI 48109-1048, USA b Department of Plant Sciences, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, University reported the identification of a new family of plant methyltransferases (MTs), named the SABATH family

  7. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  8. Fatty acid composition and distribution in the blubber of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel, Asha Melina

    2000-01-01

    . Lipids were extracted from each sample, and fatty acid methyl esters analyzed using a gas-liquid chromatograph connected to a computerized integration system. Statistical analysis consisted of multivariate techniques, including classification...

  9. Conformational free energies of methyl-$\\alpha$-L-iduronic and methyl-$\\beta$-D-glucuronic acids in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Volodymyr

    2009-01-01

    We present a simulation protocol that allows for efficient sampling of the degrees of freedom of a solute in explicit solvent. The protocol involves using a non-equilibrium umbrella sampling method, in this case the recently developed adaptively biased molecular dynamics method, to compute an approximate free energy for the slow modes of the solute in explicit solvent. This approximate free energy is then used to set up a Hamiltonian replica exchange scheme that samples both from biased and unbiased distributions. The final accurate free energy is recovered via the WHAM technique applied to all the replicas, and equilibrium properties of the solute are computed from the unbiased trajectories. We illustrate the approach by means of applying it to the study of the puckering landscapes of the methyl glycosides of $\\alpha$-L-iduronic acid and its C5 epimer $\\beta$-D-glucuronic acid in water. Big savings in computational resources are gained in comparison to the standard parallel tempering method.

  10. Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl ester of rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometer test of a pickup truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.

    1996-05-01

    Comprehensive tests were performed on an on-road vehicle in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority emissions test facility. All tests were with a transient chassis dynamometer. Tests included both a double arterial cycle of 768 s duration and an EPA heavy duty vehicle cycle of 1,060 s duration. The test vehicle was a 1994 pickup truck with a 5.9-L turbocharged and intercooled, direct injection diesel engine. Rapeseed methyl (RME) and ethyl esters (REE) and blends were compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel. Emissions data include all regulated emissions: hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter (PM). In these tests the average of 100% RME and 100% REE reduced HC (52.4%), CO (47.6%), NO{sub x} (10.0%), and increases in CO{sub 2} (0.9%) and PM (9.9%) compared to the diesel control fuel. Also, 100% REE reduced HC (8.7%), CO (4.3%), and NO{sub x} (3.4%) compared to 100% RME. 33 refs., 1 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J.; Beller, Harry R.; Keasling, Jay D.; Chang, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

  12. Cationic Hyperbranched Poly(amino ester): A Novel Class of DNA Condensing Molecule with Cationic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Sang

    one hydroxyl group, two methyl ester groups, and one tertiary amine group in the center Surface, Biodegradable Three-Dimensional Structure, and Tertiary Amine Groups in the Interior Yong. Tertiary amines in the interior of PEI or PAMAM are protonated at acidic endosomal pH, which disrupts

  13. The synthesis of some N-methylated aminoalkylphosphonic acids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eikenberry, Jon Nathan

    1966-01-01

    with a Beckman, Model IR-8 double 20 N. A. L 0, H dh k f~Ch* ' t, 10th d. , td G -H'tf Book Co. , Inc. , New York, N. Y. , 1961, p. 1391. 21 G. M. Kosolapoff and R. M. Watson, J. Am, Chem. Soc. , 73, 4101 (1951). 32 beam spectrophotometer. Spectra... 80. 2 g. (53. 8%) of l-dimethylamino-2-methyl-l-propene, b. p. 85-86, n l. 4195, d 0. 7360; M calcd. 33. 54, found 34. 09. o 25 25 o 19. 6 Tiollais and assoc&ates reported 64% yield, b. p. 87, n ' l. 4212, D 19. 6 5 13c 4 1-Dimethylamino-1-butene...

  14. Acid strength and solvation effects on methylation, hydride transfer, and isomerization rates during catalytic homologation of C1 species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Acid strength and solvation effects on methylation, hydride transfer, and isomerization rates,b, a Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, USA b Division, FAU, MFI) via methylation and hydride transfer steps that favor isobutane and triptane formation

  15. The effects of solvent mixtures on the gel permeation chromatography of alkanes, fatty acids, and fatty acid esters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolton, Patrick Lee

    1985-01-01

    with mixtures of 1:1 methanol-chloroform, 1:4 hexane- methylene chloride, 3:2 methylene chloride-acetone, 1:4 methylene chloride-acetone. Improved separation was observed because of enhanced partitioning and adsorption effects that occur with changing...- gold label o-dichlorohenzene- red label eicosane- 99% red label eicosanoic acid- 99% red label hexanoic acid- gold label octadecane- 97+% red label octane- 99+0 gold label octanoic acid- gold label sodium carbonate- gold label A. C. S...

  16. The comparative reactivity of some esters of benzoic acid with aniline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Howard V.

    1921-01-01

    added careful ly, the f lask being kept cold meanwhile. The benzoic acid was added to the cold solut ion, and the f lask then heat­ ed on a water bath under a reflux condenser for two hours The mixture boiled gently and became very dark in col­ or... added careful ly, the f lask being kept cold meanwhile. The benzoic acid was added to the cold solut ion, and the f lask then heat­ ed on a water bath under a reflux condenser for two hours The mixture boiled gently and became very dark in col­ or...

  17. Electrochemical method for producing a biodiesel mixture comprising fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, YuPo J; St. Martin, Edward J

    2013-08-13

    The present invention relates to an integrated method and system for the simultaneous production of biodiesel from free fatty acids (via esterification) and from triglycerides (via transesterification) within the same reaction chamber. More specifically, one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for the production of biodiesel using an electrodeionization stack, wherein an ion exchange resin matrix acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions between a feedstock and a lower alcohol to produce biodiesel, wherein the feedstock contains significant levels of free fatty acid. In addition, because of the use of a heterogeneous catalyst, the glycerol and biodiesel have much lower salt concentrations than raw biodiesel produced by conventional transesterification processes. The present invention makes it much easier to purify glycerol and biodiesel.

  18. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  19. A determination of the heats of combustion of the five-carbon fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl esters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilby, Ralph F

    1952-01-01

    in the sehcsl dateasdmtdccw ef ths haste of oosbccstico ef tks sccLds scsL ef their ostace? In this wsy& ~ of the oonstsnt errorsi ssoh sec hest incest frcsc stirring? the hest fer elaotrio cnrrent ~sry te Tbs eaayls ef hsnseio scdd to bs cceed wss weighed...

  20. Methods of making alkyl esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2010-08-03

    A method comprising contacting an alcohol, a feed comprising one or more glycerides and equal to or greater than 2 wt % of one or more free fatty acids, and a solid acid catalyst, a nanostructured polymer catalyst, or a sulfated zirconia catalyst in one or more reactors, and recovering from the one or more reactors an effluent comprising equal to or greater than about 75 wt % alkyl ester and equal to or less than about 5 wt % glyceride.

  1. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2010-01-22

    New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

  2. Essential versus potentially toxic dietary substances: A seasonal comparison of essential fatty acids and methyl mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    to storage lipids that represent the primary source of metabolic energy in zooplankton during periods of low supply of essential fatty acids, while MeHg bioaccumulates with zooplankton size. Abstract We significantly with increasing plankton size and were independent of plankton taxonomy. However, total EFA

  3. The relative reactivity of formic esters with aromatic amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markley, Max C.

    1922-01-01

    at 100° are as follows- Ester used Percent yield Methyl formate ' 3% Ethyl M 81 Propyl " 92 Butyl " 80 Sec,octyl n 10 ( 15 ) PROPYL P OREATE W ITH SEVERAL A MINES The next move was to secure data on the relative reactivity of the amines... at 100° are as follows- Ester used Percent yield Methyl formate ' 3% Ethyl M 81 Propyl " 92 Butyl " 80 Sec,octyl n 10 ( 15 ) PROPYL P OREATE W ITH SEVERAL A MINES The next move was to secure data on the relative reactivity of the amines...

  4. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1,2[W][OA] Fengling Li, Xuemin Wu, Patricia Lam Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z1 (R.J.) Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids

  5. Effect of Amino Acid Subsititution in Set1 on Histone H3 Methylation and Gene Silencing in Saaccharomyces Cerevisiae 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chateau, Morgan

    2008-08-24

    -1231 4. Robzyk, K., and Kassir, Y. A. (1992) Nucleic Acids Research 20, 3790 5. Huang, Y. (2002) Nucleic Acids Research 30, 1465-1482 6. Bryk, M., Banerjee, M., Murphy, M., Knudsen, K. E., Garfinkel, D. J., and Curcio, M. J. (1997) Genes...

  6. Syntheses of 11 F-labeled carboxylic esters within a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Victor W.

    and with reduced infusion rate. Radioactive methyl ester 4b was obtained from the reaction of 1 (10 mM) with 2b in 56% decay-corrected radiochemical yield (RCY) at an infusion rate of 10 mL min21 , and when the infusion rate was reduced to 1 mL min21 , the RCY increased to 88%. The synthesis of the non

  7. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-01-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S--, --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group. The present invention is also directed to a process of preparing labeled compounds, e.g., process of preparing [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid by reacting a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13CH.sub.2)-- aryl sulfone precursor with .sup.13CHI to form a (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate, and, reacting the (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2O--.sup.13C(O)--.sup.13C(.sup.13CH.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfone intermediate with sodium hydroxide, followed by acid to form [.sup.13C]methacrylic acid. The present invention is further directed to a process of preparing [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate by reacting a (HOOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate with CD.sub.3I to form a (.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate, and heating the(.sup.2H.sub.3COOC--C(C.sup.2H.sub.3).sub.2)-- aryl sulfinyl intermediate at temperatures and for time sufficient to form [.sup.2H.sub.8]methyl methacrylate.

  8. Modeling of the oxidation of methyl esters--Validation for methyl hexanoate, methyl heptanoate, and methyl decanoate in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    conditions, at a pressure of 1.06 bar and for a residence time of 1.5 s: more than 30 reaction products change and the impending scarcity of oil resources have led to increasing interest in shifting from toxic by-products such as aldehydes [5]. Therefore, a deeper understanding of oxygenate biofuel

  9. Rheology of silicon carbide/vinyl ester nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    based vinyl ester and 45 wt % styrene mono- mers. The hybridcould copolymerize with styrene monomers in the vinyl ester

  10. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  11. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  12. Process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavez, David E; Naud, Darren L; Hiskey, Michael A

    2013-12-17

    A process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester compound and related intermediates is provided.

  13. Methyl arsenic adsorption and desorption behavior on iron oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lafferty, Brandon James

    2005-08-29

    been conducted regarding interactions of the methyl-arsenic forms. The objective of this study was to compare the adsorption and desorption behavior of methylarsonate (MMAsV), methylarsonous acid (MMAsIII), dimethylarsinate (DMAsV), dimethylarsinous...

  14. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  15. ABBREVIATIONS: NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid; ACPD, 1-aminocyclopentane-1 ,3-dicarboxylic acid; AMPA,a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyli-soxazole-4-propionic acid; BAPTA, 1 ,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide; DNQX, 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huettner, James E.

    ; AMPA,a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyli- soxazole-4-propionic acid; BAPTA, 1 ,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane

  16. Fuel-Specific Influences on the Composition of Reaction Intermediates in Premixed Flames of Three C5H10O2 Ester Isomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B.; Cool, T. A.; Westbrook, Charles K.; Hansen, N.; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the composition of reaction intermediates in low-pressure premixed flat flames of three simple esters, the methyl butanoate (MB), methyl isobutanoate (MIB), and ethyl propanoate (EP) isomers of C{sub 5}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}, enable further refinement and validation of a detailed chemical reaction mechanism originally developed in modeling studies of similar flames of methyl formate, methyl acetate, ethyl formate, and ethyl acetate. Photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS), using monochromated synchrotron radiation, reveals significant differences in the compositions of key reaction intermediates between flames of the MB, MIB, and EP isomers studied under identical flame conditions. Detailed kinetic modeling describes how these differences are related to molecular structures of each of these isomers, leading to unique fuel destruction pathways. Despite the simple structures of these small esters, they contain structural functional groups expected to account for fuel-specific effects observed in the combustion of practical biodiesel fuels. The good agreement between experimental measurements and detailed reaction mechanisms applicable to these simple esters demonstrates that major features of each flame can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by building a hierarchical reaction mechanism based on three factors: (1) unimolecular decomposition of the fuel, especially by complex bond fission; (2) H-atom abstraction reactions followed by ?-scission of the resulting radicals, leading to nearly all of the intermediate species observed in each flame; (3) the rates of H-atom abstraction reactions for each alkoxy or alkyl group (i.e., methoxy, ethoxy, methyl, ethyl, propyl) are effectively the same as in other ester fuels with the same structural groups.

  17. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  18. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  19. ester Thurow says "what sounds sensible (export

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ester Thurow says "what sounds sensible (export more) when heard sepa- rately in each country becomes nonsense when aggregated around the world. No one can have more net exports unless someone else a strong relationship between exports and farm prosperity in the United States. From the early 1900s

  20. Structure–activity relationships of imidazole-derived 2-[N-carbamoylmethyl-alkylamino]acetic acids, dual binders of human insulin-degrading enzyme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charton, Julie [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Gauriot, Marion [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Totobenazara, Jane [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Hennuyer, Nathalie [Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); INSERM U1011 Nuclear Receptors, Lille (France); Dumont, Julie [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Bosc, Damien [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Marechal, Xavier [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Elbakali, Jamal [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Herledan, Adrien [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Wen, Xiaoan [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Ronco, Cyril [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Gras-Masse, Helene [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Heninot, Antoine [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Pottiez, Virginie [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Landry, Valerie [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Staels, Bart [Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); INSERM U1011 Nuclear Receptors, Lille (France); Liang, Wenguang G. [The Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Leroux, Florence [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Tang, Wei -Jen [The Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Deprez, Benoit [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France); Deprez-Poulain, Rebecca [Biostructures and Drug Discovery, Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); PRIM, Lille (France); CDithem Platform/IGM, Paris (France)

    2015-01-01

    Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) is a zinc metalloprotease that degrades small amyloid peptides such as amyloid-â and insulin. So far the dearth of IDE-specific pharmacological inhibitors impacts the understanding of its role in the physiopathology of Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-â clearance, and its validation as a potential therapeutic target. Hit 1 was previously discovered by high-throughput screening. Here we describe the structure-activity study, that required the synthesis of 48 analogues. We found that while the carboxylic acid, the imidazole and the tertiary amine were critical for activity, the methyl ester was successfully optimized to an amide or a 1,2,4-oxadiazole. Along with improving their activity, compounds were optimized for solubility, lipophilicity and stability in plasma and microsomes. The docking or co-crystallization of some compounds at the exosite or the catalytic site of IDE provided the structural basis for IDE inhibition. The pharmacokinetic properties of best compounds 44 and 46 were measured in vivo. As a result, 44 (BDM43079) and its methyl ester precursor 48 (BDM43124) are useful chemical probes for the exploration of IDE's role.

  1. Experimental study of the oxidation of methyl oleate in a jet-stirred reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bax, Sarah; Hakka, Mohammed Hichem; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique

    2010-06-15

    The experimental study of the oxidation of a blend containing n-decane and a large unsaturated ester, methyl oleate, was performed in a jet-stirred reactor over a wide range of temperature covering both low and high temperature regions (550-1100 K), at a residence time of 1.5 s, at quasi atmospheric pressure with high dilution in helium (n-decane and methyl oleate inlet mole fractions of 1.48 x 10{sup -3} and 5.2 x 10{sup -4}) and under stoichiometric conditions. The formation of numerous reaction products was observed. At low and intermediate temperatures, the oxidation of the blend led to the formation of species containing oxygen atoms like cyclic ethers, aldehydes and ketones deriving from n-decane and methyl oleate. At higher temperature, these species were not formed anymore and the presence of unsaturated species was observed. Because of the presence of the double bond in the middle of the alkyl chain of methyl oleate, the formation of some specific products was observed. These species are dienes and esters with two double bonds produced from the decomposition paths of methyl oleate and some species obtained from the addition of H-atoms, OH and HO{sub 2} radicals to the double bond. Experimental results were compared with former results of the oxidation of a blend of n-decane and methyl palmitate performed under similar conditions. This comparison allowed highlighting the similarities and the differences in the reactivity and in the distribution of the reaction products for the oxidation of large saturated and unsaturated esters. (author)

  2. Journal of Chromatography A, 807 (1998) 111119 Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography of fatty acids as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miksik, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    /w) and n-butanol (6.55%, w/w), pH 10.2. Separation by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography of fatty acids as phenacyl esters *´ Ivan Miksik , Zdenek Deyl ´ ´Institute of Physiology, Academy of saturated fatty acids containing even number of carbon atoms was successfully separated as phenacyl esters

  3. Role of methyl groups in dynamics and evolution of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, Jonathan D [ORNL; Curtis, J. E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD; Oneill, Hugh [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have discovered strong differences between the dynamics of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins, especially at low hydration and low temperatures. This difference is caused primarily by dynamics of methyl groups that are abundant in proteins, but are absent or very rare in RNA and DNA. In this paper, we present a hypothesis regarding the role of methyl groups as intrinsic plasticizers in proteins and their evolutionary selection to facilitate protein dynamics and activity. We demonstrate the profound effect methyl groups have on protein dynamics relative to nucleic acid dynamics, and note the apparent correlation of methyl group content in protein classes and their need for molecular flexibility. Moreover, we note the fastest methyl groups of some enzymes appear around dynamical centers such as hinges or active sites. Methyl groups are also of tremendous importance from a ydrophobicity/folding/entropy perspective. These significant roles, however, complement our hypothesis rather than preclude the recognition of methyl groups in the dynamics and evolution of biomolecules.

  4. Optimization of esterification of oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmud, Hamizah Ammarah; Salimon, Jumat

    2014-09-03

    Vegetable oil (VO) is the most potential alternative to replace mineral oil for lubricant due to better lubricating properties and great physicochemical properties. Chemical modification has to be done to overcome low temperature performance and low oxidation instability due to the presence of ?-hydrogen atoms of glycerol molecule. The optimization of esterification of oleic acid and polyhydric alcohol with sulfuric acid catalyst was carried out to find the optimum conditions with the highest yield. Reeaction variables such as; molar ratio, temperature, duration and catalyst concentration. Two types of polyhydric alcohol have been used; TMP and PE. The optimum results showed oleic acid successfully converted 91.2% ester TMP and 92.7% ester PE at duration: 5 hours (Ester TMP), 6 hours (Ester PE); temperature: 150°C (ester TMP), 180°C (Ester PE); catalyst concentration: 1.5% (w/w); and mol ratio: 3.9:1 (ester TMP), 4.9:1 (ester PE). From the data obtained, mole ratio showed most influenced factors to the increasing yields of ester conversions.. The TMP/PE ester was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  5. The use of novel biodegradable, optically active and nanostructured poly(amide-ester-imide) as a polymer matrix for preparation of modified ZnO based bionanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir; Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran ; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran ; Borandeh, Sedigheh

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biodegradable and nanostructured PAEI based on two amino acids, was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanoparticles were modified via two different silane coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAEI/modified ZnO BNCs were synthesized through ultrasound irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO particles were dispersed homogeneously in PAEI matrix on nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the properties of synthesized polymer was examined. -- Abstract: A novel biodegradable and nanostructured poly(amide-ester-imide) (PAEI) based on two different amino acids, was synthesized via direct polycondensation of biodegradable N,N Prime -bis[2-(methyl-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate)]isophthaldiamide and N,N Prime -(pyromellitoyl)-bis-L-phenylalanine diacid. The resulting polymer was characterized by FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR, specific rotation, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis. The synthesized polymer showed good thermal stability with nano and sphere structure. Then PAEI/ZnO bionanocomposites (BNCs) were fabricated via interaction of pure PAEI and ZnO nanoparticles. The surface of ZnO was modified with two different silane coupling agents. PAEI/ZnO BNCs were studied and characterized by FT-IR, XRD, UV/vis, FE-SEM and TEM. The TEM and FE-SEM results indicated that the nanoparticles were dispersed homogeneously in PAEI matrix on nanoscale. Furthermore the effect of ZnO nanoparticle on the thermal stability of the polymer was investigated with TGA and DSC technique.

  6. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  7. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  8. An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

    2008-01-01

    Based Divynyl Ester Resin/Styrene Copolymers: CompositionBasted Divynyl Ester Resin/Styrene Copolymers: CompositionBased Divinyl Ester Resin/Styrene Copolymers: Composition

  9. Microbial production of wax esters from highly branched alkanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogan, William W.; Sullivan, Wendy R.; Paterek, James R.

    2005-02-01

    A microbial culture and method for producing wax esters using highly branched alkanes. In accordance with one embodiment, the highly branched alkane is squalane.

  10. Effect of Unburned Methyl Esters on the NOx Conversion of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Ratcliff, M.; Pedersen, D.; McCormick, R.; Cavataio, G.; Ura, J.

    2010-03-01

    Engine and flow reactor experiments were conducted to determine the impact of biodiesel relative to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) on inhibition of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction over an Fe-zeolite catalyst. Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts have the ability to adsorb and store unburned hydrocarbons (HC) at temperatures below 300 C. These stored HCs inhibit or block NO{sub x}-ammonia reaction sites at low temperatures. Although biodiesel is not a hydrocarbon, similar effects are anticipated for unburned biodiesel and its organic combustion products. Flow reactor experiments indicate that in the absence of exposure to HC or B100, NO{sub x} conversion begins at between 100 and 200 C. When exposure to unburned fuel occurs at higher temperatures (250-400 C), the catalyst is able to adsorb a greater mass of biodiesel than of ULSD. Experiments show that when the catalyst is masked with ULSD, NO{sub x} conversion is inhibited until it is heated to 400 C. However, when masked with biodiesel, NO{sub x} conversion is observed to begin at temperatures as low as 200 C. Engine test results also show low-temperature recovery from HC storage. Engine tests indicate that, overall, the SCR system has a faster recovery from HC masking with biodiesel. This is at least partially due to a reduction in exhaust HCs, and thus total HC exposure with biodiesel.

  11. A Continuous Homologation of Esters: An Efficient Telescoped Reduction–Olefination Sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Damien

    A continuous protocol for the two-carbon homologation of esters to ?,?-unsaturated esters is described. This multireactor homologation telescopes an ester reduction, phosphonate deprotonation, and Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons ...

  12. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Extinction and Ignition of Methyl Decanoate in Laminar Nonpremixed Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, K; Lu, T; Herbinet, O; Humer, S; Niemann, U; Pitz, W J; Law, C K

    2008-01-09

    Methyl decanoate is a large methyl ester that can be used as a surrogate for biodiesel. In this experimental and computational study, the combustion of methyl decanoate is investigated in nonpremixed, nonuniform flows. Experiments are performed employing the counterflow configuration with a fuel stream made up of vaporized methyl decanoate and nitrogen, and an oxidizer stream of air. The mass fraction of fuel in the fuel stream is measured as a function of the strain rate at extinction, and critical conditions of ignition are measured in terms of the temperature of the oxidizer stream as a function of the strain rate. It is not possible to use a fully detailed mechanism for methyl decanoate to simulate the counterflow flames because the number of species and reactions is too large to employ with current flame codes and computer resources. Therefore a skeletal mechanism was deduced from a detailed mechanism of 8555 elementary reactions and 3036 species using 'directed relation graph' method. This skeletal mechanism has only 713 elementary reactions and 125 species. Critical conditions of ignition were calculated using this skeletal mechanism and are found to agree well with experimental data. The predicted strain rate at extinction is found to be lower than the measurements. In general, the methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  13. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.

    1998-04-28

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  14. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  15. Conversion of essential fatty acids by Delta 6 desaturase in dog liver microsomes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunbar, Brent Lee

    2001-01-01

    substrates. Following incubation, lipids were extracted, saponified and phenacylated. The resulting fatty acid phenacyl esters (FAPES) were separated by HPLC. Radioactivity was measured with a liquid scintillation counter, converted to enzymatic activity...

  16. Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Van...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L. 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BIOMASS; ALGAE; LABORATORY ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES; LAPS; TOTAL LIPIDS; FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS; FAME;...

  17. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bioenergy Technologies Office","09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BIOMASS; ALGAE; LABORATORY ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES; LAPS; TOTAL LIPIDS; FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS; FAME;...

  18. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LAP Van Wychen S Laurens L M L BIOMASS FUELS BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES BIOMASS ALGAE LABORATORY ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES LAPS TOTAL LIPIDS FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS FAME...

  19. Distribution of Phthalate Esters in a Marine Aquatic Food Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobas, Frank

    , and polyurethanes, and as nonplasticizers in products such as lubricating oils, automobile parts, paints, gluesNorthAmerican production of phthalate esters is approximately 0.65 million tonnes/year. The global production level is approximately 4.3 million tonnes/year (2, 3). DPEs have been detected throughout the world, particularly

  20. DIETARY UPTAKE AND BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHTHALATE ESTERS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) are a group of organic chemicals used mainly as plasticizers. Due to their widespread that DPEs do not biomagnify in marine food webs. Biotransformation is believed to limit DPE bioaccumulation measured in the food, stomach, intestine, liver and muscle tissue over time. Results show that phthalate di

  1. Synthesis and Decarboxylative Coupling of Sulfonyl Acetic Esters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Jimmie Dean

    2010-04-28

    ________________________________ Paul Hanson ________________________________ Helena C. Malinakova April 20, 2010 Date Defended ii The Dissertation Committee for Jimmie D. Weaver certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation: Synthesis... ________________________________ Helena C. Malinakova April 20, 2010 Date Approved iii Abstract Jimmie D. Weaver Department of Chemistry, April 2010 University of Kansas The synthesis and palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylation (DCA) of ?- sulfonyl allyl esters...

  2. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, Katherine

    2009-08-05

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may be the cause of the viscosity reduction. The flow behavior of alumina particles in water and BECy is markedly different. Aqueous alumina suspensions are shear thinning at all alumina loadings and capable of 50 vol% loading before losing fluidity whereas BECy/alumina suspensions show Newtonian behavior up to 5 vol%, and above 5 vol% show shear thinning at all shear rates. Highly loaded suspensions (i.e. 20vol% alumina) exhibit shear thinning at low and moderate shear rates and shear thickening at higher shear rates. The maximum particle loading for a fluid suspension, in this case, appears to be about 20 vol%. The difference in the viscosity of these suspensions must be related to the solvent-particle interactions for each system. The reason is not exactly known, but there are some notable differences between BECy and water. Water molecules are {approx}0.28 nm in length and highly hydrogen bonded with a low viscosity (1 mPa's) whereas in the cyanate ester (BECy) system, the solvent molecule is about 1.2 nm, in the largest dimension, with surfaces of varied charge distribution throughout the molecule. The viscosity of the monomer is also reasonably low for organic polymer precursor, about 7 mPa's. Nanoparticles in water tend to agglomerate and form flocs which are broken with the shear force applied during viscosity measurement. The particle-particle interaction is very important in this system. In BECy, the particles appear to be well dispersed and not as interactive. The solvent-particle interaction appears to be most important. It is not known exactly how the alumina particles interact with the monomer, but NMR suggests hydrogen bonding. These hydrogen bonds between the particle and monomer could very well affect the viscosity. A conclusion that can be reached in this work is that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alumina particles is significant and seems to affect the interactions between other particles and the solvent. Thus, the hydrogen bonding between particles, particle/additive and/or particle/solvent dictates the behavior of nanos

  3. Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    Methylal, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane number in the range of 45-50, which is compatible with diesel fuels. Engine tests have shown that adding methylal to diesel fuel significantly reduces smoke emissions. Gaseous emissions and combustion efficiencies obtained with methylal/diesel fuel blends remain essentially the same as those measured using neat diesel fuel. Lubricity measurements of methylal/diesel fuel blends with a ball on cylinder lubrication evaluator (BOCLE) show that methylal improves the lubricity of diesel fuel. Even though additions of methylal lower the fuel viscosity, the results of the BOCLE tests indicate that the methylal/diesel fuel blends cause less pump wear than neat diesel fuel. The one drawback is that methylal has a low boiling point (42{degrees}C) and a relatively high vapor pressure. As a result, it lowers the flash point of diesel fuel and causes a potential fuel tank flammability hazard. One solution to this increased volatility is to make polyoxymethylenes with the general formula of CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}O){sub x}CH{sub 3} where x > 2. The molecules are similar to methylal, but have higher molecular weights and thus higher viscosities and substantially lower vapor pressures. Therefore, their flash points will be compatible with regular diesel fuel. The polyoxymethylenes are expected to have combustion properties similar to methylal. It is theorized that by analogy with hydrocarbons, the ignition quality (i.e., cetane number) of the polyoxymethylenes will be better than that of methylal.

  4. Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments. Normalizing the reaction rate to the total carbon surface area available for reaction allowed for the definition of a single reaction rate with constant activation energy (112.5 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol) for the oxidation of PM, independent of its fuel source. A kinetic model incorporating the surface area dependence of fixed carbon oxidation rate and the impact of the mobile carbon fraction was constructed and validated against experimental data.

  5. Viscoelastic Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    with bis- phenol A polycarbonate (PC), resulting in an in- crease in free volume with increasing dendrimer hyperbranched polyester/bisphenol A PC blends with respect to pure PC. Studies were conducted by Carr et al.24

  6. Studies toward the synthesis of hemigossypol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welter, Thomas Robert

    1972-01-01

    -veratric acid was converted to its methyl ester with methanol and sulfuric acid in 1, 2-dichloroethane. Methyl o-vera- triate, Q, upon treatment with methyl magnesium bromide, followed by dehydration and hydrogenation over Raney nickel afforded 2, 3..., of the infrared spectrum, was shifted to 1745 cm by esterification. Treatment of methyl veratriate with methyl magnesium bromide followed by dehydration with 20g sulfuric acid gives 2, 3-dimethoxy- (2'-propenyl)-benzene, 18, The appearance of a finely split...

  7. Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentratingPortal ControllingConvection feedbacks in

  8. Monodisperse SiC/vinyl ester nanocomposites: Dispersant formulation, synthesis, and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    polyester copolymerizes with styrene monomers in the vinylbased vinyl ester and 45 wt% styrene monomers. The hybridof methacrylate and styrene. The absorption band in the

  9. Homogeneous Hydrogenation of CO? to Methyl Formate Utilizing Switchable Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Mahendra; Linehan, John C.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Van Der Eide, Edwin F.; Heldebrant, David J.

    2014-09-15

    Capture of CO? and subsequent hydrogenation allows for base/alcohol-catalyzed conversion of CO? to methylformate in one pot. The conversion of CO? proceeds via alkylcarbonates, to formate salts and then formate esters, which can be catalyzed by base and alcohol with the only byproduct being water. The system operates at mild conditions (300 psi H?, 140 °C). Reactivity is strongly influenced by temperature and choice of solvent. In the presence of excess of base (DBU) formate is predominant product while in excess of methanol methyl formate is major product. 110 °C yields formate salts, 140 °C promotes methylformate. The authors acknowledge internal Laboratory Directed Re-search and Development (LDRD) funding from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. The methylated component of the Neurospora crassa genome 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selker, Eric U; Tountas, Nikolaos A; Cross, Sally H; Margolin, Brian S; Murphy, Jonathan G; Bird, Adrian P; Freitag, Michael

    2003-04-24

    Cytosine methylation is common, but not ubiquitous, in eukaryotes. Mammals (1) and the fungus Neurospora crassa (2,3) have about 2–3% of cytosines methylated. In mammals, methylation is almost exclusively in the ...

  11. Assessing Global Terrestrial Sources of Methyl Halides - Ozone Regulating Gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gancarczyk, Maciej

    2010-11-24

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) play significant roles in the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. The vast portion of methyl halide sources and sinks sources and sinks are natural in origin. The ...

  12. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  13. An investigation in the hygrothermal degradation of an E- glass/vinyl-ester composite in humid and immersion environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetlik, Stephanie Laura

    2008-01-01

    of polyethertriamine-cured bisphenol-A-diglycidyl etherstructure of epoxy based bisphenol-A vinyl ester resin [here, an epoxy based bisphenol-A vinyl-ester, may have a

  14. Mild partial deoxygenation of esters catalyzed by an oxazolinylborate-coordinated rhodium silylene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Songchen; Boschen, Jeffery S.; Biswas, Abhranil; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; Windus, Theresa L.; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-08-17

    An electrophilic, coordinatively unsaturated rhodium complex supported by borate-linked oxazoline, oxazoline-coordinated silylene, and N-heterocyclic carbene donors [{?³-N,Si,C-PhB(OxMe²)(OxMe²SiHPh)ImMes}Rh(H)CO][HB(C?F?)?] (2, OxMe² = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImMes = 1-mesitylimidazole) is synthesized from the neutral rhodium silyl {PhB(OxMe²)?ImMes}RhH(SiH2Ph)CO (1) and B(C6F5)3. The unusual oxazoline-coordinated silylene structure in 2 is proposed to form by rearrangement of an unobserved isomeric cationic rhodium silylene species [{PhB(OxMe²)?ImMes}RhH(SiHPh)CO][HB(C?F?)?] generated by H abstraction. Complex 2 catalyzes reductions of organic carbonyl compounds with silanes to give hydrosilylation products or deoxygenation products. The pathway to these reactions is primarily influenced by the degree of substitution of the organosilane. Reactions with primary silanes give deoxygenationmore »of esters to ethers, amides to amines, and ketones and aldehydes to hydrocarbons, whereas tertiary silanes react to give 1,2-hydrosilylation of the carbonyl functionality. In contrast, the strong Lewis acid B(C?F?)? catalyzes the complete deoxygenation of carbonyl compounds to hydrocarbons with PhSiH? as the reducing agent.« less

  15. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Cyclic Carbonates and Esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, D. M.; Afroz, Taliman; Allen, Joshua L.; Boyle, Paul D.; Trulove, Paul C.; De Long, Hugh C.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-11-13

    Only limited information is available regarding the manner in which cyclic carbonate and ester solvents coordinate Li+ cations in electrolyte solutions for lithium batteries. One approach to gleaning significant insight into these interactions is to examine crystalline solvate structures. To this end, eight new solvate structures are reported with ethylene carbonate, ?-butyrolactone and ?-valerolactone: (EC)3:LiClO4, (EC)2:LiClO4, (EC)2:LiBF4, (GBL)4:LiPF6, (GBL)1:LiClO4, (GVL)1:LiClO4, (GBL)1:LiBF4 and (GBL)1:LiCF3SO3. The crystal structure of (EC)1:LiCF3SO3 is also re-reported for comparison. These structures enable the factors which govern the manner in which the ions are coordinated and the ion/solvent packing—in the solid-state—to be scrutinized in detail.

  16. Dnmt1-Independent CG Methylation Contributes to Nucleosome Positioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 2010). Methylation by chromomethylases in plants and green algae occurs at 50 -CNG-30 sites (treated

  17. A determination of the reactivity of some esters of oxalic acid with certain organic bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodgers, Charles H.

    1922-01-01

    OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. TP . . ; r i Ir&St 5 Q A 15 . i\\o> RodoQ-f s f\\ { c UA V & BY CHARLES H. RODGERS. 1922. RDDD55 3B45fc> Introduction. The purpose of this work was to determine the per­ centage yields... to stand several minutes and filtered and washed with water. When the products were dried and the melting points determined it was found that products insoluble in alcohol all melted at 257° to 263°. The melting point of oxatoluid is record­ -32- e d a...

  18. Advanced Biocatalytic Processing of Heterogeneous Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to a Platform Chemical Intermediate (Lactic acid Ester)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sharon Shoemaker

    2004-09-03

    The development of commercial boi-based processes and products derived from agricultural waste biomass has the potential for significant impact on the economy and security of our nation. Adding value, rather than disposing of the waste of agriculture, can solve an environmental problem and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of fossil fuel for production of chemicals, materials and fuels.

  19. Preparation of Propylene Glycol Fatty Acid Ester or Other Glycol, or Polyol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w1.½tankSurfaceSciTechenergyand*

  20. Methyl-CpG island-associated genome signature tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J

    2014-05-20

    Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

  1. De novo DNA methylation activity of METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1) partially restores body methylation in Arabidopsis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Peter

    targets cytosine residues in all sequence contexts (CG, CNG and CNN), and is controlled by three DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway (Xie et al., 2004). CNG methylation is predominantly controlled by the plant of genes accumulated H3K9me2 and CNG marks, which reflects the interplay between KYP and CMT3 (Inagaki et

  2. Growing season methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes at a sub-arctic wetland in Sweden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardacre, Catherine J.; Blei, Emanuel; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01

    Methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes were measured at several sites in a sub-arctic wetland near Abisko, Sweden (68°28?N 18°49?E) throughout the 2008 growing season. Averaged over 92 flux measurements the sub-arctic ...

  3. Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

    1999-05-05

    Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

  4. Plug repairs of marine glass fiber / vinyl ester laminates subjected to uniaxial tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    Glass fiber/vinyl ester composite laminates are currently being used and proposed for the hulls, bulkheads, and superstructures of large ships. This thesis examines the effectiveness of the repair of such laminates using ...

  5. Numerical models of phosphate esters in the Chattahoochee River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haffey, Samuel Fraad, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model was constructed to assess the magnitude of organophosphoric acid triester sinks in the Chattahoochee River and to identify concentration patterns downstream of point source discharges. The model was built ...

  6. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afroz, Taliman; Seo, D. M.; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2015-03-06

    Solvate crystal structures serve as useful models for the molecular-level interactions within the diverse solvates present in liquid electrolytes. Although acyclic carbonate solvents are widely used for Li-ion battery electrolytes, only three solvate crystal structures with lithium salts are known for these and related solvents. The present work, therefore, reports six lithium salt solvate structures with dimethyl and diethyl carbonate: (DMC)2:LiPF6, (DMC)1:LiCF3SO3, (DMC)1/4:LiBF4, (DEC)2:LiClO4, (DEC)1:LiClO4 and (DEC)1:LiCF3SO3 and four with the structurally related methyl and ethyl acetate: (MA)2:LiClO4, (MA)1:LiBF4, (EA)1:LiClO4 and (EA)1:LiBF4.

  7. Poly ([beta]-amino ester)s as pH sensitive biomaterials for microparticulate genetic vaccine delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Steven (Steven Ronald)

    2005-01-01

    Genetic vaccination is the administration of nucleic acids to induce cellular expression of antigens, leading to an immune response. Unlike traditional vaccines, this technology has tremendous potential for treating or ...

  8. Determination of optimal conditions for obtaining 1,3-dimethoxy-1-phenyl-propane by addition of methylal to styrene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brudnik, I.M.; Akhmatdinov, R.T.; Kantor, E.A.; Rakhmankulov, D.L.

    1988-02-10

    The reaction of styrene with methylal was investigated in order to reveal the regularities of the reaction and determine the conditions for obtaining acceptable yields of 1,3-dimethoxy-1-phenylpropane. Earlier, boron trifluoride was recommended as catalyst of the reaction. However, the necessity of working at low temperatures or under pressure makes this catalyst inconvenient for quantitative syntheses. The primary task of the investigation was determination of the possibility of using some other acidic catalysts, particularly sulfuric acid, para toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate, KU-2 cation-exchanger, zinc chloride, and boron trifluoride etherate. The most effective and selective of the investigated catalysts is boron trifluoride etherate.

  9. Method for high specific bioproductivity of .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mobley, David Paul (Schenectady, NY); Shank, Gary Keith (Rocky Hill, CT)

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides a low-cost method of producing .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids. Particular bioconversion conditions result in highly efficient conversion of fatty acid, fatty acid ester, or alkane substrates to diacids. Candida tropicalis AR40 or similar yeast strains are grown in a medium containing a carbon source and a nitrogen source at a temperature of 31.degree. C. to 38.degree. C., while additional carbon source is continuously added, until maximum cell growth is attained. Within 0-3 hours of this point, substrate is added to the culture to initiate conversion. An .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acid made according to this method is also provided.

  10. A MULTI-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF LIFECYCLE EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01

    DME, ethanol, ethanol, CH2, ethanol, CH2, CH2, LH2 LH2, electricity LH2, electricity FuelDME = dimethyl ether, FAME = fatty acid methyl esters. The feedstocks from which the fuels

  11. A Multi-Country Analysis of Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels and Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01

    DME, ethanol, ethanol, CH2, ethanol, CH2, CH2, LH2 LH2, electricity LH2, electricity FuelDME = dimethyl ether, FAME = fatty acid methyl esters. The feedstocks from which the fuels

  12. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Ohm, Joyce E.

    2014-10-01

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.

  13. Lubricant return comparison of naphthenic and polyol ester oils in R-134a household refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes-Gavilan, J.L.; Flak, G.T.; Tritcak, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mineral oils and polyol esters as possible lubricant options for domestic refrigeration applications employing R-134a as the heat exchange fluid. A performance comparison, based on data presented, is made between the mineral oils and polyol esters evaluated. To more closely examine lubricant return with N-70 and R-134a and ensure that the oil is not contributing to any deterioration in efficiency due to its accumulation in evaporators, a special test unit was designed with a difficult oil return configuration and its performance carefully monitored. Oil return with a hydrofluorocarbon-miscible polyol ester, R-133-O was also evaluated in this setup and its performance results compared to those obtained with the naphthenic refrigeration oil.

  14. The UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process in UV disinfection units : removal of selected phosphate esters by hydroxyl radical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machairas, Alexandros, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the issue of how to remove phosphate esters from drinking water is examined. From the various treatment processes available, the oxidation of phosphate esters through hydroxyl radical generated by the UV/H202 ...

  15. In-tube heat transfer and pressure drop of R-134a and ester lubricant mixtures in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube. Part 1: Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1994-12-31

    In-tube heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation are reported for mixtures of refrigerant R-134a and a penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The ester lubricant was tested at viscosities of 169 SUS and 369 SUS over a lubricant concentration range of 0% to 5% in both a smooth tube and a micro-fine tube. The average saturation temperature used was 1 C (33.8 F). Measurements were taken for the refrigerant-lubricant mixture over a mass flux range of 85 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s (62,700 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h) to 375 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s (276,640 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h) in test tubes with an outer diameter of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). Heat transfer coefficients during evaporation increased at low concentrations of the 169-SUS ester lubricant and then dropped off at high lubricant concentrations in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube. The higher viscosity 369-SUS lubricant decreased the heat transfer coefficients in both tubes over the range of lubricant concentrations tested. Pressure drops during evaporation increased in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube with the addition of ester lubricant of either viscosity. The heat transfer coefficients for the micro-fin tube were 100% to 50% higher than those for the smooth tube, with the higher values occurring at low mass fluxes. Pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 10% to 20% higher than those in the smooth tube.

  16. Role of acid catalysis in dimethyl ether conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Acidity plays an important role in the conversion of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) to hydrocarbons and oxygenates. In the conversion to hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst, Broensted acidity is the main contributor to the first hydrocarbon formed. Here, acidity is also an important factor in determining olefin, paraffin, and aromatic content in the final product distribution. Catalyst life has also been found to be related to acidity content in zeolites. DME conversion to oxygenates is especially dependent on high acidity catalysts. Superacids like BF{sub 3}, HF-BF{sub 3}, and CF{sub 3}COOH have been used in the past for conversion of DME in carbonylation reactions to form methyl acetate and acetic acid at high pressures. Recently, heteropoly acids and their corresponding metal substituted salts have been used to convert DME to industrially important petrochemicals resulting in shorter reaction times and without the use of harsh operating conditions.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of poly (amino ester) for slow biodegradable gene delivery vector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Sang

    tertiary amine-linkage and abundant surface hydroxyl groups that enable good 0968-0896/$ - see front matter to include inner tertiary amines and outer primary amines. Self-assembly with DNA resulted in the production of serum. The polymers showed a relatively slow degradability for an amine-containing ester polymer

  18. Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate from Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Makarand R. Gogate; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

    1998-04-17

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last month, RTI has finalized the design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI incorporated some design changes to the feed blending system, so as to be able to blend varying proportions of DME and oxygen. RTI has also examined the flammability limits of DME-air mixtures. Since the lower flammability limit of DME in air is 3.6 volume percent, RTI will use a nominal feed composition of 1.6 percent in air, which is less than half the lower explosion limit for DME-air mixtures. This nominal feed composition is thus considered operationally safe, for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI is also currently developing an analytical system for DME partial oxidation reaction system.

  19. Modulation of histone methylation and MLH1 gene silencing by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LIFE SCIENCES; ARGININE; CARCINOGENS; CHROMIUM; DNA DAMAGES; GENES; HUMAN POPULATIONS; LUNGS; LYSINE; METHYLATION; NEOPLASMS; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE; PROMOTERS Word Cloud More Like...

  20. Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, W P L

    2007-01-01

    comparable to that for ethane. It is concluded that methylmethyl iodide and ethane. 32 Table A-of methyl iodide and ethane in the atmospheric reactivity

  1. Binary total pressure measurements for methanol with 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol at 313.15 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, D.P.; Bhethanabotla, V.R.; Campbell, S.W. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Total pressure measurements at 313.15 K are reported for binary systems of methanol with each of seven pentanol isomers: 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol. The results were obtained using a Van Ness apparatus and were fitted to the four-suffix Margules equation using Barker`s method. The four-suffix Margules equation represents the data to within an average of approximately 0.02 kPa.

  2. Substantial improvements in methyl ketone production in E. coli...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Substantial improvements in methyl ketone production in E. coli and insights on the pathway from in vitro studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Substantial...

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of macrocycles as potential antitumor agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Chung-Mao; Pan, Chung-Mao

    2012-01-01

    equivalents) of free amine racemic-?-hydroxyl-Phe-OMe, 918free amine (2R, 3S) / (2S, 3R) racemic NH 2 -?-hydroxyl-Phe-amine protecting group, methyl ester (OMe) or ethyl ester (OEt) for carboxylic acid, benzyl (OBn) and carbobenzyloxy (CBz) groups for hydroxyl and

  4. RNAi, DRD1, and Histone Methylation Actively Target Developmentally Important Non-CG DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steve

    cluster [8]. DNA methylation is found at cytosines in three different sequence contexts, CG, CNG (where N signals to continually target regions of DNA for methylation [12]. In the case of CNG methylation

  5. Evaluation of bisphenol E cyanate ester for the resin-injection repair of advanced composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilber Yaote Lio

    2009-12-19

    This thesis is a compilation of a general introduction and literature review that ties together the subsequent chapters which consist of two journal articles that have yet to be submitted for publication. The overall topic relates to the evaluation and application of a new class of cyanate ester resin with unique properties that lend it applicable to use as a resin for injection repair of high glass transition temperature polymer matrix composites. The first article (Chapter 2) details the evaluation and optimization of adhesive properties of this cyanate ester and alumina nanocomposites under different conditions. The second article (Chapter 3) describes the development and evaluation of an injection repair system for repairing delaminations in polymer matrix composites.

  6. Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Howard H. (Berkeley, CA); Keasling, Jay D. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-07-26

    The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

  7. Z .Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B 128 2001 575 595 Novel wax esters and hydrocarbons in the cuticular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Deborah

    and hydrocarbons in the cuticular surface lipids of the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus Dennis R. Nelsona, hydrocarbons. The wax esters ranged in carbon number from C19 to C31 and consisted of esters of both odd. The hydrocarbons consisted of: n-alkanes, C23 to C33; odd-numbered n-alkenes, C27 to C35; and the major components

  8. Elucidate the mechanism(s) of Hg uptake in methylating bacteria and effects on Hg methylation in nature.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Objective · Elucidate the mechanism(s) of Hg uptake in methylating bacteria and effects on Hg, suggesting a possible detoxification mechanism for the formation and export of methylmercury. 1 BER Overview A New Mechanism of Mercury Uptake and Methylation in Anaerobic Bacteria Contact: Jeffra Schaefer

  9. Supporting Information Microbial methylation of mercury sulfide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to assess crystal structure of the particles (Figure S4a through 0.025 m pore size mixed cellulose ester membranes (Millipore). The material that deposited on the filter membrane was analyzed for crystallographic structure by synchrotron XRD performed at the Stanford

  10. Ionic-molecular composition of solutions of boron trifluoride with Lewis acids in oxygen-containing solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lysenko, Yu.A.; Shevchenko, A.Yu.

    1987-08-10

    In nonprotogenic solvents boron trifluoride behaves as a Lewis acid that is close in strength to tin tetrachloride. The character of the ionic equilibria in ester solutions of boron trifluoride paired with other Lewis acids (halides of elements of Groups II-V) depends on the relative strengths of these acids. In solutions of boron trifluoride and stronger acids cationic forms of the two halides are formed in parallel; in the ionization of boron trifluoride simultaneously with a weak acid cations of the weaker acid and BF/sub 4//sup -/ anions are formed. A synergic action of two catalysts in nonprotogenic solvents occurs only in solutions of BF/sub 3/ together with a stronger acid. In protogenic solvents for processes catalyzed by hydrogen ions no synergic effect is observed.

  11. The role of carboxylic acids in TALSQueak separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nash, Ken L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2012-04-13

    Recent reports have indicated TALSPEAK-type separations chemistry can be improved through the replacement of bis-2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N,N,N-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) with the weaker reagents 2-ethyl(hexyl) phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), respectively. This modified TALSPEAK has been provided with an adjusted acronym of TALSQueak (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separation using Quicker Extractants and Aqueous Komplexes). Among several benefits, TALSQueak chemistry provides more rapid phase transfer kinetics, is less reliant on carboxylic acids to mediate lanthanide extraction and allows a simplified thermodynamic description of the separations process that generally requires only parameters available in the literature to describe metal transfer. This manuscript focuses on the role of carboxylic acids in aqueous ternary (M-HEDTA-carboxylate) complexes, americium/lanthanide separations, and extraction kinetics. Spectrophotometry (UV-vis) of the Nd hypersensitive band indicates the presence of aqueous ternary species (K111 = 1.83 {+-} 0.01 at 1.0 M ionic strength, Nd(HEDTA) + Lac <-> Nd(HEDTA)Lac). Varying the carboxylic acid does not have a significant impact on Ln/Am separations or extraction kinetics. TALSqueak separations come to equilibrium in five minutes at the conventional operational pH of 3.6 using only 0.1 M total lactate or citrate.

  12. Synthesis of methyl methacrylate from coal-derived syngas: Quarterly report,, October 1-December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of three steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, Eastman developed two new processes which have resulted in two new invention reports. One process deals with carbonylation of benzyl ether which represents a model for coal liquefaction and the second focuses on the acceleration of carbonylation rates for propionic acid synthesis, via use of polar aprotic solvents. These two inventions are major improvements in the novel Mo-catalyzed homogeneous process for propionic acid synthesis technology, developed by Eastman. Over the last quarter, RTI completed three reaction cycles and two regeneration cycles as a part of long-term reaction regeneration cycle study on a 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, for vapor phase condensation reaction of formaldehyde with propionic acid.

  13. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  14. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  15. OBSERVATIONS IN REACTIVITY BETWEEN BH CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND ORGANOMETALLIC REAGENTS: SYNTHESIS OF BORONIC ACIDS, BORONIC ESTERS, AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clary, Jacob William

    2012-01-01

    zinc metal significantly accelerated the reaction. The neopentylglycolborylation of aryl iodides, bromides,

  16. OBSERVATIONS IN REACTIVITY BETWEEN BH CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND ORGANOMETALLIC REAGENTS: SYNTHESIS OF BORONIC ACIDS, BORONIC ESTERS, AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clary, Jacob William

    2012-01-01

    7.34A; Siemens Industrial Automation, Inc. : Madison, WI, (Package, Siemens Industrial Automation, Inc. : Madison,7.34A; Siemens Industrial Automation, Inc. : Madison, WI, (

  17. OBSERVATIONS IN REACTIVITY BETWEEN BH CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND ORGANOMETALLIC REAGENTS: SYNTHESIS OF BORONIC ACIDS, BORONIC ESTERS, AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clary, Jacob William

    2012-01-01

    MSDS reference: 040, chemical abstracts 19287-45-7, UN no.MSDS reference: 040, chemical abstracts 19287-45-7, UN no.

  18. Regulation of yeast development by mRNA methylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwala, Sudeep D

    2012-01-01

    The internal methylation of mRNA post-transcriptionally is an essential component of the mRNA editing machinery in virtually every eukaryotic system. Despite this ubiquity, little is known about the relevance, consequences ...

  19. Methyl bromide emissions to the atmosphere from temperate woodland ecosystems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drewer, Julia; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A; Heal, Mathew R

    2008-01-01

    The environmental importance of methyl bromide (CH3Br) arises from its contribution to stratospheric ozone loss processes and, as a consequence, its emissions from anthropogenic sources are subject to the Montreal Protocol. ...

  20. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn; Conn, Kathleen G.; Division of Education and Human Services, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, Pennsylvania 19014-1298 ; Mallory, Clelia W.; Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 ; Mallory, Frank B.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Rotkina, Lolita; Wang, Xianlong E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn

    2013-11-28

    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 2–12 kJ?mol{sup ?1} range.

  1. Properties of some ionic liquids based on1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Yakelis, Neal; Salminen, Justin; Bergman,Robert; Prausnitz, John M.

    2005-09-29

    Syntheses are reported for ionic liquids containing 1-methyl-3octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations, and trifluoromethansulfonate, dicyanamide, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and nonafluorobutanesulfonate anions. Densities, melting points and glass transition points, solubility in water as well as polarities have been measured. Ionic liquids based on pyridinium cations exhibit higher melting points, lower solubility in water, and higher polarity than those based on imidazolium cations.

  2. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1998-06-01

    'The long-term objective of the research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants. The authors are focused on mercury pollution as a case study of this plant genetic engineering approach. The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will: (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The results from the research are so positive that the technology will undoubtedly be applied in the very near future to cleaning large mercury contaminates sites. Many such sites were not remediable previously due to the excessive costs and the negative environmental impact of conventional mechanical-chemical technologies. At the time this grant was awarded 20 months ago, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to much less toxic and volatile metallic Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. At that time, the authors had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had the authors tested merB in any plant. However, the results were so startlingly positive and well received that they clearly presaged a paradigm shift in the field of environmental remediation.'

  3. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  4. Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goh, Ee-Been

    2012-01-01

    ketone synthesis for biofuels Ee-Been Goh†† 1,3 , Edward E.microbes for use as biofuels, such as fatty acid ethylother fatty acid-derived biofuels, such as fatty acid ethyl

  5. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops for R-134a and an ester lubricant mixture in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during the evaporation and condensation of mixtures of R-134a and a 150 SUS penta erythritol ester branched-acid lubricant. The smooth tube and micro-fin tube tested in this study had outer diameters of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). The micro-fin tube had 60 fins, a fin height of 0.2 mm (0.008 in), and a spiral angle of 18{degree}. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the micro-fin tube with R-134a and to determine the effect of circulating lubricant. The experimental results show that the micro-fin tube has distinct performance advantages over the smooth tube. For example, the average heat transfer coefficients during evaporation and condensation in the micro-fin tube were 50--200% higher than those for the smooth tube, while the average pressure drops were on average only 10--50% higher. The experimental results indicate that the presence of a lubricant degrades the average heat transfer coefficients during both evaporation and condensation at high lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops during evaporation increased with the addition of a lubricant in both tubes. For condensation, pressure drops were unaffected by the addition of a lubricant.

  6. Patel S. et al. 2001. Chemical and Physical Analyses of Wax Ester Properties. 8 pp. Journal of Insect Science, 1.4. Available online: insectscience.org/1.4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Patel S. et al. 2001. Chemical and Physical Analyses of Wax Ester Properties. 8 pp. Journal.org Chemical and Physical Analyses of Wax Ester Properties Sejal Patel1 , Dennis R. Nelson2 and Allen G. Gibbs3 Abstract Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods

  7. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  8. Two-Sided Comb Poly(amic ester)Poly(propylene oxide) Graft Copolymers as Porous Polyimide Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Kenneth

    Two-Sided Comb Poly(amic ester)­Poly(propylene oxide) Graft Copolymers as Porous Polyimide. These polymers were thermally cured to produce polyimide/PPO composites. The thermolysis of these polyimide/ PPO composites yielded porous polyimide films with porosities ranging of 4­22.5%. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  9. 1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    1,4-Addition of Lithium Diisopropylamide to Unsaturated Esters: Role of Rate-Limiting Deaggregation, Autocatalysis, Lithium Chloride Catalysis, and Other Mixed Aggregation Effects Yun Ma, Alexander C. Hoepker.edu Abstract: Lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in tetrahydrofuran at -78 °C undergoes 1,4-addition

  10. The development of a rod-coil redox polymer composed of biphenyl esters and poly (4-vinylpyridine) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCormier, Amy Urbanowicz

    2001-01-01

    A rod-coil polymer was successfully synthesized to provide a backbone structure from which a redox polymer was produced. The rod was composed of biphenyl esters and the coil was composed of poly (4-vinylpyridine). The coil was produced by anionic...

  11. Process for the synthesis of unsaturated alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maughon, Bob R.; Burdett, Kenneth A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2007-02-13

    A process of preparing an unsaturated alcohol (olefin alcohol), such as, a homo-allylic mono-alcohol or homo-allylic polyol, involving protecting a hydroxy-substituted unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester, such as methyl ricinoleate, derived from a seed oil, to form a hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester; homo-metathesizing or cross-metathesizing the hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester to produce a product mixture containing a hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product; and deprotecting the hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product under conditions sufficient to prepare the unsaturated alcohol. Preferably, methyl ricinoleate is converted by cross-metathesis or homo-metathesis into the homo-allylic mono-alcohol 1-decene-4-ol or the homo-allylic polyol 9-octadecene-7,12-diol, respectively.

  12. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J

    2013-11-26

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  13. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J.

    2012-09-11

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  14. Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J.

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

  15. Acid Violence in Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zia, Taiba

    2013-01-01

    Jordan. “Acid Attacks: Bangladesh’s Efforts to Stop thesubcontinent, especially in Bangladesh and Pakistan, and inon acid crimes in Bangladesh, for instance). Reliable data

  16. Role of CpG island methylation and MBD2 in immune cell gene regulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deaton, Aimée M.

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of cell type-specific DNA methylation has received much attention in recent years and a number of DNA methylation differences have been described between cells of the immune system. Of particular interest ...

  17. Investigating the association between BRAFV600E and methylation in sporadic colon cancer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxter, Eva Louise

    2012-06-30

    Aberrant methylation of CpG island promoters is a frequent observation in cancer and is known to affect many genes, including tumour suppressor genes. Genes with methylated promoters are usually repressed and inactive, ...

  18. 2,000-year record of atmospheric methyl bromide from a South Pole ice core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Eric S; Aydin, Murat; Tatum, Cheryl; Williams, Margaret B

    2008-01-01

    air from firn at the South Pole, Nature, 383, 231 – 235. 5METHYL BROMIDE FROM SOUTH POLE ICE CORE Butler, J. H. , M.of methyl chloride from a South Pole ice core: Evidence for

  19. OUTLOOK: Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives: Taking stock after 7 years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browne, Greg T

    2013-01-01

    finding alternatives to Outlook Specialty crops and methylNumber 3 Steve Fennimore Outlook Non-fumigant approaches to

  20. S0S1 transition of trans--methyl styrene: Vibronic structure and dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haas, Yehuda

    S0S1 transition of trans- -methyl styrene: Vibronic structure and dynamics Y. Haas, S. Kendler, E; accepted 28 March 1995 The fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of trans- -methyl styrene have been of styrene and of trans- -methyl styrene BMS is reported. The BMS molecule is calculated to be essentially

  1. Chemically induced Parkinson's disease: intermediates in the oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chacon, J.N.; Chedekel, M.R.; Land, E.J.; Truscott, T.G.

    1987-04-29

    Various unstable intermediate oxidation states have been postulated in the metabolic activation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion. We now report the first direct observation of these free radical intermediates by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis. Studies are described of various reactions of such species, in particular with dopamine whose autoxidation to dopamine quinone is reported to be potentiated by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine.

  2. Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

    1996-01-01

    were acidized with three stage treatments of 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl), 12% HCL-3% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and 15% HCL. No additives were used in the acid. Comparisons were made between cores acidized with a variety of saturating fluids. Petrographic...

  3. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED DECARBOXYLATIVE ALLYLATIONS OF ESTER ENOLATE EQUIVALENTS AND PALLADIUM-CATALYZED CYCLIZATIONS VIA CO2 AND SILYL ACTIVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyarathna, Yamuna Kumari

    2014-08-31

    heteronuclear multiple bond correlation HMPA hexamethylphosphoramide HPLC high performance liquid chromatography HSQC heteronuclear single quantum coherence K2CO3 potassium carbonate Ln ligand LAH lithium aluminum hydride LG....13 Synthesis of acyl pyrroles Use of pre-prepared lithium pyrrolide proved to be successful for the nucleophilic substitution of the acyl chloride. The synthesized acyl pyrrole ester was subjected to the decarboxylative allylation conditions. To our delight...

  4. Two Dimensional Polyamides Prepared From Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids And Amines.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi Heng (East Lansing, MI); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Danzig, Morris (Northbrook, IL); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2002-07-17

    A polyamide and a process for preparing the polyamide are disclosed. The process comprises reacting in a reaction mixture a monomer selected from unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids, anhydrides of unsaturated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof, and a first amine to form an intermediate reaction product in the reaction mixture, wherein the first amine is selected from RR.sub.1 NH, RNH.sub.2, RR.sub.1 NH.sub.2.sup.+, RNH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof, wherein R and R.sub.1 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, and reacting the intermediate reaction product and a second amine to form a polyamide, wherein the second amine is selected from R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH, R.sub.2 NH.sub.2, R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH.sub.2.sup.+, R.sub.2 NH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof wherein R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R, R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone formed by the polyamide. In one version of the invention, the monomer is selected from maleic anhydride, maleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof. In another version of the invention, the first amine is an alkylamine, such as tetradecylamine, and the second amine is a polyalkylene polyamine, such as pentaethylenehexamine. In yet another version of the invention, the first amine and the second amine are olefinic or acetylenic amines, such as the reaction products of an alkyldiamine and an acetylenic carboxylic acid. The first amine and the second amine may be the same or different depending on the desired polyamide polymer structure.

  5. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF COMPRESSION MOLDED KENAF FIBER REINFORCED VINYL ESTER COMPOSITES THROUGH RESIN ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Laddha, Sachin; Kafentzis, Tyler A.

    2010-05-17

    Plant-based bio-fiber has the potential to achieve weight and cost savings over glass fiber in automotive polymer composites if moisture stability and fiber-resin compatibility issues can be solved. This paper describes the compression molding of 50vol% 2 inch random nonwoven mat kenaf fiber vinyl ester composites with and without chemical resin additives intended to improve moisture stability and resin compatibility. The 2wt% addition of n-undecanoyl chloride or 10-undecenoyl chloride to the styrene-based resin prior to molding of the kenaf composites was observed to decrease the 24hr, 25oC moisture uptake of the molded panels by more than 50%. The tensile stiffness and flexural stiffness of the soaked panels containing these additives were seen to increase by more than 30% and 70%, respectively, relative to panels made with no additives. While ‘dry’ panel (50% relative humidity at 25oC) strengths did not significantly change in the presence of the additives, tensile strength was observed to increase by more than 40% and flexural strength more than doubled for the soaked panels.

  6. Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-n-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-28

    The material presented here has been described to some extent in Status Reports 12, 13, and 14 and covers the progress toward the synthesis of the modified target molecules 9-isopropyl-4-methoxy-6-methyldibenzothiophene (13) and 9-isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol (14). It is divided into three parts: (a) Dehydrogenation experiments On tetrahydrodibenzothiophene 12. (b) methoxyl methyl cleavage of 13 to 14 using boron tribromide. (c) isolation and purification of methoxydibenzothiophene 13.

  7. Formic Acid Mechanical,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    that make building block chemicals. Ethanol is blended with gasoline, reducing our dependence on petroleum for high valued products, including: Aspartic acid Glucaric acid Glycerol Sorbitol Some companies already

  8. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  9. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  12. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  14. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  16. Durability of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Gedvilas, L.; To, B.; Kennedy, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-10-21

    This presentation reports the findings of NREL's screen test to characterize the durability of poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrated photovoltaics.

  17. REVERSIBLE METAL-TO-METAL METHYL TRANSFER IN n5-CYCLOPENTADIENYL(TRIPHENYLPHOSPHINE)DIMETHYLCOBALT(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryndza, Henry E.

    2013-01-01

    transfer between transition metals which is assisted by aJournal of the American Chemical Society REVERSIBLE METAL-TO-METAL METHYL TRANSFER IN n 5-CYCLOPENTAOIENYL(

  18. CuO nanoparticle filled vinyl-ester resin nanocomposites: Fabrication, characterization and property analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Angeles, CA 90095, USA Received 28 August 2006; received in revised form 4 November 2006; accepted 30 such as photovoltaic (solar) cells [11,12] and magnetic data storage. The func- tional groups of the polymer are normally steric interaction forces, van der Waals forces, or Lewis acid­base interactions. However, in situ

  19. Mechanism of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase FORMATION OF AN -HYDROXY ESTER-ENZYME INTERMEDIATE THROUGH Asp-333*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    -1,3-diphenylpropene oxide (tDPPO) and cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid were syn- thesized and used that Asp-333 of sEH exhibited an increased mass. The attack by Asp-333 initiates enzymatic activity, lead selectivity for cyclic and arene oxides (4­6). A great deal of work has provided a clear picture of the regio

  20. Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tseng, Te-Yu; Yang, Chiu-Sheng; Chen, Yang-Fang [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Tsung-Hua [Department of Dermatology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Dong, Chen-Yuan, E-mail: cydong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Quantum Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-20

    In this letter, we propose an efficient methodology of investigating dynamic properties of sulforhodamine B and rhodamine B hexyl ester molecules transporting across ex-vivo human stratum corneum with and without oleic acid enhancement. Three-dimensional, time-lapse fluorescence images of the stratum corneum can be obtained using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, temporal quantifications of transport enhancements in diffusion parameters can be achieved with the use of Fick's second law. Dynamic characterization of solutes transporting across the stratum corneum is an effective method for understanding transient phenomena in transdermal delivery of probe molecules, leading to improved delivery strategies of molecular species for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  2. HYDROFLUORIC ACID Safety Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    in industrial processes: glass etching, metal cleaning, laboratory reagents, etc. Can be found in household products: rust removers, automotive detailing products, stain removers. #12;Hydrofluoric Acid ­ Chemical

  3. Catalytic Upgrading of bio-oil using 1-octene and 1-butanol over sulfonic acid resin catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Qingwen; Tripathi, Prabhat; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-02-04

    Raw bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass must be refined before it can be used as a transporation fuel, a petroleum refinery feed or for many other fuel uses. Raw bio-oil was upgraded with the neat model olefin, 1-octene, and with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures over sulfonic acid resin catalysts frin 80 to 150 degrees celisus in order to simultaneously lower water content and acidity and to increase hydrophobicity and heating value. Phase separation and coke formation were key factors limiting the reaction rate during upgrading with neat 1-octene although octanols were formed by 1-octene hydration along with small amounts of octyl acetates and ethers. GC-MS analysis confirmed that olefin hydration, carboxylic acid esterification, acetal formation from aldehydes and ketones and O- and C-alkylations of phenolic compounds occurred simultaneously during upgrading with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures. Addition of 1-butanol increased olefin conversion dramatically be reducing mass transfer restraints and serving as a cosolvent or emulsifying agent. It also reacted with carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones to form esters, and acetals, respectively, while also serving to stabilize bio-oil during heating. 1-Butanol addition also protected the catalysts, increasing catalyst lifetime and reducing or eliminationg coking. Upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, polyhydric alcohols and organic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rise from 2.5 to >3.0), removed the uppleasant ordor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content decreased from 37.2% to < 7.5% dramatically and calorific value increased from 12.6 MJ kg to about 30.0 MJ kg.

  4. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    fuels include ethanol, biodiesel and methanol, and syntheticEsterification Vegetable oil Biodiesel (esters) Bio oilsuch as ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, di-methyl esters (DME)

  5. Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in CaseControl Studies in Argentina and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in Case­Control Studies in Argentina and the United's susceptibility to bladder cancer. Methods: Urinary methylation products were measured in subjects from Argentina (114 cases and 114 controls) and the United States (23 cases and 49 controls). Results: In Argentina

  6. Methyl Bromide o Bromomethane, monobromomethane, isobrome, Brom-o-Gas, Bromomethane, Celume,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Methyl Bromide What o Bromomethane, monobromomethane, isobrome, Brom-o-Gas, Bromomethane, Celume, Embafume, Haltox, MB, MeBr, Profume, Terr-o-Gas, Zytox, and methyl fume o Oder less and colorless gas, up times heavier than air, accumulates in poorly ventilated and low-lying areas Uses o Pesticide

  7. Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser of methylamine (CH3NH2 + ), methanol (CH3OH+ ), and methyl fluoride (CH3F+ ) cations by short, intense laser 7 m laser pulses. This work is motivated by recent studies of methanol cations by Yamanouchi and co

  8. New insight into the mechanism of methyl transfer during the biosynthesis of fosfomycin{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    New insight into the mechanism of methyl transfer during the biosynthesis of fosfomycin{ Ryan D shown in Scheme 1A.4­11 Yet, the mechanism of an unprecedented methyl transfer step in the biosynthesis in combina- tion with bioinformatics analysis lead to a radically different mechanism

  9. Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile Dawit Accepted 20 November 2013 Available online 1 December 2013 Keywords: Arsenic Cancer Methylation Lung about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts

  10. Multifunctional Properties of Cyanate Ester Composites with SiO2 Coated Fe3O4 Fillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Weixing; Sun, Wuzhu; Kessler, Michael R.; Bowler, Nicola; Dennis, Kevin W.; McCallum, R. William; Li, Qi; Tan, Xiaoli

    2013-02-22

    SiO2 coated Fe3O4 submicrometer spherical particles (a conducting core/insulating shell configuration) are fabricated using a hydrothermal method and are loaded at 10 and 20 vol % into a bisphenol E cyanate ester matrix for synthesis of multifunctional composites. The dielectric constant of the resulting composites is found to be enhanced over a wide frequency and temperature range while the low dielectric loss tangent of the neat cyanate ester polymer is largely preserved up to 160 ?C due to the insulating SiO2 coating on individual conductive Fe3O4 submicrometer spheres. These composites also demonstrate high dielectric breakdown strengths at room temperature. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicates that the storage modulus of the composite with a 20 vol % filler loading is twice as high as that of neat resin, but the glass transition temperature considerably decreases with increasing filler content. Magnetic measurements reveal a large saturation magnetization and negligibly low coercivity and remanent magnetization in these composites.

  11. Controlling acid rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

  12. Hydrocracking phenanthrene and 1-methyl naphthalene: Development of linear free energy relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landau, R.N.; Korre, S.C.; Neurock, M.; Klein, M.T. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Quann, R.J. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The catalytic hydrocracking reaction pathways, kinetics and mechanisms of 1-methyl naphthalene and phenanthrene were investigated in experiments at 350 C and 68.1 atm H{sub 2} partial pressure (190.6 atm total pressure), using a presulfided Ni/W on USY zeolite catalyst. 1-methyl naphthalene hydrocracking led to 2-methyl naphthalene, methyl tetralins, methyl decalins, pentyl benzene and tetralin. Phenanthrene hydrocracking led to dihydro, tetrahydro and octahydro phenanthrene, butyl naphthalene, tetralin to butyl tetralin and dibutyl benzene. The rate constants for the dealkylation of butyl tetralins produced in the phenanthrene hydrocracking network conform to a linear free energy relationship (LFER), with the heat of formation of the leaving alkyl carbenium ion as the reactivity index.

  13. Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goh, Ee-Been

    2012-01-01

    2003. Tools for genetic engineering in the amino acid-thioesterase by protein engineering. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.coli via metabolic engineering. Metab. Eng. 11:192-8. Zhou,

  14. Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    from waste cooking oil: a technological review. (2013) Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 233 . pp. 201 waste cooking oil in fatty acid methyl esters. Intensified technologies are compared on mass intensification Biodiesel Waste cooking oil Transesterification Esterification Hydrolysis a b s t r a c

  15. First-principles investigation of organic photovoltaic materials C[subscript 60], C[subscript 70], [C[subscript 60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Xiaofeng

    We present a first-principles investigation of the excited-state properties of electron acceptors in organic photovoltaics including C[subscript 60], C[subscript 70], [6,6]-phenyl-C[subscript 61]-butyric-acid-methyl-ester ...

  16. BEHAVIOR, CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Role of Bacteria in Mediating the Oviposition Responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    these substrates and from an organic infusion made with oak leaves. Through fatty acid-methyl ester analyses, six isolates from oak leaf infusion were identiÞed to species. The response of gravid (from soil-contaminated cotton towels), and an undetermined Bacillus species (from oak leaf infusion

  17. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

    2011-03-01

    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  18. Current Biology 17, 379384, February 20, 2007 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2007.01.009 The SRA Methyl-Cytosine-Binding Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steve

    . In Arabidopsis, DNA methylation (5-methyl cytosine) occurs not only at CG residues, but also at CNG methylation at CG residues [7, 8], whereas CHROMOMETHYLASE3 (CMT3) maintains the majority of CNG methylation of CNG methylation and is also required for de novo methylation of cytosines in all sequence contexts [2

  19. Global prevalence and distribution of genes and microorganisms involved in mercury methylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podar, Mircea; Gilmour, C C; Brandt, Craig C; Bullock, Allyson L; Brown, Steven D; Crable, Bryan R; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Somenahally, Anil C; Elias, Dwayne A

    2015-01-01

    Mercury methylation produces the neurotoxic, highly bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Recent identification of the methylation genes (hgcAB) provides the foundation for broadly evaluating microbial Hg-methylation potential in nature without making explicit rate measurements. We queried hgcAB diversity and distribution in all available microbial metagenomes, encompassing most environments. The genes were found in nearly all anaerobic, but not in aerobic, environments including oxygenated layers of the open ocean. Critically, hgcAB was effectively absent in ~1500 human microbiomes, suggesting a low risk of endogenous MeHg production. New potential methylation habitats were identified, including invertebrate guts, thawing permafrost, coastal dead zones , soils, sediments, and extreme environments, suggesting multiple routes for MeHg entry into food webs. Several new taxonomic groups potentially capable of Hg-methylation emerged, including lineages having no cultured representatives. We begin to address long-standing evolutionary questions about Hg-methylation and ancient carbon fixation mechanisms while generating a new global view of Hg-methylation potential.

  20. Global prevalence and distribution of genes and microorganisms involved in mercury methylation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Podar, Mircea; Gilmour, C C; Brandt, Craig C; Bullock, Allyson L; Brown, Steven D; Crable, Bryan R; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Somenahally, Anil C; Elias, Dwayne A

    2015-01-01

    Mercury methylation produces the neurotoxic, highly bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Recent identification of the methylation genes (hgcAB) provides the foundation for broadly evaluating microbial Hg-methylation potential in nature without making explicit rate measurements. We queried hgcAB diversity and distribution in all available microbial metagenomes, encompassing most environments. The genes were found in nearly all anaerobic, but not in aerobic, environments including oxygenated layers of the open ocean. Critically, hgcAB was effectively absent in ~1500 human microbiomes, suggesting a low risk of endogenous MeHg production. New potential methylation habitats were identified, including invertebrate guts, thawing permafrost, coastal dead zones , soils, sediments,more »and extreme environments, suggesting multiple routes for MeHg entry into food webs. Several new taxonomic groups potentially capable of Hg-methylation emerged, including lineages having no cultured representatives. We begin to address long-standing evolutionary questions about Hg-methylation and ancient carbon fixation mechanisms while generating a new global view of Hg-methylation potential.« less

  1. A Quantum-Chemistry-Based Potential for a Poly(ester urethane) Grant D. Smith,* Dmitry Bedrov, Oleksiy Byutner, Oleg Borodin, and Chakravarthy Ayyagari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    A Quantum-Chemistry-Based Potential for a Poly(ester urethane) Grant D. Smith,* Dmitry Bedrov and Department of Chemical and Fuels Engineering, 122 South Central Campus DriVe, Room 304, UniVersity of Utah,4- butanediol (BDO) linkages and poly(tetramethylene diphenyl- methane-urethane) (PTDU) hard segments formed

  2. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    We hypothesized that subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue would differ in monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types...

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com

    2011-08-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

  4. Mechanisms Regulating Mercury Bioavailability for Methylating Microorganisms in the Aquatic Environment: A Critical Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanisms Regulating Mercury Bioavailability for Methylating Microorganisms in the Aquatic by anaerobic bacteria. In this Review, we evaluate the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms the uptake of inorganic mercury to these microorganisms. Our understanding of the mechanisms behind

  5. Palladium-catalyzed substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates with C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chattopadhyay, Kalicharan; Fenster, Erik; Grenning, Alexander James; Tunge, Jon A.

    2012-07-27

    The palladium-catalyzed nucleophilic substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates is described. The reaction proceeds though a palladium ?-benzyl-like complex and allows for many different types of C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles to be regioselectively...

  6. Thermomechanical properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane- poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopesky, Edward Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA) containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles (d [approx.] 1.5 nm) were subjected to heological, mechanical, and morphological tests to determine the effects that ...

  7. Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) in the Norwestern Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pangallo, Kristin C

    2009-01-01

    Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a distinctive class of marine organic compounds. They are naturally produced, they have a unique carbon structure, they are highly halogenated, and they bioaccumulate in ...

  8. Bioremediation of the organophosphate methyl parathion using genetically engineered and native organisms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz Casas, Adriana Z.

    2005-11-01

    to remediate hazardous substances at significantly higher rates than found with natural systems. Specifically, degradation of methyl parathion (MP) by hydrolysis with a genetically engineered Escherichia coli was investigated along with degradation of one...

  9. A global inventory of ecosystem sources of methyl bromide, an ozone destroying gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenney, Gareth

    2008-12-11

    Stratospheric ozone depletion is affected by halogen radicals, such as bromine, which is 40 times more effective at depleting ozone than chlorine. Methyl bromide, the largest contributor of bromine to the stratosphere is ...

  10. Temporal and spatial variation in methyl bromide emissions from a salt marsh 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drewer, Julia; Heal, Mathew R; Heal, Kate V; Smith, Keith A

    2006-01-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is a trace gas involved in stratospheric ozone depletion with both anthropogenic and natural sources. Estimates of natural source strengths are highly uncertain. In this study, >320 highly temporally ...

  11. Evaluating the sensitivity of hybridization-based epigenotyping using a methyl binding domain protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shatova, Tatyana A.

    Hypermethylation of CpG islands in gene promoter regions has been shown to be a predictive biomarker for certain diseases. Most current methods for methylation profiling are not well-suited for clinical analysis. Here, we ...

  12. Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steen, Eric James

    2010-01-01

    Russell, D. W. Mammalian wax biosynthesis. I. IdentificationACB1 5.3.5. Expressing the wax ester synthase, atfA 5.3.6.A. AAC45217 calcoaceticus atfA, wax ester synthase A. baylyi

  13. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  14. Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-08-12

    Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

  15. Radio-methyl vorozole and methods for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Won; Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-08-05

    Radiotracer vorozole compounds for in vivo and in vitro assaying, studying and imaging cytochrome P450 aromatase enzymes in humans, animals, and tissues and methods for making and using the same are provided. [N-radio-methyl] vorozole substantially separated from an N-3 radio-methyl isomer of vorozole is provided. Separation is accomplished through use of chromatography resins providing multiple mechanisms of selectivity.

  16. Redox buffered hydrofluoric acid etchant for the reduction of galvanic attack during release etching of MEMS devices having noble material films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hankins, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-10-06

    Etchant solutions comprising a redox buffer can be used during the release etch step to reduce damage to the structural layers of a MEMS device that has noble material films. A preferred redox buffer comprises a soluble thiophosphoric acid, ester, or salt that maintains the electrochemical potential of the etchant solution at a level that prevents oxidation of the structural material. Therefore, the redox buffer preferentially oxidizes in place of the structural material. The sacrificial redox buffer thereby protects the exposed structural layers while permitting the dissolution of sacrificial oxide layers during the release etch.

  17. Identification of methyl violet 2B as a novel blocker of focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hwan [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences (WCU Program), Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Doo [Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, 2387 Dalgubeol-daero, Suseong-gu, Daegu 706-010 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, 2387 Dalgubeol-daero, Suseong-gu, Daegu 706-010 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyeon [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gyoonhee [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences (WCU Program), Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)] [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences (WCU Program), Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Taebo, E-mail: tbsim@kist.re.kr [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •FAK signaling cascade in cancer cells is profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B. •Methyl violet 2B identified by virtual screening is a novel allosteric FAK inhibitor. •Methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity. •Methyl violet 2B suppresses strongly the proliferation of cancer cells. •Methyl violet 2B inhibits focal adhesion, invasion and migration of cancer cells. -- Abstract: The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling cascade in cancer cells was profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B identified with the structure-based virtual screening. Methyl violet 2B was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of full-length FAK enzyme vs. ATP. It turned out that methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity in biochemical kinase profiling using a large panel of kinases. Anti-proliferative activity measurement against several different cancer cells and Western blot analysis showed that this substance is capable of suppressing significantly the proliferation of cancer cells and is able to strongly block FAK/AKT/MAPK signaling pathways in a dose dependent manner at low nanomolar concentration. Especially, phosphorylation of Tyr925-FAK that is required for full activation of FAK was nearly completely suppressed even with 1 nM of methyl violet 2B in A375P cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, it has never been reported that methyl violet possesses anti-cancer effects. Moreover, methyl violet 2B significantly inhibited FER kinase phosphorylation that activates FAK in cell. In addition, methyl violet 2B was found to induce cell apoptosis and to exhibit strong inhibitory effects on the focal adhesion, invasion, and migration of A375P cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Taken together, these results show that methyl violet 2B is a novel, potent and selective blocker of FAK signaling cascade, which displays strong anti-proliferative activities against a variety of human cancer cells and suppresses adhesion/migration/invasion of tumor cells.

  18. Organic synthesis as an effective approach to chemical, pharmaceutical, and biosynthetic investigations of natural products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suyama, Takashi L.

    2009-01-01

    acetate on the thiol and hydrolysis of the methyl ester were achieved in one step by treatment with lithium

  19. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  20. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  1. Acidizing of Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Fei

    2012-10-19

    Mud acid, which is composed of HCl and HF, is commonly used to remove the formation damage in sandstone reservoirs. However, many problems are associated with HCl, especially at high temperatures. Formic-HF acids have served as an alternative...

  2. Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasongko, Hari

    2012-07-16

    In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...

  3. Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

    2009-05-15

    Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

  4. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  5. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  6. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  7. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga,; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2012-11-15

    Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including ?-globin, ?-globin, ?-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including ?-globin, ?-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes. -- Highlights: ? Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. ? Exposure to catechol resulted in up-regulated expression of erythroid genes. ? Catechol reduced methylation levels at some CpG sites in erythroid genes.

  9. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Silks, III, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  10. Crystal structures of nitrato-4-bromo-2-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolatoimidazolecopper and nitrato-4-chloro-2-[(2-Hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolatoimidazolecopper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Tsapkov, V. I., E-mail: vtsapkov@gmail.com [Moldova State University (Moldova, Republic of); Antosyak, B. Ya. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Popovschi, L. G. [Moldova State University (Moldova, Republic of); Bocelli, G. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (Italy); Guly, A. P. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Palomares-Sanchez, S. A. [Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2012-03-15

    Nitrato-4-bromo-2-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolatoimidazolecopper and nitrato-4-chloro-2-[(2-hydroxyethylimino)methyl]phenolatoimidazolecopper were synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The crystals are isostructural. The coordination polyhedron of the copper atom can be described as a distorted square pyramid whose basal plane is formed by the phenolic and alcoholic oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the monodeprotonated tridentate azomethine molecule and the imidazole nitrogen atom. The apex of the copper polyhedron is occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group. The complexes are linked together by hydrogen bonds with the participation of the nitrato groups to form a three-dimensional framework.

  11. Crystal structure of 1-methyl-3-([2,2-dimethyl-4,6-dioxo-1,3-dioxane-5-ylidene]methyl)urea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, A. Ghorbani, H. S.; Bruno, G.; Rudbari, H. A.; Valizadeh, Y.

    2013-12-15

    The crystal structure of 1-Methyl-3-([2,2-dimethyl-4,6-dioxo-1,3-dioxane-5-ylidene]methyl)urea (C{sub 9}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals are monoclinic, a = 5.3179(2), b = 18.6394(6), c =10.8124(3) Å, ? = 100.015(2)°, Z = 4, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/c, R = 0.0381 for 2537 reflections with I > 2?(I). Except for C(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} group, the molecule is planar. The structure is stabilized by inter- and intramolecular N-H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H...O interactions.

  12. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

  13. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

  14. Ab initio study of styrene and -methyl styrene in the ground and in the two lowest excited singlet states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haas, Yehuda

    Ab initio study of styrene and -methyl styrene in the ground and in the two lowest excited singlet; accepted 28 March 1995 The structure and vibrational frequencies of styrene and trans- -methyl styrene treating molecules as large as styrene. High resolution fluorescence excitation and resonant en- hanced

  15. Organo-Lewis acids of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2001-01-01

    The organo-Lewis acids are novel triarylboranes which are highly fluorinated. Triarylboranes of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These organoboranes have a Lewis acid strength essentially equal to or greater than that of the corresponding organoborane in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine, or have greater solubility in organic solvents. Another type of new organoboranes have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these triorganoboranes, because of their ligand abstracting properties, produce corresponding anions which are capable of only weakly, if at all, coordinating to the metal center, and thus do not interfere in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  16. Organo-Lewis acids of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2002-01-01

    The organo-Lewis acids are novel triarylboranes which are are highly fluorinated. Triarylboranes of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These organoboranes have a Lewis acid strength essentially equal to or greater than that of the corresponding organoborane in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine, or have greater solubility in organic solvents. Another type of new organoboranes have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these triorganoboranes, because of their ligand abstracting properties, produce corresponding anions which are capable of only weakly, if at all, coordinating to the metal center, and thus do not interfere in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  17. Oxidation Kinetics of Pure and Blended Methyl Octanoate/n-Nonane/Methylcyclohexane: Measurements and Modeling of OH*/CH* Chemiluminescence, Ignition Delay Times and Laminar Flame Speeds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rotavera, Brandon Michael

    2012-07-16

    trends between methyl octanoate and n-nonane exhibited overlap at temperatures below 1350 K, below which the trends diverged with methyl octanoate having shorter ignition delay times. Similar behavior was observed under fuel-rich conditions, yet...

  18. Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and n-Butane Martin Li´sal,*,, William R + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n

  19. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  20. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  1. Methylation patterns and mathematical models reveal dynamics of stem cell turnover in the human colon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    renewal while the daughter stem cell remains in the niche; each stem cell is ``immortal'' under this modelCommentary Methylation patterns and mathematical models reveal dynamics of stem cell turnover in diseases such as cancer, it is essential to understand the process of somatic cell development and renewal

  2. Intraindividual Variability in Arsenic Methylation in a U.S. Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , large interindividual variations exist (18). For example, in a study in Chile, the proportion of urinary intraindividual variation in methylation capacity in 81 subjects with low to moderate arsenic exposures. Multiple (ICC) for the proportion of urinary arsenic as inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonate

  3. he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

  4. Thermochemistry of radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    , and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu, and Donald G. Truhlar Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 137, 104314 abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu- propanol, and butanal. Electronic structure calculations for all conformers of the radicals were car- ried

  5. Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowire photocatalysis: Benzene oxidation and methyl red decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Suoyuan; School of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 ; Tsang, Chi Him A.; Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Wong, Ningbew; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Centre of Super Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: H-SiNWs can catalyze hydroxylation of benzene and degradation of methyl red under visible light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were active photocatalyst in the hydroxylation of benzene under light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were also effective in the decomposition of methyl red dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Si/SiO{sub x} core-shell structure is the main reason of the obtained high selectivity during the hydroxylation. -- Abstract: Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the hydroxylation of benzene and for the decomposition of methyl red under visible light irradiation. The above reactions were monitored by GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively, which shows 100% selectivity for the transformation of benzene to phenol. A complete decomposition of a 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M methyl red solution was achieved within 30 min. The high selectivity for the hydroxylation of benzene and the photodecomposition demonstrate the catalytic activity of ultrafine H-SiNWs during nanocatalysis.

  6. Supplemental Data S1 The SRA Methyl-Cytosine-Binding Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steve

    of 4 CG, 7 CNG, and 33 CNN residues. Ten to twelve independent clones were sequenced, and the average number of methylated CG, CNG, or CNN was deter- mined (see Table S1 for all primer sequences). At AtCOPIA4, there are a total of 25 CG, 18 CNG, and 116 CNN residues. Seven to twelve independent clones were

  7. Partial demethylation of oligogalacturonides by pectin methyl esterase 1 is required for eliciting defence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Málaga, Universidad de

    defence responses in wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Sonia Osorio1 , Cristina Castillejo1, , Miguel A methyl esterase FaPE1 in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca. Pectin from transgenic ripe fruits differed esterification is necessary to elicit defence responses in strawberry. The transgenic F. vesca lines had

  8. Conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons III. Methylation, ethylation, and propylation of benzene with methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaeding, W.W. (Mobil Chemical Company, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Methanol is converted to hydrocarbons (and water) over HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst in the presence of 1-8M excesses of benzene. Methanol products are primarily aliphatic hydrocarbon gases and C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} aliphatic substituents on the aromatic ring. Methylation of benzene to produce toluene increases as the feed ratio of methanol/benzene decreases. Mild conditions minimize aromatic ring production from methanol. Molar distribution of the methylene group (-CH{sub 2}-) in the product, is tabulated according to carbon number. Methane plus methyl substituents on the aromatic ring measure C{sub 1}; ethane, ethylene, and ethyl ring substituents measure C{sub 2}, etc. At temperatures up to 325 C, methylene distribution in the product is methyl = ethyl > propyl {much gt} butyl. Above 350 C, methyl {much gt} ethyl > propyl. This distribution of the methylene group, under mild conditions, may be a measure of the early production of light olefins, from methanol, within the zeolite pores.

  9. Hybrid Energy Cell for Degradation of Methyl Orange by Self-Powered Electrocatalytic Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    -effective, renewable and green energy sources to meet the global energy demands of the future is one of the most urgentHybrid Energy Cell for Degradation of Methyl Orange by Self- Powered Electrocatalytic Oxidation Ya of superoxidative hydroxyl radical on the anode. Here, we report a hybrid energy cell that is used for a self

  10. Solvent Effects on Methyl Transfer Reactions. 2. The Reaction of Amines with Trimethylsulfonium Salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sklenak, Stepan

    Solvent Effects on Methyl Transfer Reactions. 2. The Reaction of Amines with Trimethylsulfonium the effect of cyclohexane and dimethyl sulfoxide as the solvent on the energy changes. The effect of water as the solvent was studied using the Monte Carlo free energy perturbation method. The reaction with both ammonia

  11. Steric Effects on Silene Reactivity. The Effects of ortho-Methyl Substituents on the Kinetics and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, William J.

    , Tamara C. S. Pace, and William J. Leigh* Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street,1-diarylsilenes bearing ortho-methyl substituents in various numbers and positions on the aryl rings. The five in systems bearing simple, nonbulky alkyl or aryl substit- uents at one or both atoms of the MdC bond;1 thus

  12. Active transport, substrate specificity, and methylation of Hg(II) in anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schasfer, Jeffra [Princeton University; Rocks, Sara [Princeton University; Zheng, Wang [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Morel, Francois M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The formation of methylmercury (MeHg), which is biomagnified in aquatic food chains and poses a risk to human health, is effected by some iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB) in anaerobic environments. However, very little is known regarding the mechanism of uptake of inorganic Hg by these organisms, in part because of the inherent difficulty in measuring the intracellular Hg concentration. By using the FeRB Geobacter sulfurreducens and the SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as model organisms, we demonstrate that Hg(II) uptake occurs by active transport. We also establish that Hg(II) uptake by G. sulfurreducens is highly dependent on the characteristics of the thiols that bind Hg(II) in the external medium, with some thiols promoting uptake and methylation and others inhibiting both. The Hg(II) uptake system of D. desulfuricans has a higher affinity than that of G. sulfurreducens and promotes Hg methylation in the presence of stronger complexing thiols. We observed a tight coupling between Hg methylation and MeHg export from the cell, suggesting that these two processes may serve to avoid the build up and toxicity of cellular Hg. Our results bring up the question of whether cellular Hg uptake is specific for Hg(II) or accidental, occurring via some essential metal importer. Our data also point at Hg(II) complexation by thiols as an important factor controlling Hg methylation in anaerobic environments.

  13. Polymer surface and thin film vibrational dynamics of poly,,methyl methacrylate..., polybutadiene,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Polymer surface and thin film vibrational dynamics of poly,,methyl methacrylate..., polybutadiene atom scattering has been used to investigate the vibrational dynamics at the polymer vacuum interface polymers. The broad multiphonon feature that arises in the inelastic scattering spectra at surface

  14. Highly Selective Condensation of Biomass-Derived Methyl Ketones as a Source of Aviation Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toste, Dean

    Highly Selective Condensation of Biomass-Derived Methyl Ketones as a Source of Aviation Fuel Eric R,[b] and Alexis T. Bell*[a] Introduction Aviation fuels must meet a number of stringent specifications, the most by branched and cyclic hydrocar- bons, and, consequently, these types of fuels are not likely to be displaced

  15. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  16. Impaired methylation as a novel mechanism for proteasome suppression in liver cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osna, Natalia A.; White, Ronda L.; Donohue, Terrence M.; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105 ; Beard, Michael R.; Tuma, Dean J.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68105

    2010-01-08

    The proteasome is a multi-catalytic protein degradation enzyme that is regulated by ethanol-induced oxidative stress; such suppression is attributed to CYP2E1-generated metabolites. However, under certain conditions, it appears that in addition to oxidative stress, other mechanisms are also involved in proteasome regulation. This study investigated whether impaired protein methylation that occurs during exposure of liver cells to ethanol, may contribute to suppression of proteasome activity. We measured the chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity in Huh7CYP cells, hepatocytes, liver cytosols and nuclear extracts or purified 20S proteasome under conditions that maintain or prevent protein methylation. Reduction of proteasome activity of hepatoma cell and hepatocytes by ethanol or tubercidin was prevented by simultaneous treatment with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Moreover, the tubercidin-induced decline in proteasome activity occurred in both nuclear and cytosolic fractions. In vitro exposure of cell cytosolic fractions or highly purified 20S proteasome to low SAM:S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratios in the buffer also suppressed proteasome function, indicating that one or more methyltransferase(s) may be associated with proteasomal subunits. Immunoblotting a purified 20S rabbit red cell proteasome preparation using methyl lysine-specific antibodies revealed a 25 kDa proteasome subunit that showed positive reactivity with anti-methyl lysine. This reactivity was modified when 20S proteasome was exposed to differential SAM:SAH ratios. We conclude that impaired methylation of proteasome subunits suppressed proteasome activity in liver cells indicating an additional, yet novel mechanism of proteasome activity regulation by ethanol.

  17. The utilization of tricarboxylic acid cycle acids and the uptake of succinic acid by Neurospora crassa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilliland, Patti Lynn

    1978-01-01

    molecules not directly involved in the TCA cycle, aspartate and glutamate, have been the subject of several investigations, primarily in relation to amino acid transport. The uptake of the dicarboxylic amino acids is fre- quently studied in conjunction... with the uptake of the structurally similar TCA cycle compounds (22, 44, 76). In 1968, Jacobson snd Metzenberg (29) reported that aspartate and glutamate uptake by N. crassa was gene-controlled. Pall (44) has described a mycelial amino acid transport system...

  18. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  19. ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain fatty acids such as caprylic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mecham, Robert

    ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain fatty acids such as caprylic acid to serum will precipitate most serum proteins with the exception or ammonium sulfate precipitation, caprylic acid will yield a relatively pure antibody preparation. 1. Measure

  20. A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    account for about 70 percent of annual SO2 emissions and 30 percent of NOx emissions in the United States acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Electric utility plants and NOx are harmful to the lungs and can cause disease and premature death. Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12

  1. Evaluation of inter-laminar shear strength of GFRP composed of bonded glass/polyimide tapes and cyanate-ester/epoxy blended resin for ITER TF coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmi, T.; Matsui, K.; Koizumi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fusion Research and Development Directorate 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki, 311-0193 (Japan); Nishimura, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Fusion Engineering Research Center 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Nishijima, S. [Osaka University, Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Shikama, T. [Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Research 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-27

    The insulation system of the ITER TF coils consists of multi-layer glass/polyimide tapes impregnated a cyanate-ester/epoxy resin. The ITER TF coils are required to withstand an irradiation of 10 MGy from gamma-ray and neutrons since the ITER TF coils is exposed by fast neutron (>0.1 MeV) of 10{sup 22} n/m{sup 2} during the ITER operation. Cyanate-ester/epoxy blended resins and bonded glass/polyimide tapes are developed as insulation materials to realize the required radiation-hardness for the insulation of the ITER TF coils. To evaluate the radiation-hardness of the developed insulation materials, the inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS) of glass-fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) fabricated using developed insulation materials is measured as one of most important mechanical properties before/after the irradiation in a fission reactor of JRR-3M. As a result, it is demonstrated that the GFRPs using the developed insulation materials have a sufficient performance to apply for the ITER TF coil insulation.

  2. Contribution of Iron-Reducing Bacteria to Mercury Methylation in Marine Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Emily J.; Nelson, D C

    2006-01-01

    iron, which is characteristic of acid weathering of exposed miningexposed mining areas, a suite of other metals (such as iron,

  3. Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.

    1956-01-01

    METABOLISM OF THlOCTlC ACID IN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY ThisMETABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. , C.METABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. C.

  4. Lewis acid–base interactions enhance explosives sensing in silacycle polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Jason C.; DiPasquale, Antonio G.; Mrse, Anthony A.; Trogler, William C.

    2009-01-01

    explosives—HMX, RDX, and PETN, have higher lying excitedlow volatility, such as RDX and PETN. Trace detection ofand nitrate esters (PETN) [7–10]. The relative sensitivity

  5. Mild and General Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Methyl Aryl Ethers Enabled by the Use of a Palladacycle Precatalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Chi Wai

    A general method for the Pd-catalyzed coupling of methanol with (hetero)aryl halides is described. The reactions proceed under mild conditions with a wide range of aryl and heteroaryl halides to give methyl aryl ethers in ...

  6. Daphnetin Methylation by a Novel O-Methyltransferase Is Associated with Cold Acclimation and Photosystem II Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarhan, Fathey

    , University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada In plants, O-methylation of phenolic compounds biosynthesis have been identified. We report here the molecular and biochemical characterization of a gene

  7. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01

    Hemispheric air. 4.1.3. n-Butane [ 26 ] n-C 4 H 10 levels inH 6 ; propane, C 3 H 8 ; n-butane, n-C 4 H 10 ), two methyl

  8. Experimental investigation of size effect on thermal conductivity for ultra-thin amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ick Chan

    2009-05-15

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether a “size effect” phenomenon for one particular thermophysical property, thermal conductivity, actually exists for amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with thicknesses ranging from 40 nm...

  9. Infra red spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis, thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infra red spectroscopy, flash pyrolysis, thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM to sporopollenin or algaenan. This is in agreement with flash pyrolysis­gas chromatography­mass spectrometry (py

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of the vibrational quasi-continuum arising from internal rotation of a methyl group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hougen, J.T.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this project is to use spectroscopic techniques to investigate in detail phenomena involving the vibrational quasi-continuum in a simple physical system. Acetaldehyde was chosen for the study because: (i) methyl groups have been suggested to be important promotors of intramolecular vibrational relaxation, (ii) the internal rotation of a methyl group is an easily describle large-amplitude motion, which should retain its simple character even at high levels of excitation, and (iii) the aldehyde carbonyl group offers the possibility of both vibrational and electronic probing. The present investigation of the ground electronic state has three parts: (1) understanding the {open_quotes}isolated{close_quotes} internal-rotation motion below, at, and above the top of the torsional barrier, (2) understanding in detail traditional (bond stretching and bending) vibrational fundamental and overtone states, and (3) understanding interactions involving states with multiquantum excitations of at least one of these two kinds of motion.

  11. Carbonic Acid Shows Promise in Geology, Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Berkeley Lab Study Holds Implications for Geological and Biological Processes October 23,...

  12. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric L. (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2012-05-08

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  13. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2011-03-29

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  14. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Steven William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2008-05-06

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  15. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric L. (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2012-02-14

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  16. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric L. (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2011-10-04

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  17. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA)

    2009-12-29

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids

  18. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

  19. Controlling acid rain : policy issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

  20. Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

    2001-09-05

    Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

  1. Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

  2. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  3. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  4. Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Hrnjez, Bruce J.; Asherie, Neer

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol produces more ordered crystals and a higher resolution protein structure than crystallization with (S)-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol. The results suggest that chiral interactions with chiral additives are important in protein crystal formation. Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozyme and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.

  5. Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myint, Lay L.

    2009-05-15

    ???????????????????????? 12 2.3 Fatty Acid Methyl Ester???????????????????. 12 2.4 Comparison of Different Oil Prices in the United States??????... 15 2.5 Biodiesel Production Plant Capacities using Different Feedstocks??... 16 2.6 Molecular Structure of Soap...?????????????????.. 18 2.7 Emulsification of Bioidiesel by Soap??????????????. 18 2.8 Intermediate Steps in Biodiesel Transesterification????????... 21 3.1 Schematic of Proposed Process Design?????????????. 26 4.1 Process Synthesis?????????????????????... 27 4...

  6. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  7. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  8. Thermal Stability of Acetohydroxamic Acid/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2002-03-13

    The transmutation of transuranic actinides and long-lived fission products in spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel has been proposed as one element of the Advanced Accelerator Applications Program. Preparation of targets for irradiation in an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor would involve dissolution of the fuel and separation of uranium, technetium, and iodine from the transuranic actinides and other fission products. The UREX solvent extraction process is being developed to reject and isolate the transuranic actinides in the acid waste stream by scrubbing with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). To ensure that a runaway reaction will not occur between nitric acid and AHA, an analogue of hydroxyl amine, thermal stability tests were performed to identify if any processing conditions could lead to a runaway reaction.

  9. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  10. Electronic Trap States in Methanofullerenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julia Schafferhans; Carsten Deibel; Vladimir Dyakonov

    2011-07-18

    The trap states in three fullerene derivatives, namely PC61BM ([6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester), bisPC61BM (bis[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) and PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester), are investigated by thermally stimulated current measurements (TSC). Thereby, the lower limit of the trap densities for all studied methanofullerenes exhibits values in the order of 10^22 m^-3 with the highest trap density in bisPC61BM and the lowest in PC61BM. Fractional TSC measurements on PC61BM reveal a broad trap distribution instead of discrete trap levels with activation energies ranging from 15 meV to 270 meV and the maximum at about 75 meV. The activation energies of the most prominent traps in the other two fullerene derivatives are significantly higher, being at 96 meV and 223 meV for PC71BM and 184 meV for bisPC61BM, respectively. The influence of these findings on the performance of organic solar cells is discussed.

  11. The interaction of organic adsorbate vibrations with substrate lattice waves in methyl-Si(111)-(1?×?1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Ryan D.; Hund, Zachary M.; Sibener, S. J.; Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, M.; O’Leary, Leslie E.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Benedek, G.

    2014-07-14

    A combined helium atom scattering and density functional perturbation theory study has been performed to elucidate the surface phonon dispersion relations for both the CH{sub 3}-Si(111)-(1?×?1) and CD{sub 3}-Si(111)-(1?×?1) surfaces. The combination of experimental and theoretical methods has allowed characterization of the interactions between the low energy vibrations of the adsorbate and the lattice waves of the underlying substrate, as well as characterization of the interactions between neighboring methyl groups, across the entire wavevector resolved vibrational energy spectrum of each system. The Rayleigh wave was found to hybridize with the surface rocking libration near the surface Brillouin zone edge at both the M{sup ¯}-point and K{sup ¯}-point. The calculations indicated that the range of possible energies for the potential barrier to the methyl rotation about the Si-C axis is sufficient to prevent the free rotation of the methyl groups at a room temperature interface. The density functional perturbation theory calculations revealed several other surface phonons that experienced mode-splitting arising from the mutual interaction of adjacent methyl groups. The theory identified a Lucas pair that exists just below the silicon optical bands. For both the CH{sub 3}- and CD{sub 3}-terminated Si(111) surfaces, the deformations of the methyl groups were examined and compared to previous experimental and theoretical work on the nature of the surface vibrations. The calculations indicated a splitting of the asymmetric deformation of the methyl group near the zone edges due to steric interactions of adjacent methyl groups. The observed shifts in vibrational energies of the -CD{sub 3} groups were consistent with the expected effect of isotopic substitution in this system.

  12. Contribution of Iron-Reducing Bacteria to Mercury Methylation in Marine Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Emily J.; Nelson, D C

    2006-01-01

    in continental margin sediments off central Chile. Limnologyof microbial iron reduction in sediments of the Baltic-Northreducing bacteria from sediments of an acid stressed lake.

  13. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  14. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  15. The rapid synthesis of oxazolines and their heterogeneous oxidation to oxazoles under flow conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glöckner, Steffen; Tran, Duc N.; Ingham, Richard J.; Fenner, Sabine; Wilson, Zoe E.; Battilocchio, Claudio; Ley, Steven V.

    2014-10-28

    in the Python pro- gramming language35,36 and running on a Raspberry Pi® microcomputer37 controlled the individual reactor components according to a pre-programmed sequence of timed actions, to co- ordinate the pumps and valves to perform the reactions. Using... (4S,5S)-2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-5-methyl-4,5-dihydrooxazole-4-carb- oxylic acid methyl ester (2b). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3) ? = Scheme 6 Automated oxidation of oxazolines using a Raspberry Pi® computer and a multiple position valve. Organic & Biomolecular...

  16. The Regulation of Dendritic Spine Plasticity by EphB and N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptors Through Spatial Control Over Cofilin Activity in Mature Hippocampal Neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pontrello, Crystal G.

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity by EphB and N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptors Through Spatial Control Over Cofilin Activity in Mature Hippocampal Neurons by Crystal

  17. Acidizing High-Temperature Carbonate Formations Using Methanesulfonic Acid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Alexis

    2015-03-25

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is the most commonly used stimulation fluid for high-temperature wells drilled in carbonate reservoirs due to its high dissolving power and low cost. However, the high corrosion rate of HCl on well tubulars could make its use...

  18. Storage effects on desorption efficiencies of methyl ethyl ketone and styrene collected on activated charcoal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dommer, Richard Alvin

    1978-01-01

    STORAGE EFf ECTS ON DESORP'TIC'N EFFICIENCIES OF METHYL ETHYL KF10NE AND STYRENE COLLECTED ON ACTIVATED CHARCOAL A Thesis by RICHARD ALVIN DONiNiER Approved as to style and content by: ( ha1ris a of Coll'Jn1 t tee Nay l978 QQZSGH ABSTRACT... Storage Effects on Desorption Efficiercies of i&lethyl Ethyl Ketone and Styrene Colleci-. ed on Activated Charcoal (liay 1978) Richard A. Dommer, B. S. , Central !'iichigan D&nivers ity Directed by: Dr, Ralph J. Vernon The effects on the desorption...

  19. Low-lying excited states and nonradiative processes of 9-methyl-2-aminopurine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trachsel, Maria A.; Lobsiger, Simon; Schär, Tobias; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2014-01-28

    The UV spectrum of the adenine analogue 9-methyl-2-aminopurine (9M-2AP) is investigated with one- and two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy at 0.3 and 0.05 cm{sup ?1} resolution in a supersonic jet. The electronic origin at 32 252 cm{sup ?1} exhibits methyl torsional subbands that originate from the 0A{sub 1}{sup ??} (l = 0) and 1E{sup ?} (l = ±1) torsional levels. These and further torsional bands that appear up to 0{sub 0}{sup 0}+230 cm{sup ?1} allow to fit the threefold (V{sub 3}) barriers of the torsional potentials as |V{sub 3}{sup ??}|=50 cm{sup ?1} in the S{sub 0} and |V{sub 3}{sup ?}|=126 cm{sup ?1} in the S{sub 1} state. Using the B3LYP density functional and correlated approximate second-order coupled cluster CC2 methods, the methyl orientation is calculated to be symmetric relative to the 2AP plane in both states, with barriers of V{sub 3}{sup ??}=20 cm{sup ?1} and V{sub 3}{sup ?}=115 cm{sup ?1}. The 0{sub 0}{sup 0} rotational band contour is 75% in-plane (a/b) polarized, characteristic for a dominantly long-axis {sup 1}??{sup *} excitation. The residual 25% c-axis polarization may indicate coupling of the {sup 1}??{sup *} to the close-lying {sup 1}n?{sup *} state, calculated at 4.00 and 4.01 eV with the CC2 method. However, the CC2 calculated {sup 1}n? oscillator strength is only 6% of that of the {sup 1}??{sup *} transition. The {sup 1}??{sup *} vibronic spectrum is very complex, showing about 40 bands within the lowest 500 cm{sup ?1}. The methyl torsion and the low-frequency out-of-plane ?{sub 1}{sup ?} and ?{sub 2}{sup ?} vibrations are strongly coupled in the {sup 1}??{sup *} state. This gives rise to many torsion-vibration combination bands built on out-of-plane fundamentals, which are without precedence in the {sup 1}??{sup *} spectrum of 9H-2-aminopurine [S. Lobsiger, R. K. Sinha, M. Trachsel, and S. Leutwyler, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 114307 (2011)]. From the Lorentzian broadening needed to fit the 0{sub 0}{sup 0} contour of 9M-2AP, the {sup 1}??{sup *} lifetime is ? ? 120 ps, reflecting a rapid nonradiative transition.

  20. Competitive threshold collision-induced dissociation: Gas-phase acidities and bond dissociation energies for a series of alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeTuri, V.F.; Ervin, K.M.

    1999-09-02

    Energy-resolved competitive collision-induced dissociation methods are used to measure the gas-phase acidities of a series of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol). The competitive dissociation reactions of fluoride-alcohol, [F{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOR], alkoxide-water, [RO{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOH], and alkoxide-methanol [RO{+-}{center{underscore}dot}HOCH{sub 3}] proton-bound complexes are studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. The reaction cross sections and product branching fractions to the two proton transfer channels are measured as a function of collision energy. The enthalpy difference between the two product channels is found by modeling the reaction cross sections near threshold using RRKM theory to account for the energy-dependent product branching ratio and kinetic shift. From the enthalpy difference, the alcohol gas-phase acidities are determined relative to the well-known values of HF and H{sub 2}O. The measured gas-phase acidities are {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}OH) = 1599 {+-} 3 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH) = 1586 {+-} 5 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHOH) = 1576 {+-} 4 kJ/mol, and {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH) = 1573 {+-} 3 kJ/mol.

  1. An assessment of acid fog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H{sup +} concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ``clear air``) aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions.

  2. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  3. Covalent Coupling of Organophosphorus Hydrolase Loaded Quantum Dots to Carbon Nanotube/Au Nanocomposite for Enhanced Detection of Methyl Parathion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Weiying; Liu, Deli; Li, Haibing; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    An amperometric biosensor for highly selective and sensitive determination of methyl parathion (MP) was developed based on dual signal amplification: (1) a large amount of introduced enzyme on the electrode surface and (2) synergistic effects of nanoparticles towards enzymatic catalysis. The fabrication process includes (1) electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles by a multi-potential step technique at multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode and (2) immobilization of methyl parathion degrading enzyme (MPDE) onto a modified electrode through CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) covalent attachment. The introduced MWCNT and gold nanoparticles significantly increased the surface area and exhibited synergistic effects towards enzymatic catalysis. CdTe QDs are further used as carriers to load a large amount of enzyme. As a result of these two important enhancement factors, the proposed biosensor exhibited extremely sensitive, perfectly selective, and rapid response to methyl parathion in the absence of a mediator.

  4. Experimental study of the oxidation of large surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental study of the oxidation of large surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels Mohammed of the oxidation of two blend surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels, n-decane/n-hexadecane and n-alkanes and methyl esters. Keywords: Oxidation; Diesel; Biodiesel; Methyl esters; n-Decane; n-Hexadecane; Methyl

  5. Autoignition measurements and a validated kinetic model for the biodiesel surrogate, methyl butanoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, S.; Curran, H.J.; Simmie, J.M.

    2008-04-15

    The autoignition of methyl butanoate has been studied at 1 and 4 atm in a shock tube over the temperature range 1250-1760 K at equivalence ratios of 1.5, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 at fuel concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%. These measurements are complemented by autoignition data from a rapid compression machine over the temperature range 640-949 K at compressed gas pressures of 10, 20, and 40 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.33 using fuel concentrations of 1.59 and 3.13%. The autoignition of methyl butanoate is observed to follow Arrhenius-like temperature dependence over all conditions studied. These data, together with speciation data reported in the literature in a flow reactor, a jet-stirred reactor, and an opposed-flow diffusion flame, were used to produce a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio, fuel fraction, and pressure for shock tube ignition delays. The agreement with rapid compression machine ignition delays is less accurate, although the qualitative agreement is reasonable. The model reproduces most speciation data with good accuracy. In addition, the important reaction pathways over each regime have been elucidated by both sensitivity and flux analyses. (author)

  6. Arbuzov rearrangement in alkoxy derivatives and chloro derivatives of methyl phosphonites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livantsov, M.V.; Prishchenko, A.A.; Lutsenko, I.F.

    1987-10-20

    In a series of alkoxy- and chloro-substituted methyl phosphonites, the Arbuzov reaction is a preparative method for the synthesis of new types of functionally substituted methyl phosphinates. The Arbuzov reaction takes a new pathway in the case of dialkoxymethyl phosphonites, in which the phosphorus-carbon bond is ruptured at the stage where a quasiphosphonium compound forms, producing alkoxycarbonyl phosphonites that have not been available before. The IR spectra were obtained on UR-20 and IKS-22 instruments in a thin layer (NaCL). The PMR spectra were taken on a Tesla BS-497 spectrometer (100 MHz) in C/sub 6/D/sub 6/ and CDCl/sub 3/ solutions (20 to 30% concn.), with TMS as standard. The /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of phosphonite (XI) was obtained on a Varian FT-80A spectrometer (20 MHz) in an 80% solution in C/sub 6/D/sub 6/ and with TMS as standard. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra were obtained on JEOL 6-50OHL (24.3 MHz), Varian FT-80A (32.2 MHz), and JOEL FX-100 (42 MHz) spectrometers with an 85% solution of H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in D/sub 2/O as standard.

  7. Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M. (Brookline, MA)

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing a plurality of a nucleic acid array, comprising, in order, the steps of amplifying in situ nucleic acid molecules of a first randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array comprising a heterogeneous pool of nucleic acid molecules affixed to a support, transferring at least a subset of the nucleic acid molecules produced by such amplifying to a second support, and affixing the subset so transferred to the second support to form a second randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array, wherein the nucleic acid molecules of the second array occupy positions that correspond to those of the nucleic acid molecules from which they were amplified on the first array, so that the first array serves as a template to produce a plurality, is disclosed.

  8. Modeling of Acid Fracturing in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Jawad, Murtada s

    2014-06-05

    The acid fracturing process is a thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and geochemical (THMG)-coupled phenomena in which the behavior of these variables are interrelated. To model the flow behavior of an acid into a fracture, mass and momentum balance...

  9. PREDICTING TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR IN CARBONATE ACIDIZING TREATMENTS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Xuehao

    2010-01-16

    ........................................................................................ 4 1.4 Objective and Procedures .................................................................. 4 1.5 Outline .............................................................................................. 5 2. ACID INJECTION PROBLEM.......................................................... 10 2.4 Wormhole Growth Model.................................................................. 11 2.5 Modified Volumetric Model .............................................................. 14 2.6 Solution of Acid Injection Problem...

  10. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  11. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2009-04-14

    An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

  12. On the Interaction of Methyl Azide (CH3N3) Ices with Ionizing Radiation: Formation of Methanimine (CH2NH), Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN), and Hydrogen Isocyanide (HNC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    On the Interaction of Methyl Azide (CH3N3) Ices with Ionizing Radiation: Formation of Methanimine in solar system analogue ices. Introduction Methyl azide (CH3N3) is an organic compound suggested to be present in Titan's atmosphere.1 To date, the Voyager Infrared Radiometer and Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS

  13. Chemical Additive Selection in Matrix Acidizing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jason 1981-

    2011-05-09

    critical detail of weak acid chemistry. One concern when using any acid in oilfield operations is the corrosion of well tubulars. Thus operators often choose to pump corrosion inhibitor, a chemical additive electrostatically attracted... to the negative charge of the well casing or production tubing, to decrease the rate at which the acid accesses well tubular surfaces (Crowe and Minor 1985). A typical working concentration of corrosion inhibitor is 1-2 wt% of injected acid (Smith et al. 1978...

  14. Metabolically active eukaryotic communities in extremely acidic mine drainage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Brett J; Lutz, M A; Dawson, S C; Bond, P L; Banfield, J F

    2004-01-01

    Microbial communities in acid mine drainage. FEMS Microbiol.Biogeochem- istry of acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain,in an extreme acid mine drainage environment. Appl. Environ.

  15. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  16. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  17. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (Bethesda, MD); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  18. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  19. Reactions of methyl groups on a non-reducible metal oxide: The reaction of iodomethane on stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3(0001)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Yujung; Brooks, John D.; Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mullins, David R.; Cox, David F.

    2015-06-10

    The reaction of iodomethane on the nearly stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface produces gas phase ethylene, methane, and surface iodine adatoms. The reaction is first initiated by the dissociation of iodomethane into surface methyl fragments, -CH3, and iodine adatoms. Methyl fragments bound at surface Cr cation sites undergo a rate-limiting dehydrogenation reaction to methylene, =CH2. The methylene intermediates formed from methyl dehydrogenation can then undergo coupling reactions to produce ethylene via two principle reaction pathways: (1) direct coupling of methylene and (2) methylene insertion into the methyl surface bond to form surface ethyl groups which undergo ?-H elimination to produce ethylene. Themore »liberated hydrogen also combines with methyl groups to form methane. Iodine adatoms from the dissociation of iodomethane deactivate the surface by simple site blocking of the surface Cr3+ cations.« less

  20. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  1. Hydrochloric Acid-Catalyzed Levulinic Acid Formation from Cellulose: Data and Kinetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Hydrochloric Acid-Catalyzed Levulinic Acid Formation from Cellulose: Data and Kinetic Model.com). In this study, the kinetics of the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH101 of conditions: 160­200 C, hydrochloric acid concentrations of 0.309­0.927 M (11.3­33.8 g/l), cellulose

  2. Acid Diversion in Carbonate Reservoirs Using Polymer-Based In-Situ Gelled Acids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomaa, Ahmed Mohamed Mohamed

    2012-07-16

    and determine factors that impact its performance. Lab test of polymer-based in-situ gelled acids reveal that polymer and other additives separate out of the acid when these acids are prepared in high salinity water. In coreflood tests, in-situ gelled acid...

  3. Current methods used for the production of carboxylic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    harmful waste and by- products, high costs, and intensive purification processes. Therefore companies producing esters wish to switch from petrochemical feedstocks to renewable feedstocks on accountH and the subsequent carboxylate counter-ion is removed by acidification, which is an extremely polluting process

  4. MFR PAPER 1033 Research determin es fatty aCid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ~1 Preparation of Esters \\leth) I e\\ler lIere preparuJ u\\lng the mClhod :r, "ere \\cparated an d Idenlilied u\\lng , Zook E J Powell B Hackley J Emerson J Brooker. and G M Knobl

  5. Catalytic Transformation of C7-C9 Methyl Benzenes over USY-based FCC Zeolite Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    in the petrochemical market. Most of the currently working isomerization plants are using zeolite based catalysts. One) and the diphenyl methane mechanism. It was shown that toluene disproportionation does not require Brönsted acid

  6. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  7. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-05-30

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  8. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lykidis, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    Sakai, Y. , and Kato, N. (2002) Wax ester production from n-Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acidSteinbuchel, A. (2005) The wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme

  9. Phase transition from focal conic to cubic smectic blue phase in partially fluorinated cyano-phenyl alkyl benzoate ester doped with ultrahigh twisting power chiral dopant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasenjit Nayek; Sebastian Gauza; Guoqiang Li

    2015-10-28

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has important applications in adaptive lenses and phase modulators due to its polarization-independent property. During our efforts for development of the new materials, we found a novel phenomenology of phase transition, from focal conic smectic to smectic blue phase in a partially fluorinated cyanophenyl alkyl benzoate ester based nematic liquid crystal (LCM-5773) doped by ultra-high twisting power [H.T.P~160 um^-1] chiral dopant (R5011/3 wt%). Polarized optical microscopy (POM) investigations revealed focal conic and fan-shaped textures typical for columnar mesophases. These focal conic domains (FCDs) are squeezed under electric field and finally at a critical electric field they undergo a dark state. When the electric field is withdrawn, the FCDs are regrown in a one dimensional array with smaller domain size. Interestingly, we have observed the domain size of the FCDs can grow several times by decreasing the cooling rate (0.02 degrees(C)/min.) ten times without any change in the phase sequence. In blue phase (BP), we have observed curved platelet texture and grain boundaries filled by small platelets, which is completely different from conventional cholesteric BP. The blue phase platelet size (PLS) also increases significantly at low cooling rates. The thermal control of FCD and PLS size has increasing demand for the construction of devices with optimal performances.

  10. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, George N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)·2(H{sub 2}O). ?- and ?-An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2{sub 1}/n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O) with a layered structure. - Highlights: • U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) phosphites were synthesized by solution-state methods. • A new uranyl phosphite structure is based upon uranyl phosphite anionic sheets. • New U and Th phosphites have framework structures.

  11. Current Biology, Vol. 15, 154159, January 26, 2005, 2005 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2005.01.008 DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steve

    Summary the Msp I restriction endonuclease, which cleaves CCGG and is blocked by CNG methylation. We had-typically found in CG, CNG, and asymmetric contexts. ferase. To identify other classes of sites, we have perreplication. Methylation of CNG and asymmetric sites [4­6]. Two methyl-sensitive restriction

  12. High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly November 1999; accepted 5 November 1999 Abstract High-energy mechanical milling has been performed on poly and subsequently narrows with increasing milling time. Solid-state mechanical milling promotes comparable decreases

  13. Transparent Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (PMMA/SWNT) Composite Films with Increased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    to conventional polymer composites due to the stronger interac- tions between polymer and filler phases. CarbonTransparent Poly(methyl methacrylate)/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (PMMA/SWNT) Composite Films Meyyappan, Timofey G. Gerasimov, and Julie P. Harmon* 1. Introduction Polymer nanocomposites are a novel

  14. Class I Chitinase and -1,3-Glucanase Are Differentially Regulated by Wounding, Methyl Jasmonate, Ethylene, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradford, Kent

    Class I Chitinase and -1,3-Glucanase Are Differentially Regulated by Wounding, Methyl Jasmonate of Vegetable Crops, University of California, Davis, California 95616­8631 Class I chitinase (Chi9) and -1 that class I -1,3-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.39) mRNA accumu- lation, enzyme activity, and protein content in

  15. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 138, 054301 (2013) Photodissociation dynamics of the methyl perthiyl radical at 248 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    -phase chemistry and photochemistry of alkyl disulfides, with dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) at the forefront of many investigations.3­17 Depending on the wave- length used, the competing dissociation pathways for DMDS observed both the methyl perthiyl radical and S2 fragments from the 193 nm photodis- sociation of DMDS

  16. Analysis of 14-3-3? methylation and associated changes in gene expression and function in colorectal carcinoma 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Kirsty Anne

    2010-01-01

    that overexpression of 14-3-3? in SW480 cells (14-3-3? methylated) delayed the apoptotic response to UV-C, compared to control SW480 cells. This suggests that 14-3-3? may protect colorectal cancer cells from apoptosis. MTT assays showed that overexpression of 14-3-3?...

  17. Acid Fracture and Fracture Conductivity Study of Field Rock Samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, Jarrod

    2013-11-15

    Acid fracturing is a well stimulation strategy designed to increase the productivity of a producing well. The parameters of acid fracturing and the effects of acid interaction on specific rock samples can be studied experimentally. Acid injection...

  18. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA)

    2010-08-17

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  19. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA)

    2010-12-21

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  20. A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, John Mitchell

    1980-06-01

    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

  1. Interactions in 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ion pair: Spectroscopic and density functional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-04-24

    Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -}). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -} ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.

  2. Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongchun Tang; John Ma

    2012-03-23

    The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

  3. 3-Methyl-1,2-BN-Cyclopentane: A Promising H2 Storage Material?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Wei; Neiner, Doinita; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Parab, Kshitij; Garner, Edward B.; Dixon, David A.; Matson, Dean W.; Autrey, Thomas; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2013-01-21

    We provide detailed characterization of properties for 3-methyl-1,2-BN-cyclopentane 1 that are relevant to H2 storage applications such as viscosity, thermal stability, H2 gas stream purity, and polarity. The viscosity of 1 at room temperature is 25±5 cP, about one fourth the viscosity of olive oil. TGA/MS analysis indicates that liquid carrier 1 is thermally stable at 30 °C but decomposes slowly at 50 °C. RGA data suggest that the H2 desorption from 1 is a clean process, producing relatively pure H2 gas. Compound 1 is a polar zwitterionic type liquid consistent with theoretical predictions and solvatochromic studies. "T.A. acknowledges support from the Fuel Cell Technology Program at U.S. DOE, Office of Energy Efficiency 65 and Renewable Energy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle."

  4. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  5. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-04-06

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  6. Mesoscale simulation of shocked poly-(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroen, Diana Grace; Flicker, Dawn G.; Haill, Thomas A.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

    2011-06-01

    Hydrocarbon foams are commonly used in HEDP experiments, and are subject to shock compression from tens to hundreds of GPa. Modeling foams is challenging due to the heterogeneous character of the foam. A quantitative understanding of foams under strong dynamic compression is sought. We use Sandia's ALEGRA-MHD code to simulate 3D mesoscale models of pure poly(4-methyl-1-petene) (PMP) foams. We employ two models of the initial polymer-void structure of the foam and analyze the statistical properties of the initial and shocked states. We compare the simulations to multi-Mbar shock experiments at various initial foam densities and flyer impact velocities. Scatter in the experimental data may be a consequence of the initial foam inhomogeneity. We compare the statistical properties the simulations with the scatter in the experimental data.

  7. Generation kinetics of color centers in irradiated poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J. S.; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh; Chou, K. F.

    2011-09-15

    The transient absorbance of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) irradiated with gamma rays at elevated temperatures has been investigated. The absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range increases with gamma ray dose. A bathochromic shift in transmission spectra emerges significantly upon irradiation. A first-order generation model is proposed to analyze the kinetics of color centers during annealing. The activation energy of the color center increases with increasing gamma ray dose. The equilibrium behavior of color centers in PMP is similar to that of vacancies in metals, and the formation energy of color centers in PMP decreases with increasing gamma ray dose. However, annealable color centers are not observed in this study.

  8. Crystallization of iysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Hrnjez, Bruce J.; Asherie, Neer

    2015-03-01

    Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozymemore »and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.« less

  9. Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Hrnjez, Bruce J.; Asherie, Neer

    2015-03-01

    Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozymemore »and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.« less

  10. Enantioselective hydrogenation. III. Methyl pyruvate hydrogenation catalyzed by alkaloid-modified iridium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simons, K.E.; Johnston, P.; Plum, H.; Wells, P.B.; Ibbotson, A.

    1994-12-01

    Enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl pyruvate, MeCOCOOMe to methyl lactate, MeCH(OH)COOMe, is catalyzed in solution at room temperature by supported iridium catalysts modified with cinchona alkaloids. Modification with cinchonidine or quinine yields R-lactate in excess, whereas modification with cinchonine or quinidine favors S-lactate formation. Ir/SiO{sub 2} catalysts (20%) calcined at 393 to 573 K and reduced at 523 to 593 K were highly active for racemic hydrogenation in the absence of a modifier (rates typically 1.8 mol h{sup -1} g{sub cat}{sup -1}) and were comparably active when modified with cinchonidine but gave an enantiomeric excess of about 30%. Use of higher calcination or reduction temperatures led to substantially inferior activity and selectivity. The high rates recorded for both racemic and enantioselective reactions are dependent on the catalysts being activated before use by a procedure involving exposure of the catalyst to air after the initial reduction. Use of a Cl-free precursor gave an Ir/SiO{sub 2} catalyst (20%) of superior activity but inferior enantioselectivity. Ir/CaCO{sub 3} (5%) was more active for racemic hydrogenation than for enantioselective hydrogenation, but provided the highest value of the enantiomeric excess 39%. Kinematics of reaction are reported. Exchange of H for D in 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine at room temperature over Ir/CaCO{sub 3} occurred in the quinoline moiety but not in the quinuclidine ring system, indicating that the alkaloid was adsorbed to the Ir surface via the interaction of its {pi}-electron system. For both silica-supported and calcium carbonate-supported Ir, the presence of chloride ion in the catalyst was advantageous for the achievement of enantioselectivity. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Conductive methyl blue-functionalized reduced graphene oxide with excellent stability and solubility in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Xiang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tan, Shaozao, E-mail: shaozao@tom.com [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xie, Agui; Lin, Minsong; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhang, Xiuju; Lin, Zhidan [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wu, Ting [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mai, Wenjie, E-mail: wenjiemai@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: MB-rGO was synthesized by making use of {pi} stacking and water-solubility of MB to assist the hydrazine mediated reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous solution. The resulting MB-rGO shows excellent solubility and stability in aqueous solution, and the electrical conductivity of MB-rGO is almost two orders of magnitude larger than that of GO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methyl blue (MB) stacks onto the plane of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by strong {pi}-{pi} interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfo groups of MB prevent rGO from aggregating by electrostatic and steric repulsions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MB-functionalized rGO (MB-rGO) shows excellent solubility and stability in aqueous solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical conductivity of MB-rGO is almost two orders of magnitude larger than that of GO. -- Abstract: {pi} stacking and water-solubility of methyl blue (MB) are expected to facilitate the hydrazine mediated reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous environment. Our newly obtained MB-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (MB-rGO) exhibited excellent solubility and stability in water. The results showed that the MB molecules stacked non-covalently onto the basal plane of rGO while the sulfo groups of MB prevented the rGO from aggregation. In addition, the better electrical conductivity of MB-rGO than that of GO was analyzed. This novel conductive MB-rGO should have promising applications in diverse nanotechnological areas, such as electronic and optoelectronic devices, photovoltaics, sensors, and microfabrication.

  12. Synthesis of [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methacrylic acid, [.sup.13C] and [.sup.2H] substituted methyl methacrylate and/or related compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-02-16

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds of the formulae ##STR00001## wherein Q is selected from the group consisting of --S(.dbd.O)--, and --S(.dbd.O).sub.2--, Z is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, and an amino group selected from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each independently selected from the group consisting of a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl, an aryl, and an alkoxy group, and X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group, and a fully-deuterated C.sub.1-C.sub.4 lower alkyl group.

  13. Double stranded nucleic acid biochips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

    2006-05-23

    This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

  14. ARM - Lesson Plans: Acid Rain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Room News Publications TraditionalPlans OutreachAcid

  15. Glucose and Fructose to Platform Chemicals: Understanding the Thermodynamic Landscapes of Acid-Catalysed Reactions Using High-Level ab Initio Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Kim, Taijin; Low, John; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-12-28

    Molecular level understanding of acid-catalysed conversion of sugar molecules to platform chemicals such as hydroxy-methyl furfural (HMF), furfuryl alcohol (FAL), and levulinic acid (LA) is essential for efficient biomass conversion. In this paper, the high-level G4MP2 method along with the SMD solvation model is employed to understand detailed reaction energetics of the acid-catalysed decomposition of glucose and fructose to HMF. Based on protonation free energies of various hydroxyl groups of the sugar molecule, the relative reactivity of gluco-pyranose, fructo-pyranose and fructo-furanose are predicted. Calculations suggest that, in addition to the protonated intermediates, a solvent assisted dehydration of one of the fructo-furanosyl intermediates is a competing mechanism, indicating the possibility of multiple reaction pathways for fructose to HMF conversion in aqueous acidic medium. Two reaction pathways were explored to understand the thermodynamics of glucose to HMF; the first one is initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH group and the second one through an enolate intermediate involving acyclic intermediates. Additionally, a pathway is proposed for the formation of furfuryl alcohol from glucose initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH position, which includes a C–C bond cleavage, and the formation of formic acid. The detailed free energy landscapes predicted in this study can be used as benchmarks for further exploring the sugar decomposition reactions, prediction of possible intermediates, and finally designing improved catalysts for biomass conversion chemistry in the future.

  16. The Transition to a Carbon-Neutral Energy Economy: Exploring UCSD's Role

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    for ethyl/methyl esters (biodiesel). The world currentlyfuels such as ethanol and biodiesel hold huge promise forIn another example, biodiesel is extracted from seed oils,

  17. Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends. Society ofRegulated emissions from biodiesel fuels from on/ off-roadEffects of Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions.

  18. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  19. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1999-10-12

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  20. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

    1996-10-01

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, anion complexation and electrochemistry of cationic Lewis acids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu, Ching-Wen

    2009-05-15

    fluoride or cyanide from water under bi-phasic conditions. By placing the fluorophilic silyl group adjacent to an electrophilic carbocation, a novel fluoride sensor [45]+ was obtained. Sensing occurs via a fluoride induced methyl migration from the silicon...

  2. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  3. Selective, On-Resin N-Methylation of Cyclic Peptides and Implications for the Discovery of Membrane Permeable Scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Tina Renea

    2012-01-01

    amino acid was combined with BTC and collidine, which wastrichloromethyl) carbonate, BTC, has been used to form N-

  4. Understanding Naphthenic Acid Corrosion in Refinery Settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, Brian Neil

    2015-01-01

    R. & Tordo, S. , 2005. Crude oil price differentials andfiles/08105.Technical Paper_Crude Oil Price DifferentialsAcids Present in Crude Oils Using Nanospray Fourier

  5. Investigating intermediates in 6-methylsalicylic acid biosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potter, Helen Katherine

    2011-07-12

    .3.1 Chlorination ............................................................................................ 174 A2.3.2 Coupling of amino acids.......................................................................... 174 A2.3.3 Protecting groups...

  6. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  7. Nuclear Envelope and Chromatin Compositional Differences Comparing Undifferentiated and Retinoic Acid-and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olins, Ada L.

    Nuclear Envelope and Chromatin Compositional Differences Comparing Undifferentiated and Retinoic/macrophage form with phorbol ester (TPA). The granulocytic form acquires nuclear lobulation, nuclear envelope cells, localized into the nuclear envelope fol- lowing TPA. Normal human granulocytes revealed

  8. Photoimaging of the multiple filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-anthracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulchin, Yu N; Vitrik, O B; Chekhlenok, A A; Zhizhchenko, A Yu; Proschenko, D Yu; Mirochnik, A G; Lyu Guohui

    2013-12-31

    We have studied the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses (? = 800 nm, ?42 fs pulse duration) in poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with 2,2-difluoro-4-(9-anthracyl)-6-methyl-1,3,2- dioxaborine and the associated photomodification of the material. The results demonstrate that multiple filamentation occurs at pulse energies above 5 ?J. At a pulse energy of 1.5 mJ, it is accompanied by supercontinuum generation. The average filament length in PMMA is 9 mm and the filament diameter is ?10 ?m. An incident power density of ?10{sup 12} W cm{sup -2} ensures inscription of the filament pattern owing to two-photon photochemical processes. Preliminary exposure to continuous light at ? = 400 nm enables an ordered filament pattern to be written. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  9. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  10. Effects of Acid Additives on Spent Acid Flowback through Carbonate Cores 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasir, Ehsaan Ahmad

    2012-07-16

    these challenges, different chemicals, or additives, are added to the acid solution such as corrosion inhibitors and iron control agents. These additives may change the relative permeability of the spent acid, and formation wettability, and may either hinder...

  11. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, J.

    2011-01-01

    base properties of a goethite surface model: A theoreticalcomplexation of U(VI) on goethite (alpha-FeOOH). Geochim.acid and humic-acid on goethite, gibbsite and imogolite. J.

  12. Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Permeability on the Optimum Acid Flux in Carbonate Matrix Acidizing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etten, Jordan Ruby

    2015-05-05

    stimulation design. Optimum interstitial velocity determines the injection rate for a treatment, and the optimum pore volume to breakthrough, PVbt-opt, suggests the total volume of acid needed. Studies of carbonate matrix acidizing have focused on the role...

  13. Non-essential amino acid metabolism in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crooks, James Darrell

    1971-01-01

    -bound amino acids were studied' The amino acids studied were asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, arginine, and praline. Growth rates of rats increased with increased levels of glutamate in the diet. Effects of level... of dietary glutamic acid on endogenous pool size;, of the free amino acids were studied. No consistent patterns were observed. The pool sizes of all but four of the free amino acids increased after the ingestion of a meal. Glucose levels decreased...

  14. Evaluation of the Thermophysical Properties of Poly(MethylMethacrylate): A Reference Material for the Development of a flammability Test for Micro-Gravity Environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhaus, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A study has been conducted using PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate)) as a reference material in the development process of the Forced Flow and flame Spread Test (FIST). This test attempts to establish different criteria for ...

  15. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  16. Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-01-06

    When nitrates and prussic acid accumulate in forage, the feed may not be safe for livestock consumption. Learn the symptoms of nitrate and prussic acid poisoning and which plants are most likely to pose a risk to livestock. Also learn sampling...

  17. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Lakewood, CO); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Golden, CO); Myers, Andrew William (Arvada, CO); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Boulder, CO); Elliott, Brian John (Superior, CO); Kreutzer, Cory (Brighton, CO); Wilson, Carolina (Arvada, CO); Meiser, Manfred (Aurora, CO)

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  18. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  19. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  20. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  1. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  2. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12 Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi Jon K. Magnuson and Linda L. Lasure 1. Introduction Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal overshadowed by the successful deploy- ment of the -lactam processes.Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal

  3. Nonpremixed ignition, laminar flame propagation, and mechanism reduction of n-butanol, iso-butanol, and methyl butanoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei; Kelley, A. P.; Law, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    The non-premixed ignition temperature of n-butanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), iso-butanol ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}OH) and methyl butanoate (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 3}) was measured in a liquid pool assembly by heated oxidizer in a stagnation flow for system pressures of 1 and 3 atm. In addition, the stretch-corrected laminar flame speeds of mixtures of air–n-butanol/iso-butanol/methyl butanoate were determined from the outwardly propagating spherical flame at initial pressures of up to 2 atm, for an extensive range of equivalence ratio. The ignition temperature and laminar flame speeds of n-butanol and methyl butanoate were computationally simulated with three recently developed kinetic mechanisms in the literature. Dominant reaction pathways to ignition and flame propagation were identified and discussed through a chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and sensitivity analysis. The detailed models were further reduced through a series of systematic strategies. The reduced mechanisms provided excellent agreement in both homogeneous and diffusive combustion environments and greatly improved the computation efficiency.

  4. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  5. Phosphorylation and Methylation of Proteasomal Proteins of the HaloarcheonHaloferax volcanii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Reuter, Christopher J.; Zuobi-Hasona, Kheir; Zhou, Guangyin; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Proteasomes are composed of 20S core particles (CPs) of?- and?-type subunits that associate with regulatory particle AAA ATPases such as the proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN) complexes of archaea. In this study, the roles and additional sites of post-translational modification of proteasomes were investigated using the archaeonHaloferax volcaniias a model. Indicative of phosphorylation, phosphatase-sensitive isoforms of?1and?2were detected by 2-DE immunoblot. To map these and other potential sites of post-translational modification, proteasomes were purified and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Using this approach, several phosphosites were mapped including?1Thr147,?2 Thr13/Ser14 and PAN-A Ser340. Multiple methylation sites were also mapped to?1, thus, revealing amore »new type of proteasomal modification. Probing the biological role of?1and PAN-A phosphorylation by site-directed mutagenesis revealed dominant negative phenotypes for cell viability and/or pigmentation for?1variants including Thr147Ala, Thr158Ala and Ser58Ala. AnH. volcaniiRio1p Ser/Thr kinase homolog was purified and shown to catalyze autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer to?1. The?1variants in Thr and Ser residues that displayed dominant negative phenotypes were significantly reduced in their ability to accept phosphoryl groups from Rio1p, thus, providing an important link between cell physiology and proteasomal phosphorylation.« less

  6. Phosphorylation and Methylation of Proteasomal Proteins of the Haloarcheon Haloferax volcanii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Humbard, Matthew A.; Reuter, Christopher J.; Zuobi-Hasona, Kheir; Zhou, Guangyin; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Proteasomes are composed of 20S core particles (CPs) of ? - and ? -type subunits that associate with regulatory particle AAA ATPases such as the proteasome-activating nucleotidase (PAN) complexes of archaea. In this study, the roles and additional sites of post-translational modification of proteasomes were investigated using the archaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model. Indicative of phosphorylation, phosphatase-sensitive isoforms of ? 1 and ? 2 were detected by 2-DE immunoblot. To map these and other potential sites of post-translational modification, proteasomes were purified and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Usingmore »this approach, several phosphosites were mapped including ? 1 Thr147, ? 2 Thr13/Ser14 and PAN-A Ser340. Multiple methylation sites were also mapped to ? 1 , thus, revealing a new type of proteasomal modification. Probing the biological role of ? 1 and PAN-A phosphorylation by site-directed mutagenesis revealed dominant negative phenotypes for cell viability and/or pigmentation for ? 1 variants including Thr147Ala, Thr158Ala and Ser58Ala. An H. volcanii Rio1p Ser/Thr kinase homolog was purified and shown to catalyze autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer to ? 1 . The ? 1 variants in Thr and Ser residues that displayed dominant negative phenotypes were significantly reduced in their ability to accept phosphoryl groups from Rio1p, thus, providing an important link between cell physiology and proteasomal phosphorylation. « less

  7. On the role of chemical reactions in initiating ultraviolet laser ablation in poly(methyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Manish; Conforti, Patrick F.; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2007-05-15

    The role of chemical reactions is investigated versus the thermal and mechanical processes occurring in a polymer substrate during irradiation by a laser pulse and subsequent ablation. Molecular dynamics simulations with an embedded Monte Carlo based reaction scheme were used to study ultraviolet ablation of poly(methyl methacrylate) at 157 nm. We discuss the onset of ablation, the mechanisms leading to ablation, and the role of stress relaxation of the polymer matrix during ablation. Laser induced heating and chemical decomposition of the polymer substrate are considered as ablation pathways. It is shown that heating the substrate can set off ablation via mechanical failure of the material only for very short laser pulses. For longer pulses, the mechanism of ejection is thermally driven limited by the critical number of bonds broken in the substrate. Alternatively, if the photon energy goes towards direct bond breaking, it initiates chemical reactions, polymer unzipping, and formation of gaseous products, leading to a nearly complete decomposition of the top layers of substrates. The ejection of small molecules has a hollowing out effect on the weakly connected substrates which can lead to lift-off of larger chunks. Excessive pressure buildup upon the creation of gaseous molecules does not lead to enhanced yield. The larger clusters are thermally ejected, and an entrainment of larger polymer fragments in gaseous molecules is not observed.

  8. Crystal structures of bis-ligand complexes of copper(II) with 2-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]-4,6-dinitrophenol, 2,4-dichloro-6-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]phenol, and 2,4-dibromo-6-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]phenol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumakov, Yu. M. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)], E-mail: chumakov.xray@phys.asm.md; Tsapkov, V. I. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Bocelli, G. [National Research Council (IMEM-CNR), Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (Italy); Palomares-Sanchez, S. A.; Ortiz, R. S. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Gulea, A. P. [State University of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The crystal structures of bis{l_brace}2,4-dibromo-6-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]phenolato{r_brace}copper (I), bis{l_brace}2,4-dichloro-6-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]phenolato{r_brace}copper (II), and bis{l_brace}2-[(2-hydroxyethylamino)-methyl]-4,6-dinitrophenolato{r_brace}copper (III) in which the metal atom is located at the center of symmetry are determined using X-ray diffraction. Crystals of compounds I and II are isostructural. The copper atom in the structures of compounds I and I coordinates two singly deprotonated bidentate molecules of the ligand through the phenol oxygen atoms and the azomethine nitrogen atoms with the formation of a distorted planar square. In the crystals, complexes I and II form one-dimensional infinite chains along the b axis. In the structure of compound III, the coordination polyhedron of the central atom is an elongated tetragonal bipyramid with the base formed by the azomethine nitrogen atoms and the phenol oxygen atoms. Both vertices of the bipyramid are occupied by the oxygen atoms of the amino alcohol groups of the neighboring complexes, which are related to the initial complex through the center of symmetry. In turn, the oxygen atoms of the alcohol groups of the initial complex are located at the vertices of the coordination bipyramids of the metal atoms of the neighboring centrosymmetric complexes, thus forming infinite polymer chains along the a axis.

  9. Synthesis of labeled oxalic acid derivatives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2004-06-22

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, specifically ##STR1## where each C* is selected from the group consisting of a carbon-12, i.e., .sup.12 C, or a carbon-13, i.e., .sup.13 C and at least one C* is .sup.13 C, R.sup.1 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl and aryl, and X is selected from the group of --NR.sup.2 R.sup.3 where R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 are each independently selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl, --SR.sup.4 where R.sup.4 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl, and --OR.sup.5 where R.sup.5 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl with the proviso that when R.sup.1 is methyl then R.sup.5 is other than methyl, when R.sup.1 is ethyl then R.sup.5 is other than ethyl, and when R.sup.1 is benzyl then R.sup.5 is other than benzyl.

  10. Sandstone Acidizing Using Chelating Agents and their Interaction with Clays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Noble Thekkemelathethil 1987-

    2013-01-09

    in the application of acidizing, coreflood tests were performed on Berea and Bandera sandstone cores. Another disadvantage of mud acid has been the fast spending at clay mineral surfaces leading to depletion of acid strength, migration of fines, and formation...

  11. Experimental Study of Acid Fracture Conductivity of Austin Chalk Formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nino Penaloza, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Acid fracture conductivity and the effect of key variables in the etching process during acid fracturing can be assessed at the laboratory scale. This is accomplished by using an experimental apparatus that simulates acid injection fluxes comparable...

  12. Experimental High Velocity Acid Jetting in Limestone Carbonates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Christopher

    2014-04-30

    Acid jetting is a well stimulation technique that is used in carbonate reservoirs. It typically involves injecting acid down hole at high flow rates through small orifices which cause high velocities of acid to strike the borehole wall...

  13. Studies of metaphosphate acids and metaphosphate anhydrides in aprotic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakarawet, Khetpakorn

    2015-01-01

    The chemistry of metaphosphate acids has historically been studied in aqueous media, where acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and solvent leveling effects of these strong acids have prevented their observations and rigorous ...

  14. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2014-08-26

    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  15. Phenolic acid esterases, coding sequences and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, David L. (San Diego, CA); Kataeva, Irina (Athens, GA); Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA)

    2002-01-01

    Described herein are four phenolic acid esterases, three of which correspond to domains of previously unknown function within bacterial xylanases, from XynY and XynZ of Clostridium thermocellum and from a xylanase of Ruminococcus. The fourth specifically exemplified xylanase is a protein encoded within the genome of Orpinomyces PC-2. The amino acids of these polypeptides and nucleotide sequences encoding them are provided. Recombinant host cells, expression vectors and methods for the recombinant production of phenolic acid esterases are also provided.

  16. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    'The long-term goal of this research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants (Meagher and Rugh, 1996; Meagher et al., 1997). The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The authors have had a very successful first year either testing aspects of this hypothesis directly or preparing material needed for future experiments. The results are outlined below under goals A and B, which are explicit in this hypothesis. There were less than 10% of the funds remaining in any category as projected in the first 12 month budget at the end of the first year, with the exception of the equipment category which had 25% of the funds remaining ({approximately} $8,000). Much of this remaining equipment money is being spent this week on a mercury vapor analyzer. It might be useful to remember that at the time this grant was awarded, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thalianat to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. However, at that time, they had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had they expressed merB in any plant.'

  17. HLB Progress on Tahiti acid lime grafted onto eight rootstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuchi, E. S.; Reiff, E. T.; Sempionato, O. R.; Parolin, L. G.; Bassanezi, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Progress on Tahiti acid lime grafted onto eight rootstocksthe main Tahiti (Persian) lime producer in Brazil with 65%the performance of Tahiti acid lime grafted onto eight

  18. High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D More Documents & Publications Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis 2011...

  19. Microbial engineering for the production of fatty acids and fatty...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microbial engineering for the production of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microbial engineering for the production of fatty...

  20. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...

  1. Long range transport of acid rain precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of the long range transport of primary and secondary pollutants derived by Fay and Rosenzweig (1) is applied to the problem of the transport of acid rain precursors. The model describes the long term average (annual ...

  2. Guidance Document SafeHandlingofHydrofluoricAcid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -sleeved, buttoned lab coat, long pants and closed-toe shoes. Other PPE may be required, such as face shield, foot hydrofluoric acid in containers made of polyethylene, polypropylene, Teflon, lead or platinum. Do not use

  3. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  4. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  5. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  6. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  7. 3D characterization of acidized fracture surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malagon Nieto, Camilo

    2007-09-17

    generated by the profilometer identified hydrodynamic channels that could not be identified by the naked eye in acidized surfaces. The plots clarified the existence of rock heterogeneities and revealed how the processes of dissolution function in chalk rock...

  8. Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Mitra, Robi D. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

    2010-08-31

    Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.

  9. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    R.G.B and J.A.E. ). Keywords: biomass · carboxylic acids ·10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis ofaro- matic compounds from biomass resources could provide a

  10. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  11. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Zhang, Kun (Brighton, MA)

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  12. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiangyun (San Diego, CA); Xie, Jianming (San Diego, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

    2012-06-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  13. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiangyun (San Diego, CA); Xie, Jianming (San Diego, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

    2010-10-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  14. NO reduction using sublimation of cyanuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, R.A.

    1996-05-21

    A method of reducing the NO content of a gas stream comprises contacting the gas stream with an amount of HNCO at a temperature effective for heat-induced decomposition of cyanuric acid, said amount and temperature being effective for the resultant lowering of the NO content of the gas stream, said cyanuric acid being particulate and having a particle size of less than 90 {micro}m. 1 fig.

  15. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  16. Heterogeneous organic acid uptake on soot surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levitt, Nicholas Paul

    2009-05-15

    several monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids and soots formed by combustion of methane, propane, and kerosene. Soot was deposited by either alowing the flame to come into contact with the deposition surface (activated) similar to industrial channel... Function of Injector Distance........ 25 7 Comparison of Uptake Coeficients as a Function of Exposure Number for Steric Acid Uptake on Diferent Amounts of Activated Propane Soot.......................... 29 8 IR Spectra of Propane Soot Deposited...

  17. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Wijk, Nick

    Background: Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation ...

  18. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2010-05-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet-stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. (author)

  19. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  20. Bio-Inspired Ideas for Sustainable Energy: Poster Session Day 1 1 Sayeh Sinichi Levente Diosady

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    :1) the formation of isopropyl ester was negligible, making this an alternative technique for biodiesel processing and methyl esters from canola oil via mixed alcohol transesterification. Biodiesel is an attractive and animal fats. The presence of isopropyl esters in biodiesel can improve the cold flow property of the fuel

  1. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A Brønsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. • The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. • Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. • The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1–0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 °C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  2. Methyl Formate Oxidation: Speciation Data, Laminar Burning Velocities, Ignition Delay Times and a Validated Chemical Kinetic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, S.; Burke, M. P.; Chaos, M.; Stein, Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Zhukov, V. P.; Finch, O.; Simmie, J. M.; Curran, H. J.

    2010-07-16

    The oxidation of methyl formate (CH{sub 3}OCHO) has been studied in three experimental environments over a range of applied combustion relevant conditions: 1. A variable-pressure flow reactor has been used to quantify reactant, major intermediate and product species as a function of residence time at 3 atm and 0.5% fuel concentration for oxygen/fuel stoichiometries of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at 900 K, and for pyrolysis at 975 K. 2. Shock tube ignition delays have been determined for CH{sub 3}OCHO/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures at pressures of ? 2.7, 5.4, and 9.2 atm and temperatures of 1275–1935 K for mixture compositions of 0.5% fuel (at equivalence ratios of 1.0, 2.0, and 0.5) and 2.5% fuel (at an equivalence ratio of 1.0). 3. Laminar burning velocities of outwardly propagating spherical CH{sub 3}OCHO/air flames have been determined for stoichiometries ranging from 0.8–1.6, at atmospheric pressure using a pressure-release-type high-pressure chamber. A detailed chemical kinetic model has been constructed, validated against, and used to interpret these experimental data. The kinetic model shows that methyl formate oxidation proceeds through concerted elimination reactions, principally forming methanol and carbon monoxide as well as through bimolecular hydrogen abstraction reactions. The relative importance of elimination versus abstraction was found to depend on the particular environment. In general, methyl formate is consumed exclusively through molecular decomposition in shock tube environments, while at flow reactor and freely propagating premixed flame conditions, there is significant competition between hydrogen abstraction and concerted elimination channels. It is suspected that in diffusion flame configurations the elimination channels contribute more significantly than in premixed environments.

  3. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c]M [2h2m 13c], And [2h3,, 13c] Methyl Aryl Sulfones And Sulfoxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Silks, III, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schmidt, Jurgen G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-07-20

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfones and [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfoxides, wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfone or sulfoxide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing methyl aryl sulfones and methyl aryl sulfoxides.

  4. Polymorphism of inflammatory genes and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University—Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lai, Li-An [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shung Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic can generate reactive oxidative species, which can induce certain proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8 have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of various cancers, including bladder cancer. This study aimed to investigate the joint effect of the polymorphism of TNF-? ? 308 G/A, IL-6 ? 174 G/C, IL-8 ? 251 T/A and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. This study evaluated 300 pathologically-confirmed cases of UC and 594 cancer-free controls. Urinary arsenic species were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of TNF-? ? 308 G/A, IL-6 ? 174 G/C and IL-8 ? 251 T/A was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The joint effects on UC risk were estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using unconditional logistic regression. We found that the TNF-? ? 308 A/A and IL-8 ? 251 T/T polymorphisms were significantly associated with UC. Moreover, significant dose–response joint effect of TNF-? ? 308 A/A or IL-8 ? 251 T/T genotypes and arsenic methylation indices were seen to affect UC risk. The present results also showed a significant increase in UC risk in subjects with the IL-8 ? 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in urinary total arsenic and MMA%. In contrast, a significant decrease in UC risk was found in subjects who carried the IL-8 ? 251 T/T genotype for each SD increase in DMA%. - Highlights: • Joint effect of the TNF-? -308 A/A genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Joint effect of the IL-8 -251 T/T genotype and urinary total arsenic affected UC. • Urinary total arsenic level, TNF-? -308 A/A and IL-8 -251 T/T genotype affected UC.

  5. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  6. Transcription factor-based biosensors for detecting dicarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, Jeffrey; Keasling, Jay

    2014-02-18

    The invention provides methods and compositions for detecting dicarboxylic acids using a transcription factor biosensor.

  7. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan (Okemos, MI)

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  8. Evaluation of acid fracturing based on the "acid fracture number" concept 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alghamdi, Abdulwahab

    2006-08-16

    Acid fracturing is one of the preferred methods to stimulate wells in carbonate reservoirs. It consists of injecting an acid solution at high enough pressure to break down the formation and to propagate a two-wing crack away from the wellbore...

  9. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weintraub, Alvin (Schenectady, NY); MacCormack, Robert S. (Glenville, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  10. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  11. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  12. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  13. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

    1996-10-08

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer is described made from monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4-oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2 by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  14. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joliet, IL); Coleman, Robert D. (Wheaton, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4-oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2 by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  15. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  16. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joliet, IL); Coleman, Robert D. (Wheaton, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylene glycols, propylene and polypropylene glycols, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  17. Adsorption of fulvic acid on goethite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filius, J.D.; Lumsdon, D.G.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsduk, W.H. van

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of fulvic acid by goethite was determined experimentally as a function of concentration, pH, and ionic strength. The data were described with the CD-MUSIC model of Hiemstra and Van Riemsdijk (1996), which allows the distribution of charge of the bound fulvate molecule over a surface region. Simultaneously, the concentration, pH, and salt dependency of the binding of fulvic acid can be described. Using the same parameters, the basic charging behavior of the goethite in the absence of fulvic acid could be described well. The surface species used in the model indicate that inner sphere coordination of carboxylic groups of the fulvate molecule is important at low pH, whereas at high pH the outer sphere coordination with reactive groups of the fulvate molecule with high proton affinity is important.

  18. Acid/Base Recovery From Sodium Sulfate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niksa, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    at the cathode: Overall: Na,SO. + 2H 4 0 ~ H 2 S0 4 + 2NaOH Anode: H 2 0 ~ 0, + H' + 4e' Cathode: 4H,O + 4e-~ 2H,O + 40f1 The ELTECH "electrolytic" process differs from an "electrodialytic" process in that there is an anode and cathode set for each cell...Re TANK TAN" BASE TO PRODUCT STORAGE FIGURE 6b Three Compartment cell H2O BeL NA2S04 NA2COJ~ NAOH RECTifiER DJ WATER BRINE H?ATER:--O- , , I CATHODE HYDROGEN D BRINE FILTERS ACID TO PRODUCT STORAGE ~JJ 1-------""'B---1 ACID ACID D...

  19. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer were selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylene glycols, propylene and polypropylene glycols, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide where the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  20. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

    1990-06-26

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylane glycols (PVB 6/22/90), propylene and and polypropylene (PVB 6/22/90) glycols, P-dioxanone, 1, 5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  1. Advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation for fermentation-derived organic acids production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, S. P.

    1998-11-18

    Lactate esters produced from carbohydrate have potential markets as nontoxic replacements for halogenated and toxic solvents and as feedstocks for large-volume chemicals and polymers. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel process for the production of high-purity lactate esters from carbohydrate. The process uses advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation technologies to overcome major technical barriers in product separation; more specifically, the process involves cation elimination without the generation of salt waste and efficient esterification for final purification. This patented process requires little energy input, is highly efficient and selective, eliminates the large volumes of salt waste produced by conventional processes, and significantly reduces manufacturing costs. The enabling membrane separation technologies make it technically and commercially feasible for lactate esters to penetrate the potential markets.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest National

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the direct detection, in the raw oil, of a suite of free sterols and stanols, together with fatty acid are ferulate and fatty acid sterol and stanol esters. Coumarate esters are found to be trace components of ferulate over coumarate esters (ratio > 7:1). Major product groupings are shown above: (i), free fatty acid

  3. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  4. Formic acid fuel cells and catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Larsen, Robert; Ha, Su Yun

    2010-06-22

    An exemplary fuel cell of the invention includes a formic acid fuel solution in communication with an anode (12, 134), an oxidizer in communication with a cathode (16, 135) electrically linked to the anode, and an anode catalyst that includes Pd. An exemplary formic acid fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (130) includes a proton-conducting membrane (131) having opposing first (132) and second surfaces (133), a cathode catalyst on the second membrane surface, and an anode catalyst including Pd on the first surface.

  5. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid or Oleic Acid Addition on Fatty Acid Composition Profiles of Poultry Meat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Dae Keun

    2011-08-08

    and fish oil diet had a lower C20:4 (arachidonic acid, AA, n-6) deposition but showed a higher n-3/n-6 ratio in breast and thigh meat than those fed a flaxseed oil diet and CLA and flaxseed oil diet (P < 0.05). The C20:4 and n-3/n-6 ratio of breast...

  6. Tellurium-Containing Conjugated Materials for Solar Cells: From Sulfur to Tellurium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park Y. S.; Kale, T.; Wu, Q.; Ocko, B.M.; Black, C.T., Grubbs, R.B.

    2013-04-03

    A series of diketopyrrolopyrrole(DPP)-based small molecules have been synthesized by palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions. Electron-donating moieties (benzothiophene, benzoselenophene, and benzotellurophene) are bridged by an electron-withdrawing DPP unit to generate donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type molecules. We observe red-shifts in absorption spectra of these compounds by varying heteroatoms from sulfur to tellurium. In bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as acceptor, we obtain power conversion efficiencies of 2.4% (benzothiophene), 4.1% (benzoselenophene), and 3.0% (benzotellurophene), respectively.

  7. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robaeys, Pieter, E-mail: pieter.robaeys@uhasselt.be; Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); Bonaccorso, Francesco [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Graphene Labs, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Bourgeois, Emilie; D'Haen, Jan; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw (Belgium); Liesenborgs, Jori; Van Reeth, Frank [Expertise centre for Digital Media (EDM), Hasselt University (Belgium); Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C. [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-25

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  8. Wide bandgap OPV polymers based on pyridinonedithiophene unit with efficiency >5%

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schneider, Alexander M.; Lu, Luyao; Manley, Eric F.; Zheng, Tianyue; Sharapov, Valerii; Xu, Tao; Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, Lin X.; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    We report the properties of a new series of wide band gap photovoltaic polymers based on the N-alkyl 2-pyridone dithiophene (PDT) unit. These polymers are effective bulk heterojunction solar cell materials when blended with phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). They achieve power conversion efficiencies (up to 5.33%) high for polymers having such large bandgaps, ca. 2.0 eV (optical) and 2.5 eV (electrochemical). As a result, grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) reveals strong correlations between ?–? stacking distance and regularity, polymer backbone planarity, optical absorption maximum energy, and photovoltaic efficiency.

  9. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  10. The flow of liquid PDMS (10:1 v/v base to cross-linker ratio) in open, rectangular silicon micro channels, with and without a hexa-methyl-di-silazane (HMDS) or poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) (120 nm) coat,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    channels, with and without a hexa-methyl-di-silazane (HMDS) or poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) (120 nm

  11. Cell Metabolism Fatty Acid Flippase Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, James

    Cell Metabolism Article Fatty Acid Flippase Activity of UCP2 Is Essential for Its Proton Transport and pathological cell growth and differentiation. Mitochondria stores energy as a pro- ton gradient across their inner membrane. Uncou- pling proteins (UCPs) can dissipate the gradient to produce heat or regulate

  12. Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nghiem, Nhuan Phu (Knoxville, TN); Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/L up to about 1 g/L; e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of .gtoreq.1 g/L; and g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism.

  13. Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nghiem, N.P.; Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1999-02-09

    The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of (a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; (b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; (c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; (d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/l up to about 1 g/l; (e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; (f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of {>=}1 g/l; and (g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism. 7 figs.

  14. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  15. Persistent Ion Pairing in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, Marcel D.; Fulton, John L.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Schenter, Gregory K.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2014-07-03

    For strong acids, like hydrochloric acid, the complete dissociation into an excess proton and conjugated base as well as the formation of independent solvated charged fragments is assumed. The existence of a chloride-Hyronium (Cl-H3O+) contact ion pairs even in moderate concentration hydrochloric acid (2.5 m) demonstrates that the counter ions do not behave merely as spectators. Through the use of modern extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements in conjunction with state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we are able to obtain an unprecedented view into the molecular structure of medium to high concentrated electrolytes. Here we report that the Cl-H3O+ contact ion pair structure persists throughout the entire concentration range studied and that these structures differ significantly from moieties studied in micro-solvated hydrochloric acid clusters. Characterizing distinct populations of these ion pairs gives rise to a novel molecular level description of how to think about the activity of the proton that impacts our picture of the pH scale. Funding for CJM, GKS, and JLF was provided by DOE Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Funding for MDB was provided throught the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. MB was funded through Argonne National Laboratory.

  16. Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

  17. Synthesis of the Tricyclic Core of Guanacastepene A, Decarboxylative Rearrangement of Allenylic N-Tosyl Carbamates and Phosphine-catalyzed Intramolecular ?-Umpolung Addition of ?-Aminoalkylallenic Esters, and the Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Ibophyllidine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Ian Paul

    2012-01-01

    142 with palladium on carbon and hydrogen gas in acetic acidpalladium on carbon in acetic acid under one atmosphere of hydrogen

  18. TpPtMe(H)2: Why Is There H/D Scrambling of the Methyl Group but Not Methane Loss?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Ehud

    TpPtMe(H)2: Why Is There H/D Scrambling of the Methyl Group but Not Methane Loss? Mark A. Iron, H ) hydrido-tris(pyrazolyl)borate) was investigated. This complex is remarkably resistant to methane loss; heating it in methanol at 55 °C does not lead to either methane or hydrogen loss. When CD3OD is used

  19. Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa-body decomposition of ethanedial, propanal, propenal, n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene J. Chem. Phys. 136, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlara) Department of Chemistry

  20. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  1. Supramolecular organization of calix[4]pyrrole with a methyl-trialkylammonium anion exchanger leads to remarkable reversal of selectivity for sulfate extraction vs. nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borman, Christopher J; Custelcean, Radu; Hay, Benjamin; Bill, Nathan; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Moyer, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    meso-Octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (C4P) enhances sulfate selectivity in solvent extraction by Aliquat 336N, an effect ascribed to the supramolecular preorganization and thermodynamic stability imparted by insertion of the methyl group of the Aliquat cation into the cup of C4P in its cone conformation.

  2. Excited State Processes of 2-Butylamino-6-methyl-4-nitropyridine N-oxide in Nonpolar Solvents. A Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Excited State Processes of 2-Butylamino-6-methyl-4-nitropyridine N-oxide in Nonpolar Solvents undergo fast excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). In a nonpolar solvent such as n­6. A strong solvent dependency of the emission spectra of 2B6M was observed. Poo´r et al. noted a Stokes

  3. The SO++S1transition of Pans-p-methyl styrene W. Drescher, S. Kendler, S. Zilberg, E. Zingher, H. Zuckermann, and Y. Haas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haas, Yehuda

    NOTES The SO++S1transition of Pans-p-methyl styrene W. Drescher, S. Kendler, S. Zilberg, E. Zingher August 1994) The Sa++S' transition of styrene and its derivatives has been extensively discussed applied to the ground state of styrene.`-12 According to these calculations and contrary to experimental

  4. Long-term high frequency measurements of ethane, benzene and methyl chloride at Ragged Point, Barbados: Identification of long-range transport events.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archibald, A. T.; Witham, C. S.; Ashfold, M. J.; Manning, A. J.; O'Doherty, S.; Greally, B. R.; Young, D.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present high frequency long-term observations of ethane, benzene and methyl chloride from the AGAGE Ragged Point, Barbados, monitoring station made using a custom built GC-MS system. Our analysis focuses on the first three years of data...

  5. Further Investigation of Fluoboric Acid in Sandstone Acidizing Using ^(11)B and ^(19)F NMR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pituckchon, Arpajit

    2014-05-01

    spending, owing to its slow hydrolytic reaction to produce HF, as well as the stabilization and desensitization of undissolved fines with borosilicate. A more comprehensive understanding of how the chemistry of fluoboric acid and its reaction products...

  6. Modeling Acid Transport and Non-Uniform Etching in a Stochastic Domain in Acid Fracturing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mou, Jianye

    2010-10-12

    Success of acid fracturing depends on uneven etching along the fracture surfaces caused by heterogeneities such as variations in local mineralogy and variations in leakoff behavior. The heterogeneities tend to create channeling characteristics...

  7. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, J.

    2011-01-01

    uranium (U) contamination in groundwaters have resulted from mining,uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining

  8. Synthesis of amino acid derivatives of indole-3-acetic acid Ying Liu*, Liang Zhao, Liang Liu, Lin-Yi Wei and Lu-Hua Lai*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luhua, Lai

    Synthesis of amino acid derivatives of indole-3-acetic acid Ying Liu*, Liang Zhao, Liang Liu, Lin, Beijing, 100871, China Amino acid derivatives of a modified indole-3-acetic acid have been synthesised on the IR, 1H NMR, MS spectra. Keywords: indole-3-acetic acid, amino acid, dipeptide-like compound Indole-3

  9. Succinic Acid Production with Reduced By-Product Formation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -product acetic acid. The gram ratio of suc- cinic acid to acetic acid was 25.8:1, which is 6.5 times higher than ratio of succinic acid to acetic acid and succinic acid yield de- creased, suggesting that glucose enhanced acetic acid formation irrespective of the presence of glycerol. Glyc- erol consumption by A

  10. (E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol: X-ray and DFT-calculated structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosar, B. Albayrak, C.; Odabasoglu, M.; Bueyuekguengoer, O.

    2010-12-15

    The crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol is determined by using X-ray diffraction and then the molecular structure is investigated with density functional theory (DFT). X-Ray study shows that the title compound has a strong intramolecular O-H-N hydrogen bond and three dimensional crystal structure is primarily determined by C-H-{pi} and weak van der Waals interactions. The strong O-H-N bond is an evidence of the preference for the phenol-imine tautomeric form in the solid state. Optimized molecular geometry is calculated with DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The IR spectra of compound were recorded experimentally and calculated to compare with each other. The results from both experiment and theoretical calculations are compared in this study.

  11. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping; Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank; Smithwick, Quinn

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2?cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470?nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  12. Sub-5 nm Domains in Ordered Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) Block Polymers for Lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennemur, Justin; Yao, Li; Bates, Frank Stephen; Hillmyer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly- (methyl methacrylate) (PCHE PMMA) diblock copolymers with varying molar mass (4.9 kg/mol Mn 30.6 kg/mol) and narrow molar mass distribution were synthesized through a combination of anionic and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) techniques. Heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of -(hydroxy)polystyrene (PS-OH) yielded -(hydroxy)poly(cyclohexylethylene) (PCHEOH) with little loss of hydroxyl functionality. PCHE-OH was reacted with -bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBB) to produce an ATRP macroinitiator used for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate. PCHE PMMA is a glassy, thermally stable material with a large effective segment segment interaction parameter, eff = (144.4 6.2)/T (0.162 0.013), determined by meanfield analysis of order-to-disorder transition temperatures (TODT) measured by dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Ordered lamellar domain pitches (9 D 33 nm) were identified by small-angle X-ray scattering from neat BCPs containing 43 52 vol % PCHE ( f PCHE). Atomic force microscopy was used to show 7.5 nm lamellar features (D = 14.8 nm) which are some of the smallest observed to date. The lowest molar mass sample (Mn = 4.9 kg/mol, f PCHE = 0.46) is characterized by TODT = 173 3 C and sub-5 nm nanodomains, which together with the sacrificial properties of PMMA and the high overall thermal stability place this material at the forefront of high- systems for advanced nanopatterning applications.

  13. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  14. Identification of the essential and free amino acids of the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium ohione 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyajima, Lester Shigemi

    1975-01-01

    MATERIALS AND METHODS. Essential Amino Acid Identification Tissue Amino Acid Composition Total Protein Determination Free Amino Acid Concentration 16 16 17 RESULTS. 19 Essential Amino Acid Identification Tissue Amino Acid Composition Total Protein... Determination Free Amino Acid Concentration 19 19 23 25 DISCUSSION 27 Essential Amino Acid Identification 27 Tissue Amino Acid Composition Total Protein Determination Free Amino Acid Concentration 28 31 32 SUMMARY. LITERATURE CITED 35 37 vii...

  15. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  16. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  17. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keys, Ryan S.

    2010-07-14

    In matrix acidizing, the goal is to dissolve minerals in the rock to increase well productivity. This is accomplished by injecting an application-specific solution of acid into the formation at a pressure between the pore ...

  18. Effect of exposure environment on the interactions between acid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of exposure environment on the interactions between acid gas (H2S and CO2) and pozzolan-amended wellbore cement under acid gas co-sequestration conditions Citation Details...

  19. Topical vitamin-A-acid therapy for cutaneous metastatic melanoma.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, N; Meyskens, F L

    1980-01-01

    21: 236-7. 2. Bollag W, Ott F. Vitamin A acid in benign andZesch A. Penetration of vitamin A acid into human skin. Actaphosphoryl derivatives of vitamin A in biological membranes.

  20. Microbial engineering for the production of fatty acids and fatty...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the production of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives Some aspects of this invention relate to methods useful for the conversion of a carbon source to a biofuel or...

  1. Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on June 7, 2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1 Room 402 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

  2. Acid Fracturing Feasibility Study for Heterogeneous Carbonate Formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suleimenova, Assiya

    2015-03-03

    Acid fracturing is a stimulation technique that is commonly used by the industry to increase productivity or injectivity of wells in carbonate reservoirs. To determine a feasibility of acid fracturing treatment for a heterogeneous formation...

  3. The Alta Mine: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of an Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    i #12;The Alta Mine: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of an Acid Mine Drainage Environment LRES 442, and environmental microbiology; all disciplines highly appropriate to the study of acid mine/rock drainage

  4. Brønsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brnsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Jiang, Juncong and Yaghi, Omar, M. Bronsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks. Chem. Rev., 115, 6966-6997 (2015)....

  5. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2013-04-02

    A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

  6. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  7. Evaporative Hydrochloric Acid Recovery: Something Old, Something New... 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullivan, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the new application of an old teclmology, evaporative recovery, to recover spent hydrochloric acid.

  8. Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pruett, David J. (Knoxville, TN); Howerton, William B. (Kingston, TN)

    1982-01-01

    Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.

  9. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  10. Synthesis and Metabolism of Carbonyl-C14 Pyruvic and Hydroxypyruvic Acids in Algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milhaud, Gerhard; Benson, Andrew A.; Calvin, M.

    1955-01-01

    AND HYDROXYPYRUVIC ACIDS IN ALGAE Cerhard Milhaud, Andrew A.HYDROXYPYRUYIC ACIDS IN ALGAE Gerhard Milhaud, * - Andrew A.AND HYDROXYPYRUVIC ACIDS IN ALGAE Gerhard Milhaud, Andrew A.

  11. Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blatti, Jillian L.

    2012-01-01

    acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel. (acid biosynthesis in microalgae for biofuel through protein-acid biosynthesis in microalgae through protein-protein

  12. Community Genomic, Proteomic, and Transcriptomic Analyses of Acid Mine Drainage Biofilm Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goltsman, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    T, Banfield J. 2004. Acid mine drainage biogeochemistry atof eukaryotes in acid mine drainage biofilm communities.III) bacteria in acid mine drainage biofilms. Appl Environ

  13. Amino acid biosignatures : implications for the detection of extinct or extant microbial communities on Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubrey, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    acid racemization to geochronology and geothermometry. Orig.Amino Acid Racemization to Geochronology and Geothermometry.acid racemization to geochronology and geothermometry. Orig.

  14. Amino Acid Biosignatures - Implications for the Detection of Extinct or Extant Microbial Communities on Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubrey, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    acid racemization to geochronology and geothermometry. Orig.Amino Acid Racemization to Geochronology and Geothermometry.acid racemization to geochronology and geothermometry. Orig.

  15. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

  16. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang, William A. Goddard, Yongchun Tang

    2005-05-05

    In the second year of this project, we continued our effort to develop low temperature decarboxylation catalysts and investigate the behavior of these catalysts at different reaction conditions. We conducted a large number of dynamic measurements with crude oil and model compounds to obtain the information at different reaction stages, which was scheduled as the Task2 in our work plan. We developed a novel adsorption method to remove naphthenic acid from crude oil using naturally occurring materials such as clays. Our results show promise as an industrial application. The theoretical modeling proposed several possible reaction pathways and predicted the reactivity depending on the catalysts employed. From all of these studies, we obtained more comprehensive understanding about catalytic decarboxylation and oil upgrading based on the naphthenic acid removal concept.

  17. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  18. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ledjeff, Konstantin (Schwalbach, DE)

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  19. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar (Lenoir City, TN); An, Ke (Knoxville, TX); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Contescu, Cristian I. (Knoxville, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Beth L. (Clinton, TN)

    2011-09-13

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  20. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).