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1

Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

MBI International

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

SciTech Connect

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

Definition: Biorefinery | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biorefinery Biorefinery Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Biorefinery A facility that processes and converts biomass into value-added products, ranging from biomaterials to biofuels such as ethanol or important feedstocks for the production of chemicals.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. The International Energy Agency Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefineries has defined biorefining as the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of bio-based products (food, feed, chemicals,

5

Microsoft Word - MySAB_Final_EA-12-02-2010.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

787 787 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE MYRIANT SUCCINIC ACID BIOREFINERY (MYSAB), LAKE PROVIDENCE, LOUISIANA U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Golden Field Office Golden, Colorado DECEMBER 2010 DOE/EA 1787 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE MYRIANT SUCCINIC ACID BIOREFINERY (MYSAB), LAKE PROVIDENCE, LOUISIANA U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Golden Field Office Golden, Colorado DECEMBER 2010 Acronyms and Abbreviations DOE/EA 1787 December 2010 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AADT Annual Average Daily Traffic BMP Best Management Practice BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

6

EA-1704: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

704: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic 704: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, BlueFire Fulton Renewable Energy, LLC, Fulton, Mississippi EA-1704: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, BlueFire Fulton Renewable Energy, LLC, Fulton, Mississippi SUMMARY ThIs EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a propsal, (Fulton Project) that consists of the design, construction and operation of a biorefinery facility producing ethanol and other co-products from cellulosic materials utilizing a patented concentrated acid hydrolysis process. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD June 4, 2010 EA-1704: Finding of No Significant Impact Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, BlueFire

7

EA-1787: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Environmental Assessment Final Environmental Assessment EA-1787: Final Environmental Assessment Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery (MYSAB), Lake Providence, Louisiana The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to authorize the expenditure of federal cost share funding to Myriant Lake Providence, LLC (Myriant) to support the final design, construction, and start-up of the proposed Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery to be located on a 55-acre industrial site leased from the Lake Providence Port Commission in Lake Providence, Louisiana. The Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery will hereafter be referred to as "MySAB" or "the biorefinery." The biorefinery and all related infrastructure and utilities will be referred to as "the proposed project." This EA analyzes the potential environmental and

8

United Biorefineries Corp UBC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biorefineries Corp UBC Biorefineries Corp UBC Jump to: navigation, search Name United Biorefineries Corp (UBC) Place Valencia, California Zip 91354-1532 Sector Biofuels Product California-based technology management company doing commercial physical & biological research. Involved in the project development of an Integrated Biorefinery Complex utilizing algae and cellulosic-based second generation biofuels technology. References United Biorefineries Corp (UBC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. United Biorefineries Corp (UBC) is a company located in Valencia, California . References ↑ "United Biorefineries Corp (UBC)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=United_Biorefineries_Corp_UBC&oldid=352515

9

NREL: Biomass Research - What Is a Biorefinery?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What Is a Biorefinery? What Is a Biorefinery? A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refineries, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. Industrial biorefineries have been identified as the most promising route to the creation of a new domestic biobased industry. By producing multiple products, a biorefinery can take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates and maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock. A biorefinery might, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel, while generating

10

DOE Announces $160 Million for Biorefinery Construction and Highlights...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Biorefinery Construction and Highlights New Agricultural Program to Promote Biofuels DOE Announces 160 Million for Biorefinery Construction and Highlights New...

11

Albemarle Biorefinery Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Carolina Zip 27612 Product A subsidiary of DFI Group that focusses on the ethanol business in North Carolina, US. References Albemarle Biorefinery Inc1 LinkedIn...

12

Iogen Biorefinery Partners, LLC | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

with the flexibility to process a wide range of agricultural residues into cellulose ethanol. Iogen Biorefinery Partners, LLC More Documents & Publications RSE Pulp & Chemical,...

13

Drought-tolerant Biofuel Crops could be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for lignocellulosic biorefineries. Biomass & Bioenergy,be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries William R. Morrow,is to highlight the risks biorefineries may face in drought

Morrow, III, William R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

NREL: Sustainable NREL - Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility A photo of a grey, three-story research facility on a large campus. The Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility The Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) incorporates a large number of energy efficiency and sustainability practices into its cutting-edge design. This facility received a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Gold-level certification from the U.S. Green Building Council and supports a variety of advanced biofuels projects and enables researchers and industry partners to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate processes for the production of bio-based products and fuels. Fast Facts Cost: $33.5M Square feet: 27,000 Occupants: 32 Labs/Equipment: high-bay biochemical conversion pilot plant that

15

Improving Energy Efficiency and Enabling Water Recycle in Biorefineries Using Bioelectrochemical Cells.  

SciTech Connect

Improving biofuel yield and water reuse are two important issues in further development of biorefineries. The total energy content of liquid fuels (including ethanol and hydrocarbon) produced from cellulosic biomass via biochemical or hybrid bio-thermochemical routes can vary from 49% to 70% of the biomass entering the biorefinery, on an energy basis. Use of boiler for combustion of residual organics and lignin results in significant energy and water losses. An alternate process to improve energy recovery from the residual organic streams is via use of bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). The potential advantages of this alternative scheme in a biorefinery include minimization of heat loss and generation of a higher value product, hydrogen. The need for 5-15 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol can be reduced significantly via recycle of water after MEC treatment. Removal of inhibitory byproducts such as furans, phenolics and acetate in MFC/MECs to generate energy, thus, has dual advantages including improvements in energy efficiency and ability to recycle water. Conversion of the sugar- and lignin- degradation products to hydrogen is synergistic with biorefinery hydrogen requirements for upgrading F-T liquids and other byproducts to high-octane fuels and/or high value products. Some of these products include sorbitol, succinic acid, furan and levulinate derivatives, glycols, polyols, 1,4-butenadiol, phenolics polymers, etc. Potential process alternatives utilizing MECs in biorefineries capable of improving energy efficiency by up to 30% are discussed.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF I-II) (Post CD...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF I-II) (Post CD-4), EERE, Aug 2011 Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF I-II) (Post CD-4), EERE, Aug 2011 000521 & 000519...

17

Synergistic Hydrogen Production in a Biorefinery via Bioelectrochemical Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial electrolysis cells are devices that use biocatalysis and electrolysis for production of hydrogen from organic matter. Biorefinery process streams contain fermentation by products and inhibitors which accumulate in the process stream if the water is recycled. These molecules also affect biomass to biofuel yields if not removed from the recycle water. The presence of sugar- and lignin- degradation products such as furfural, vanillic acid and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde has been shown to reduce fermentation yields. In this work, we calculate the potential for hydrogen production using microbial electrolysis cells from these molecules as substrates. Conversion of these substrates to electricity is demonstrated in microbial fuel cells and will also be presented.

Borole, A. P.; Hamilton, C. Y.; Schell, D. J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Range Fuels Biorefinery Groundbreaking | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Range Fuels Biorefinery Groundbreaking Range Fuels Biorefinery Groundbreaking Range Fuels Biorefinery Groundbreaking November 6, 2007 - 5:00pm Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Secretary Bodman Thank you. And let me say how much it means to have my old friend Vinodh here to introduce me. You are a true pioneer in this industry. I also want to thank Mitch for asking me to be here. It's good to see Tom Dorr from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, our partner in so much of the federal government's biomass research and development and deployment efforts. Gov. Perdue, as always, it's great to be in Georgia and to see the progress occurring here under your leadership. I want to reaffirm our support for governors and state legislators who exhibit the kind of leadership you've shown in developing America's new energy future.

19

Biorefinery Grant Announcement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biorefinery Grant Announcement Biorefinery Grant Announcement Biorefinery Grant Announcement February 28, 2007 - 10:28am Addthis Prepared Remarks for Energy Secretary Bodman Thank you all for coming. In his State of the Union address last month, President Bush set forth an aggressive plan to reduce America's consumption of gasoline over the next ten years. The President's "20 in 10" initiative would increase the amount of renewable and alternative fuels used in the transportation sector to 35 billion gallons a year by 2017. The announcement I am about to make will be an important step in helping us to reach that goal. Corn-based ethanol is already playing a key part in reducing our dependence on fossil fuels, and mitigating the growth of greenhouse gasses but we cannot increase our use of corn grain indefinitely. So we are very

20

USDA - Biorefinery Assistance Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

USDA - Biorefinery Assistance Program USDA - Biorefinery Assistance Program USDA - Biorefinery Assistance Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State Government Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Bioenergy Maximum Rebate Maximum loan amount: 80% of project costs or $250 million Program Info Program Type Federal Loan Program Rebate Amount 90% maximum loan guarantee on loans of up to $125 million 80% maximum loan guarantee on loans of up $150 million 70% maximum loan guarantee on loans of $150-$200 million 60% maximum loan guarantee on loans of up to $250 million Provider U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA Rural Development is offering loan guarantees for the development,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Biorefinery Grant Announcement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biorefinery Grant Announcement Biorefinery Grant Announcement Biorefinery Grant Announcement February 28, 2007 - 10:28am Addthis Prepared Remarks for Energy Secretary Bodman Thank you all for coming. In his State of the Union address last month, President Bush set forth an aggressive plan to reduce America's consumption of gasoline over the next ten years. The President's "20 in 10" initiative would increase the amount of renewable and alternative fuels used in the transportation sector to 35 billion gallons a year by 2017. The announcement I am about to make will be an important step in helping us to reach that goal. Corn-based ethanol is already playing a key part in reducing our dependence on fossil fuels, and mitigating the growth of greenhouse gasses but we cannot increase our use of corn grain indefinitely. So we are very

22

USDA - Repowering Assistance Biorefinery Program (Federal) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

USDA - Repowering Assistance Biorefinery Program (Federal) USDA - Repowering Assistance Biorefinery Program (Federal) USDA - Repowering Assistance Biorefinery Program (Federal) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative State Government Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Bioenergy Maximum Rebate 50% of the total project costs Program Info Program Type Federal Grant Program Rebate Amount Varies Provider Rural Business - Cooperative Service The Repowering Assistance Program provides payments to eligible biorefineries to replace fossil fuels used to produce heat or power to operate the biorefineries with renewable biomass. Reimbursement payments are provided to offset a portion of the costs associated with the

23

New Biorefinery Will Bring Jobs to Northeastern Oregon | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Biorefinery Will Bring Jobs to Northeastern Oregon New Biorefinery Will Bring Jobs to Northeastern Oregon New Biorefinery Will Bring Jobs to Northeastern Oregon August 9, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis A computer-generate image shows the biorefinery in Boardman, Oregon. | Photo Courtesy of Matt Kegler, diagram supplied by Burns & McDonnell A computer-generate image shows the biorefinery in Boardman, Oregon. | Photo Courtesy of Matt Kegler, diagram supplied by Burns & McDonnell Lindsay Gsell Recovery Act supports construction of new biorefinery in Boardman, Ore. Facility could create 20 permanent jobs when fully operational in 2011 ZeaChem plans to work with local farmers to supply biofuel material In northeastern Oregon, ZeaChem, a Colorado-based biofuel company, recently broke ground on a 250,000 gallon integrated cellulosic biorefinery. The

24

EIS-0407: Abengoa Biorefinery Project Near Hugoton, Kansas | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

07: Abengoa Biorefinery Project Near Hugoton, Kansas 07: Abengoa Biorefinery Project Near Hugoton, Kansas EIS-0407: Abengoa Biorefinery Project Near Hugoton, Kansas Abengoa Biorefinery Project Near Hugoton, Kansas Abengoa Biorefinery Project Near Hugoton, Kansas Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) prepared an environmental impact statement (EIS) (DOE/EIS-0407) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action of providing Federal financial assistance to Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC (Abengoa Bioenergy) to support the design, construction, and startup of a commercial-scale integrated biorefinery to be located near the city of Hugoton in Stevens County, southwestern Kansas. The integrated biorefinery would use a combination of biomass feedstocks,

25

New Biorefinery Will Bring Jobs to Northeastern Oregon | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Biorefinery Will Bring Jobs to Northeastern Oregon New Biorefinery Will Bring Jobs to Northeastern Oregon New Biorefinery Will Bring Jobs to Northeastern Oregon August 9, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis A computer-generate image shows the biorefinery in Boardman, Oregon. | Photo Courtesy of Matt Kegler, diagram supplied by Burns & McDonnell A computer-generate image shows the biorefinery in Boardman, Oregon. | Photo Courtesy of Matt Kegler, diagram supplied by Burns & McDonnell Lindsay Gsell Recovery Act supports construction of new biorefinery in Boardman, Ore. Facility could create 20 permanent jobs when fully operational in 2011 ZeaChem plans to work with local farmers to supply biofuel material In northeastern Oregon, ZeaChem, a Colorado-based biofuel company, recently broke ground on a 250,000 gallon integrated cellulosic biorefinery. The

26

Retrofitting analysis of integrated bio-refineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A bio-refinery is a processing facility that produces liquid transportation fuels and/or value-added chemicals and other products. Because of the dwindling resources and escalating prices of fossil fuels, there are emerging situations in which the economic performance of fossil-based facilities can be enhanced by retrofitting and incorporation of bio-mass feedstocks. These systems can be regarded as bio-refineries or integrated fossilbio- refineries. This work presents a retrofitting analysis to integrated bio-refineries. Focus is given to the problem of process modification to an existing plant by considering capacity expansion and material substitution with biomass feedstocks. Process integration studies were conducted to determine cost-effective strategies for enhancing production and for incorporating biomass into the process. Energy and mass integration approaches were used to induce synergism and to reduce cost by exchanging heat, material utilities, and by sharing equipment. Cost-benefit analysis was used to guide the decision-making process and to compare various production routes. Ethanol production from two routes was used as a case study to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach and the results were bio-refinery has become more attractive then fossil-refinery.

Cormier, Benjamin R.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Biorefinery and Carbon Cycling Research Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [ 1] pretreatment of biomass to enhance quality of products from thermochemical conversion; [2] characterization of and development of coproduct uses; [3] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics and particularly C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously, and [ 4] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the thermochemical product quality in the form of lower tar production, simultaneous of use of multiple sugars in fermentation, use ofbiochar in environmental (ammonia adsorption) and agricultural applications, and production of algal biomass in wastewaters. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

Das, K. C., Adams; Thomas, T; Eiteman, Mark A; Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Adolphson, Ryan

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

28

Biorefinery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [1] establishment of pyrolysis processing systems and characterization of the product oils for fuel applications, including engine testing of a preferred product and its pro forma economic analysis; [2] extraction of sugars through a novel hotwater extaction process, and the development of levoglucosan (a pyrolysis BioOil intermediate); [3] identification and testing of the use of biochar, the coproduct from pyrolysis, for soil applications; [4] developments in methods of atomic layer epitaxy (for efficient development of coatings as in fuel cells); [5] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics, [6] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery, and [7] development of catalysts from coproducts. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the pyrolysis biooil based diesel fuel supplement, sugar extraction from lignocelluose, use of biochar, production of algal biomass in wastewaters, and the development of catalysts. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The various coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

K.C. Das; Thomas T. Adams; Mark A. Eiteman; John Stickney; Joy Doran Peterson; James R. Kastner; Sudhagar Mani; Ryan Adolphson

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

29

A Biorefinery Goes 'Mod' and Small | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Biorefinery Goes 'Mod' and Small A Biorefinery Goes 'Mod' and Small A Biorefinery Goes 'Mod' and Small September 14, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Minnesota-based Easy Energy Systems sells small-scale, easy-to use biorefineries. The company expects to create 100 jobs because of new orders. | Photo Courtesy of Easy Energy Systems | Minnesota-based Easy Energy Systems sells small-scale, easy-to use biorefineries. The company expects to create 100 jobs because of new orders. | Photo Courtesy of Easy Energy Systems | Lindsay Gsell What are the key facts? Minnesota-based company, Easy Energy Systems, sells small-scale, easy-to use biorefineries. Modular systems use feedstock scraps and wastepaper to fuel plant. Easy Energy Systems estimates creating an additional 100 jobs in the next year to fulfill orders.

30

EA-1790: Construction and Operation of a Heterogeneous Feed Biorefinery  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EA-1790: Construction and Operation of a Heterogeneous Feed EA-1790: Construction and Operation of a Heterogeneous Feed Biorefinery Enerkem Corporation Pontotoc, MS EA-1790: Construction and Operation of a Heterogeneous Feed Biorefinery Enerkem Corporation Pontotoc, MS SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is proposing to provide cost share funding to Enerkem, Inc (Enerkem) for the final design, construction, and operation of a proposed Heterogeneous Feed Biorefinery Project to be located in Pontotoc, Mississippi (hereafter referred to as the biorefinery or the proposed project). The biorefinery would use the dried and post-sorted biomass fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood biomass as feedstock. Enerkem's biorefinery would produce approximately 10 million gallons (38 million liters) of ethanol per year

31

Process Synthesis and Optimization of Biorefinery Configurations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to develop novel and applicable methodologies to solve systematically problems along a roadmap of constructing a globally optimum biorefinery design. The roadmap consists of the following problems: (1) synthesis of conceptual biorefinery pathways from given feedstocks and products, (2) screening of the synthesized pathways to identify the most economic pathways, (3) development of a flexible biorefinery configuration, and (4) techno-economic analysis of a detailed biorefinery design. In the synthesis problem, a systems-based "forward-backward" approach was developed. It involves forward synthesis of biomass to possible intermediates and reverse synthesis starting with desired products and identifying necessary species and pathways leading to them. Then, two activities are performed to generate complete biorefinery pathways: matching (if one of the species synthesized in the forward step is also generated by the reverse step) or interception (a task is determined to take a forward-generated species with a reverse-generated species by identifying a known process or by using reaction pathway synthesis to link to two species.) In the screening problem, the Bellman's Principle of Optimality was applied to decompose the optimization problem into sub-problems in which an optimal policy of available technologies was determined for every conversion step. Subsequently, either a linear programming formulation or dynamic programming algorithm was used to determine the optimal pathways. In the configuration design problem, a new class of design problems with flexibility was proposed to build the most profitable plants that operate only when economic efficiency is favored. A new formulation approach with proposed constraints called disjunctive operation mode was also developed to solve the design problems. In the techno-economic analysis for a detailed design of biorefinery, the process producing hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulose via the carboxylate platform was studied. This analysis employed many state-of-the-art chemical engineering fundamentals and used extensive sources of published data and advanced computing resources to yield reliable conclusions to the analysis. Case studies of alcohol-producing pathways from lignocellulosic biomass were discussed to demonstrate the merits of the proposed approaches in the former three problems. The process was extended to produce hydrocarbon fuels in the last problem.

Pham, Viet

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Production of levulinic acid in urban biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy security of the United States depends, most experts agree, on the development of substitute sources of energy for the transportation sector, which accounts for over 93% of the nation's petroleum consumption. ...

Sheldon-Coulson, Garth Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility: Advancing Biofuels Technology (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) expands NREL's cellulosic ethanol research and development and collaboration capabilities.

Not Available

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

None

2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

35

Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

DOE Announces $160 Million for Biorefinery Construction and Highlights New  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

$160 Million for Biorefinery Construction and $160 Million for Biorefinery Construction and Highlights New Agricultural Program to Promote Biofuels DOE Announces $160 Million for Biorefinery Construction and Highlights New Agricultural Program to Promote Biofuels February 22, 2006 - 12:11pm Addthis Funding Paves the Way for Diversifying America's Energy Mix DECATUR, IL - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman, today announced $160 million in cost-shared funding over three years to construct up to three biorefineries in the United States. The Secretary made the announcement while visiting the Archer Daniels Midland Ethanol Plant, his second of four stops to promote the Advanced Energy Initiative announced by President Bush in his State of the Union address. Secretary Bodman also highlighted the United States Department of Agriculture's announcement today of almost $188

37

EA-1787: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Finding of No Significant Impact Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1787: Finding of No Significant Impact Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery (MYSAB), Lake Providence, Louisiana The Department of Energy is proposing to authorize the expenditure of up to $50 million in federal funding to Myriant Lake Providence, LLC to support the final design, construction, and start-up of the proposed Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery to be located on a 55-acre industrial site leased from the Lake Providence Port Commission in Lake Providence, Louisiana. Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery Demonstration Facility Lake Providence, East Carroll Parish, Louisiana More Documents & Publications EA-1787: Final Environmental Assessment Lessons Learned Quarterly Report, March 2011

38

National Biorefineries Database | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

98 98 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142288198 Varnish cache server National Biorefineries Database Dataset Summary Description This phase of the project began with the development of a geodatabase with the focus predominantly on Ethanol. The task involved collection of data on ethanol production locations, transportation networks, production and storage capacities, transloading and blending locations and geographic marketing areas. The data were obtained by contacting the authorized person(s) in the ethanol plants. The plant contact information was gathered from the related websites, the exact physical location of the plant was verified, the production and storage capacity at the location, the mode of transportation used to ship ethanol to the marketer and the loading capacity were also obtained from the source. The contact information of the person had also been recorded for future reference. The information obtained had been updated to the geodatabase. Few organizations have been reluctant to share information due to proprietary issues.

39

NREL: Biomass Research - Projects in Integrated Biorefinery Processes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Projects in Integrated Biorefinery Processes Projects in Integrated Biorefinery Processes A photo of a control room with four large computer screens. A man and a woman are looking at the screens. The Thermochemical Process Development Unit is equipped with sophisticated process monitoring and operation control systems. NREL is focused on integrating all the biomass conversion unit operations. With extensive knowledge of the individual unit operations, NREL is well-positioned to link these operations together at the mini-pilot and pilot scales. Among the integrated biorefinery projects are: Sorghum to Ethanol Research Initiative Sorghum shows promising characteristics as a feedstock for biofuel production. However, little basic research data exists. NREL is performing integrated research on sorghum by studying it at every step along the

40

Controlling Accumulation of Fermentation Inhibitors in Biorefinery Recycle Water Using Microbial Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Background Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cells are electrical devices that treat water using microorganisms and convert soluble organic matter into electricity and hydrogen, respectively. Emerging cellulosic biorefineries are expected to use large amounts of water during production of ethanol. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass results in production of fermentation inhibitors which accumulate in process water and make the water recycle process difficult. Use of MFCs to remove the inhibitory sugar and lignin degradation products from recycle water is investigated in this study. Results Use of an MFC to reduce the levels of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillic acid, 4- hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyacetophenone while simultaneously producing electricity is demonstrated here. An integrated MFC design approach was used which resulted in high power densities for the MFC, reaching up to 3700mW/m2 (356W/m3 net anode volume) and a coulombic efficiency of 69%. The exoelectrogenic microbial consortium enriched in the anode was characterized using a 16S rRNA clone library method. A unique exoelectrogenic microbial consortium dominated by -Proteobacteria (50%), along with -Proteobacteria (28%), -Proteobacteria (14%), -Proteobacteria (6%) and others was identified. The consortium demonstrated broad substrate specificity, ability to handle high inhibitor concentrations (5 to 20mM) with near complete removal, while maintaining long-term stability with respect to power production. Conclusions Use of MFCs for removing fermentation inhibitors has implications for: 1) enabling higher ethanol yields at high biomass loading in cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, 2) improved water recycle and 3) electricity production up to 25% of total biorefinery power needs.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Leak, David [Imperial College, London; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Andras, Calin [Imperial College, London

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Development of efficient, integrated cellulosic biorefineries : LDRD final report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol, generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources such as grasses and trees, is a promising alternative to conventional starch- and sugar-based ethanol production in terms of potential production quantities, CO{sub 2} impact, and economic competitiveness. In addition, cellulosic ethanol can be generated (at least in principle) without competing with food production. However, approximately 1/3 of the lignocellulosic biomass material (including all of the lignin) cannot be converted to ethanol through biochemical means and must be extracted at some point in the biochemical process. In this project we gathered basic information on the prospects for utilizing this lignin residue material in thermochemical conversion processes to improve the overall energy efficiency or liquid fuel production capacity of cellulosic biorefineries. Two existing pretreatment approaches, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and the Arkenol (strong sulfuric acid) process, were implemented at Sandia and used to generated suitable quantities of residue material from corn stover and eucalyptus feedstocks for subsequent thermochemical research. A third, novel technique, using ionic liquids (IL) was investigated by Sandia researchers at the Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), but was not successful in isolating sufficient lignin residue. Additional residue material for thermochemical research was supplied from the dilute-acid simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) pilot-scale process at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The high-temperature volatiles yields of the different residues were measured, as were the char combustion reactivities. The residue chars showed slightly lower reactivity than raw biomass char, except for the SSF residue, which had substantially lower reactivity. Exergy analysis was applied to the NREL standard process design model for thermochemical ethanol production and from a prototypical dedicated biochemical process, with process data supplied by a recent report from the National Research Council (NRC). The thermochemical system analysis revealed that most of the system inefficiency is associated with the gasification process and subsequent tar reforming step. For the biochemical process, the steam generation from residue combustion, providing the requisite heating for the conventional pretreatment and alcohol distillation processes, was shown to dominate the exergy loss. An overall energy balance with different potential distillation energy requirements shows that as much as 30% of the biomass energy content may be available in the future as a feedstock for thermochemical production of liquid fuels.

Teh, Kwee-Yan; Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Buffleben, George M.; Dibble, Dean C.; Lutz, Andrew E.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels, NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fact sheet describing NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility and its availability to biofuels' industry partners who want to operate, test, and develop biorefining technology and equipment.

Not Available

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State Universitys Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

44

DOE Announces up to $200 Million in Funding for Biorefineries | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

up to $200 Million in Funding for Biorefineries up to $200 Million in Funding for Biorefineries DOE Announces up to $200 Million in Funding for Biorefineries May 1, 2007 - 12:45pm Addthis Small- and full-scale projects total up to $585 million to advance President Bush's Twenty in Ten Initiative WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced that DOE will provide up to $200 million, over five years (FY'07-'11) to support the development of small-scale cellulosic biorefineries in the United States. This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) seeks projects to develop biorefineries at ten percent of commercial scale that produce liquid transportation fuels such as ethanol, as well as bio-based chemicals and bioproducts used in industrial applications. This

45

Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing the Clean  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing the Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing the Clean Energy Game Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing the Clean Energy Game February 9, 2011 - 1:40pm Addthis Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing the Clean Energy Game Paul Bryan Biomass Program Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy How does it work? Vegetative and agricultural waste reacts with oxygen to produce synthesis gas, which consists of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The gas is cooled, cleaned, and fed to naturally occurring bacteria. The bacteria convert the gas into cellulosic ethanol, which is then purified to be used as a transportation fuel. Blueprints of the INEOS Biorefinery | Courtesy of INEOS Today marks the groundbreaking of INEOS Bio's Indian River Bioenergy

46

Follow-up Audit of the Department of Energy's Financial Assistance for Integrated Biorefinery Projects  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Department Department of Energy's Financial Assistance for Integrated Biorefinery Projects DOE/IG-0893 September 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 September 9, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Follow-up Audit of the Department of Energy's Financial Assistance for Integrated Biorefinery Projects" BACKGROUND The Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (Program) supports the development of biomass resources into commercially viable biofuels, bioproducts and biopower. The Program provides financial assistance for integrated biorefinery projects to assist in building

47

Platform Chemicals from an Oilseed Biorefinery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US chemical industry is $460 billion in size where a $150 billion segment of which is non-oxygenated chemicals that is sourced today via petroleum but is addressable by a renewable feedstock if one considers a more chemically reduced feedstock such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oil, due to its chemical functionality, provides a largely untapped opportunity as a renewable chemical source to replace petroleum-derived chemicals and produce platform chemicals unavailable today. This project examined the fertile intersection between the rich building blocks provided by vegetable oils and the enhanced chemical modification capability provided by metathesis chemistry. The technology advanced in this study is the process of ethylene cross-metathesis (referred to as ethenolysis) with vegetable oil and vegetable oil derivatives to manufacture the platform-chemical 9-decenoic acid (or 9DA) and olefin co-products. The project team meet its goals of demonstrating improved catalyst efficiencies of several multiples, deepening the mechanistic understanding of metathesis, synthesis and screening of dozens of new catalysts, designing and modeling commercial processes, and estimating production costs. One demonstrable result of the study was a step change improvement in catalyst turnover number in the ethenolysis of methyl oleate as reported here. We met our key measurable of producing 100 lbs of 9DA at the pilot-scale, which demonstrated ability to scale-up ethenolysis. DOE Project funding had significant positive impact on development of metathetically modified vegetable oils more broadly as the Cargill/Materia partnership, that was able to initiate primarily due to DOE funding, has succeeded in commercializing products, validating metathesis as a platform technology, and expanding a diverse products portfolio in high value and in large volume markets. Opportunities have expanded and business development has gained considerable momentum and enabled further expansion of the Materia/Cargill relationship. This project exceeded expectations and is having immediate impact on DOE success by replacing petroleum products with renewables in a large volume application today.

Tupy, Mike; Schrodi Yann

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

48

DOE Selects 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86 Million of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86 Million of Federal Funding in Maine, Tennessee and Kentucky DOE Selects 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86 Million of Federal Funding in Maine, Tennessee and Kentucky April 18, 2008 - 10:49am Addthis Projects Demonstrate Continued Commitment to Advancing Development of Sustainable, Cost-Competitive Cellulosic Ethanol ALEXANDRIA, VA. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced the competitive selection of three projects in which DOE plans to invest up to $86 million over four years (FY '08 - '11) to support the development of small-scale cellulosic biorefineries in Old Town, ME; Vonore, TN; and Washington County, KY. This funding will further President Bush's goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by

49

U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

First Round of Small-Scale First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for Up to $114 Million in Federal Funding U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for Up to $114 Million in Federal Funding January 29, 2008 - 10:53am Addthis Ten percent commercial-scale biorefineries will help the nation meet new Renewable Fuels Standard WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced that DOE will invest up to $114 million, over four years, (Fiscal Years 2007-2010) for four small-scale biorefinery projects to be located in Commerce City, Colorado; St. Joseph, Missouri; Boardman, Oregon; and Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin. Building on President Bush's goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by 2012, these ten-percent of

50

U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for Up to $114 Million in Federal Funding U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for Up to $114 Million in Federal Funding January 29, 2008 - 10:53am Addthis Ten percent commercial-scale biorefineries will help the nation meet new Renewable Fuels Standard WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced that DOE will invest up to $114 million, over four years, (Fiscal Years 2007-2010) for four small-scale biorefinery projects to be located in Commerce City, Colorado; St. Joseph, Missouri; Boardman, Oregon; and Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin. Building on President Bush's goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by 2012, these ten-percent of

51

Estimating Hydrogen Production Potential in Biorefineries Using Microbial Electrolysis Cell Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are devices that use a hybrid biocatalysis-electrolysis process for production of hydrogen from organic matter. Future biofuel and bioproducts industries are expected to generate significant volumes of waste streams containing easily degradable organic matter. The emerging MEC technology has potential to derive added- value from these waste streams via production of hydrogen. Biorefinery process streams, particularly the stillage or distillation bottoms contain underutilized sugars as well as fermentation and pretreatment byproducts. In a lignocellulosic biorefinery designed for producing 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, up to 7200 m3/hr of hydrogen can be generated. The hydrogen can either be used as an energy source or a chemical reagent for upgrading and other reactions. The energy content of the hydrogen generated is sufficient to meet 57% of the distillation energy needs. We also report on the potential for hydrogen production in existing corn mills and sugar-based biorefineries. Removal of the organics from stillage has potential to facilitate water recycle. Pretreatment and fermentation byproducts generated in lignocellulosic biorefinery processes can accumulate to highly inhibitory levels in the process streams, if water is recycled. The byproducts of concern including sugar- and lignin- degradation products such as furans and phenolics can also be converted to hydrogen in MECs. We evaluate hydrogen production from various inhibitory byproducts generated during pretreatment of various types of biomass. Finally, the research needs for development of the MEC technology and aspects particularly relevant to the biorefineries are discussed.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefinery  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects in Wisconsin and Louisiana DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects in Wisconsin and Louisiana July 14, 2008 - 2:15pm Addthis Projects Show Continued Investment in Non-Food Based, Sustainable, and Cost Competitive Second-Generation Cellulosic Biofuels WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the selection of two small-scale cellulosic biorefinery projects in Park Falls, Wis. and Jennings, La. for federal funding of up to $40 million over five years. These projects will further President Bush's goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive with corn-based ethanol by 2012, and help reduce America's gasoline use by expanding the availability of

53

Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nations dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the growers ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

54

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 - 5840 of 31,917 results. 31 - 5840 of 31,917 results. Download EA-1787: Final Environmental Assessment Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery (MYSAB), Lake Providence, Louisiana http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/ea-1787-final-environmental-assessment Download A Resource Handbook on DOE Transportation Risk Assessment This resource handbook was compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Transportation Risk Assessment Working Group. This document includes the first of a planned series of discussion papers on topical aspects of transportation risk problems. These discussion papers are intended to provide practical advice to program managers and technical personnel responsible for preparing NEPA documents and other transportation risk assessments. http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/resource-handbook-doe-transportation-risk-assessment

55

EA-1865: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to Kior, Inc., for Biorefinery Facilities in Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to issue a Federal loan guarantee to Kior, Inc., for biorefinery facilities in Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas. This EA is on hold.

56

Optimization of Supply Chain Management and Facility Location Selection for a Biorefinery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If renewable energy and biofuels are to attain success in the market place, each step of their production and the system as a whole must be optimized to increase material and energy efficiency, reduce production cost and create a competitive alternative to fossil fuels. Systems optimization techniques may be applied to product selection, process design and integration, feedstock procurement and supply chain management to improve performance. This work addresses two problems facing a biorefinery: technology selection and feedstock scheduling in the face of varying feedstock supply and cost. Also addressed is the optimization of a biorefinery supply chain with respect to distributed processing of biomass to bio-products via preprocessing hubs versus centralized processing and facility location selection. Two formulations are proposed that present a systematic approach to address each problem. Case studies are included to demonstrate model capabilities for both formulations. The scheduling model results display model sensitivity to feedstock price and transport distance penalized through carbon dioxide emissions. The distributed model shows that hubs may be used to extend the operating radius of a biorefinery and thereby increase profits.

Bowling, Ian Michael

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

The Impact of Biomass Feedstock Supply Variability on the Delivered Price to a Biorefinery in the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural residue feedstock availability in a given region can vary significantly over the 20 25 year lifetime of a biorefinery. Since delivered price of biomass feedstock to a biorefinery is related to the distance travelled and equipment optimization, and transportation distance increases as productivity decreases, productivity is a primary determinant of feedstock price. Using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) modeling environment and a standard round bale harvest and delivery scenario, harvest and delivery price were modelled for minimum, average, and maximum yields at four potential biorefinery sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Biorefinery capacities ranged from 50,000 to 500,000 tonnes per year. Delivery cost is a linear function of transportation distance and can be combined with a polynomial harvest function to create a generalized delivered cost function for agricultural residues. The range in delivered cost is substantial and is an important consideration for the operating costs of a biorefinery.

Stephen, Jamie [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Kloeck, T. [Alberta Agriculture; Townley-Smith, Lawrence [AAFC; Stumborg, Mark [AAFC

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburg, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

59

Biorefinery Concept Development Based on Wheat Flour Milling  

SciTech Connect

We are developing an innovative process for the recovery of a starch-rich product from millfeed (the low-value byproduct of wheat flour milling); enzymatic processing of the starch to glucose; and the subsequent processes for conversion of that glucose into a value-added product by either a catalytic or a fermentation process. We have completed the development of the starch recovery step with enzymatic processing and the assessment of its economic viability. The processes to use the glucose product as feedstock for catalytic processing and fermentation processing have been tested in the laboratory. Catalytic processing of the glucose from the extracted starch for polyol production is based on catalytic hydrogenation to sorbitol. Alternatively, fermentation of the extracted starch-derived glucose also provides a pathway to value-added chemical products via a platform chemical, lactic acid. The paper includes results from all the processing areas addressed. Starch extraction and glucose generation from wheat milling byproducts are presented with laboratory and scaled-up processing results. Results of fermentation of the glucose product to lactic acid in shaker flask tests are presented, documenting the minimal requirements for nutrient addition. Stirred batch reactor tests of catalytic hydrogenation of the glucose product to sorbitol are presented with a discussion of contaminant effects on the catalyst.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Orth, Rick J.; Werpy, Todd A.; Gao, Johnway; Eakin, David E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Murry, J; Flagg, Anthony; Lahman, L; Mennel, D; Lin, C J.; Landucci, Ron; Crockett, John; Peterson, Charles L.

2002-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

60

IEA Bioenergy Task 42 on Biorefineries: Co-production of fuels, chemicals, power and materials from biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from biomass IEA Bioenergy Task 42 ­ Countries Report Final Francesco Cherubini, Gerfried Jungmeier and Materials from Biomass (www.biorefinery.nl/ieabioenergy-task42). IEA Bioenergy is a collaborative network a new and very broad biomass-related field, with a very large application potential, and deals

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Biorefinery Concept Development Based On Wheat Flour Milling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new process is being developed to extract starch from millfeed, the low-value byproduct of wheat flour milling, and convert it to glucose through enzymatic processing. The millfeed-derived glucose will then be converted to value-added products, such as polyol, through a catalytic process, or lactic acid, through a fermentation process. The starch (glucose) recovery process has been tested through the pilot scale. Catalytic and fermentation processes have been tested in the laboratory. The process developed for glucose recovery from wheat millfeed includes hot water extraction of starch and filtration of a fibrous animal feed coproduct, followed by enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification of the extracted starch, with filtration of a high-protein coproduct. The bench-scale tests showed that a glucose yield of approximately 30% on a dry millfeed basis could be achieved, which corresponds to the recovery of essentially all the glucose value in the millfeed. Glucose yields with the pilot-scale system were comparable, although filtration was more difficult.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Orth, Rick J.; Gao, Johnway; Werpy, Todd A.; Eakin, David E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

2002-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

62

Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

Greene, Sherrell R [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels and Bioproducts (Fact Sheet), Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels and Bioproducts Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility The IBRF can handle high concentrations of solids in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis steps, a key factor in reducing costs. Bioreactors from 10 L to 9000 L and separation and concentration equipment are housed in the IBRF allowing for biomass conversion processes to be fully integrated. Access to Experts While using the IBRF, industry partners have access to NREL's world-renowned experts, process equipment, and systems that can be used to develop and evaluate commercial processes for the production of biobased products and fuels. In addition, partners have access to NREL's state-of-the-art molecular

65

Integrated Biorefinery Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-390  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Amyris-NREL CRADA is a sub-project of Amyris?s DOE-funded pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR). The primary product of the Amyris IBR is Amyris Renewable Diesel. Secondary products will include lubricants, polymers and other petro-chemical substitutes. Amyris and its project partners will execute on a rapid project to integrate and leverage their collective expertise to enable the conversion of high-impact biomass feedstocks to these advanced, infrastructure-compatible products. The scope of the Amyris-NREL CRADA includes the laboratory development and pilot scale-up of bagasse pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification conditions by NREL for subsequent conversion of lignocellulosic sugar streams to Amyris Diesel and chemical products by Amyris. The CRADA scope also includes a techno-economic analysis of the overall production process of Amyris products from high-impact biomass feedstocks.

Chapeaux, A.; Schell, D.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Catalytic Hydrogenation of Glutamic Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technology to convert biomass to chemical building blocks provides an opportunity to displace fossil fuels and increase the economic viability of bio-refineries. Coupling fermentation capability with aqueous phase catalysis provides novel routes to monomers and chemicals, including those not accessible from petrochemical routes. Glutamic acid provides a platform to numerous compounds through thermochemical approaches including, hydrogentation, cyclyization, decarboxylation and deamination. Hydrogenation of amino acids also provides access into chiral compounds with high enantio-purity. This paper details aqueous phase hydrogenation reactions we have developed that lead to valuable chemical intermediates from glutamic acid.

Holladay, John E.; Werpy, Todd A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Conversion of residual organics in corn stover-derived biorefinery stream to bioenergy via microbial fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

A biorefinery process typically uses about 4-10 times as much water as the amount of biofuel generated. The wastewater produced in a biorefinery process contains residual sugars, 5-furfural, phenolics, and other pretreatment and fermentation byproducts. Treatment of the wastewater can reduce the need for fresh water and potentially add to the environmental benefits of the process. Use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for conversion of the various organics present in a post-fermentation biorefinery stream is reported here. The organic loading was varied over a wide range to assess removal efficiency, coulombic efficiency and power production. A coulombic efficiency of 40% was observed for a low loading of 1% (0.66 g/L) and decreased to 1.8% for the undiluted process stream (66.4 g/L organic loading). A maximum power density of 1180 mW/m2 was observed at a loading of 8%. Excessive loading was found to result in poor electrogenic performance. The results indicate that operation of an MFC at an intermediate loading using dilution and recirculation of the process stream can enable effective treatment with bioenergy recovery.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Schell, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Evaluation of Basic Parameters for Packaging, Storage and Transportation of Biomass Material from Field to Biorefinery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The universal adoption of biomass materials as an alternate fuel source to fossil fuels for transportation and electricity has been hindered by the high transportation costs involved in fuel production. Optimization of these initial costs will make the eco-friendly fuels more economically viable. Biomass is a promising feedstock for biofuels primarily because it is a renewable and sustainable resource. Among the most studied grassland crops, switchgrass is a perennial warm-season grass and has been identified as a potential energy crop. This research focuses on evaluating various physical parameters which affect the economic feasibility of packaging and transporting switchgrass from the field to the biorefinery. The switchgrass was harvested using a mower conditioner followed by field chopping after varying drying periods. The first harvesting period spanned from early November to mid December 2007 and the second was August to October 2008. Densification properties of chopped switchgrass were studied under compression. The effects of compressive stresses (41 to 101 kPa), number of strokes (1 to 10), moisture content (9 to 62 percent) and chopping length (63 and 95 mm) on the densification of chopped switchgrass were studied. The final dry matter density (DMD) increased with the compressive stresses and the number of strokes, small chop length and low moisture content. The maximum free-standing DMD obtained was 245 kg/m^3.

Paliwal, Richa

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Conceptual Design of Biorefineries Through the Synthesis of Optimal Chemical-reaction Pathways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Decreasing fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns necessitate a shift toward biofuels. However, the chemistry of many biomass to fuel conversion pathways remains to be thoroughly studied. The future of biorefineries thus depends on developing new pathways while optimizing existing ones. Here, potential chemicals are added to create a superstructure, then an algorithm is run to enumerate every feasible reaction stoichiometry through a mixed integer linear program (MILP). An optimal chemical reaction pathway, taking into account thermodynamic, safety, and economic constraints is then found through reaction network flux analysis (RNFA). The RNFA is first formulated as a linear programming problem (LP) and later recast as an MILP in order to solve multiple alternate optima through integer cuts. A graphical method is also developed in order to show a shortcut method based on thermodynamics as opposed to the reaction stoichiometry enumeration and RNFA methods. A hypothetical case study, based on the conversion of woody biomass to liquid fuels, is presented at the end of the work along with a more detailed look at the glucose and xylose to 2-mthyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) biofuel production pathway.

Pennaz, Eric James

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Final Technical Report: Improvement of Zymomonas mobilis for Commercial Use in Corn-based Biorefineries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Between 2007 and 2010 DuPont conducted a program under DOE award DE-FC36-07GO17056 to develop and improve Zymomonas mobilis as an ethanologen for commercial use in biorefineries to produce cellulosic ethanol. This program followed upon an earlier DOE funded program in which DuPont, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) had developed a Zymomonas strain in conjunction with the development of an integrated cellulosic ethanol process. In the current project, we sought to maximize the utility of Zymomonas by adding the pathway to allow fermentation of the minor sugar arabinose, improve the utilization of xylose, improve tolerance to process hydrolysate and reduce the cost of producing the ethanologen. We undertook four major work streams to address these tasks, employing a range of approaches including genetic engineering, adaptation, metabolite and pathway analysis and fermentation process development. Through this project, we have developed a series of strains with improved characteristics versus the starting strain, and demonstrated robust scalability to at least the 200L scale. By a combination of improved ethanol fermentation yield and titer as well as reduced seed train costs, we have been able to reduce the capital investment and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by approximately 8.5% and 11% respectively vs. our starting point. Furthermore, the new strains we have developed, coupled with the learnings of this program, provide a platform for further strain improvements and advancement of cellulosic ethanol technology.

Hitz, William D.

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

71

Top Value-Added Chemicals from Biomass - Volume IIResults of Screening for Potential Candidates from Biorefinery Lignin  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates lignins role as a renewable raw material resource. Opportunities that arise from utilizing lignin fit into one of three categories: 1)power, fuel and syngas (generally near-term opportunities) 2) macromolecules (generally medium-term opportunities) 3) aromatics and miscellaneous monomers (long-term opportunities). Biorefineries will receive and process massive amounts of lignin. For this reason, how lignin can be best used to support the economic health of the biorefinery must be defined. An approach that only considers process heat would be shortsighted. Higher value products present economic opportunities and the potential to significantly increase the amount of liquid transportation fuel available from biomass. In this analysis a list of potential uses of lignin was compiled and sorted into product types which are broad classifications (listed above as powerfuelsyngas; macromolecules; and aromatics). In the first product type (powerfuelgasification) lignin is used purely as a carbon source and aggressive means are employed to break down its polymeric structure. In the second product type (macromolecules) the opposite extreme is considered and advantage of the macromolecular structure imparted by nature is retained in high-molecular weight applications. The third product type (aromatics) lies somewhere between the two extremes and employs technologies that would break up lignins macromolecular structure but maintain the aromatic nature of the building block molecules. The individual opportunities were evaluated based on their technical difficulty, market, market risk, building block utility, and whether a pure material or a mixture would be produced. Unlike the Sugars Top 10 report it was difficult to identify the ten best opportunities, however, the potential opportunities fell nicely into near-, medium- and long-term opportunities. Furthermore, the near-, medium- and long-term opportunities roughly align with the three product types. From this analysis a list of technical barriers was developed which can be used to identify research needs. Lignin presents many challenges for use in the biorefinery. Chemically it differs from sugars having a complex aromatic substructure. Unlike cellulose, which has a relatively simple substructure of glucose subunits, lignin has a high degree of variability in its structure which differs both from biomass source and from the recovery process used. In addition to its variability lignin is also reactive and to some degree less stable thermally and oxidatively to other biomass streams. What this means is that integrating a lignin process stream within the biorefinery will require identifying the best method to separate lignin from biomass cost-effectively.

Holladay, John E.; White, James F.; Bozell, Joseph J.; Johnson, David

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

A Process Integration Approach to the Strategic Design and Scheduling of Biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work focused upon design and operation of biodiesel production facilities in support of the broader goal of developing a strategic approach to the development of biorefineries. Biodiesel production provided an appropriate starting point for these efforts. The work was segregated into two stages. Various feedstocks may be utilized to produce biodiesel, to include virgin vegetable oils and waste cooking oil. With changing prices, supply, and demand of feedstocks, a need exists to consider various feedstock options. The objective of the first stage was to develop a systematic procedure for scheduling and operation of flexible biodiesel plants accommodating a variety of feedstocks. This work employed a holistic approach and combination of process simulation, synthesis, and integration techniques to provide: process simulation of a biodiesel plant for various feedstocks, integration of energy and mass resources, optimization of process design and scheduling, and techno-economic assessment and sensitivity analysis of proposed schemes. An optimization formulation was developed to determine scheduling and operation for various feedstocks and a case study solved to illustrate the merits of the devised procedure. With increasing attention to the environmental impact of discharging greenhouse gases (GHGs), there has been growing public pressure to reduce the carbon footprint associated with fossil fuel use. In this context, one key strategy is substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels such as biodiesel. Design of biodiesel plants has traditionally been conducted based on technical and economic criteria. GHG policies have the potential to significantly alter design of these facilities, selection of feedstocks, and scheduling of multiple feedstocks. The objective of the second stage was to develop a systematic approach to design and scheduling of biodiesel production processes while accounting for the effect of GHG policies. An optimization formulation was developed to maximize profit of the process subject to flowsheet synthesis and performance modeling equations. The carbon footprint is accounted for through a life cycle analysis (LCA). The objective function includes a term reflecting the impact of the LCA of a feedstock and its processing to biodiesel. A multiperiod approach was used and a case study solved with several scenarios of feedstocks and GHG policies.

Elms, Rene ?Davina

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

acid  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is located near the town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe and 60 miles north-northeast of Albuquerque. The site is accessible from Canyon Road, which runs just south of the former waste treatment plant. The plant was situated on a mesa that forms the south rim of Acid Canyon. Acid Canyon is a small tributary near the head

74

DOEGO85004_1: Final Non-proprietary Technical Report, Generating Process and Economic Data for Preliminary Design of PureVision Biorefineries DOEGO85004_2: One Original Final Proprietary Technical Report to be mailed to DOE Golden.  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project was to define a two-stage reactive fractionation process for converting corn stover into a solid cellulose stream and two liquid streams containing mostly hemicellulosic sugars and lignin, respectively. Toward this goal, biomass fractionation was conducted using a small continuous pilot unit with a nominal capacity of 100 pounds per day of dry biomass to generate performance data using primarily corn stover as feedstock. In the course of the program, the PureVision process was optimized for efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis in the first stage employing autohydrolysis and delignification in the second stage using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. The remaining cellulose was deemed to be an excellent substrate for producing fermentation sugars, requiring 40% less enzymes for hydrolysis than conventional pretreatment systems using dilute acid. The fractionated cellulose was also determined to have potential higher-value applications as a pulp product. The lignin coproduct was determined to be substantially lower in molecular weight (MW) compared to lignins produced in the kraft or sulfite pulping processes. This low-MW lignin can be used as a feed and concrete binder and as an intermediate for producing a range of high-value products including phenolic resins. This research adds to the understanding of the biomass conversion area in that a new process was developed in the true spirit of biorefineries. The work completed successfully demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the process at the pilot level indicating the technology is ready to advance to a 23 ton per day scale. No technical showstoppers are anticipated in scaling up the PureVision fractionation process to commercial scale. Also, economic feasibility of using the PureVision process in a commercial-scale biorefinery was investigated and the minimum ethanol selling price for the PureVision process was calculated to be $0.94/gal ethanol vs. $1.07/gal ethanol for the NREL process. Thus, the PureVision process is economically attractive. Given its technical and economic feasibility, the project is of benefit to the public in the following ways: 1) it demonstrated a novel biomass fractionation process that can provide domestic supply of renewable transportation fuel from all three biomass components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), 2) the lignin stream from the process has many higher-value applications beyond simply burning the lignin for energy as proposed by competing technologies, 3) it can be deployed in rural areas and create jobs in these areas, and 3) it can add to the nations economy and security.

Kadam, Kiran L., Ph.D; Lehrburger, Ed

2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

DOE/EA-1628: Environmental Assessment for Construction and Operation of a Proposed Lignocellulosic Biorefinery, POET Project LIBERTY, LLC. (September 2008)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Notice of Wetlands and Notice of Wetlands Involvement Construction and Operation of a Proposed Lignocellulosic Biorefinery, POET Project LIBERTY, LLC. Emmetsburg, Iowa Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy by September 2008 September 2008 i POET Project LIBERTY - Final EA 9-26-08.doc Contents Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................................i Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms............................................................................................................iv 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1-1 1.1 Background......................................................................................................................................

76

acid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site. Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site. This site is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Site Description and History The Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is located near the town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe and 60 miles north-northeast of Albuquerque. The site is accessible from Canyon Road, which runs just south

77

The Integrated Biorefinery: Conversion of Corn Fiber to Value-added Chemicals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation provides a summary of Michigan Biotechnology Institute's efforts to employ the corn fiber fraction of a dry grind ethanol plant as a feedstock to produce succinic acid which has potential as a building block intermediate for a wide range of commodity chemicals.

Susanne Kleff

2007-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

78

Strategic Biorefinery Analysis: Analysis of Biorefineries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subcontract report prepared by Dartmouth College that identifies and discusses the advantages of producing ethanol in a biomass refinery as compared to a single-product facility.

Lynd, L. R.; Wyman, C.; Laser, M.; Johnson, D.; Landucci, R.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Conceptual design assessment for the co-firing of bio-refinery supplied lignin project. Quarterly report, June 23--July 1, 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Conceptual Design Assessment for the Co-Firing of Bio-Refinery Supplied Lignin Project was successfully kicked off on July 23, 2000 during a meeting at the TVA-PPI facility in Muscle Shoals, AL. An initial timeline for the study was distributed, issues of concern were identified and a priority actions list was developed. Next steps include meeting with NETL to discuss de-watering and lignin fuel testing, the development of the mass balance model and ethanol facility design criteria, providing TVA-Colbert with preliminary lignin fuel analysis and the procurement of representative feed materials for the pilot and bench scale testing of the hydrolysis process.

Berglund, T.; Ranney, J.T.; Babb, C.L.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

80

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. During this quarter, TVA completed the washing and dewatering of the lignin material produced from the MSW hydrolysis. Seven drums of lignin material were washed to recover the acid and sugar from the lignin and provide an improved fuel for steam generation. Samples of both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation. After sample evaluation, EERC approved sending the material and all of the necessary fuel for testing was shipped to EERC. EERC has requested and will receive coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio based fuels is scheduled to begin in August of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system was completed. The cost estimate and the output and heat rate impacts will be used to determine a preliminary price for the exported steam. The preliminary steam price will be determined in the next quarter.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. ARRA support for this project and to the PNNL Joint Global Change Research Institute enabled us to create an advanced computing infrastructure to execute millions of simulations, conduct post-processing calculations, store input and output data, and visualize results. These computing resources included two components installed at the Research Data Center of the University of Maryland. The first resource was 'deltac': an 8-core Linux server, dedicated to county-level and state-level simulations and PostgreSQL database hosting. The second resource was the DOE-JGCRI 'Evergreen' cluster, capable of executing millions of simulations in relatively short periods. ARRA funding also supported a PhD student from UMD who worked on creating the geodatabases and executing some of the simulations in this study. Using a physically based classification of marginal lands, we simulated production of cellulosic feedstocks from perennial mixtures grown on these lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands in the western states of the US Midwest appear to have significant potential to supply feedstocks to a cellulosic biofuel industry. Similar results were obtained with simulations of N-fertilized perennial mixtures. A detailed spatial analysis allowed for the identification of possible locations for the establishment of 34 cellulosic ethanol biorefineries with an annual production capacity of 5.6 billion gallons. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided simulation results on the potential of perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. The results of this study will be submitted to the USDOE Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework as a way to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. ARRA support for this project and to the PNNL Joint Global Change Research Institute enabled us to create an advanced computing infrastructure to execute millions of simulations, conduct post-processing calculations, store input and output data, and visualize results. These computing resources included two components installed at the Research Data Center of the University of Maryland. The first resource was 'deltac': an 8-core Linux server, dedicated to county-level and state-level simulations and PostgreSQL database hosting. The second resource was the DOE-JGCRI 'Evergreen' cluster, capable of executing millions of simulations in relatively short periods. ARRA funding also supported a PhD student from UMD who worked on creating the geodatabases and executing some of the simulations in this study. Using a physically based classification of marginal lands, we simulated production of cellulosic feedstocks from perennial mixtures grown on these lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands in the western states of the US Midwest appear to have significant potential to supply feedstocks to a cellulosic biofuel industry. Similar results were obtained with simulations of N-fertilized perennial mixtures. A detailed spatial analysis allowed for the identification of possible locations for the establishment of 34 cellulosic ethanol biorefineries with an annual production capacity of 5.6 billion gallons. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided simulation results on the potential of perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. The results of this study will be submitted to the USDOE Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework as a way to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Analysis of Integrated Tropical Biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as fast- pyrolysis and catalytic fast-pyrolysis for producing liquid fuels from biomass feedstocks biomass to a fast-pyrolysis reactor (Table 3.4), the greatest mass yield of bio-oil can be attributed............................................................................................- 70 - TABLE 2.18. BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGIES, REACTION CONDITIONS AND PRODUCTS................- 70

85

Bioenergy Technologies Office: Integrated Biorefineries  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

transportation fuels, chemicals, and heat and power. Biofuels Infrastructure moves the fuel from a biorefining plant to the pump. Bioenergy is used to power today's vehicles. A...

86

Commercializing Biorefineries The Path Forward  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PIX 16702 For more information contact: EERE Information Center 1-877-EERE-INF (1-877-337-3463) www.eere

87

Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

USDA - Biorefinery Assistance Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of the production must be an advanced biofuels Eligible advanced biofuels include: Biofuel derived from cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin, or other fuels derived from...

90

Sandia National Laboratories Trojan Horse Project: Biorefinery ...  

bio-processing system Laura Santos | 925.294.1214 | lesanto@sandia.gov BENEFITS Significant reduction in the cost and complexity of the processes to ...

91

Technoeconomic analysis of a lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery ...  

poplar wood. Biotechnol Progr 25(2):323332 (2009). 6. Zhao X, Cheng K and Liu D, Organosolv pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis.

92

NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities in Integrated Biorefinery...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pilot plant, researchers study biochemical processes for converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. At NREL, teams of researchers focus on developing an integrated...

93

NREL: Biomass Research - Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pilot plant accommodates bench-to-pilot-scale processes for converting cellulosic biomass into a variety of fuels and chemicals at process throughputs of up to one ton of dry...

94

Range Fuels Biorefinery Groundbreaking | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

about 30 million gallons of biofuels and chemicals. As someone who trained to be a chemical engineer, and who later found himself running a chemical company, I can tell you...

95

Multitasking mesoporous nanomaterials for biorefinery applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The incorporation of a different organic functional group into MSN provides a selective adsorbent for separation and purification of ?-tocopherol from microalgae oil. The functional group with electron deficient aromatic rings demonstrated high sequestration capacity and selectivity of {alpha}-tocopherol.

Kandel, Kapil [Ames Laboratory

2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

96

On the systematic synthesis of sustainable biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

raw materials or third generation, biofuels based on algae.l-3 However, there are also concerns. #12;6 Figure 1.-Raw materials and technologies for production of biofuels Nowadays, the increasing the use of raw material, energy and water in order for the process not only to be economically feasible

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

97

Systematic synthesis of sustainable biorefineries: A review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of pollutants, oxygen generation, and intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, as well as catalytic reforming. Sekine et al.56 investigated four catalytic reactions assisted with an electric field to promote

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

98

Results from NationalResults from National Biorefinery Siting ModelBiorefinery Siting Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a local Jatropha-based biofuel supply chain and produce the technical and organizational knowledgeBRIEFING NOTES November 2010 Sustainable biofuels in Africa: cultivation of Jatropha curcas in Mali Background Case study 1 - Mali Case study 2 - Malawi Policy recommendations Biofuel cultivation worldwide

California at Davis, University of

99

Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fermentation. Biorefineries consume water of biomass removal. Biorefineries can also improve and design of biorefineries will minimize conflicts

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

National Bioenergy Center: Laying the Foundation for Biorefineries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fact sheet explaining the National Bioenergy Center and its programs to stakeholders and visitors: An inclusive center without walls applying resources of the U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory System to advance technology for producing fuels, chemicals, materials, and power from biomass. National Bioenergy Center expertise, capabilities, facilities, and technologies can be made available to you through cooperative research and development agreements, work-for-others agreements, licenses, and other collaborative business arrangements. Please contact us about the research and development work you want to do.

Not Available

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of intercropping is that the intercrop components composition can be designed to produce a medium (for microbial. Nitrogen fertilization is responsible for more than 85 % of the greenhouse gas emissions from wheat grain unheated clover-grass juice can be co-converted into ethanol by natural enzymes and yeast increasing

103

National Biorefineries Database

Open Energy Info (EERE)

positions to the plant locations and transloading terminals in order to generate the shape files.

104

Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

fuel. Once fully operational, the center will produce up to eight million gallons of bioethanol per year. It will also generate six megawatts of electricity -- enough to run the...

105

The Wood-Based Biorefinery in a Petroleum Depleted World  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;7 7 The Petroleum Product Portfolio Propane Natural gas Diesel Fuel Heating Oil Hydrogen Solvents Foundation of SUNY Biomass and Other Power Systems 9890.257US Grid Ave 1030.3Wind 604.3BIPV 529.9Willow

Chatterjee, Avik P.

106

The new Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) offers an unprecedented  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

., "SNG From Refuse and Sewage Sludge by the BIOGAS® Process, " Symposium on Clean Fuels From Biomas

107

Supply Chain Challenges Associated with Forest Biorefinery Implementation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biochar Printed on recycled paper U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010­3117 January 2011 Biochar for Soil Fertility and Natural Carbon Sequestration Biochar is charcoal fertility while providing natural carbon sequestration. The incorporation of biochar into soils can preserve

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

108

Turning Waste Into Fuel: How the INEOS Biorefinery Is Changing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center is expected to support 380 direct and indirect jobs -- including 175 construction jobs -- and 50 full-time positions once fully operational. Planning for other facilities...

109

Modeling Tomorrow's Biorefinery--the NREL Biochemical Pilot Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Brochure describing the capabilities of NREL's Biochemical Pilot Plant. In this facility, researchers test ideas for creating high-value products from cellulosic biomass.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Acrylic Acid from 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid - Energy Innovation ...  

Technology Marketing Summary. 3-hydroxypropionic acid is readily converted to acrylic acid by conversion to the acid salt followed by treatment with a solid oxide ...

111

PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

1949-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

112

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

113

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

114

Controlling acid rain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid ...  

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a ...

116

Recovery of Phosphoric Acid in Waste Acid Mixtures Discharged ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2003 ... In order to separate impurity acids from the phosphoric acid, trioctyl phosphate ( TOP) is used as an extractant. TOP can extract acetic and nitric...

117

Coupling GIS and LCA for biodiversity assessments of land use: Part 1: Inventory modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

extraction and siting of biorefineries. There is nothing inidentify locations for biorefineries within a harvest shed

Geyer, Roland; Stoms, David M.; Lindner, Jan P.; Davis, Frank W.; Wittstock, Bastian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

EA-1789: Finding of No Significant Impact  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, Alpena Prototype Biorefinery, Alpena, Michigan

119

Nucleic Acid Softwars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleic Acid Software Nucleic Acid Software FR3D, a software for finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures. Sarver, M., Zirbel, C.L., Stombaugh, J., Mokdad, A. and Leontis, N.B. (2008) FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures. J Math Biol, 56, 215-252. RNAView, a program for quickly generating a display of RNA/DNA secondary structures with tertiary interactions. Yang, H., Jossinet, F., Leontis, N., Chen, L., Westbrook, J., Berman, H.M. and Westhof, E. (2003) Tools for the automatic identification and classification of RNA base pairs. Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 3450-3460. RNAMLview, a program to display and/or edit RNAView 2-dimensional diagrams. 3DNA, a software package for the analysis, rebuilding and visualization of three-dimensional nucleic acid structures.

120

Reactivity of Acid Generators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Low-Energy Electrons Atsuro Nakano, Takahiro Kozawa, Seiichi Tagawa, Tomasz Szreder, James F. Wishart, Toshiyuki Kai and Tsutomu Shimokawa Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 45, L197-L200 (2006). [Find paper at the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics] Abstract: In chemically amplified resists for ionizing radiations such as electron beams and extreme ultraviolet (EUV), low-energy electrons play an important role in the pattern formation processes. The reactivity of acid generators with low-energy electrons was evaluated using solvated electrons in tetrahydrofuran, which were generated by a pulsed electron beam. The rate constants of acid generators with the solvated electrons ranged from 0.6 to 1.9 x 1011 M-1s-1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Chlorophyll and acid rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chlorophyll and acid rain Chlorophyll and acid rain Name: beachbum Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: A while ago I read an article that stated that after a plant received acid rain, there seemed to be less of chlorophyll a and b in the plant. I was wondering where does the chlorophyll go and what is the actual process (cell structure affected?). Replies: I think that less chlorophyll being present would be more likely a result of less being produced. Plant cell constantly turn over cell material, it will also constantly produce more. So if one compares a plant not exposed to acid rain (presumably producing a normal amount of chlorophyll and the exposed plant then one sees that the exposed plant has less chlorophyll than the unexposed plant. I do not think I can answer the rest of your question.

122

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

123

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

124

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O' Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Nucleic Acid Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleic Acid Tools Nucleic Acid Tools RNA 3D Motif Atlas, a representative collection of RNA 3D internal and hairpin loop motifs. Petrov, A.I., Zirbel, C.L., Leontis, N.B. (2013) Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D motif atlas. RNA. Non-redundant List of RNA-containing 3D structures. Leontis, N.B., & Zirbel, C.L. (2012) In Leontis, N. B., Westhof. E. (ed.), RNA 3D structure analysis and prediction. Springer Berlin Heidelberg Vol. 27, pp. 281-298. RNA Base Triple Atlas, a collection of motifs consisting of two RNA basepairs. Abu Almakarem, A.S., Petrov, A.I., Stombaugh, J., Zirbel, C.L. and Leontis, N.B. (2012) Comprehensive survey and geometric classification of base triples in RNA structures. Nucleic Acids Res, 40, 1407-1423. R3D Align, an application for detailed nucleotide to nucleotide

126

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased reactor productivity, final product concentration, and product yield. Other advantages of the FBB include efficient and continuous operation without requiring repeated inoculation, elimination of cell lag phase, good long-term stability, self cleaning and easier downstream processing. The excellent reactor performance of the FBB can be attributed to the high viable cell density maintained in the bioreactor as a result of the unique cell immobilization mechanism within the porous fibrous matrix Since Butanol replaces gasoline in any car today - right now, its manufacturing from biomass is the focus of EEI and in the long term production of our transportation fuel from biomass will stabilize the cost of our fuel - the underpinning of all commerce. As a Strategic Chemical Butanol has a ready market as an industrial solvent used primarily as paint thinner which sells for twice the price of gasoline and is one entry point for the Company into an established market. However, butanol has demonstrated it is an excellent replacement for gasoline-gallon for gallon. The EEI process has made the economics of producing butanol from biomass for both uses very compelling. With the current costs for gasoline at $3.00 per gallon various size farmstead turn-key Butanol BioRefineries are proposed for 50-1,000 acre farms, to produce butanol as a fuel locally and sold locally. All butanol supplies worldwide are currently being produced from petroleum for $1.50 per gallon and selling for $3.80 wholesale. With the increasing price of gasoline it becomes feasible to manufacture and sell Butanol as a clean-safe replacement for gasoline. Grown locally - sold locally at gas prices. A 500 acre farm at 120 bushels corn per acre would make $150,000 at $2.50 per bushel for its corn, when turned into 150,000 gallons Butanol per year at 2.5 gallons per bushel the gross income would be $430,000. Butanol-s advantage is the fact that no other agricultural product made can be put directly into your gas tank without modifying your car. The farmer making and selling locally has no overhead for shippi

David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

128

Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe is withdrawn from the well. The jetting action helps to remove the drilling fluid filter cake and promote the acid to penetrate into the formation and form wormholes to stimulate the well. However, with very long sections of wellbore open to flow, the acid placement and subsequent wormhole distribution and penetration depths are uncertain. This study has modeled the acid jetting process using a comprehensive model of acid placement and wormhole propagation in a horizontal well. It is presumed that the acid jetting tool removes the drilling mud filter cake, so that no filter cake exists between the end of the drill pipe and the toe of the well. Correspondingly, the model also assumes that there is an intact, low-permeability filter cake on the borehole wall between the end of the drill pipe and the heel of the well. The drill pipe is modeled as being withdrawn from the well during the acid jetting treatment, as is done in practice. The acidizing simulator predicts the distribution of acid and the depths of wormholes formed as functions of time and position during the acid jetting treatment. The model shows that the acid jetting process as typically applied in these wells preferentially stimulates the toe region of the horizontal well. Comparisons of the simulation predictions with published data for acid jetting treatments in such wells showed good general agreement. Based on the simulation study, this study presents recommendations for improved acid jetting treatment procedures to improve the distribution of acid injected into the formation.

Sasongko, Hari

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Lubrication with boric acid additives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Non-Lead/Acid Battery Recyclers:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in H2O solution such as Citric Acid, Acetic Acid, Acetates or ... MnO2 is soluble in sulfuric acid only at ... cells were treated by alkali followed by acids. ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

131

Fatty Acid Methods and Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... mixtures are analyzed by either gas chromatography with ... for fatty acids, including various oils and biodiesel ... Material 3276 Carrot Extract in Oil," Anal ...

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

132

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Volatility of Aqueous Acetic Acid, Formic Acid, and Sodium Acetate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This report examines the volatility of some of the principal cycle organic corrodents: acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium acetate.

2000-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

farmer practices through biorefineries may be prohibitivelygasification, and pyrolysis biorefineries all derive their700 tons per day feedstock) biorefineries using a variety of

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Creating Markets for Green Biofuels: Measuring and improving environmental performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deserve to be called biorefineries. Rather than producingprofiles of several biorefineries are detailed in Section 6.emissions from biorefineries is relatively straightforward:

Turner, Brian T.; Plevin, Richard J.; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

displaced by cellulosic biorefineries exports to the grid,U.S. Corn Grain-to-Ethanol Biorefineries (Data Source: (assumes that future biorefineries will be hybrids, capable

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrolyzates in cellulosic biorefineries into high valuegreat promise for use in biorefineries on dry-lands and thethat the future biorefineries can bypass the lignocellulosic

Li, Hongjia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

farmer practices through biorefineries may be prohibitivelygasification, and pyrolysis biorefineries all derive their700 tons per day feedstock) biorefineries using a variety of

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

62 Default ethanol biorefineries modeled in GREET. Energyethanol facility. Corn biorefineries are generally built5.1: Default ethanol biorefineries modeled in GREET. Energy

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B, Kamm M: Principles of biorefineries. Applied MicrobiologyGirio FM: Hemicellulose biorefineries: a review on biomassB, Kamm M: Principles of biorefineries. Applied Microbiology

Gao, Xiadi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

Baylor university

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Electric utility plants;Gas Natural Sources Concentration Carbon dioxide CO2 Decomposition 355 ppm Nitric oxide NO Electric, 2010 #12;Gas Non-Natural Sources Concentration Nitric oxide NO Internal Combustion (cars) 0.2 ppm

Toohey, Darin W.

144

Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid J. E. Roberts, J. F. Wishart, L. Martinez, C. F. Chignell Photochem.Photobiol. 72, 467-471 (2000) Abstract: The tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid has been isolated from aged human cataractous lenses. The photophysical properties of xanthurenic acid were examined to determine if it is a potential chromophore for age-related cataractogenesis. We found that xanthurenic acid produces singlet oxygen (F*= 0.17; CD3OD) with the same efficiency as the lenticular chromophore N-formyl kynurenine and quenches singlet oxygen at a rate similar to other tryptophan metabolites (2.1 x 107 M-1 s-1; CD3OD) found in the eye. As the mechanisms of induction of cataracts may also involve redox reactions, the interactions of hydrated electrons (e-aq), the azide radical

145

PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

1949-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

METABOLISM OF THlOCTlC ACID IN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY ThisMETABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. , C.METABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. C.

Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

Sabanayagam, Chandran R. (Allston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Needham, MA); Misasi, John (Syracuse, NY); Hatch, Anson (Seattle, WA); Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

Fay, James A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Polybenzimidazole: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polybenzimidazole: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells Speaker(s): Dave Sopchak Date: May 1, 2013 - 3:00pm - 4:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Max Wei The PBI...

150

Controlling acid rain : policy issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Well development with acid wool  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a unique method to prevent the lost circulation of drilling fluids in fractured bedrock aquifers. The method utilizes acid wool to bridge fractures and prevent the migration of these fluids in to the reservoir. This wool material collects the mud on its surface and allows it to be removed during development. The wool is produced from melted silic-carbonate rock and is dissolved using hydrochloric acid. The timing and methodology of installation is provided.

Hanna, T.M. (Hydrologic Consultants Inc., Lakewood, CO (USA)); Rothauge, F. (Quality Drilling Fluids Engineering Inc., Longmont, CO (USA))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal  

Technology Marketing Summary In this invention we report the synthesis of a copolymer of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and vinyl zirconium phosphorous (VZP) acid has ...

153

Ultra-Deep Strong Acidizing and Sour Gas Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two acidizing environments that were studied included 10% acetic acid and a mixture of 10% acetic acid and 10% hydrochloric acid with 15 psia hydrogen...

154

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Indiana - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Renewable Fuels Association, Ethanol Biorefinery Locations, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Industry Biorefineries and Production Capacity: Florida: Renewable Energy:

156

Agricultural and Resource Economics Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were able to establish biorefineries during the high-marginwhile investors in biorefineries that were launched during

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

if financing and commercial biorefineries producing biofuelsVOLUME 63 , NUMBER 4 in biorefineries may have difficulty

Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Optimizing U.S. Mitigation Strategies for the Light-Duty Transportation Sector: What We Learn from a Bottom-Up Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. C. , Comparative economics of biorefineries based on theBioprocessing, and Biorefineries 2007, 7. Shapouri, H. ;

Yeh, Sonia; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J; Sanstad, Alan; Weyant, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Can feedstock production for biofuels be sustainable in California?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

duction levels in biorefineries using it as a feedstock. Init would be smaller and biorefineries could be centrally

Kaffka, Stephen R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transport companies), and biorefineries. Each category ofthe sale of CO 2 from biorefineries at this time, given that

Sperling, Daniel; Farrell, Alexander

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Renewable Fuels Association, Ethanol Biorefinery Locations, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Industry Biorefineries and Production Capacity: Florida: Renewable ...

162

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transport companies), and biorefineries. Each category ofthe sale of CO 2 from biorefineries at this time, given that

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

165

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 3 Syntheses of Conjugated Linoleic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 3 Syntheses of Conjugated Linoleic Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf...

166

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 9 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Hypertension  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 9 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Hypertension Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf...

167

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 1 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 1 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Synthesis Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf...

168

Modeling Tomorrow's Biorefinery - the NREL Biochemical Pilot Plant; Biomass Program (Brochure)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

great ideas into viable solutions great ideas into viable solutions requires the ability to test theories under real world conditions. Few companies have the resources to build pilot-scale processing plants to test their ideas. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) helps by sharing its world-class equipment and expertise with industry and other research organizations through a variety of contractual arrangements. At the NREL campus in Golden, Colo., researchers use state-of-the-art laboratories to develop and improve the technologies that convert biomass to fuels, chemicals, and materials. One of the most important tools available to biomass researchers is the Biochemical Pilot Plant housed in the Alternative Fuels User Facility (AFUF). In this facility,

169

Drought-tolerant Biofuel Crops could be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

United States. Biomass & Bioenergy, 2005. 28(6): p. 515-535.Kszos, L.A. , et al. , Bioenergy Feedstock Developmentenergy policy. Biomass & Bioenergy, 2007. 31(6): p. 416-425.

Morrow, III, William R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

DOE-DOD-USDA Joint Initiative to use DPA to support US Biorefineries  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

| Biomass Program eere.energy.gov | Biomass Program eere.energy.gov DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Program August 1, 2012 Zia Haq DPA Coordinator Advanced Biofuels Workshop 2 | Office of the Biomass Program eere.energy.gov Resource Assessment - "Billion Ton Update" U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry Data and analysis tools located on the Knowledge Discovery Framework: http://bioenergykdf.net * Provides current and potential available biomass for 2012-2030 * Estimates are at the county level and for a range of costs to roadside * Has scenarios based on crop yields and tillage practices * Models land use for energy crops and ensures meet food, forage, and

171

U.S. Department of Energy Small-Scale Biorefineries Project Overview...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Innovation Science & Technology Science Education Innovation Energy Sources Energy Usage Energy Efficiency Mission News & Blog Maps Data About Us For Staff & Contractors...

172

VIRTUAL SUGARCANE BIOREFINERY: A TOOL TO COMPARE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF DIFFERENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Glucose -Fructose -Xylose Biogas Bio oil Crude bio oil Ethylene (H2C=CH2) Methanol (CH3OH) Aromatics

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

173

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE COFIRING OF BIOREFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed. Processing of biosolids and pilot facility hydrolysis production have been completed to produce lignin for cofire testing. EERC had received all the biomass and baseline coal fuels for use in testing. All the combustion and fuel handling tests at EERC have been completed. During fuel preparation EERC reported no difficulties in fuel blending and handling. Preliminary cofire test results indicate that the blending of lignin and biosolids with the Colbert coal blend generally reduces NOx emissions, increases the reactivity of the coal, and increases the ash deposition rate on superheater surfaces. Deposits produced from the fuel blends, however, are more friable and hence easier to remove from tube surfaces relative to those produced from the baseline Colbert coal blend. A draft of the final cofire technical report entitled ''Effects of Cofiring Lignin and Biosolids with Coal on Fireside Performance and Combustion Products'' has been prepared and is currently being reviewed by project team members. A final report is expected by mid-third quarter 2002. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The environmental review, preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing, and assessment of steam export impacts have been completed without major issue. A cost estimate for the steam supply system was also completed. TVA is further evaluating the impacts of adding lignin to the coal fuel blend and how the steam cost is impacted by proximity of the Masada biomass facility. TVA has provided a draft final report that is under review by team members.

David J. Webster; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Jacqueline G. Broder

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Bioconversion and Biorefineries of the Future Linda L. Lasure, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of corn stover as a sustainable feedstock for bioethanol production" Bioresource Technology 88, p15-25 Lal

175

DOE Selects 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of plant materials or non-food based feedstocks, including agricultural wastes such as corn stover, forest waste including saw dust and paper pulp, and energy crops, like...

176

Analyzing the design and management of biomass-to-biorefinery supply chain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bioenergy has been recognized as an important source of energy that will reduce nation's dependency on petroleum, and have a positive impact on the economy, environment, and society. Production of bioenergy is expected to increase. As a result, we foresee ... Keywords: Biofuel, Biomass, Mixed integer program, Supply-chain design, Supply-chain management

Sandra D. Ek?io?lu; Ambarish Acharya; Liam E. Leightley; Sumesh Arora

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Drought-tolerant Biofuel Crops could be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Criteria for Sustainable Biofuel Production, Version 2.0.sustainability concepts in biofuel supply chain management:of switchgrass-for-biofuel systems. Biomass & Bioenergy,

Morrow, III, William R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Drought-tolerant Biofuel Crops could be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Sustainable Biofuel Production, Version 2.0. 2010,risk to future biofuel production, a risk that will likely

Morrow, III, William R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

R&D Needs for Integrated Biorefineries: The 30x30 Vision (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation on progress and possible scenarios towards meeting the 30x30 initiative proposed by President Bush

Dayton, D. C.

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

180

Drought-tolerant Biofuel Crops could be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

impact study of the EU Biofuels Mandate. 2010: p. 1-125.Indirect Emissions from Biofuels: How Important? Science,of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases

Morrow, III, William R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing and the lignin fuel was washed and dewatered. Both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation and co-firing. EERC has received coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio-based fuels is scheduled to begin in October of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system was completed. The cost estimate and the output and heat rate impacts will be used to determine a preliminary price for the exported steam.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. During pilot plant shakedown operations, several production batch test runs were performed. These pilot tests were coupled with laboratory testing to confirm pilot results. In initial batches of operations, cellulose to glucose conversions of 62.5% and 64.8% were observed in laboratory hydrolysis. As part of this testing, lignin dewatering was tested using laboratory and vendor-supplied filtration equipment. Dewatering tests reported moisture contents in the lignin of between 50% and 60%. Dewatering parameters and options will continue to be investigated during lignin production. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. Shredding of the feed material was completed and final drying of the feed is expected to be completed by late January. Once feed drying is completed, pilot facility production will begin to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Facility modifications are expected to continue to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility continues to make progress in evaluating the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system continues.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of municipal solid waste (MSW) feed material was procured. During this quarter (first quarter of 2001), shredding of the feed material was completed and final feed conditioning was completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Pilot facility modifications continued to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. Samples of the co-fire fuel material were sent to the co-fire facility for evaluation. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system is being developed.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility hydrolysis production has been completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing and the lignin fuel was washed and dewatered. Both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation and co-firing. EERC has received coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material was used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. All the combustion and fuel handling tests at EERC have been completed. During fuel preparation EERC reported no difficulties in fuel blending and handling. Preliminary co-fire test results indicate that the blending of lignin and bio-solids with the Colbert coal blend generally reduces NO{sub x} emissions, increases the reactivity of the coal, and increases the ash deposition rate on superheater surfaces. Deposits produced from the fuel blends, however, are more friable and hence easier to remove from tube surfaces relative to those produced from the baseline Colbert coal blend. The final co-fire testing report is being prepared at EERC and will be completed by the end of the second quarter of 2002. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for the steam supply system was completed. The cost estimate and output and heat rate impacts have been used to determine a preliminary price for the exported steam. TVA is further evaluating the impacts of adding lignin to the coal fuel blend and how the steam cost is impacted by proximity of the Masada biomass facility.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Pyrolysis of biomass and biorefinery residual materials for production of advanced biofuels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work carried out throughout this project has helped to further advance the area of biomass pyrolysis for the production of bio-oil. During the early (more)

Melligan, Fergus J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Drought-tolerant Biofuel Crops could be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canopy Temperature as a Crop Water-Stress Indicator. WaterM.S. , et al. , Estimating Crop Water-Deficit Using theNations (FAO), N.R.a.E. , Crop evapotrasporation - Guidlines

Morrow, III, William R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

acid  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

cut into the Pajarito Plateau in north- central New Mexico. From 1943 to 1964, during nuclear weapons research activities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL, then...

188

Why Sequence Algae from Acidic Waters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequence Algae from Acidic Waters? Strains of green algae from isolated acidic waters are being sequenced to understand how they adapt to variable levels of carbon dioxide, as well...

189

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

Greenhalgh, W.O.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

190

trans Fatty Acid Content Laboratory Proficiency Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for trans fatty acid content. Samples include non-hydrogenated Soybean Oil and hydrogenated Soybean Oil. trans Fatty Acid Content Laboratory Proficiency Program Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs applicants certifie

191

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

193

Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of .sup.10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions.

Pollock, Charles W. (Richland, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran. Battelle ...

195

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, P.V.

1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

NITRIC ACID RECPVERY FROM WASTE COLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acids ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of rutheniuim.

Wilson, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

198

NITRIC ACID RECOVERY FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

Wilson, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

199

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Contact PNNL About This Technology ...

200

Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

Moens, L.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hydrogenation using hydrides and acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a very rapid, non-catalytic process for hydrogenating unsaturated organic compounds that can be carried out at temperatures generally lower than previously utilized. In this process organic compounds which contain at least one reducible functional group are hydrogenated non-catalytically by reacting them with a hydride complex and a strong acid. The reducible functional group may be, for example, C=C, C-OH, C-O-C, or a strained cyclic structure. If the reactants are not mutually soluble, they are dissolved in an appropriate inert solvent. 3 tabs.

Bullock, R.M.

1989-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

202

(Acidic deposition and the environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

203

Development of an Amino Acid (in Solution) Standard ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of an Amino Acid (in Solution) Standard Reference Material. Summary: Amino acids are the sequential components ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

204

LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA  

SciTech Connect

A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

205

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

208

Nucleic Acid Standards - Program List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

List of Programs and References List of Programs and References CEHS M. A. El Hassan & C. R. Calladine (1995). ``The Assessment of the Geometry of Dinucleotide Steps in Double-Helical DNA: A New Local Calculation Scheme.'' J. Mol. Biol. 251, 648-664. X. J. Lu, M. A. El Hassan & C. A. Hunter (1997). ``Structure and Conformation of Helical Nucleic Acids: Analysis Program (SCHNAaP).''J. Mol. Biol. 273, 668-680. CompDNA (Please refer to Dr. Andrey A. Gorin: agor@sbnmr1.ski.mskcc.org OR Dr. Victor B. Zhurkin: zhurkin@lmmb.nci.nih.gov) A. A. Gorin, V. B. Zhurkin & W. K. Olson (1995). ``B-DNA Twisting Correlates with Base-pair Morphology.'' J. Mol. Biol. 247, 34-48. K. M. Kosikov, A. A. Gorin, V. B. Zhurkin & W. K. Olson (1999). ``DNA Stretching and Compression: Large-scale Simulations of Double Helical

209

Nucleic Acid Standards - Refinement Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refinement Parameters Refinement Parameters The DNA/RNA topology and parameter files for X-PLOR are shown below. These were tested with DNA structures and with protein-DNA complexes. X-PLOR topology file X-PLOR parameter files: X-PLOR parameter file For the refinement of high resolution structures (< 1.7 Angstroms) the parameter file with distinct bond distances and bond angles for both C2'-endo and C3'-endo conformations should be considered: X-PLOR parameter file for high resolution structures "New Parameters for the Refinement of Nucleic Acid Containing Structures." Gary Parkinson, Jaroslav Vojtechovsky, Lester Clowney, Axel Brunger*, and Helen M. Berman. (1996) Acta Cryst. D 52, 57-64 Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0939; *The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Molecular and

210

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic200X An alternative biomass-based route to aromatics isaromatic compounds from biomass resources could provide a

Arceo, Elena

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Biorenewable Process to Acrylic Acid - PNNL: Available ...  

Acrylic acid is commonly used in the production of consumer products. Highly notable is its use in producing super absorbent polymers, the component ...

212

Available Technologies: Enhancing Fatty Acid Production by ...  

Synthetic biology has opened the door to fatty acid production from simple carbon sources through engineering microbes such as E. coil or yeast.

213

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 15 Metabolism of Conjugated Linoleic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 15 Metabolism of Conjugated Linoleic Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry 305CB38A5497B8636973A9A3E5756142 AOCS Press ...

214

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 18 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Experimental Atherosclerosis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 18 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Experimental Atherosclerosis Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AA212B9659CFD264953B73B80A39B367 AOCS

215

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 8 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Food  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 8 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Food Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Downloadable pdf of Chapter 8 Conjugated Lino

216

Geochemistry of Hydrofluoric Acid in Kaolinitic Soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document explores the geochemical reactions likely to occur when hydrofluoric acid is spilled on Savannah River Site (SRS) soil. In particular, we evaluate the potential of environmental damage from a one-time release of concentrated hydrofluoric acid into a trench. According to interviews with personnel involved, sometime between 1955 and 1960 drums of 50-60 per cent hydrofluoric acid were disposed in a trench in the Central Shops area. The method of disposal suggests that most of the acid would have been released at the time of burial. No evidence of drum disposal or acidic pH values was found. Therefore, the Soil and Groundwater Closure Projects group requested that we evaluate potential risk by examining the major geochemical interactions expected between hydrofluoric acid and soil. The geochemical calculations in this report were done with The Geochemist's Workbench (Registered). This program uses an extended Debye-Huckel method for calculating activity coefficients. The conclusions of this report are accurate, but some of the intermediate steps may have higher uncertainty. Hydrofluoric acid disposed in a trench in the area would have reacted with soil kaolinite to neutralize the pH to a value of about 4.2. Based on conservative assumptions, this would have occurred within the top 500 cm of soil. This analysis considers only the reaction of the acid with kaolinite. Other processes such as dilution, dispersion, and clogging of permeability would contribute to neutralization of the acid within a shorter distance. When the acid solution reached the water table, dilution would have driven the solution to saturation with gibbsite. A resulting layer enriched in aluminum may be the only remnant of the acid disposal identifiable today. However, any such layer would be difficult to identify because of the normally high aluminum concentrations in the soil. Subtle textural evidence of shallow soil dissolution may be present, but 40 years of rainfall infiltration may well have erased such evidence.

DENHAM, MILES

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

217

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 16 Ruminal Metabolism of Fatty Acids: Modulation of Polyunsaturated, Conjugated, and trans Fatty Acids in Meat and Milk  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 16 Ruminal Metabolism of Fatty Acids: Modulation of Polyunsaturated, Conjugated, and trans Fatty Acids in Meat and Milk Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrit

218

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attack glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. 7 refs.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Hydriodic acid-anode-depolarized hydrogen generator  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is recovered from aqueous hydriodic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, in an electrolysis cell having an anode and cathode compartment separated by a hydrogen ion permeable membrane, by electrochemically liberating iodine in the anode compartment by anodization of iodide anions, and electrochemically generating hydrogen in the cathode compartment from hydrogen cations that migrate across the membrane.

Maskalick, N.J.

1984-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

220

Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid or Oleic Acid Addition on Fatty Acid Composition Profiles of Poultry Meat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two different studies were conducted to reduce the overall amount of omega-6 fatty acids in broiler chickens. The first experiment was performed to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acid combination on the omega-6 fatty acid accumulation in broiler chicken breast and thigh meat. Eight broilers from each treatment were processed at 4 and 6 weeks of age, respectively. Regarding the diets containing five different fat sources, broiler chickens fed CLA and fish oil diet had a lower C20:4 (arachidonic acid, AA, n-6) deposition but showed a higher n-3/n-6 ratio in breast and thigh meat than those fed a flaxseed oil diet and CLA and flaxseed oil diet (P 0.05). However, the addition of CLA and fish oil to the diet resulted in a increase of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in broiler chicken breast and thigh meat when compared to that of fish oil diet (P<0.05). The second experiment was conducted based on six different combination of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. One bird per pen was processed, and each bird was weighed, and blood, liver, breast and thigh samples from the bird were collected. Although the generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was not affected due to combination of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids in our diets, the deposition of n-6 fatty acids including C18:2 and C20:4 was decreased in broiler chicken breast and/or thigh muscles as n-3 fatty acids were supplied to broiler chickens for 9 weeks. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, EPA, n-3) addition to poultry diet (FEO) did not reduce the deposition of C18:2 and/or C20:4 as much as C22:6 (FDO) did. When C20:5 and C22:6 were blended to poultry diet (FHO) and fed to broiler chickens for 9 weeks, synergistic effects were observed. Reduction of C20:4 was obtained when FHO diet was fed to broiler chickens, and it may be induced due to decreased expression of delta-6 desaturase mRNA.

Shin, Dae Keun

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 2, is the second book in a series devoted entirely to conjugated linoleic acid. Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Health Nutrition Biochemistry Hardback Books Health - Nutrition

222

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation book has four main focuses and sections. Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Health acid analysis aocs april articles chloropropanediol contaminants detergents dietary fats divis

223

PREDICTING TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR IN CARBONATE ACIDIZING TREATMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To increase the successful rate of acid stimulation, a method is required to diagnose the effectiveness of stimulation which will help us to improve stimulation design and decide whether future action, such as diversion, is needed. For this purpose, it is important to know how much acid enters each layer in a multilayer carbonate formation and if the low-permeability layer is treated well. This work develops a numerical model to determine the temperature behavior for both injection and flow-back situations. An important phenomenon in this process is the heat generated by reaction, affecting the temperature behavior significantly. The result of the thermal model showed significant temperature effects caused by reaction, providing a mechanism to quantitatively determine the acid flow profile. Based on this mechanism, a further inverse model can be developed to determine the acid distribution in each layer.

Tan, Xuehao

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.

Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Mitra, Robi D. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

NH Acid Rain Control Act (New Hampshire)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Act is implemented under New Hampshire's acid deposition control program established under the Rules to Control Air Pollution in Chapter Env-A 400. The goal of the Act is to reduce emissions...

226

The Hunter Region (Australia) Acid Rain Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field measurements for the Hunter Region Acid Rain Project were conducted as a major co-operative effort by the New South Wales State Pollution Control Commission, the Electricity Commission of New South Wales, and the University of Newcastle in ...

Howard A. Bridgman; Robert Rothwell; Christopher Pang Way; Peng-Hing Tio

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Spatial Analysis of Acid Precipitation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kriging, an interpolation procedure that minimizes interpolation error and gives an accurate estimate of that error, is shown to be an appropriate objective analysis procedure for the study of spatial variability and structure in acid ...

Peter L. Finkelstein

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.G.B and J.A.E. ). Keywords: biomass carboxylic acids 10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis ofaro- matic compounds from biomass resources could provide a

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Optimizing amino acid groupings for GPCR classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivation: There is much interest in reducing the complexity inherent in the representation of the 20 standard amino acids within bioinformatics algorithms by developing a so-called reduced alphabet. Although there is no universally applicable ...

Matthew N. Davies; Andrew Secker; Alex A. Freitas; Edward Clark; Jon Timmis; Darren R. Flower

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Dynamic Protonation Equilibrium of Solvated Acetic Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, the dynamic protonation equilibrium between an amino acid side chain analogue and bulk water as well as the diffusion properties of the excess proton were successfully reproduced through unbiased computer simulations. During a 50 ns Q-HOP MD simulation, two different regimes of proton transfer were observed. Extended phases of frequent proton swapping between acetic acid and nearby water were separated by phases where the proton freely diffuses in the simulation box until it is captured again by acetic acid. The pKa of acetic acid was calculated around 3.0 based on the relative population of protonated and deprotonated states and the diffusion coefficient of excess proton was computed from the average mean squared displacement in the simulation. Both calculated values agree well with the experimental measurements.

Gu, Wei; Frigato, Tomaso; Straatsma, TP; Helms, Volkhard H.

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermodynamic Properties of Acetic Acid + Hydrocarbons ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Properties of Acetic Acid + Hydrocarbons Mixtures L. Negadi1,C,S, N. Ainous2, A. Negadi1, I. Mokbel2, A. Kaci3 and J. Jose2 ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

233

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Primer on lead-acid storage batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A macromolecular delivery vehicle for protein-based vaccines: Acid ...  

... methane, was designed as the key acid-cleavable crosslinking monomer used to prepare acid-degradable protein-loaded microgels by inverse ...

236

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

water is a neutral liquid, representative of exposure to surface water or groundwater. Acetic acid is a weak organic acid, and is an indicator of potential leaching during...

237

(2-ethylhexyl)-mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester Phosphonic acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparison among different extractants, as (2-ethylhexyl)-mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester Phosphonic acid (P507), Secondary-octyl phenoxy acetic acid (CA-12) and ...

238

Synthesis of a New Asymmetric Dialkylphophinic Acid and Its ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Besides, as to symmetrical dialkylphosphinic acids when the branched chain ... Di-(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)-phosphinic acid (main component of Cyanex 272).

239

Nitric acid requirement for treating sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) precipitate hydrolysis process produces sufficient oxidant (nitrate) such that the resulting blend of formic acid treated sludge and the aqueous product from hydrolysis (PHA) produces a melter feed of acceptable redox (i.e. Fe+2/Total Fe <0.33). With implementation of Late Washing (to reduce the nitrite content of the tetraphenyborate slurry produced during In-Tank Precipitation to 0.01M or less), HAN is no longer required during hydrolysis. As a result, the nitrate content of the melter feed will be reduced greater than an order-of-magnitude and the resulting melter feed produced will be too reducing. If formic acid treatment of the sludge is retained, it will be necessary to trim the melter feed with an oxidant to attain a proper redox. Rather than trimming the melter feed with an oxidant subsequent to the SRAT cycle in which formic acid is used to acidify the sludge, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has recommended this be accomplished by conversion to nitric acid addition to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) in place of formic acid (1). This memorandum specifies the stoichiometric bases for determining the nitric acid requirement for the SRAT.

Hsu, C.W.

1992-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

240

Effects of Acid Additives on Spent Acid Flowback through Carbonate Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Matrix acidizing is a well stimulation technique used to remove formation damage in the near wellbore region. But it comes with an associated set of challenges such as corrosion of the tubulars and iron precipitation in the formation. To counter these challenges, different chemicals, or additives, are added to the acid solution such as corrosion inhibitors and iron control agents. These additives may change the relative permeability of the spent acid, and formation wettability, and may either hinder or improve spent acid clean-up. Such effects of additives on the spent acid clean-up have not been documented. The aim of this research effort was to document the aforementioned change in the spent acid concentration (by using one additive at a time) before and after gas flowback. This was achieved by acidizing cores and creating wormholes halfway through them, then CT scanning them to observe the spent acid region. Later on, gas was flown through the core opposite to the direction of acid injection for 2 hours, and another CT scan was taken. The difference between the two CT scans was documented. Using a different additive each time, a series of such CT scans was obtained to develop an idea about whether the said additive was beneficial or detrimental to spent acid clean-up. It was found that the corrosion inhibitor FA-CI performed the best in terms of spent acid recovery after gas flowback for both Indiana Limestone and Texas Cream Chalk cores. Moreover, the corrosion inhibitor MI-CI was the worst for Indiana Limestone and the non-emulsifying agent M-NEA the worst for Texas Cream Chalk for spent acid recovery after gas flowback.

Nasir, Ehsaan Ahmad

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Acid Diversion in Carbonate Reservoirs Using Polymer-Based In-Situ Gelled Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diversion in carbonates is more difficult than in sandstones because of the ability of acid to significantly increase the permeability in carbonates as it reacts in the pore spaces and flow channels of matrix. In-situ gelled acids that are based on polymers have been used in the field for several years and were the subject of many lab studies. An extensive literature survey reveals that there are conflicting opinions about using these acids. On one hand, these acids were used in the field with mixed results. Recent lab work indicated that these acids can cause damage under certain conditions. There is no agreement on when this system can be successfully applied in the field. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand this acid system and determine factors that impact its performance. Lab test of polymer-based in-situ gelled acids reveal that polymer and other additives separate out of the acid when these acids are prepared in high salinity water. In coreflood tests, in-situ gelled acid formed a gel inside 20 long core samples, and the acid changed its direction several times. Unexpectantly, the core's permeability was reduced at low shear rate. Wormhole length increased as the shear rate was increased; while the diameter of the wormhole increased as the acid cumulative injected volume was increased. CT scan indicated the presence of gel residue inside and around the wormhole. Gel residue increased at low shear rates. Material balance on the cross-linker indicated that a significant amount of the crosslinker was retained in the core. Based on the results obtained from this study the in-situ gelled acids should be used only at low HCl concentrations (5 wt percent HCl). Acid should be prepared in low salinity water and the acid injection rate should be determined based on the expected shear rate in the formation. A core flood experiment is recommended to confirm optimum injected rate. Well flow back is needed to minimize the residual gel inside the formation. The data obtained in this study can be used as a guideline for injection rate selection.

Gomaa, Ahmed Mohamed Mohamed

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

243

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 109 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION Sciences, Lahore-54000, Pakistan ABSTRACT A total of 100, day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided production in the tropics. In Pakistan, temperature remains well beyond the higher side of thermoneutral zone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

Weintraub, Alvin (Schenectady, NY); MacCormack, Robert S. (Glenville, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

Wheeler, M. Clayton

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

246

Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

Ponnampalam; Elankovan (Okemos, MI)

2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

247

Nucleic Acid Standards - Standard Ref. Frame  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Standard Reference Standard Reference Standard Reference Frame Supplemental Information Ideal Geometries X-PLOR Parameters Valence Geometries RNA Ontology Consortium mmCIF Resources PDBML Resources A Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry A common point of reference is needed to describe the three-dimensional arrangements of bases and base pairs in nucleic acid structures. [1]. For example, parts of a structure, which appear "normal" according to one computational scheme, may be highly unusual according to another and vice versa. It is thus difficult to carry out comprehensive comparisons of nucleic acid structures and to pinpoint unique conformational features in individual structures. In order to resolve these issues, a group of

248

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a compact, wet electrostatic collector for condensed acid mist in power plant flue gas. The following are project objectives: (1) fabrication of laboratory-version of the WESP; (2) optimization of the WESP performance through laboratory tests with a non-volatile simulant aerosol having a size distribution similar to the acid mist; (3) demonstration of adequate collection of actual acid mist in a pilot coal combustion facility under conditions simulating full-scale power plant burning high-sulfur coal; (4) development of computer model of the WESP process must be developed to assist in the process optimization, interpretation of test results, and extrapolation to full scale; and (5) solicitation of utility participation in a follow-on demonstration of the WESP concept at a full-scale power plant. The WESP fabrication, laboratory and pilot combustor testing, and computer modeling is discussed. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

Weaver, P.F.

1989-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

250

Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer were selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylene glycols, propylene and polypropylene glycols, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide where the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylane glycols (PVB 6/22/90), propylene and and polypropylene (PVB 6/22/90) glycols, P-dioxanone, 1, 5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

1990-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

253

IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS  

SciTech Connect

In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

254

Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylene glycols, propylene and polypropylene glycols, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joliet, IL); Coleman, Robert D. (Wheaton, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4-oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2 by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joliet, IL); Coleman, Robert D. (Wheaton, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Economics of Lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

suggest that on average biorefineries derive 60% of theirtable 4.3). Ethanol biorefineries use either coal or naturals output) 5 . Coal-using biorefineries can either switch to

Rajagopal, Deepak

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

LES ACIDES GRAS TRANS DU BEURRE II.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

origine est essentiellement endogène car les aliments naturels habituellement distribués aux vaches) au cours de l'hydro- génation biologique portant sur les acides oléique, linoléique et linolénique

Recanati, Catherine

258

Separators for valve regulated lead acid batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews some aspects of the past history of the valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery in relationship to microglass separators that have been used from the conception of VRLA technology. It also focuses on some aspects of compression properties of the separator.

Zguris, G.C. [Hollingsworth & Vose Co., West Groton, MT (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of (a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; (b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; (c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; (d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/l up to about 1 g/l; (e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; (f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of {>=}1 g/l; and (g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism. 7 figs.

Nghiem, N.P.; Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

260

Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/L up to about 1 g/L; e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of .gtoreq.1 g/L; and g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism.

Nghiem, Nhuan Phu (Knoxville, TN); Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

262

Corrosion free phosphoric acid fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phosphoric acid fuel cell with an electrolyte fuel system which supplies electrolyte via a wick disposed adjacent a cathode to an absorbent matrix which transports the electrolyte to portions of the cathode and an anode which overlaps the cathode on all sides to prevent corrosion within the cell.

Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Therapeutic efficacy of dimercaptosuccinic acid and thiamine/ascorbic acid on lead intoxication in rats  

SciTech Connect

Thiamine, folic acid, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid either individually or in combination have been proven to be effective in reducing the toxic manifestations of lead and in enhancing the antidotal efficacy of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA. In a recent report from the authors' laboratory, it was observed that given combination of thiamine and ascorbic acid with thiol chelators improved the ability of the animals to excrete lead thereby reducing body lead burden. In view of the beneficial effect of these two vitamins, it was considered of interest to evaluate their potential to modify the prophylactic action of DMS in lead intoxication in rat after repeated administration.

Tandon, S.K.; Flora, S.J.S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Reaction of Calcite and Dolomite with In-Situ Gelled Acids, Organic Acids, and Environmentally Friendly Chelating Agent (GLDA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Well stimulation is the treatment remedy when oil/gas productivity decreases to unacceptable economical limits. Well stimulation can be carried out through either "Matrix Acidizing" or fracturing with both "Hydraulic Fracturing" and "Acid Fracturing" techniques. "Matrix Acidizing" and "Acid Fracturing" applications involve injecting an acid to react with the formation and dissolve some of the minerals present and recover or increase the permeability. The permeability enhancement is achieved by creating conductive channels "wormholes" in case of "Matrix Acidizing" or creating uneven etching pattern in case of "Acid Fracturing" treatments. In both cases, and to design a treatment successfully, it is necessary to determine the distance that the live acid will be able to penetrate inside the formation, which in turn, determines the volume of the acid needed to carry out the treatment. This distance can be obtained through lab experiments, if formation cores are available, or estimated by modeling the treatment. The successful model will depend on several chemical and physical processes that take place including: the acid transport to the surface of the rock, the speed of the reaction of the acid with the rock, which is often referred to as "Reaction Rate", and the acid leak-off. The parameters describing these processes such as acid diffusion coefficient and reaction kinetics have to be determined experimentally to ensure accurate and reliable modeling. Hydrochloric acid and simple organic acids such as acetic and citric acids have been used extensively for stimulation treatments. The diffusion and reaction kinetics of these acids, in a straight form, were investigated thoroughly in literature. However, solely these acids are used in a simple form in the field. Acid systems such as gelled, crosslinked gelled, surfactant-based, foam-based, or emulsified acids are used to either retard the reaction rate or to enhance acid diversion. Literature review shows that additional work is needed to understand the reaction and report the diffusion and kinetics of these systems with carbonate. In addition, a new chelating agent (GLDA) was recently introduced as a stand-alone stimulating fluid. The kinetics and the mass transfer properties of this acid were not studied before. Therefore, the objective of this work is to study the reaction of different acid systems with calcite and dolomite and report the mass transport and kinetic data experimentally. Lactic acid, a chelating agent (GLDA), and in-situ gelled HCl-formic acids were investigated in this study. In some cases, rheology measurements and core flood experiments were conducted. The data were combined with the reaction study to understand the behavior of these acids and examine their efficiency if injected in the formation.

Rabie, Ahmed 1978-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Michigan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, Alpena Prototype Biorefinery, Alpena, Michigan October 1, 2010 CX-004052: Categorical Exclusion Determination Strategy to Accelerate...

267

Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking October...

268

| Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SmallScaleBiorefineriesMatrix.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy Small-Scale Biorefineries Project Overview Major DOE Biofuels Project Locations...

269

Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids Final Technical Report (From October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2005) Principle Authors Aihua Zhang, Qisheng Ma, Kangshi Wang, Yongchun Tang (co-PI), William A. Goddard (PI), Date Report was issued: December 9, 2005 DOE Award number: DE-FC26-02NT15383 Name and Address of Submitting Organization California Institute of Technology 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA91125 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

270

Nucleic Acid Standards - Sugar and Phosphate Constituents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sugar and Phosphate Constituents Sugar and Phosphate Constituents The following tables contain the complete references for the structures used in a statistical survey of well-refined mononucleoside, mononucleotide, dinucleoside monophosphate, and trinucleoside diphosphate crystal structures found in the Cambridge Structural Database and the Nucleic Acid Database that appeared in The Journal of the American Chemical Society (Anke Gelbin, Bohdan Schneider, Lester Clowney, Shu-Hsin Hsieh, Wilma K. Olson, and Helen M. Berman. "Geometric Parameters in Nucleic Acids: Sugar Phosphate Constituents" (1996) 118, 519-529.) Table 1: References for Mononucleoside and Mononucleotide Structures Table 2: References for Dinucleoside Monophosphate and Trinucleoside Diphosphate Structures The following tables are summaries of the bond lengths, angles, and torsion

271

Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

272

Closure device for lead-acid batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

Ledjeff, Konstantin (Schwalbach, DE)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

Lara-Curzio, Edgar (Lenoir City, TN); An, Ke (Knoxville, TX); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Contescu, Cristian I. (Knoxville, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Beth L. (Clinton, TN)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

274

Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

275

Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

Grinstead, R.R.

1962-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

277

Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

Preston, III, James F. (Micanopy, FL); Chow, Virginia (Gainesville, FL); Nong, Guang (Gainesville, FL); Rice, John D. (Gainesville, FL); St. John, Franz J. (Baltimore, MD)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

279

IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the second year of this project, we continued our effort to develop low temperature decarboxylation catalysts and investigate the behavior of these catalysts at different reaction conditions. We conducted a large number of dynamic measurements with crude oil and model compounds to obtain the information at different reaction stages, which was scheduled as the Task2 in our work plan. We developed a novel adsorption method to remove naphthenic acid from crude oil using naturally occurring materials such as clays. Our results show promise as an industrial application. The theoretical modeling proposed several possible reaction pathways and predicted the reactivity depending on the catalysts employed. From all of these studies, we obtained more comprehensive understanding about catalytic decarboxylation and oil upgrading based on the naphthenic acid removal concept.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang, William A. Goddard, Yongchun Tang

2005-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

280

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and seven malonyl-CoA molecules to synthesize the 16-carbon palmitic acid, the most abundant fatty acid in eukaryotes. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has determined the atomic structure of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAS derived from two crystals of the enzyme, using data collected at ALS Beamlines 8.2.1 and 8.2.2, as well as other synchrotron facilities.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. June 25, 2013 Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate hydrogen for power generation sources such as fuel cells. U.S. Patent No.: 7,645,902 (DOE S-104,909) Patent Application Filing Date: June 22, 2006

282

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and seven malonyl-CoA molecules to synthesize the 16-carbon palmitic acid, the most abundant fatty acid in eukaryotes. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has determined the atomic structure of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAS derived from two crystals of the enzyme, using data collected at ALS Beamlines 8.2.1 and 8.2.2, as well as other synchrotron facilities.

283

trans Fatty acid content of foods in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growing evidence that dietary consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease has made TFA a hot topic among people, food industries, and government officials in China. trans Fatty acid content of foods in China

284

Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

Lucas, Joe N. (San Ramon, CA); Straume, Tore (Tracy, CA); Bogen, Kenneth T. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Pressure Acid Leaching Vanadium from Stone coal - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vanadium extraction from stone-coal was investigated by pressure acid ... The results show that with the leaching time for 3~4h, temperature at 150?, sulfuric acid consumption of 25%~30%, ... Calcium Reductants A historical review.

286

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

288

Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Heterogeneous organic acid uptake on soot surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric particulates have been known to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and therefore their presence can indirectly affect important processes such as global radiation balance through cloud formation. Soot particles are well known to be atmospheric constituents, but the hydrophobic nature of fresh soot likely prohibits them from encouraging cloud development. Soot aged through contact with oxygenated organic compounds may become hydrophilic enough to promote water uptake. In this study I have observed the interaction between a number of carboxylic acids and soot from different fuel sources and formation mechanisms. A low pressure fast flow reactor was used to control the contact between the solid phase soot and gas phase organics, while chemical ionization-mass spectrometry was utilized to monitor concentrations of gas phase organics. Most acids irreversibly deposited on the soot surfaces, and the uptake coefficient was measured in the wide range of 9.0 x 10-4 to 1.0 x 10-1. The Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface areas of the soots were measured and the soot bulk and surface chemical compositions were investigated with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to help explain differences in uptake. By comparing the mono and dicarboxylic acids and the information gathered from soot physiochemical properties I have discussed possible uptake mechanisms.

Levitt, Nicholas Paul

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids. Summary: The Chemical Sciences Division has developed ...

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

291

Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.

Pruett, David J. (Knoxville, TN); Howerton, William B. (Kingston, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides ...  

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products United States Patent Application

293

Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing provider for Marine Products and Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile to test Fatty Acid Composition with AOCS methods Ce 1b-89 or Ce 1i-07. Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Proficiency Prog

294

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Experimental Study of Acid Fracture Conductivity of Austin Chalk Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acid fracture conductivity and the effect of key variables in the etching process during acid fracturing can be assessed at the laboratory scale. This is accomplished by using an experimental apparatus that simulates acid injection fluxes comparable to those in actual acid fracture treatments. After acid etching, fracture conductivity is measured at different closure stresses. This research work presents a systematic study to investigate the effect of temperature, rock-acid contact time and initial condition of the fracture surfaces on acid fracture conductivity in the Austin Chalk formation. While temperature and rock-acid contact are variables normally studied in fracture conductivity tests, the effect of the initial condition of the fracture surface has not been extensively investigated. The experimental results showed that there is no significant difference in acid fracture conductivity at high closure stress using smooth or rough fracture surfaces. In addition, we analyzed the mechanisms of acid etching and resulting conductivity creation in the two types of fracture surfaces studied by using surface profiles. For smooth surfaces, the mechanism of conductivity creation seems connected to uneven etching of the rock and roughness generation. For rough surfaces, acid conductivity is related to smoothing and deepening of the initial features on the sample surface than by creating more roughness. Finally, we compared the experimental results with Nirode-Kruk correlation for acid fracture conductivity.

Nino Penaloza, Andrea

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Method for nucleic acid isolation using supercritical fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for detecting the presence of a microorganism in an environmental sample involves contacting the sample with a supercritical fluid to isolate nucleic acid from the microorganism, then detecting the presence of a particular sequence within the isolated nucleic acid. The nucleic acid may optionally be subjected to further purification.

Nivens, David E. (11912 Kingsgate Rd., Knoxville, TN 37911); Applegate, Bruce M. (3700 Sutherland Ave. #Q2, Knoxville, TN 37911)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); West; Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

298

Author's personal copy Groundtruthing and potential for predicting acid deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commonly can complex aluminum in acid streams (e.g., Nordstrom and May 1996; Lindsay and Walthall 1996L sample was filtered (0.45 m) and acidified with 3 drops of trace metal grade nitric acid (FA flowpaths in fractured rock, pH can drop, and the acid dissolution of kaolinite can release Al to streams

Kirby, Carl S.

299

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

300

Silated acidic copolymers for nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new silated acidic polymer was developed as the resist for nanoimprint lithography on flexible substrates. This polymer was synthesized from methylmethacrylate, n-butylacrylate, methacrylic acid and 3-[tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl]propyl methacrylate ... Keywords: Flexible plastic substrate, Nanoimprint lithography, Reactive ion etching resistability, Silated acidic polymer

Wen-chang Liao; Steve Lien-Chung Hsu; Jui-Chen Lin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Ozonization of humic acids in brown coal oxidized in situ  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the ozonization of humic acids in chloroform and glacial acetic acid media on the yield and component composition of the resulting products was studied. The high efficiency of ozonization in acetic acid was found. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight substances were predominant among the ozonization products.

S.A. Semenova; Yu.F. Patrakov; M.V. Batina [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russia). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Method for nucleic acid isolation using supercritical fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of a microorganism in an environmental sample involves contacting the sample with a supercritical fluid to isolate nucleic acid from the microorganism, then detecting the presence of a particular sequence within the isolated nucleic acid. The nucleic acid may optionally be subjected to further purification. 4 figs.

Nivens, D.E.; Applegate, B.M.

1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

303

EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

304

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry of Conjugated Linoleic Acids and Metabolites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry of Conjugated Linoleic Acids and Metabolites Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Dow

305

Male Fertility and Lipid MetabolismChapter 3 Fatty Acid Remodeling During Sperm Maturation: Variation of Docosahexaenoic Acid Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Male Fertility and Lipid Metabolism Chapter 3 Fatty Acid Remodeling During Sperm Maturation: Variation of Docosahexaenoic Acid Content Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downl

306

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Healthy and Cancerous Human Tissues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Healthy and Cancerous Human Tissues Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS 2526793B0420777596C5A5

307

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 14 Speculation on the Mechanisms of Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 14 Speculation on the Mechanisms of Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Downloadable pdf...

308

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 10 Antioxidative Activity of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Determined by ESR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 10 Antioxidative Activity of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Determined by ESR Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press

309

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 19 Linoleic Acids and Cancer Cell Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 19 Linoleic Acids and Cancer Cell Functions Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapt

310

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 10 The Biology of Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Ruminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 10 The Biology of Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Ruminants Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press Downloadable pdf...

311

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 11 Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Syndrome  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 11 Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Syndrome Health Nutrition Biochemistry Trans eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

312

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 27 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Effects on Steroid-hormone Biosynthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 27 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Effects on Steroid-hormone Biosynthesis Health eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Ch

313

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 31 Food Sources and Intakes of Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 31 Food Sources and Intakes of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry Omega 3 eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

314

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 21 Fatty Acids and Lipids in Neurobiology: A Brief Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 21 Fatty Acids and Lipids in Neurobiology: A Brief Overview Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

315

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 17 Fatty Acid Metabolism and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 17 Fatty Acid Metabolism and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downl

316

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 10 Fatty Acids in Nuts: Cardiometabolic Health Benefits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 10 Fatty Acids in Nuts: Cardiometabolic Health Benefits Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

317

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 7 Dietary Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease in Women  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 7 Dietary Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease in Women Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

318

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 4 Fatty Acids and Cardiac Ischemia-reperfusion Injury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 4 Fatty Acids and Cardiac Ischemia-reperfusion Injury Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

319

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 1 Trans and Other Fatty Acids: Effects on Endothelial Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 1 Trans and Other Fatty Acids: Effects on Endothelial Functions Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable p

320

Synthesis and Metabolism of Carbonyl-C14 Pyruvic and Hydroxypyruvic Acids in Algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND HYDROXYPYRUVIC ACIDS IN ALGAE Cerhard Milhaud, Andrew A.HYDROXYPYRUYIC ACIDS IN ALGAE Gerhard Milhaud, * - Andrew A.AND HYDROXYPYRUVIC ACIDS IN ALGAE Gerhard Milhaud, Andrew A.

Milhaud, Gerhard; Benson, Andrew A.; Calvin, M.

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Monomers from Renewable Resources: C-H Functionalization of Saturated Fatty Acids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Saturated fatty acids were used to prepare renewable monomers and polymers. For instance, the alpha-acidity of these fatty acid esters was used to synthesize malonate (more)

Kolb, Nicolai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Phytic acid plus calcium, but not phytic acid alone, decreases fluoride bioavailability in the rat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of in vitro studies have suggested that fluoride becomes insoluble when some soy-based infant formulas are diluted with fluoridated water because of the presence of phytate, added calcium or a combination of these factors. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis in vivo. Male albino rats were fed a purified diet containing phytic acid, calcium and fluoride for 4 weeks in a factorial design of treatments. Phytic acid was added to the diet by chemically reacting a phytic acid concentrate with casein prior to diet preparation to mimic a soy-protein. Food intake, weight gain and femur P were unaffected by dietary treatments. Both phytic acid and supplemental calcium alone had little or no effect upon fluoride uptake into either bone or teeth. The combination of phytic acid plus supplemental calcium, however, significantly increased % of fluoride intake found in the feces which was reflected in a significant decrease in fluoride concentration of femur, 2nd molar teeth and vertebrate bone. These results provide evidence that insoluble complex formation produced by a calcium and phytate interaction can explain reduced fluoride solubility in some soy-based infant formulas as well as decreased fluoride absorbability in vivo.

Cerklewski, F.L. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

Strain, J.E.; Ross, H.H.

1980-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

324

Sandstone Acidizing Using Chelating Agents and their Interaction with Clays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sandstone acidizing has been carried out with mud acid which combines hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid at various ratios. The application of mud acid in sandstone formations has presented quite a large number of difficulties like corrosion, precipitation of reaction products, matrix deconsolidation, decomposition of clays by HCl, and fast spending of the acids. There has been a recent trend to use chelating agents for stimulation in place of mud acid which are used in oil industry widely for iron control operations. In this study, two chelates, L-glutamic-N, N-diacetic acid (GLDA) and hydroxyethylethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) have been studied as an alternative to mud acid for acidizing. In order to analyze their performance in the application of acidizing, coreflood tests were performed on Berea and Bandera sandstone cores. Another disadvantage of mud acid has been the fast spending at clay mineral surfaces leading to depletion of acid strength, migration of fines, and formation of colloidal silica gel residue. Hence, compatibility of chelates with clay minerals was investigated through the static solubility tests. GLDA and HEDTA were analyzed for their permeability enhancement properties in Berea and Bandera cores. In the coreflood experiments conducted, it was found out that chelating agents can successfully stimulate sandstone formations. The final permeability of the Berea and Bandera cores were enhanced significantly. GLDA performed better than HEDTA in all applications. The substitution of seawater in place of deionized water for mixing purposes also led to an increased conductivity of the core implying GLDA is compatible with seawater. In the static solubility tests, chelates were mixed with HF acid at various concentrations. GLDA fluids kept more amounts of minerals in the solution when compared with HEDTA fluids. Sodium-based chelates when mixed with HF acid showed inhibited performance due to the formation of sodium fluorosilicates precipitates which are insoluble damage creating compounds. The application of ammonium-based chelate with HF acid was able to bring a large amount of aluminosilciates into the solution. The study recommends the use of ammonium-based GLDA in acidizing operations involving HF acid and sodium-based GLDA in the absence of the acid.

George, Noble Thekkemelathethil 1987-

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

Strain, James E. (Kingston, TN); Ross, Harley H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

SOLVENT EXTRACTION RECOVERY OF VANADIUM (AND URANIUM) FROM ACID LIQUORS WITH DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHOSPHORIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies were made on use of di(2ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in an organic diluent (Dapex process) for solvent extraction recovery of vanadium from acid leach liquors. Vanadium may be stripped from the solvent by either acidic or alkaline reagents, the former having been studied in considerably greater detail. A process for single-cycle recovery and separation of uranium and vanadium from sulfate leach liquors was shown to be attractive both from the standpoint of operation and chemical costs. Process schemes for recovery of vanadium from uranium-barren liquors are also described. On the basis of the encouraging laboratory results, pilot scale tests for specific applications are recommended. (auth)

Crouse, D.J.; Brown, K.B.

1959-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

327

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

Acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of the TAN method for measuring the acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil was evaluated. Suggestions for carrying out the analysis have been made. The TAN method by ASTM D664 or D3339 can be used for measuring the acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrotreating products. The main difference between the methods is that ASTM D664 is specified for higher TAN values than ASTM D3339. Special focus should be placed on the interpretation of the TAN curves because they differ significantly from those of mineral oils. The curve for bio-oils is so gentle that the automatic detection may not observe the end point properly and derivatization should be used. The acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils is mainly derived (60-70%) from volatile acids. Other groups of compounds in fast pyrolysis bio-oils that influence acidity include phenolics, fatty and resin acids, and hydroxy acids.

Oasmaa, Anja; Elliott, Douglas C.; Korhonen, Jaana

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

329

Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae  

SciTech Connect

Thioctic acid labeled with sulfur-35 has been prepared and i t s metabolism b y algae has been studied. It i s converted by the algae into a number of forms, all of which upon hydrolysis yield either the disulfide o r i t s sulfoxide. One of these constituted the major portion of the labeled material in the chloroplasts. Aerobic metabolism for some minutes i s required to produce this form. Preliminary studies of the chemical nature of this form suggest i t to be esterified on the carboxyl group with a moiety of very high lipid solubility.

Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.

1956-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

330

The greenhouse effect and acid rain  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Traeger, R.K.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal.

Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

Ulanovsky, Levy (Westmont, IL); Raja, Mugasimangalam C. (Downers Grove, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Nucleic Acid Standards - Standard Ref. Frame  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Standard Reference Frame for the Description A Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry Supplementary Material The report is available at Journal of Molecular Biology (2001) 313: 229 - 237 and The Nucleic Acid Cartesian coordinates for A, C, G, T, and U in the optimized reference frame Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine, Uracil Standard chemical structures taken from Clowney et al. (1996), J. Am. Chem. Soc., 118, 509-518). These data do not include C1' atoms, which are placed here in the least-squares plane of the base atoms, with the purine C1'-N9 bond length and C1'-N9-C4 valence angle set respectively to 1.46 Å and 126.5° and the pyrimidine C1'-N1 bond and C1-N1-C2 angle to 1.47 Å and 118.1°. These distances and angles are based on the average glycosyl

334

Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

Zaluski, Marek H. (Butte, MT); Manchester, Kenneth R. (Butte, MT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch

Steen, Eric James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In matrix acidizing, the goal is to dissolve minerals in the rock to increase well productivity. This is accomplished by injecting an application-specific solution of acid into the formation at a pressure between the pore pressure and fracture pressure. A hydrochloric acid solution is used in carbonate reservoirs, which actually dissolves the calcite rock matrix in the form of conductive channels called wormholes. These wormholes propagate from the wellbore out into the reservoir, bypassing the damaged zone. In matrix acidizing of carbonates, there are four parameters that affect performance: the concentration of calcite present, injection rate of the acid, reaction type, and heterogeneity. Of these parameters, this paper will focus on how rock heterogeneity affects performance. To do this, a coreflood and acidizing apparatus was used to acidize heterogeneous limestone core samples. Rock characterizations and volumetric measurements were considered with the results from these experiments, which made it possible to correlate and quantify the results with rock and volume parameters. It was found that the core samples with more and larger heterogeneities generally required less acid (measured in pore volumes) to achieve breakthrough, that is, a wormhole created axially from one end of the core to the other. This value for pore volumes to breakthrough was one to two orders of magnitude less than more homogeneous samples. The general procedure and best practices for acidizing the core samples is also detailed in this thesis. This procedure was followed for preparation, coreflooding, and acidizing for all core samples.

Keys, Ryan S.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Acid Pueblo Canyon - NM 03  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid Pueblo Canyon - NM 03 Acid Pueblo Canyon - NM 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Acid/Pueblo Canyon, NM Alternate Name(s): Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Plant (TA-45) Acid/Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyon NM.03-3 Location: Canyons in the Pajarito Plateau Region in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos, NM NM.03-3 Historical Operations: Late 1943 or early 1944, head of the south fork of Acid Canyon received untreated liquid waste containing tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, uranium, plutonium, and americium discharged from main acid sewer lines and subsequently from the TA-3 plutonium treatment plant. NM.03-3 Eligibility Determination: Radiological Survey(s): Verification Surveys NM.03-5 NM.03-6 Site Status: Certified- Certification Basis and Federal Register Notice NM.03-2

339

The greenhouse effect and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Traeger, R.K.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Mechanism of helicase translocation along nucleic acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In cells, helicase translocation along nucleic acid is essential for many biological processes. However, so far, the mechanism of this translocation is not fully understood. Recent studies show that helicase might translocate through two processes, active process and passive process, with different translocation rate. In this study, a model including such two processes is presented. In which, each of these two processes consists of two sub-processes, chemical sub-process in which needed translocation factors are attached, and mechanochemical sub-process in which helicase makes a forward translocation step. Helicase can switch stochastically between these two processes with external force dependent rates. By this model, ribosome translocation along message RNA is detailed discussed. We found that, with the increase of external force, the mean translocation rate of ribosome increases from one lower limit to one upper limit, and both of these two limits increase with concentrations of the translocation factors. ...

Zhang, Yunxin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Separator plate for lead-acid battery  

SciTech Connect

A separator plate for the negative electrode of a lead-acid battery comprising a molded, synthetic plastic wall or planar member of generally rectangular configuration. A pair of like separator plates are vertically oriented in the battery casing to sandwich the negative electrode therebetween including juxtaposed retention mats common in such a negative electrode assembly. The sandwich provides a clear-through channel along opposite extremities of the electrode for flow of electrolyte. The sandwich assembly is maintained by means of cooperating locking and sealing formations integral with the separator plates of the assembly. Wrapping of the positive electrode thereby is rendered unnecessary when assembling the battery and enables automated assembly of the battery using the separator plate sandwich.

Wozniak, E.

1985-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

342

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Results of acid treatments in hydrothermal direct heat experiment wells  

SciTech Connect

Matrix acid treatments have been employed in two low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal wells with successful results. These two wells showed flow rate increases of 40% and 50%. The increased flow reduced the payback periods for the heating systems to nearly one-half of what they were before acidization. It is recommended that well designs in certain areas consider accommodating such acid stimulation techniques, if testing suggests they are warranted as a well completion tool.

Strawn, J.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Wednesday, 28 November 2007 00:00 Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and seven malonyl-CoA molecules to synthesize the 16-carbon palmitic acid, the most abundant fatty acid in eukaryotes. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has determined the atomic structure of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAS derived from two crystals of the enzyme, using data collected at ALS Beamlines 8.2.1 and 8.2.2, as well as other synchrotron facilities.

347

Lead-Acid Battery Aging and State of Health Diagnosis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The lead-acid battery has served as the standard electrical energy storage device in vehicles for nearly 100 years. In this time, its role has expanded (more)

Suozzo, Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

A Data Monitor for Large Lead Acid Batteries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In modern industry, the lead acid battery plays a very important role. Electric vehicles such as, golf cars and fork lift trucks all use a (more)

Sheng, Jiali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Novel Biosynthetic Pathway for Production of Fatty Acid ...  

Jay Keasling and Eric Steen of Berkeley Lab have invented what may be the most efficient metabolic pathway for producing fatty acids, and their ...

350

CRC handbook of chromatography: Nucleic acids and related compounds  

SciTech Connect

This book's contents include: Structure Elucidation of Nucleic Acid Components; Fundamentals of HPLC; Analysis of Nucleic Acids and Oligonucleotides; Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Tissues; Gel Filtration Chromatography of RNAs and DNS Fragments; Separation of tRNAs and Oligonucleotides by Mixed Mode Chromatography; Anion-Exchange and Reversed-Phase HPLC of Synthetic Oligonucleotides; Nucleic Acid Components in Biological Fluids; RPLC Separation of RNA and DNA Hydrolysates; Nucleotides in Tissue Extracts; and Determination of Adenine Nucleotides and Creatine Phosphate in Various Mammalian Tissues.

Krstulovic, A.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides ...  

Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products United States Patent. Patent Number: 7,049,446: Issued: May 23, 2006:

352

Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian (East Lansing, MI); Kleff, Susanne (East Lansing, MI); Guettler, Michael V. (Holt, MI)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

355

Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

DOE specification: Flooded-type lead-acid storage batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document contains a ``fill-in-the-blanks`` guide specification for procurement of flooded-type lead-acid storage batteries, for uninterruptible power supply applications.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The number of peer reviewed publications on CLA since the 2003 publication of Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 2, has more than doubled. ...

358

Chloride Leaching of Spent Lead-Acid Battery Paste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, In this study leaching of spent lead acid-battery paste in sodium ... Cost, Energy, Emissions, and Resource Assessment of the Production of...

359

NREL Creates New Pathways for Producing Biofuels and Acids from...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Creates New Pathways for Producing Biofuels and Acids from Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria use photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into sugars such as glycogen, a carbohydrate...

360

Characterization and Processing Ultramafic Nickel Ore after Acid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structural changes in the ore due to combined acid (H2SO4) and grinding treatment .... Selective Removal of Thiophene from Liquid Fuels over Nickel- Based...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 12 Effects of Fatty Acids Containing a trans Double Bond on Body Composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 12 Effects of Fatty Acids Containing a trans Double Bond on Body Composition eChapters Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 12 Effects of Fatty Acids Contai

362

EA-1705: Final Environmental Assessment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, Mascoma Corporation, Kinross Charter Township, Michigan

363

EA-1790: Finding of No Significant Impact  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Construction and Operation of a Heterogeneous Feed Biorefinery, Enerkem Corporation, Pontotoc, Mississippi

364

Audit Report: DOE/IG-0893  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Follow-up Audit of the Department of Energy's Financial Assistance for Integrated Biorefinery Projects

365

Workshop Technical Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Possible Topics of Discussion: Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Measurements Airborne Particulate Measurements Biofuels Standards/Biorefineries ...

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

Assessment of phosphoric acid and trifluoromethane sulfonic acid fuel cells for vehicular powerplants  

SciTech Connect

The application of phosphoric acid and trifluoromethane sulfonic acid fuel cell powerplants for a basic mid-size automobile (i.e. GM-X type car) has been assessed. A parametric analysis was conducted to examine the effects of various system parameters such as operating temperature and pressure, current density and catalyst loading on system efficiency (miles/gallon) and cost. A system schematic and a list of design specifications were prepared to guide the conceptual design. Weight, volume and peak power of both the powerplants were estimated. The two fuel conditioning methods-conventional steam reforming and partial oxidation/ reforming were evaluated. Both the fuel cell systems were found to possess great potential for the transportation application.

Patel, D.N.; Leo, A.; Tobias, L.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Boric Acid Corrosion Guidebook, Revision 1: Managing Boric Acid Corrosion Issues at PWR Power Stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boric acid corrosion (BAC) represents a significant maintenance concern at many pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants because of the large number of potential leakage sources -- flanged joints, valve packing, mechanical seals, and fittings. This report compiles information that can help utility staff reduce the potential for leakage, properly and uniformly evaluate individual incidents, mitigate potential damage, and justify continued operation with leakage when appropriate. BAC does not represent a sig...

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Oxidative degradation of bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid in nitric acid studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Samples of bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex-301) were analyzed using direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Positive ion spectra of standard and stereo-pure acids displayed ions typical of the unmodified compound, cationized monomeric and dimeric cluster ion species. In addition, a significant ions 2 u less than the dimeric clusters were seen, that correspond to an oxidatively coupled species designated Cyx2 that is observed as H- or Na-cationized species in the electrospray analyses. Based on uncorrected ion intensities, Cyx2 is estimated to account for about 20% of the total in the standard materials. When samples that were contacted with 3 M HNO3 were analyzed, the positive ion spectrum consisted nearly entirely of ions derived from the oxidatively coupled product, indicating that the acid promotes coupling. The negative ion spectra of the standard acids consisted nearly entirely of the conjugate base that is formed by deprotonation of the acids, and cluster ions containing multiple acid molecules. The negative spectra of the HNO3-contacted samples also contained the conjugate base of the unmodified acid, but also two other species that correspond to the dioxo- and perthio- derivatives. It is concluded that HNO3 contact causes significant oxidation, forming at least three major products, Cyx2, the perthio-acid, and the dioxo-acid.

G. S. Groenewold; D. R. Peterman

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Nucleic Acid Database: a Repository of Three-Dimensional Information about Nucleic Acids  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) provides 3-D structural information about nucleic acids. It is a relational database designed to facilitate the easy search for nucleic acid structures using any of the stored primary or derived structural features. Reports can then be created describing any properties of the selected structures and structures may be viewed in several different formats, including the mmCIF format, the NDB Atlas format, the NDB coordinate format, or the PDB coordinate format. Browsing the images of the structures can also be done through the galleries of the X-ray Atlas or the NMR Atlas, available on this website. The images are created directly from coordinates in the NDB repository. More than 3500 structures can be searched, viewed, and included in preformatted reports.This website also includes a number of specialized tools and interfaces. The NDB maintains the mmCIF Web site (macromolecular Crystallographic Information File), the IUCr-approved data representation for macromolecular structures. (Specialized Interface)

Berman, H.M.; Olson, W.K.; Beveridge, D.L.; Westbrook, J.; Gelbin, A.; Demeny, T.; Hsieh, S.H.; Srinivasan, A.R.; Schneider, B.

371

EFFECTS OF NITRIC ACID ON CRITICALITY SAFETY ANALYSIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As nitric acid molarity is increased, there are two competing phenomena affecting the reactivity of the system. First, there is interaction between each of the 10 wells in the basket-like insert. As the molarity of the nitric acid solution is increased (it moves from 100% water to 100% HNO{sub 3}), the hydrogen atom density decreases by about 80%. However, it remains a relatively efficient moderator. The moderating ratio of nitric acid is about 90% that of water. As the media between the wells is changed from 100% water to 100% nitric acid, the density of the media increases by 50%. A higher density typically leads to a better reflector. However, when the macroscopic scattering cross sections are considered, nitric acid is a much worse reflector than water. The effectiveness of nitric acid as a reflector is about 40% that of water. Since the media between the wells become a worse reflector and still remains an effective moderator, interaction between the wells increases. This phenomenon will cause reactivity to increase as nitric acid molarity increases. The seond phenomenon is due to the moderating ratio changing in the high concentration fissile-nitric acid solution in the 10 wells. Since the wells contain relatively small volumes of high concentration solutions, a small decrease in moderating power has a large effect on reactivity. This is due to the fact that neutrons are more likely to escape the high concentration fissile solution before causing another fission event. The result of this phenomenon is that as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases. Recent studies have shown that the second phenomenon is indeed the dominating force in determining reactivity changes in relation to nitric acid molarity changes. When considering the system as a whole, as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases.

Williamson, B.

2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

372

Surface-active properties of humic and sulfochlorohumic acids  

SciTech Connect

The surface tension of alkaline solutions of humic acids and their sulfochloroderivatives, which are synthesized by sulfonation of chlorohumic acids isolated from coal chlorinated by the electrochemical method, is investigated. It is established that humic compounds possess weak surface activity. Basic adsorption parameters are calculated.

Ryabova, I.N.; Mustafina, G.A.; Akkulova, Z.G.; Satymbaeva, A.S. [Kazakh Academy of Sciences, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Boron containing amino acid compounds and methods for their use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides new boron containing amino acid compounds and methods for making these compounds by contacting melphalan or another nitrogen mustard derivative and sodium borocaptate. The present invention also provides a method of treating a mammal having a tumor by administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the new boron containing amino acid compounds.

Glass, John D. (Shoreham, NY); Coderre, Jeffrey A. (Wading River, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Nucleic acids encoding metal uptake transporters and their uses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides LCT1 nucleic acids which encode metal ion uptake transporters. The invention also provides methods of modulating heavy metal and alkali metal uptake in plants. The methods involve producing transgenic plants comprising a recombinant expression cassette containing an LCT1 nucleic acid linked to a plant promoter.

Schroeder, Julian I. (La Jolla, CA); Antosiewicz, Danuta M. (Warsaw, PL); Schachtman, Daniel P. (Tranmere, AU); Clemens, Stephan (San Diego, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with Portland cement to form concrete.

Wolf, G.A.; Smith, J.W.; Ihle, N.C.

1982-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

376

Aging, Estrogen Loss and Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Alison R. Lee1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aging, Estrogen Loss and Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids (EETs) Alison R. Lee1. , Angela S. Pechenino1 loss, caused by menopause, and aging have inflammatory consequences. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. We hypothesized that aging and estrogen loss would reduce levels of anti

Hammock, Bruce D.

377

Solid phase sequencing of double-stranded nucleic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing of target double-stranded nucleic acid sequences, to nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probe comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include nucleic acids in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated determination of molecular weights and identification of the target sequence.

Fu, Dong-Jing (Waltham, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Koster, Hubert (Concord, MA); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with portland cement to form concrete.

Wolf, Gary A. (Kennewick, WA); Smith, Jeffrey W. (Lancaster, OH); Ihle, Nathan C. (Walla Walla, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

DISSOLUTION OF URANIUM FUELS BY MONOOR DIFLUOROPHOSPHORIC ACID  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of dissolving and separating uranium from a uranium matrix fuel element by dissolving the uraniumcontaining matrix in monofluorophosphoric acid and/or difluorophosphoric acid at temperatures ranging from 150 to 275 un. Concent 85% C, thereafter neutralizing the solution to precipitate uranium solids, and converting the solids to uranium hexafluoride by treatment with a halogen trifluoride is presented. (AEC)

Johnson, R.; Horn, F.L.; Strickland, G.

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for mercury detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nucleic acid enzyme comprises an oligonucleotide containing thymine bases. The nucleic acid enzyme is dependent on both Hg.sup.2+and a second ion as cofactors, to produce a product from a substrate. The substrate comprises a ribonucleotide, a deoxyribonucleotide, or both.

Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

Shanklin, John (Shoreham, NY); Whittle, Edward J. (Greenport, NY)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

382

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids  

SciTech Connect

A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

2011-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

384

Human jagged polypeptide, encoding nucleic acids and methods of use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides an isolated polypeptide exhibiting substantially the same amino acid sequence as JAGGED, or an active fragment thereof, provided that the polypeptide does not have the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:6. The invention further provides an isolated nucleic acid molecule containing a nucleotide sequence encoding substantially the same amino acid sequence as JAGGED, or an active fragment thereof, provided that the nucleotide sequence does not encode the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:6. Also provided herein is a method of inhibiting differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells by contacting the progenitor cells with an isolated JAGGED polypeptide, or active fragment thereof. The invention additionally provides a method of diagnosing Alagille Syndrome in an individual. The method consists of detecting an Alagille Syndrome disease-associated mutation linked to a JAGGED locus.

Li, Linheng (Seattle, WA); Hood, Leroy (Seattle, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

387

Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Argonne, IL); Nash, Kenneth L. (Argonne, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Nucleic Acid Standards | Base Pair Geometry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Standard Reference Frame for the Description A Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry Table 1. Cartesian coordinates of non-hydrogen atoms in the standard reference frames of the five common nitrogenous bases Atom Base x(Å) y(Å) z(Å) Adenine ATOM 1 C1' A A 1 -2.479 5.346 0.000 ATOM 2 N9 A A 1 -1.291 4.498 0.000 ATOM 3 C8 A A 1 0.024 4.897 0.000 ATOM 4 N7 A A 1 0.877 3.902 0.000 ATOM 5 C5 A A 1 0.071 2.771 0.000 ATOM 6 C6 A A 1 0.369 1.398 0.000 ATOM 7 N6 A A 1 1.611 0.909 0.000 ATOM 8 N1 A A 1 -0.668 0.532 0.000 ATOM 9 C2 A A 1 -1.912 1.023 0.000 ATOM 10 N3 A A 1 -2.320 2.290 0.000

389

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 9 Animal Feeding Strategies for Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enrichment of Milk  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 9 Animal Feeding Strategies for Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enrichment of Milk Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry 735D98CA0ABF7C8A10664FCCD

390

Green Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 13 CLA Production by Photoisomerization of Linoleic Acid in Linoleic Acid Rich Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 13 CLA Production by Photoisomerization of Linoleic Acid in Linoleic Acid Rich Oils Processing eChapters Processing 3A8AC1E4581BC1F55CC42D200EF43697 AOCS Press Downloadable pdf ...

391

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 1 Analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: An Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 1 Analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: An Overview Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry FC2183A22B667A6B95F8EF1636CB912D AOCS Press

392

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed.

Christian, Jerry D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Philip A. (Pocatello, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies  

SciTech Connect

NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis of biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis process on xylan containing hemicellulose in biomass is effected by: treating feedstock of hemicellulosic material comprising xylan that is slow hydrolyzable and xylan that is fast hydrolyzable under predetermined low temperature conditions with a dilute acid for a residence time sufficient to hydrolyze the fast hydrolyzable xylan to xylose; removing said xylose from said fast hydrolyzable xylan and leaving a residue; and treating said residue having a slow hydrolyzable xylan with a dilute acid under predetermined high temperature conditions for a residence time required to hydrolyze said slow hydrolyzable xylan to xylose.

Grohmann, Karel (Winter Haven, FL); Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing mixtures derived from biomass processing systems. The process includes adjusting the pH of the mixture to about 8 to 9 to form an alkaline precipitate. The alkaline precipitate is then removed therefrom to produce a residual solution containing lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The residual solution is then oxidized continuously to produce gaseous lower aliphatic aldehydes. The gaseous aldehydes are removed immediately as they are generated to prevent further oxidation to carboxylic acids and are then converted to peracids.

Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.

1986-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

397

Acid rain: discerning the change in waters and woodlands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research being done to establish the effects of acid rain on the earth's waters and woods is presented. It is pointed out that definitive answers cannot be possible because of the lack of scientifically credible, consistent, long-term data on trends. Various specific programs now under way to collect adequate data are highlighted. Researchers are not yet able to predict an area's susceptibility to acidic rain damage, but are more confident that acid rain is only a minimal threat to the earth's water and soil ecosystems. 13 figures.

Lihach, N.; Brocksen, R.; Goldstein, R.; Huckabee, J.; Kawaratani, R.; Mattice, J.; Murarka, I.; Perhac, R.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Human retroviruses and AIDS 1996. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (1) Nuclear Acid Alignments and Sequences; (2) Amino Acid Alignments; (3) Analysis; (4) Related Sequences; and (5) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated throughout the year on the Web site, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov. While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. In addition to the general descriptions of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

Myers, G.; Foley, B.; Korber, B. [eds.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.] [eds.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.; Mellors, J.W. [ed.] [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [ed.; Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jeang, K.T. [ed.] [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Molecular Virology Section] [ed.; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Molecular Virology Section; Wain-Hobson, S. [Pasteur Inst., Paris (France)] [ed.] [Pasteur Inst., Paris (France); ed.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

On the nature and origin of acidic species in petroleum. 1. Detailed acid type distribution in a California crude oil.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Acidity in crude oils has long been a problem for refining. Knowledge of the detailed chemical composition of the acids responsible for corrosion can facilitate identification of problem crude oils and potentially lead to improved processing options for corrosive oils. A highly aerobically biodegraded crude from the San Joaquin Valley, which has a long history of causing corrosion problems during refining, was the subject of this study. The oil was first extracted with base, then acidified and extracted with petroleum ether. A portion of the resulting acid fraction was methylated. The unmethylated extract was analyzed by FTIR, NMR, and the methylated sample was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Over 96% of the ions observed in HRMS have been assigned reliable formulas. Considerably greater functionality is seen in this sample than would be presumed from the 'naphthenic acid' title typically assigned to these species. Although over 60% of the compounds contained two or more oxygens, compounds containing only oxygen heteroatoms accounted for less than 10% of the acidic compounds identified. Approximately one-half of the species contained nitrogen and about one-fourth contained sulfur. It is believed that microbial degradation is a major source of these acidic components. It was also observed that acid species with higher degrees of heteroatom substitution generally also had a higher degree of saturation than those species having less heteroatoms, possibly due to impeded migration of highly substituted, less-saturated species.

Tomczyk, N. A.; Winans, R. E.; Shinn, J. H.; Robinson, R. C.; Chemistry; Chevron Research and Technology Co.

2001-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

400

JGI - Why Sequence Euryarchaeota in Acid Mine Drainage?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Euryarchaeota in Acid Mine Drainage? Euryarchaeota in Acid Mine Drainage? Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major worldwide environmental problem associated with the mining of energy resources (coal and uranium) and metals (eg., iron and copper), thus of direct DOE relevance. The processes that underpin AMD formation can be harnessed for bioleaching and bioremediation. Many scientific and industrial groups are studying various aspects of the biogeochemistry of AMD generation. Random shotgun sequencing of an extremely acidic (pH <0.9) chemolithotrophic subsurface AMD biofilm community (from the Richmond Mine in Iron Mountain, California) recovered a genome fragment from a novel euryarchaeon, named WTF-1. This novel lineage was previously missed by common broad-specificity primers used for PCR-based surveys. Further study

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Sector Biomass Facility Type Non-Fossil Waste Location Contra Costa County, California Coordinates 37.8534093°, -121.9017954° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.8534093,"lon":-121.9017954,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

402

Definition: Lead-acid battery | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Lead-acid battery Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Lead-acid battery A type of battery that uses plates made of pure lead or lead oxide for the electrodes and sulfuric acid for the electrolyte.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Related Terms Battery, electrolyte References ↑ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/solar_glossary.html Retr LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Lead-acid_battery&oldid=487934" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

403

Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

Wong, Show-Chu (Riverhead, NY); Shaw, Elliott (Shoreham, NY)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Collagen and hyaluronic acid interpenetrating polymer networks for tissue engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) represent a strategy for combining the properties of several polymeric materials into a single network. In this thesis, collagen and methacrylated hyaluronic acid are combined in ...

Brigham, Mark D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

trans Fatty Acid Sample Analysis Discussion: A Tutorial Webinar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To ensure laboratories are properly implementing AOCS Official Method Ce 1h-05 when testing for trans fatty acids, AOCS is offering a testing sample kit that includes a webinar tutorial that thoroughly examines this method. trans Fa

407

Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterites with Jarosite Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterites with Jarosite Precipitation ... shortly after the development of the jarosite process for iron control in zinc refining. ... The Recycling of Cobalt from Alloy Scrap, Spent Batteries or Catalysts and...

408

A Study of the Mechanisms of Acid Rain Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of rain, snow, cloud water, aerosols and soil were collected in Colorado to study the mechanisms of acid rain formation. Chemical compositions of various types of samples were analyzed to investigate the stepwise incorporation of ...

Farn Parungo; Clarence Nagamoto; Robin Maddl

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Fatty Acid-Producing Microbes for Generating Medium- and Long ...  

... this process results in a heterogeneous mixture of fatty acid esters and unwanted side ... Lennen R.M., Braden D.J., ... (DOE BER Office of Science DE-FC02 ...

410

Structural analysis of hydroxypropylphosphonic acid epoxidase : a fosfomycin biosynthetic enzyme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An X-ray crystallographic study of the fosfomycin biosynthetic enzyme hydroxypropylphosphonic acid epoxidase (HppE) from Streptomyces wedmorensis is presented. Structural analysis of this cupin mononuclear iron enzyme in ...

Higgins, Luke J. (Luke James)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Separation of ions in acidic solution by capillary electrophoresis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective method for separating ionic species according to differences in their electrophoretic mobilities. CE separations of amino acids by direct detection are difficult due to their similar electrophoretic mobilities and low absorbances. However, native amino acids can be separated by CE as cations at a low pH by adding an alkanesulfonic acid to the electrolyte carrier which imparts selectivity to the system. Derivatization is unnecessary when direct UV detection is used at 185 nm. Simultaneous speciation of metal cations such as vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V) can easily be performed without complexation prior to analysis. An indirect UV detection scheme for acidic conditions was also developed using guanidine as the background carrier electrolyte (BCE) for the indirect detection of metal cations. Three chapters have been removed for separate processing. This report contains introductory material, references, and general conclusions. 80 refs.

Thornton, M.

1997-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

412

Optimization of Encoded Hydrogel Particles for Nucleic Acid Quantification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is of utmost importance for clinical diagnostics, drug discovery, and basic science research. These applications require the concurrent measurement of multiple targets while ...

Pregibon, Daniel C.

413

Relationship between acid content of particulates and rainfall in Bangkok  

SciTech Connect

Rainfall at nine stations in Bangkok, Thailand, varied from pH 5.57 to 6.32, low values compared with cities in North America and Europe. Particulate acid content ranged from 5.38 to 10.15 micrograms per cu meter. Analysis for several ions showed that the concentration of sulfate was the controlling factor in acidity of rain. pH was reduced by 1 unit for each 9.09 micrograms per cu meter acid content of particulates according to a relationship derived in the study: pH = 6.87 - 0.11 (acidity of particulates in micrograms per cu meter). 13 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Khan, S.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

An Overview of Acid Rain Monitoring Activities in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The various forms of acidic components that may be deposited from the atmosphere are reviewed. These components are classified into three categories: wet deposition (rain and snow), dry deposition (particles and gases), and special events (dews, ...

Joe Wisniewski; John D. Kinsman

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

416

Amino acid utilization by Aerobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A considerable amount of work has been done on the growth of A. aerogenes and E. coli in synthetic media, but little work has been undertaken on the utilization by these organisms of amino acids as comparative sources of ...

Herrera, Rodolfo Eduardo

1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Pretreatment and Fermentation of Sugarcane Trash to Carboxylic Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rising price of oil is hurting consumers all over the world. There is growing interest in producing biofuels from non-food crops, such as sugarcane trash. Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., sugarcane trash) is an abundant, inexpensive, and renewable resource. The patented MixAlco process is a cost-effective solution, which does not require sterility or the addition of expensive enzymes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels and valuable chemicals. In this study, the MixAlco process was used to convert sugarcane trash to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions. Lime-treated sugarcane trash (80%) and chicken manure (20%) was used as the feedstock in rotary 1-L fermentors. Ammonium bicarbonate buffer was used to mitigate the effects of product (carboxylic acid) inhibition. Marine inoculum was used because of the high adaptability of the mixed culture of microorganisms present. Iodoform solution was added to inhibit methanogenesis. Preliminary batch studies over a 20-day period produced 19.7 g/L of carboxylic acids. Sugarcane trash had the highest average yield (0.31 g total acid/g VS fed) and highest average conversion (0.70 g VS digested/g VS fed) among the three substrates compared. Countercurrent fermentations were performed at various volatile solid loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT). The highest acid productivity of 1.40 g/(L?d) was at a total acid concentration of 29.9 g/L. The highest conversion and yield were 0.64 g VS digested/g VS fed and 0.36 g total acid/g VS fed, respectively. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to predict acid concentration at various VSLR and LRT. The average error in between the predicted and experimental acid concentration and conversion were 4.62% and 1.42%, respectively. The effectiveness of several pretreatment methods was evaluated using the CPDM method. The best-performing method was short-term, no-wash, oxidative lime pretreatment with ball milling. At an industrial-scale solids loading of 300 g VS/L liquid, the CPDM ?map? predicts a total acid concentration of 64.0 g/L at LRT of 30 days, VSLR of 7 g/(L?d), and conversion of 57%. Also high conversion of 76% and high acid concentration of 52 g/L are achieved at a VSLR of 4 g/(L?d) and LRT of 30 days.

Nachiappan, Balasubraman

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Effect of leavening acids on wheat flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactivities of four leavening adds were evaluated during processing of wheat flour tortillas. These were: sodium aluminum phosphate (SAlP), sodium aluminum sulfate (SAS), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP-28). Each leavening acid was first evaluated in combination with sodium bicarbonate at different levels, controlling dough temperature at 38'C. Individual leavening acids did not yield optimum dough properties and had pH higher than 6.0, except for MCP treatments. Higher amounts of MCP and SAPP-28 were required to produce opaque tortillas compared to those treatments containing SAIP and SAS. Ionic interactions apparently affected elastic and viscous behaviours of doughs. The second study inculded fumaric acid along with each leavening acid at 380C. Fumaric acid effectively reduced resting times and pH of tortillas, except for doughs containing MCP. Addition of fumaric tortillas over time. To evaluate the effect of temperature 34 and 38'C were selected . At 38'C additional leavening was required, except for doughs containing SAS. At 380C dough properties tended to improve. Increasing temperature increased pH for SAIP and MCP treatments. SAIP and SAS treatments produced opaque tortillas. Increased dough temperature improved storage stability of tortillas for SALP and SAS treatments; no significant effect was observed for MCP and SAPP-28 treatments. Combination of MCP:SAIP (1:5) produced target dough and tortilla properties. Combination of MCP:SAS (1:2) produced acceptable dough properties and tortillas with diameters smaller than 17.0 cm. MCP, a fast reacting leavening acid, improved nucleation during mixing, giving the final product a better texture. Hence, to produce tortillas with desirable characteristics, leavening acids that dissolve and react during mixing and baking are required.

Cepeda, Minerva

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) Battery Qualification Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries have been proposed as a prospective dc power source for Class 1E service in passive nuclear plants. However, they are not currently covered by IEEE Standard 535, which addresses qualification for this service. Furthermore, there are reports of significant failure modes or mechanisms beyond the predominant failure mode of grid corrosion of the positive plate associated with vented lead acid (VLA) batteries.

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

420

Polypeptide having an amino acid replaced with N-benzylglycine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to one or more polypeptides having useful biological activity in a mammal, which comprise: a polypeptide related to bradykinin of four to ten amino acid residues wherein one or more specific amino acids in the polypeptide chain are replaced with achiral N-benzylglycine. These polypeptide analogues have useful potent agonist or antagonist pharmacological properties depending upon the structure. A preferred polypeptide is (N-benzylglycine.sup.7)-bradykinin.

Mitchell, Alexander R. (Livermore, CA); Young, Janis D. (Los Angeles, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Ratcliff, Matthew A. (Lakewood, CO); Palasz, Peter D. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

1984-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

423

Amino acid biosignatures : implications for the detection of extinct or extant microbial communities on Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Space Agency gas chromatography mass spectrometry gamma-amino-n-butyric acid water hydrochloric acid isobutylamine isopropylamine NASA/CalTech Jet Propulsion

Aubrey, Andrew D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Amino Acid Biosignatures - Implications for the Detection of Extinct or Extant Microbial Communities on Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Space Agency gas chromatography mass spectrometry gamma-amino-n-butyric acid water hydrochloric acid isobutylamine isopropylamine NASA/CalTech Jet Propulsion

Aubrey, Andrew D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Recovery of carboxylic acids from water by precipitation from organic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are recovered from wet organic solutions by reducing the solutions' water content thus causing the acids to precipitate as recoverable crystals.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Starr, John (Albany, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Acid-base chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid-base chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer Title Acid-base chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the polluted...

427

M-1: Acid Cleaning of Titanium Based Scales Formed on Preheaters ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports an acid formulation which is best suited for titanium based scales. ... Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash Using Acid Sintering-Leaching...

428

A Study on Acid-Base Equilibria in (N-Butylamine + Acetic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. A Study on Acid-Base Equilibria in (N-Butylamine + Acetic Acid) Systems in Binary (Dimethyl Sulfoxide + 1,4-Dioxane) Solvent Mixtures ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

429

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

1987-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

430

Commercial Alloys for Sulfuric Acid Vaporization in Thermochemical Hydrogen Cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most thermochemical cycles being considered for producing hydrogen include a processing stream in which dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated, vaporized and then decomposed over a catalyst. The sulfuric acid vaporizer is exposed to highly aggressive conditions. Liquid sulfuric acid will be present at a concentration of >96 wt% (>90 mol %) H2SO4 and temperatures exceeding 400oC [Brown, et. al, 2003]. The system will also be pressurized, 0.7-3.5 MPa, to keep the sulfuric acid in the liquid state at this temperature and acid concentration. These conditions far exceed those found in the commercial sulfuric acid generation, regeneration and handling industries. Exotic materials, e.g. ceramics, precious metals, clad materials, etc., have been proposed for this application [Wong, et. al., 2005]. However, development time, costs, reliability, safety concerns and/or certification issues plague such solutions and should be considered as relatively long-term, optimum solutions. A more cost-effective (and relatively near-term) solution would be to use commercially-available metallic alloys to demonstrate the cycle and study process variables. However, the corrosion behavior of commercial alloys in sulfuric acid is rarely characterized above the natural boiling point of concentrated sulfuric acid (~250oC at 1 atm). Therefore a screening study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of various commercial alloys for concentration and vaporization of high-temperature sulfuric acid. Initially alloys were subjected to static corrosion tests in concentrated sulfuric acid (~95-97% H2SO4) at temperatures and exposure times up to 200oC and 480 hours, respectively. Alloys with a corrosion rate of less than 5 mm/year were then subjected to static corrosion tests at a pressure of 1.4 MPa and temperatures up to 375oC. Exposure times were shorter due to safety concerns and ranged from as short as 5 hours up to 144 hours. The materials evaluated included nickel-, iron- and cobalt-based commercial alloys. The corrosion rates in these tests are reported and how they may or may not relate to the corrosion behavior in an operating thermochemical cycle is discussed.

Thomas M. Lillo; Karen M. Delezene-Briggs

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Arginine and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduce Fat Mass in Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We hypothesized that subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue would differ in monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types and backgrounds were sampled. External fat samples were collected from eight different carcass locations: round, sirloin, loin, rib, chuck, brisket, plate and flank. Samples were used to provide information on slip points, fatty acid composition and MUFA:SFA ratios. Lipids were extracted from s.c. adipose tissue by a modified chloroform:methanol procedure, and fatty acid composition and slip points were measured. The brisket was significantly lower in palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acid than the other seven sampling sites (P = 0.001). The brisket demonstrated the highest values of MUFA (P = 0.001) with the exception of possessing the lowest value of transvaccenic (18:1t11) acid (P = 0.002). There were also significant differences in the amounts of PUFA among the eight sampling sites. The lowest values were from the brisket with a mean of 25.1. The flank had the highest slip point with a mean of 39.0 (P ? 0.001). There was a high negative correlation shown between palmitoleic and stearic acid (R2 = 0.827). The brisket displayed the highest values for MUFA:SFA ratios (P = 0.001), whereas the flank was the lowest. Due to the significant differences amongst fat depots within bovine carcasses in their fatty acid composition we conclude that substantial differences exist across fat depots.

Nall, Jennifer L.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid complex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg{sup +}-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup +} complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg{sup +}-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg{sup +}-based 3p<-3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg{sup +}, MgOH{sup +}, Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}, and MgCH{sub 3}{sup +}. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Optical Science and Technology Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

433

The effect of ascetic acid on mammalian cells  

SciTech Connect

Effects of the contrast agent, acetic acid, on mammalian cells are studied using light scattering measurements, viability and fluorescence pH assays. Results depend on whether cells are in PBS or are live and metabolizing. Acetic acid is a contrast agent used to aid the detection of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. Typically 3% or 5% acetic acid is applied to the swface of the cervix and areas of the tissue that turn 'acetowhite' are considered more likely to be precancerous. The mechanism of action of acetic acid has never been understood in detail, although there are several hypotheses. One is that a decrease in pH causes cytokeratins in epithelial cells to polymerize. We will present data demonstrating that this is not the sole mechanism of acetowhitening. Another hypothesis is that a decrease in pH in the nucleus causes deacetylation of the histones which in turn results in a dense chromatin structure. Relevant to this hypothesis we have measured the internal pH of cells. Additional goals of this work are to understand what physical changes result in acetowhitening, to understand why there is variation in how cells respond to acetic acid, and to investigate how acetowhitening affects the light scatter properties measured by a fiber-optic probe we have developed for cervical cancer diagnostics.

Mariana, Oana C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanders, Claire K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burnett, Kassidy S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freyer, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mourant, Judith R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Different Protonation Equilibria of 4-Methylimidazole and Acetic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dynamic protonation equilibria in water of one 4-methylimidazole molecule as well as for pairs and groups consisting of 4- methylimidazole, acetic acid and bridging water molecules are studied using Q-HOP molecular dynamics simulation. We find a qualitatively different protonation behavior of 4-methylimidazole compared to that of acetic acid. On one hand, deprotonated, neutral 4-methylimidazole cannot as easily attract a freely diffusing extra proton from solution. Once the proton is bound, however, it remains tightly bound on a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. In a linear chain composed of acetic acid, a separating water molecule and 4-methylimidazole, an excess proton is equally shared between 4-methylimidazole and water. When a water molecule is linearly placed between two acetic acid molecules, the excess proton is always found on the central water. On the other hand, an excess proton in a 4-methylimidazole-water- 4-methylimidazole chain is always localized on one of the two 4- methylimidazoles. These findings are of interest to the discussion of proton transfer along chains of amino acids and water molecules in biomolecules.

Gu, Wei; Helms, Volkhard H.

2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

435

Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland (Wading River, NY); Chendrayan, Krishnachetty (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu, IN); Quinby, Helen L. (Cambridge, MD)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate derivatives capable of crosslinking with or cleaving nucleic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for inactivating a target nucleic acid which comprises an oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate analogue which is complementary to the sequence of the target nucleic acid is provided. It includes a functional group which reacts with the target nucleic acid to render the target nucleic acid inactive or nonfunctional. 16 figs.

Miller, P.S.; Ts' o, P.O.P.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

A Study on Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion with the Distiller's Grains via Lactic Acid Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methane production of the distillers grains via lactic acid fermentation (shorter for the fermentation residue) was investigated, and the variable trend of pH values, alkali concentration and volatile fatty acids were examined. The results ... Keywords: the residue of distillers' grains via lactic acid fermentation, biomass wastes, anaerobic digestion, volatile fatty acids, biogas production

Li-Hong Wang; Wang Qunhui; Sun Xiaohong; Xin Zhao

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 11 An Overview of the Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Body Weight and Body Composition in Humans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 11 An Overview of the Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Body Weight and Body Composition in Humans Downloadable pdf of Chapter 11 An Ove

439

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 3 Application of Silver-Ion Chromatography to the Separation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 3 Application of Silver-Ion Chromatography to the Separation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry A5EF

440

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 7 Reversed-Phase HPLC Analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Metabolites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 7 Reversed-Phase HPLC Analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Metabolites Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 16 Conjugated Linoleic Acids as Anticancer Nutrients: Studies In Vivo and Cellular Mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 16 Conjugated Linoleic Acids as Anticancer Nutrients: Studies In Vivo and Cellular Mechanisms Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Pr

442

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 4 Systematic Analysis of trans and Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Milk and Meat of Ruminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 4 Systematic Analysis of trans and Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Milk and Meat of Ruminants Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press

443

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 19 Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Implications and Potential Mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 19 Conjugated Linoleic Acids in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Implications and Potential Mechanisms Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS

444

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 16 Nutritional Aspects of Single Cell Oils: Applications of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 16 Nutritional Aspects of Single Cell Oils: Applications of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Oils Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts ...

445

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 5 Fatty Acids in Corn Oil: Role in Heart Disease Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 5 Fatty Acids in Corn Oil: Role in Heart Disease Prevention Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

446

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 17 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enhances Immune Repsonses but Protects Against the Collateral Damage of Immune Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 17 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Enhances Immune Repsonses but Protects Against the Collateral Damage of Immune Events Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - B

447

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 20 Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Microbes: Role in Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 20 Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Microbes: Role in Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadab

448

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 28 Dietary Fat and Fatty Acids in Exercise and Athletic Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 28 Dietary Fat and Fatty Acids in Exercise and Athletic Performance Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadab

449

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 22 Fatty Acids in Immunomodulation: Role in Disease Prevention and Causation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 22 Fatty Acids in Immunomodulation: Role in Disease Prevention and Causation Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press D

450

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 15 Trans Fatty Acids and Oxidative Transformations by Free Radicals: The Role in Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 15 Trans Fatty Acids and Oxidative Transformations by Free Radicals: The Role in Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press ...

451

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 29 Omega-3 versus Omega-6 Fatty Acid Intake and Immunity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 29 Omega-3 versus Omega-6 Fatty Acid Intake and Immunity Health Nutrition Biochemistry Omega 3 eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable

452

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 8 Free Fatty Acids: Role in Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 8 Free Fatty Acids: Role in Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press

453

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 18 Fatty Acids in Membrane Lipids: Role in Disease Causation and Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 18 Fatty Acids in Membrane Lipids: Role in Disease Causation and Prevention Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Do

454

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 23 Modulation of Cytokine Action by Fatty Acids: Role in Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 23 Modulation of Cytokine Action by Fatty Acids: Role in Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable p

455

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 13 Trans and Other Fatty Acids: Role in Diabetic Disease and Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 13 Trans and Other Fatty Acids: Role in Diabetic Disease and Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadab

456

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 14 Effect of Dietary Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infancy on Both Visual and Neural Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 14 Effect of Dietary Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infancy on Both Visual and Neural Development Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Bioch

457

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 24 From ADHD to Alzheimers: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mental Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 24 From ADHD to Alzheimers: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mental Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadabl

458

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 9 Gender Differences in Gene Expression Due to Fatty Acids: Role in Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 9 Gender Differences in Gene Expression Due to Fatty Acids: Role in Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Bio

459

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 30 Omega-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Obesity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 30 Omega-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Obesity Health Nutrition Biochemistry Omega 3 eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloa

460

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 4 Oxidation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Initiators and Simultaneous Reactions: Theory and Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 4 Oxidation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Initiators and Simultaneous Reactions: Theory and Practice Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry A

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "acid biorefinery mysab" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

LUKE, S.N.

1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

462

High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

KETUSKY, EDWARD

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

463

Advanced lead-acid batteries for utility applications  

SciTech Connect

During 1990, Sandia National Laboratories initiated an advanced lead-acid battery development program supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management. The goal is to develop a low maintenance, cost effective battery by the mid- to late 1990's that is tailored to a variety of electric utility applications. Several parallel activities are being pursued to achieve this goal. One activity seeks to quantify the economic benefits of battery storage for specific cases in candidate utility systems and identify opportunities for field demonstration of battery systems at electric utility and utility customer sites. Such demonstrations will not only generate valuable operating experience data, but will also help in building user confidence in battery storage systems. Other activities concentrate on cell- and battery-level research and development aimed at overcoming shortcomings in existing technologies, such as Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA), or, sealed lead-acid batteries.

Akhil, A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Landgrebe, A. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

ELECTROLYTIC DISINTEGRATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Zircaloy-2 is anodically converted to scaly ZrO/sub 2/ at 60 deg C in 8 M HNO/sub 3/. About 0.5 mole of acid is consumed per faraday, and after saturation of the electrolyte with nitrogen oxides about 0.3 mole of gas is evolved per faraday. The nitric acid is reduced to hydrogen, NO, and N0/sub 2/, with hydrogen predominating if the cathode is Zircaloy and NO if the cathode is platinum. Corrosion specimens of HRT metals were exposed to the electrolysis conditions. From determinations of the decomposition potential of nitric acid it appears that a metal container for the electrolytic process can be protected from stray-current corrosion by holdlng it at a potential --0.5 volt positive to a platinum cathode operating at a current density of 5 to 10 ma/cm/sup 2/. Practical laboratory experiments tended to confirm this conclusion. (auth)

Clark, W.E.; Peterson, S.

1959-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

465

Two-stage dilute acid prehydrolysis of biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a two stage dilute acid prehydrolysis of biomass for solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars and a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. In particular, the invention pertains to a two stage dilute acid prehydrolysis treatment of a feedstock of hemicellulosic material comprising xylan that is slow hydrolyzable and xylan that is fast hydrolyzable under low temperature conditions to hydrolyze said fast hydrolyzable xylan to xylose; removing said xylose and leaving a feedstock residue containing said slow hydrolyzable xylan; treating said residue containing said slow hydrolyzable xylan with a dilute organic or inorganic acid under temperature conditions higher than said low temperature conditions to hydrolyze said slow hydrolyzable xylan to xylose, and removing said xylose.

Grohmann, K.; Torget, R.W.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

466

Advanced lead-acid batteries for utility applications  

SciTech Connect

During 1990, Sandia National Laboratories initiated an advanced lead-acid battery development program supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management. The goal is to develop a low maintenance, cost effective battery by the mid- to late 1990's that is tailored to a variety of electric utility applications. Several parallel activities are being pursued to achieve this goal. One activity seeks to quantify the economic benefits of battery storage for specific cases in candidate utility systems and identify opportunities for field demonstration of battery systems at electric utility and utility customer sites. Such demonstrations will not only generate valuable operating experience data, but will also help in building user confidence in battery storage systems. Other activities concentrate on cell- and battery-level research and development aimed at overcoming shortcomings in existing technologies, such as Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA), or, sealed lead-acid batteries.

Akhil, A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Landgrebe, A. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for CFA accumulation via heterologous expression in production plants.

Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Review Article Activities of Heterogeneous Acid-Base Catalysts for Fragrances Synthesis: A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews various types of heterogeneous acid-base catalysts for fragrances preparation. Catalytic activities of the various types of heterogeneous acid and base catalysts in fragrances preparation, i.e. nonzeolitic, zeolitic, and mesoporous molecular sieves, have been reported. Generally, heterogeneous acid catalysts are more commonly used in fragrance synthesis as compared to heterogeneous base catalysts. Heteropoly acids and hydrotalcites type catalysts are widely used as heterogeneous acid and base catalysts, respectively. 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.

H. Hartati; Mardi Santoso; Sugeng Triwahyono; Didik Prasetyoko

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Sludge recycle and reuse in acid mine drainage treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutralization of acid mine drainage produces vast quantities of iron-rich sludge, and large quantities of unused lime remain in the sludge after treatment. In a study in which sludge was recycled to increase lime utilization, sludge was mixed with raw acid mine drainage and settled out in an intermediate clarifier. The clarifier supernatant was then treated by lime addition, aeration and sedimentation. The low-pH sludge was withdrawn from the intermediate clarifier. The iron was recovered by acidification and used as wastewater coagulant. The recycle scheme resulted in a 30% decrease in lime requirements, and the resultant coagulant performed well when compared with stock iron coagulant solutions.

Keefer, G.B.; Sack, W.A.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass Final Report Work Performed Under: Contract No.: DE-F-G02-00ER86106 For: U.S. Department of Energy Morgantown, WV By David Ramey Environmental Energy Inc. 1253 N. Waggoner Road P.O. Box 15 Blacklick, Ohio 43004 And Shang-Tian Yang Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University 140 West 19 th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 - 2004 - Table of Contents Page Proposal Face Page ..........................................................................................................................1 Table of Contents.............................................................................................................................2 Executive Summary

471

Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Experimental Study of Mechanistic Acid Deconstruction of Lignin  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of biomass, which remains highly underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in studying the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. Model dimers, imitating H, S, and G lignins, were synthesized with the most abundant {beta} - O - 4 linkage in lignin. These compounds were then depolymerized using various acids and at different operating conditions. The deconstruction products were analyzed to complement the QM studies and investigate proposed mechanisms.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Katahira, R.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Processing nitric-phosphoric acid solutions to nitroammophoska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technology for comprehensive processing of apatite with recovery of all valuable components in the starting material is based on its nitric acid decomposition with crystallization of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate. The results of operation on a pilot installation for complex processing of apatite with production of strontium carbonate, calcium fluoride, a rare earth phosphate concentrate, calcium carbonate and a nitric-phosphoric acid solution (NPAS) are given below. The article presents the data of the operation of the experimental unit for production of complex fertilizers of the nitroammophoska type from the NPAS.

Gol'dinov, A.L.; Abramov, O.B.; Afanasenko, B.P.; Baibakov, P.Y.; Kiselevich, P.V.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Stress corrosion cracking of zirconium in nitric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The susceptibility of zirconium and its common alloys to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitric acid was investigated by slow strain-rate and constant deflection techniques. Cracking occurred at 25/sup 0/C over a wide range of acid concentrations and electrochemical potentials. The crack velocity increased slightly with increasing temperature. The failure mode was transgranular and the morphology was similar to SCC failures of zirconium alloys in other environments. The fracture was very orientation-dependent suggesting that it occurs on a single crystallographic plane in the material. The results of the study are not consistent with a hydrogen mechanism for cracking.

Beavers, J.A.; Griess, J.C.; Boyd, W.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants)  

SciTech Connect

The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

Loewus, F.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry); Seib, P.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

Loewus, F.A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

479

Mechanistic Investigation of Tolfenamic Acid, Betulinic Acid, and Aspirin in Anti-Cancer Therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tolfenamic acid (TA), betulinic acid (BA) and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) are anticancer drugs, and Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 transcription factors and growth factor 2 (EGFR2, HER2 / ErbB2) are important molecular markers in cancer cells. In this study the molecular mechanisms by which these anticancer drugs target downregulation of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and ErbB2 are investigated in breast cancer cells. TA inhibits growth of ErbB2-overexpressing BT474 and SKBR3 breast cancer cells by inhibiting ErbB2 expression. In cells treated with TA, ErbB2 mRNA expression and promoter activity were decreased, and this was due to decreased mRNA stability in BT474 cells. In both cell lines, TA also decreased expression of the YY1 and AP-2 transcription factors that are required for basal ErbB2 expression. These effects were accompanied by decreased ErbB2-dependent kinase activities, induction of p27, and decreased expression of cyclin D1. In addition, TA also inhibited tumor growth in BT474 cells orthotopic mouse model. However, Sp proteins were not the major target of TA in these breast cancer cells and this contrasts to results in pancreatic cancer cells where TA decreased expression of Sp proteins. BA inhibits growth of ErbB2 overexpressing BT474 and MDA-MB-453 and induced apoptosis in these cells. BA induced proteasome-independent downregulation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and survivin, an Sp-regulated gene, and BA also decreased expression of ErbB2, ErbB2-regulated kinases and also YY1, a transcription factor that regulates ErbB2 expression in these cells. Knockdown of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and their combination by RNA interference was accompanied by decreased expression of ErbB2, YY1 and luciferase activity in cells transfected with a construct containing the GC-rich YY1 promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. BA-dependent repression of Sp1, Sp3, Sp4 and Sp regulated genes was due in part to induction of the Sp repressor ZBTB10 and downregulation of microRNA-27a (miR-27a) which constitutively inhibits ZBTB10 expression. The effects of BA on the miR-27a:zBTB10-Sp transcription factor axis were inhibited in cells cotreated with the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and CB2 receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630 respectively. However, in vitro binding studies with ? 10 mM BA and a radiolabeled cannabinoid did not indicate direct competitive binding of BA to the CB1 and CB2 receptors, suggesting a possible role for other CB-like G protein-coupled receptors. Aspirin inhibits growth, induces apoptosis and decreases cell migration in BT474 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells that overexpress the ErbB2 oncogene. Aspirin also downregulated ErbB2 expression in these cells and this was accompanied by inhibition of downstream kinases including phospho-Akt (p-Akt) and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK). Aspirin also decreased expression of survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and YY1 which regulates ErbB2 expression in these cell lines. Aspirin also downregulates Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4, and further investigation of the underlying mechanism of action showed that aspirin-induced downregulation of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes could be inhibited in part by proteasome inhibitior lactacystin and phosphatase inhibitors including sodium orthovanadate (SOV). These results were consistant with the induction of several phosphatases by aspirin in BT474 and MDA-MB-453 cells and these include mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-5 (MKP-5) and MKP-1. Aspirin-induced downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are reversed in cells transfected with an oligonucleotide (siMKP5) that knocks down MKP5 by RNA interference whereas siMKP-1 did not block Sp protein downregulation demonstrating for the first time a linkage between a drug-induced phosphatase (MKP-5) and Sp downregulation. These results suggest that TA, BA and aspirin represent novel and promising new anticancer drugs for cancer treatment by targeting Sp proteins and ErbB2 oncogene.

Liu, Xinyi

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Method for the manufacture of lead-acid batteries and an associated apparatus and associated lead-acid battery  

SciTech Connect

A method for the manufacture of lead-acid batteries and associated apparatus and a lead-acid battery design resulting therefrom is disclosed. The method involves providing a battery grid and pasting the grid with a battery paste such that a profiled and tapered battery plate is formed. This battery plate is wrapped onto a coil and cured in curing apparatus. A battery element is formed using coils of the finished plate stock, separator material, and winged end plate. After this, several battery elements are then placed into a battery container. 31 figs.

Wheadon, E.G.; Forrer, L.L.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Human platelet aggregation and phospholipid fatty acid composition during omega-3 fatty acid enriched egg consumption: influence of nutrient intake and omega-3 fatty acid source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The current study investigated the usefulness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enriched eggs for duplicating health benefits of consuming fish, specifically decreasing platelet aggregation via changes in plasma phospholipid (PL) composition. A further aspect of this investigation was to determine if other nutrients may significantly hinder or promote the incorporation of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA, specifically essential fatty acids (EFA), and their derivatives, into plasma PL. Healthy, normolipidemic individuals (n=30) consumed four typical, linolenic acid-rich (LNA; 18:3n-3), or docosahexaenoic acid-rich (DHA; 22:6n-3) eggs weekly for alternating six-week periods, separated by four-week washouts, in a completely randomized design. According to analysis of variance using the GLM procedure of SAS, either n-3 PUFA-rich egg promoted the accumulation of n-3 PUFA in the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) fraction of plasma rather than the phosphatidylcholine (PC) fraction. Likewise, both eggs resulted in significant reductions in linoleic acid (LINO; 18:2n-6) esterification in plasma PE. The influence of eggs on plasma PL n-3 PUFA was physiologically significant as platelet aggregation was decreased in response to consuming either DHA-rich or LNA-rich eggs but not in response to typical egg consumption, as determined by non-parametric analysis using Chi Square. Stepwisemultiple regression of dietary nutrients and plasma PL PUFA composition indicated that dietary intake accounted for 42% of the variability in plasma PL EFA. Dietary carbohydrate (CHO), as a percentage of total energy, was significantly different between subjects for which the within 20% versus >20% difference from measured. The plasma EFA profile of individuals consuming dietary CHO in amounts recommended by the current RDA was significantly less predictable by the model than for those consuming lesser amounts of CHO. These data suggest that individuals consuming increased CHO may consume less EFA, consume EFA infrequently, or conversely, those individuals with low CHO intake have higher EFA intake. The results of the current study suggest that eggs designed to be rich in n-3 PUFA can supply health benefits typically associated with fish consumption. Our findings also suggest that excess dietary CHO may interfere with the accumulation of EFA in plasma PL.

Hatch, Sandra D

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Phosphorylated Mesoporous Carbon as a Solid Acid Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoporous carbon catalyst supports are attractive due to their wide chemical stability while potentially increasing masstransport through and providing a path for larger molecules to access catalytic sites. Herein we report the synthesis of a 10 phosphorylated mesoporous carbon solid-acid catalyst characterized by NH3-TPD and isopropanol dehydration.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Ma, Zhen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lead Acid Battery Consortium Lead Acid Battery Consortium Jump to: navigation, search Name Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium Place Durham, North Carolina Zip 27713 Sector Vehicles Product The ALABC is a research consortium of more than 50 battery-related companies that was originally formed in 1992 to advance the capabilities of the valve-regulated lead acid battery to help electric vehicles become a reality. Coordinates 45.396265°, -122.755099° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.396265,"lon":-122.755099,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}