A Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry
Gerstein, Mark
uncertainties in this data set closely match numerical values reported in the recent survey of nucleic acid baseA Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry These preliminary (Rockefeller University), Richard E. Dickerson (University of California, Los Angeles), Mark Gerstein (Yale
Physics of base-pairing dynamics in DNA
Manoel Manghi; Nicolas Destainville
2015-10-19
As a key molecule of Life, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the focus of numbers of investigations with the help of biological, chemical and physical techniques. From a physical point of view, both experimental and theoretical works have brought quantitative insights into DNA base-pairing dynamics that we review in this Report, putting emphasis on theoretical developments. We discuss the dynamics at the base-pair scale and its pivotal coupling with the polymer one, with a polymerization index running from a few nucleotides to tens of kilo-bases. This includes opening and closure of short hairpins and oligomers as well as zipping and unwinding of long macromolecules. We review how different physical mechanisms are either used by Nature or utilized in biotechnological processes to separate the two intertwined DNA strands, by insisting on quantitative results. They go from thermally-assisted denaturation bubble nucleation to force- or torque- driven mechanisms. We show that the helical character of the molecule, possibly supercoiled, can play a key role in many denaturation and renaturation processes. We categorize the mechanisms according to the relative timescales associated with base-pairing and chain degrees of freedom such as bending and torsional elastic ones. In some specific situations, these chain degrees of freedom can be integrated out, and the quasi- static approximation is valid. The complex dynamics then reduces to the diffusion in a low-dimensional free-energy landscape. In contrast, some important cases of experimental interest necessarily appeal to far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics.
Method for sequencing DNA base pairs
Sessler, A.M.; Dawson, J.
1993-12-14
The base pairs of a DNA structure are sequenced with the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The DNA structure is scanned by the STM probe tip, and, as it is being scanned, the DNA structure is separately subjected to a sequence of infrared radiation from four different sources, each source being selected to preferentially excite one of the four different bases in the DNA structure. Each particular base being scanned is subjected to such sequence of infrared radiation from the four different sources as that particular base is being scanned. The DNA structure as a whole is separately imaged for each subjection thereof to radiation from one only of each source. 6 figures.
Jin, Xiao
2013-11-21
inches diameter cores that varied in length. The lengths of the cores are 4 inches, 6 inches, and 8 inches long. The acid concentration used for these experiments was 15 wt% HCl. A pressure drop plot was created as the acid penetrates through the core...
B-DNA structure is intrinsically polymorphic: even at the level of base pair positions
Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Woods, Kristen Kruger; Moulaei, Tinoush; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean
2012-10-23
Increasingly exact measurement of single crystal X-ray diffraction data offers detailed characterization of DNA conformation, hydration and electrostatics. However, instead of providing a more clear and unambiguous image of DNA, highly accurate diffraction data reveal polymorphism of the DNA atomic positions and conformation and hydration. Here we describe an accurate X-ray structure of B-DNA, painstakingly fit to a multistate model that contains multiple competing positions of most of the backbone and of entire base pairs. Two of ten base-pairs of CCAGGCCTGG are in multiple states distinguished primarily by differences in slide. Similarly, all the surrounding ions are seen to fractionally occupy discrete competing and overlapping sites. And finally, the vast majority of water molecules show strong evidence of multiple competing sites. Conventional resolution appears to give a false sense of homogeneity in conformation and interactions of DNA. In addition, conventional resolution yields an average structure that is not accurate, in that it is different from any of the multiple discrete structures observed at high resolution. Because base pair positional heterogeneity has not always been incorporated into model-building, even some high and ultrahigh-resolution structures of DNA do not indicate the full extent of conformational polymorphism.
Transformation Composition Transformational Geometry
Ferguson, Thomas S.
Isomotries Transformation Composition Congruence Transformational Geometry Christopher Ograin Christopher Ograin Transformational Geometry #12;Isomotries Transformation Composition Congruence Geo Transformational Geometry #12;Isomotries Transformation Composition Congruence Definitions Transformation
Advanced Review Geometry optimization
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
Advanced Review Geometry optimization H. Bernhard Schlegel Geometry optimization is an important part of most quantum chemical calcu- lations. This article surveys methods for optimizing equilibrium geometries, lo- cating transition structures, and following reaction paths. The emphasis is on optimizations
Marshall, Wallace F
2011-01-01
as: Marshall WF: Origins of cellular geometry. BMC Biologyin the author’s lab on cellular geometry is supported by NIHOpen Access Origins of cellular geometry Wallace F Marshall*
DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201100375 Molecular Recognition of WatsonCrick-Like PurinePurine Base Pairs
Williams, Loren
Ragan Buckley , C. Denise Enekwa, Loren Dean Williams, and Nicholas V. Hud*[a] Nucleic acid duplexes. Enekwa, Prof. L. D. Williams, Prof. N. V. Hud School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (USA) E-mail: hud@gatech.edu Supporting information for this article
Noncommutative geometry and physics
Jean Petitot
2015-05-01
This is a compilation of some well known propositions of Alain Connes concerning the use of noncommutative geometry in mathematical physics.
Geometrie im Internet Wolfgang Rath
Havlicek, Hans
Geometrie im Internet Wolfgang Rath Institut für Geometrie, TU Wien rath@geometrie.tuwien.ac.at http://www.geometrie.tuwien.ac.at/rath Version 1999-11-15 #12;Geometrie im Internet - Wolfgang Rath......................................................................................... 5 1.1 SCHNELLER EINSTIEG INS INTERNET
Induced geometry from disformal transformation
Fang-Fang Yuan; Peng Huang
2015-02-08
In this note, we use the disformal transformation to induce a geometry from the manifold which is originally Riemannian. The new geometry obtained here can be considered as a generalization of Weyl integrable geometry. Based on these results, we further propose a geometry which is naturally a generalization of Weyl geometry.
Office: MSB M312 Phone: (860) 486-3850 e-mail: kaufmann@math.uconn.edu. Office hours: TuTh ... Topics in Algebra: Algebraic Geometry II. TuTh TuTh 12:30 ...
Topics in Algebra: Algebraic Geometry. TuTh 2:00-3:15 pm in ... Office: MSB M312 Phone: (860) 486-3850 e-mail: kaufmann@math.uconn.edu. Office hours: Tu ...
The Geometry Of War The Geometry Of War
Aslaksen, Helmer
The Geometry Of War 1 #12;The Geometry Of War GEM1518K Mathematics in Arts &Architecture Presenting : The Geometry Of War Prepared by: 1) Linda Tjoe Matriculation number: U017984E 2) Lince Salim Matriculation017997 2 #12;The Geometry Of War Contents Page(s) Introduction 1 1.1 Early Canon 2 1.2 The Triumph
Rickard Jonsson; Hans Westman
2007-08-21
We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz and Lasota 1997, Class. Quantum Grav. 14 (1997) A23). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson, Class. Quantum Grav. 23 (2006) 1) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity.
Integral Geometry and Holography
Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James
2015-01-01
We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we...
Sliding vane geometry turbines
Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R
2014-12-30
Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.
Cylindrical geometry hall thruster
Raitses, Yevgeny (Princeton, NJ); Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ)
2002-01-01
An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.
A Lorentz Covariant Noncommutative Geometry
A. Lewis Licht
2005-12-13
A noncommutative geometry that preserves lorentz covariance was introduced by Hartland Snyder in 1947. We show that this geometry has unusual properties under momentum translation, and derive for it a form of star product.
Sriram, M.; Yang, D.; Gao, Y.G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others
1994-12-31
O6-ethyl-guanine (e{sup 6}G) is a relatively persistent alkylation lesion caused by the exposure of DNA to carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea. We have studied the structural consequences of the e{sup 6}G incorporation in DNA by X-ray crystallography and NMR. We have obtained crystals of the modified DNA dodecamer d(CGC[e{sup 6}G]AATTCGCG) complexed to several minor groove binding drugs including Hoechst 33258, Hoechst 33342, netropsin, and SN6999. The space froup of the crystals from those complexes is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. However, the crystal structure of the SN6999 complex is nor isomorphous to that from the other three complexes. In all four refined crystal structures, the drugs bind in the narrow minor groove at or clase to the central AATT region of the dodecamer B-DNA duplex. THe DNA conformation is influenced by the binding of drugs. The eight independent e{sup 6}G:C base pairs have a conformation ranging from one with three centered hydrogen bonds between the bases to a wobble conformation with two hydrogen bonds. The ethyl group of the eight e{sup 6}G bases is mostly in the proximal orientation to N7. Our 1D and 2D-NMR studies of the same (free) dodecamer reveal that the e{sup 6}G base pairs in the duplex are likely to adopt a wobble conformation in solution. Those results suggest that the e{sup 6}G base pair has a dynamic equilibrium among various conformations, which may present an ambiguous signal to cells. In contrast, the e{sup 6}G:T base pair adopts a Watson-Crick-like conformation. This may be a plausible explanation of why thymine is found preferentially incorporated across the e{sup 6}G during replication.
Martin, Jeremy L.
2003-01-01
TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY Volume 355, Number 10, Pages 4151{4169 S 0002-9947(03)03321-X Article electronically published on May 15, 2003 GEOMETRY OF GRAPH VARIETIES JEREMY L. MARTIN Abstract. A picture P of a graph G =(V...;E) consists of a point P(v)foreach vertex v2V and a line P(e)foreachedgee2E, all lying in the projective plane over a eld k and subject to containment conditions corresponding to incidence in G.Agraph variety is an algebraic set whose points parametrize...
New developments in special geometry
Thomas Mohaupt
2006-02-17
We review recent developments in special geometry, emphasizing the role of real coordinates. In the first part we discuss the para-complex geometry of vector and hypermultiplets in rigid Euclidean N=2 supersymmetry. In the second part we study the variational principle governing the near horizon limit of BPS black holes in matter-coupled N=2 supergravity and observe that the black hole entropy is the Legendre transform of the Hesse potential encoding the geometry of the scalar fields.
Notes on basic algebraic geometry
2008-06-16
Jun 16, 2008 ... Notes on basic algebraic geometry ...... Having discovered the basic equation ..... back to a rational function on X. Thus we get a nonzero ...
Optical geometry across the horizon
Rickard Jonsson
2007-08-19
In a companion paper (Jonsson and Westman, Class. Quantum Grav. 23 (2006) 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to a finite four-volume of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework.
Geometry and Meaning Dominic Widdows
Geometry and Meaning Dominic Widdows (MAYA Design) Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications (CSLI lecture of Grassmann's Ausdehnungslehre. (page 68) Weyl of course contributed extensively to quantum mechanics the case for Grassmann's obscurity is unproven. Chapters 1Â6 are really an elementary introduction
RELATIVISTIC GEOMETRY AND QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS
GonzĂˇlez MartĂn, Gustavo R.
the fundamental aspects of quantum theory. SB/F/272-99 #12;2 Introduction A geometrical unified theory:\\\\prof.usb.ve\\ggonzalm\\ Excitations of a relativistic geometry were used to represent the theory of quantum electrodynamics. The connection excitations and the frame excitations reduce, respectively, to the electromagnetic field operator
Exceptional geometry and tensor fields
Martin Cederwall; Joakim Edlund; Anna Karlsson
2013-03-21
We present a tensor calculus for exceptional generalised geometry. Expressions for connections, torsion and curvature are given a unified formulation for different exceptional groups E_n(n). We then consider "tensor gauge fields" coupled to the exceptional generalised gravity. Many of the properties of forms on manifolds are carried over to these fields.
External-Memory Computational Geometry
Goodrich, Michael T.; Tsay, Jyh-Jong; Vengroff, Darren Erik; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott
1993-01-01
In this paper we give new techniques for designing e cient algorithms for computational geometry prob- lems that are too large to be solved in internal mem- ory. We use these techniques to develop optimal and practical algorithms for a number...
Geometry-Invariant Resonant Cavities
Liberal, Ińigo; Engheta, Nader
2015-01-01
Resonant cavities are one of the basic building blocks in various disciplines of science and technology, with numerous applications ranging from abstract theoretical modeling to everyday life devices. The eigenfrequencies of conventional cavities are a function of its geometry, and, thus, the size and shape of a resonant cavity is selected in order to operate at a specific frequency. Here, we demonstrate theoretically the existence of geometry-invariant resonant cavities, i.e., resonators whose eigenfrequency is invariant with respect to geometrical deformations. This effect is obtained by exploiting the unusual properties of zero-index metamaterials, which enable decoupling of the time and spatial field variations. This new class of resonators may inspire alternative design concepts, and it might lead to the first generation of deformable resonant devices.
Centrifugal force in Kerr geometry
Sai Iyer; A R Prasanna
1992-07-31
We have obtained the correct expression for the centrifugal force acting on a particle at the equatorial circumference of a rotating body in the locally non-rotating frame of the Kerr geometry. Using this expression for the equilibrium of an element on the surface of a slowly rotating Maclaurin spheroid, we obtain the expression for the ellipticity (as discussed earlier by Abramowicz and Miller) and determine the radius at which the ellipticity is maximum.
Harmonic oscillators in a Snyder geometry
P. Valtancoli
2013-06-01
We find that, in presence of the Snyder geometry, the quantization of d isotropic harmonic oscillators can be solved exactly.
Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry
Huang, Peng
2015-01-01
Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can be easily rephrased in Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to get the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained disformal transformation, we use it to induce a new geometry.
Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry
Peng Huang; Fang-Fang Yuan
2015-09-20
Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can be easily rephrased in Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to get the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained disformal transformation, we use it to induce a new geometry.
A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry...
Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests Abstract A simple method of estimating flow geometry and pore geometry from conservative tracer tests in single phase geothermal...
Geometry of branes on supergroups
Thomas Creutzig
2008-09-02
In this note we analyze the geometry of maximally symmetric boundary conditions in Lie supergroup Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models. We find that generically the worldvolume of a brane is a twisted superconjugacy class, very much like in the Lie group case. Whenever the brane is not completely delocalized in the fermionic directions a new atypical class of branes arises. We give an example of these new branes and show for type I supergroups and trivial gluing conditions that they can be naturally associated with atypical representations of the affine Lie superalgebra.
Thermodynamic geometry of holographic superconductors
Sayan Basak; Pankaj Chaturvedi; Poulami Nandi; Gautam Sengupta
2015-09-02
We obtain the thermodynamic geometry of a (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory at a finite temperature in a holographic set up through the gauge/gravity correspondence. The bulk dual gravitational theory is described by a 3+1 dimensional charged AdS black hole in the presence of a charged massive scalar field. The holographic free energy of the (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled boundary field theory is computed analytically through the bulk boundary correspondence. The thermodynamic metric and the corresponding scalar curvature is then obtained from the holographic free energy. The thermodynamic scalar curvature characterizes the superconducting phase transition of the boundary field theory.
Thermodynamic geometry of holographic superconductors
Sayan Basak; Pankaj Chaturvedi; Poulami Nandi; Gautam Sengupta
2015-09-21
We obtain the thermodynamic geometry of a (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory at a finite temperature in a holographic set up, through the gauge/gravity correspondence. The bulk dual gravitational theory is described by a (3+1) dimensional charged AdS black hole in the presence of a massive charged scalar field. The holographic free energy of the (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled boundary field theory is computed analytically through the bulk boundary correspondence. The thermodynamic metric and the corresponding scalar curvature is then obtained from the holographic free energy. The thermodynamic scalar curvature characterizes the superconducting phase transition of the boundary field theory.
Thermodynamic geometry of holographic superconductors
Basak, Sayan; Nandi, Poulami; Sengupta, Gautam
2015-01-01
We obtain the thermodynamic geometry of a (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory at a finite temperature in a holographic set up through the gauge/gravity correspondence. The bulk dual gravitational theory is described by a 3+1 dimensional charged AdS black hole in the presence of a charged massive scalar field. The holographic free energy of the (2+1) dimensional strongly coupled boundary field theory is computed analytically through the bulk boundary correspondence. The thermodynamic metric and the corresponding scalar curvature is then obtained from the holographic free energy. The thermodynamic scalar curvature characterizes the superconducting phase transition of the boundary field theory.
Worldsheet Geometries of Ambitwistor String
Kantaro Ohmori
2015-06-12
Mason and Skinner proposed the ambitwistor string theory which directly reproduces the formulas for the amplitudes of massless particles proposed by Cachazo, He and Yuan. In this paper we discuss geometries of the moduli space of worldsheets associated to the bosonic or the RNS ambitwistor string. Further, we investigate the factorization properties of the amplitudes when an internal momentum is near on-shell in the abstract CFT language. Along the way, we propose the existence of the ambitwistor strings with three or four fermionic worldsheet currents.
Worldsheet Geometries of Ambitwistor String
Ohmori, Kantaro
2015-01-01
Mason and Skinner proposed the ambitwistor string theory which directly reproduces the formulas for the amplitudes of massless particles proposed by Cachazo, He and Yuan. In this paper we discuss geometries of the moduli space of worldsheets associated to the bosonic or the RNS ambitwistor string. Further, we investigate the factorization properties of the amplitudes when an internal momentum is near on-shell in the abstract CFT language. Along the way, we propose the existence of the ambitwistor strings with three or four fermionic worldsheet currents.
Geometry Matters | The Ames Laboratory
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Heuristic approach to the Schwarzschild geometry
Matt Visser
2004-03-11
In this article I present a simple Newtonian heuristic for deriving a weak-field approximation for the spacetime geometry of a point particle. The heuristic is based on Newtonian gravity, the notion of local inertial frames [the Einstein equivalence principle], plus the use of Galilean coordinate transformations to connect the freely falling local inertial frames back to the ``fixed stars''. Because of the heuristic and quasi-Newtonian manner in which the spacetime geometry is obtained, we are at best justified in expecting it to be a weak-field approximation to the true spacetime geometry. However, in the case of a spherically symmetric point mass the result is coincidentally an exact solution of the full vacuum Einstein field equations -- it is the Schwarzschild geometry in Painleve--Gullstrand coordinates. This result is much stronger than the well-known result of Michell and Laplace whereby a Newtonian argument correctly estimates the value of the Schwarzschild radius -- using the heuristic presented in this article one obtains the entire Schwarzschild geometry. The heuristic also gives sensible results -- a Riemann flat geometry -- when applied to a constant gravitational field. Furthermore, a subtle extension of the heuristic correctly reproduces the Reissner--Nordstrom geometry and even the de Sitter geometry. Unfortunately the heuristic construction is not truly generic. For instance, it is incapable of generating the Kerr geometry or anti-de Sitter space. Despite this limitation, the heuristic does have useful pedagogical value in that it provides a simple and direct plausibility argument for the Schwarzschild geometry.
Vortex Lattices and Crystalline Geometries
Ning Bao; Sarah Harrison; Shamit Kachru; Subir Sachdev
2013-04-16
We consider $AdS_2 \\times R^2$ solutions supported by a magnetic field, such as those which arise in the near-horizon limit of magnetically charged $AdS_4$ Reissner-Nordstrom black branes. In the presence of an electrically charged scalar field, such magnetic solutions can be unstable to spontaneous formation of a vortex lattice. We solve the coupled partial differential equations which govern the charged scalar, gauge field, and metric degrees of freedom to lowest non-trivial order in an expansion around the critical point, and discuss the corrections to the free energy and thermodynamic functions arising from the formation of the lattice. We describe how such solutions can also be interpreted, via S-duality, as characterizing infrared crystalline phases of conformal field theories doped by a chemical potential, but in zero magnetic field; the doped conformal field theories are dual to geometries that exhibit dynamical scaling and hyperscaling violation.
Hessian geometry and entanglement thermodynamics
Matsueda, Hiroaki
2015-01-01
We reconstruct entanglement thermodynamics by means of Hessian geometry, since this method exactly generalizes thermodynamics into much wider exponential family cases including quantum entanglement. Starting with the correct first law of entanglement thermodynamics, we derive that a proper choice of the Hessian potential leads to both of the entanglement entropy scaling for quantum critical systems and hyperbolic metric (or AdS space with imaginary time). We also derive geometric representation of the entanglement entropy in which the entropy is described as integration of local conserved current of information flowing across an entangling surface. We find that the entangling surface is equivalent to the domain boundary of the Hessian potential. This feature originates in a special property of critical systems in which we can identify the entanglement entropy with the Hessian potential after the second derivative by the canonical parameters, and this identification guarantees violation of extensive nature of ...
Hessian geometry and entanglement thermodynamics
Hiroaki Matsueda
2015-08-11
We reconstruct entanglement thermodynamics by means of Hessian geometry, since this method exactly generalizes thermodynamics into much wider exponential family cases including quantum entanglement. Starting with the correct first law of entanglement thermodynamics, we derive that a proper choice of the Hessian potential leads to both of the entanglement entropy scaling for quantum critical systems and hyperbolic metric (or AdS space with imaginary time). We also derive geometric representation of the entanglement entropy in which the entropy is described as integration of local conserved current of information flowing across an entangling surface. We find that the entangling surface is equivalent to the domain boundary of the Hessian potential. This feature originates in a special property of critical systems in which we can identify the entanglement entropy with the Hessian potential after the second derivative by the canonical parameters, and this identification guarantees violation of extensive nature of the entropy.
Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches
Eaton, Brett
Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches B.C. Eatona, a Department of Geography, The University of British Columbia 1984 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Abstract Hydraulic. One approach to hydraulic geometry considers temporal changes at a single location due to variations
Line geometry and electromagnetism I: basic structures
D. H. Delphenich
2013-09-11
Some key notions of line geometry are recalled, along with their application to mechanics. It is then shown that most of the basic structures that one introduces in the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism can be interpreted directly in terms of corresponding concepts in line geometry. The results are summarized in a table.
Computational Geometry for Sculpture George W. Hart
Computational Geometry for Sculpture George W. Hart Sculptor http://www.georgehart.com/ george, Polyhedra. 1. REFERENCES [1] George W. Hart, web pages, http://www.georgehart.com/ [2] George W. Hart and Henri Picciotto, Zome Geometry, Key Curriculum Press, 2001. [3] Craig Kaplan and George W. Hart
FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS
Singer, Isadore M.
2008-03-04
The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.
NATURAL CONVECTION IN ROOM GEOMETRIES
Gadgil, A.; Bauman, Fred; Kammerud, R.; Ruberg, K.
1980-06-01
Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in room geometries in two and three dimensions. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment reported here. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single thermal zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. The results indicate that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may be in error by as much as 50% as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure. It is also found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface.
Emergent geometry from random multitrace matrix models
B. Ydri; A. Rouag; K. Ramda
2015-09-11
A novel scenario for the emergence of geometry in random multitrace matrix models of a single hermitian matrix $M$ with unitary $U(N) $ invariance, i.e. without a kinetic term, is presented. In particular, the dimension of the emergent geometry is determined from the critical exponents of the disorder-to-uniform-ordered transition whereas the metric is determined from the Wigner semicircle law behavior of the eigenvalues distribution of the matrix $M$. If the uniform ordered phase is not sustained in the phase diagram then there is no emergent geometry in the multitrace matrix model.
The geometry of sound rays in a wind
G. W. Gibbons; C. M. Warnick
2011-02-11
We survey the close relationship between sound and light rays and geometry. In the case where the medium is at rest, the geometry is the classical geometry of Riemann. In the case where the medium is moving, the more general geometry known as Finsler geometry is needed. We develop these geometries ab initio, with examples, and in particular show how sound rays in a stratified atmosphere with a wind can be mapped to a problem of circles and straight lines.
Minimal five dimensional supergravities and complex geometries
Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.
2010-07-28
We discuss the relation between solutions admitting Killing spinors of minimal super-gravities in five dimensions, both timelike and null, and complex geometries. For the timelike solutions the results may be summarised as follows. In the ungauged case (vanishing cosmological constant {Lambda} 0) the solutions are determined in terms of a hyper-Kaehler base space; in the gauged case ({Lambda}<0) the complex geometry is Kaehler; in the de Sitter case ({Lambda}>0) the complex geometry is hyper-Kaehler with torsion (HKT). For the null solutions we shall focus on the de Sitter case, for which the solutions are determined by a constrained Einstein-Weyl 3-geometry called Gauduchon-Tod space. The method for constructing explicit solutions is discussed in each case.
Topology to geometry in protein folding: -Lactoglobulin
Berry, R. Stephen
Topology to geometry in protein folding: -Lactoglobulin Ariel Ferna´ndez* , Andre´s Colubri , and R angles and at the -carbon atoms of the peptide backbone dominate protein folding. Next in importance
Finite Geometry and the Radon Transform
Michael Revzen
2011-11-20
Finite Geometry is used to underpin operators acting in finite, d, dimensional Hilbert space. Quasi distribution and Radon transform underpinned with finite dual affine plane geometry (DAPG) are defined in analogy with the continuous ($d \\rightarrow \\infty$) Hilbert space case. An essntial role in these definitions play the projectors of states of mutual unbiased bases (MUB) and their Wigner function-like mapping onto the generalized phase space that lines and points of DAPG constitutes.
Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts
Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N
2015-02-24
Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.
Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition
Popple, Richard A. Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B.
2014-05-15
Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify arrangements equivalent to equiangular geometries but using fewer beams. Furthermore, SBA provides the value of the objective function as the number of beams is increased, allowing the planner to select the minimal beam number that achieves the clinical goals. The method is simple to implement and could readily be incorporated into an existing optimization system.
Condat, Laurent
gipsa-lab AGPiG ARCHITECTURE GEOMETRY PERCEPTION IMAGES GESTURES Team AGPiG-Architecture geometry models Dynamic architecture management TOPICS LEADERS Dominique ATTALI Dominique HOUZET 5 researchers Expressions identification Visual attention 3D ci rcuit architecture #12;gipsa-lab Team AGPiG-Architecture
Studier, F.W.
1995-04-18
Random and directed priming methods for determining nucleotide sequences by enzymatic sequencing techniques, using libraries of primers of lengths 8, 9 or 10 bases, are disclosed. These methods permit direct sequencing of nucleic acids as large as 45,000 base pairs or larger without the necessity for subcloning. Individual primers are used repeatedly to prime sequence reactions in many different nucleic acid molecules. Libraries containing as few as 10,000 octamers, 14,200 nonamers, or 44,000 decamers would have the capacity to determine the sequence of almost any cosmid DNA. Random priming with a fixed set of primers from a smaller library can also be used to initiate the sequencing of individual nucleic acid molecules, with the sequence being completed by directed priming with primers from the library. In contrast to random cloning techniques, a combined random and directed priming strategy is far more efficient. 2 figs.
Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY)
1995-04-18
Random and directed priming methods for determining nucleotide sequences by enzymatic sequencing techniques, using libraries of primers of lengths 8, 9 or 10 bases, are disclosed. These methods permit direct sequencing of nucleic acids as large as 45,000 base pairs or larger without the necessity for subcloning. Individual primers are used repeatedly to prime sequence reactions in many different nucleic acid molecules. Libraries containing as few as 10,000 octamers, 14,200 nonamers, or 44,000 decamers would have the capacity to determine the sequence of almost any cosmid DNA. Random priming with a fixed set of primers from a smaller library can also be used to initiate the sequencing of individual nucleic acid molecules, with the sequence being completed by directed priming with primers from the library. In contrast to random cloning techniques, a combined random and directed priming strategy is far more efficient.
LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS IN HILBERT GEOMETRY MICKAEL CRAMPON
Boyer, Edmond
LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS IN HILBERT GEOMETRY MICKA¨EL CRAMPON Abstract. We study the behaviour and the main interest of this article is in Lyapunov exponents of the geodesic flow. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Lyapunov exponents 11 3.1. Symmetries 11 3.2. Parallel Lyapunov exponents 12 3.3. Regular points 14 3
THE MOBIUS GEOMETRY OF HYPERSURFACES MICHAEL BOLT
Bolt, Michael
THE M¨OBIUS GEOMETRY OF HYPERSURFACES MICHAEL BOLT 1. Introduction Suppose r is a defining function that requires the Date: March 3, 2008. This is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMS- 0702939. 1 #12;2 MICHAEL BOLT hypersurface to be eight times differentiable was given
J. ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY 00 (XXXX) 000000
Rimányi, Richárd
J. ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY 00 (XXXX) 000000 S 1056-3911(XX)0000-0 THE DEGREE OF THE DISCRIMINANT algebraic group, and let : G GL(V ) be an irreducible algebraic representation. Then induces an action], Lascoux [18], Boole, Tevelev [21], Gelfand-Kapranov-Zelevinsky [12, Ch.13,14], see a summary in [22, Ch.7
Inductor Geometry With Improved Energy Density
Cui, H; Ngo, KDT; Moss, J; Lim, MHF; Rey, E
2014-10-01
The "constant-flux" concept is leveraged to achieve high magnetic-energy density, leading to inductor geometries with height significantly lower than that of conventional products. Techniques to shape the core and to distribute the winding turns to shape a desirable field profile are described for the two basic classes of magnetic geometries: those with the winding enclosed by the core and those with the core enclosed by the winding. A relatively constant flux distribution is advantageous not only from the density standpoint, but also from the thermal standpoint via the reduction of hot spots, and from the reliability standpoint via the suppression of flux crowding. In this journal paper on a constant-flux inductor (CFI) with enclosed winding, the foci are operating principle, dc analysis, and basic design procedure. Prototype cores and windings were routed from powder-iron disks and copper sheets, respectively. The design of CFI was validated by the assembled inductor prototype.
Inhabiting the square; a geometry for path and space
Joslin, Alan Royal
1982-01-01
Geometries and geometric systems are not architecture, though architecture is geometric. Geometries and geometric systems, because of their autonomous nature, are generally understandable and can serve as the basis of ...
Derived Differential Geometry Prof Joyce 14 lectures TT 2015 Overview
Burton, Geoffrey R.
1 Derived Differential Geometry Prof Joyce 14 lectures TT 2015 Overview Derived Differential Geometry is the study of derived smooth manifolds and orbifolds, where "derived" is in the sense
The geometry of electron wave functions
Aminov, Yurii A
2013-02-28
To each wave function we assign a codimension-two submanifold in Euclidean space. We study the case of the wave function of a single electron in the hydrogen atom or other hydrogen-type atoms with quantum numbers n, l, m in detail. We prove theorems describing the behaviour of the scalar and sectional curvature of the constructed submanifold, depending on the quantum numbers. We also consider the external geometry of the submanifold. Bibliography: 9 titles.
Jets, frames, and their Cartan geometry
Michael Grasseau
2006-03-24
Jets frames, that is a generalisation of ordinary frames on a manifold, are described in a language similar to that of gauge theory. This is achieved by constructing the Cartan geometry of a manifold with respect to the diffeomorphism symmetry. This point of vue allows to give new insights and interpretations in the theory of jet frames, in particular by making an interpolation between ordinary gauge theory concepts and pure jet ones.
RGG: Reactor geometry (and mesh) generator
Jain, R.; Tautges, T.
2012-07-01
The reactor geometry (and mesh) generator RGG takes advantage of information about repeated structures in both assembly and core lattices to simplify the creation of geometry and mesh. It is released as open source software as a part of the MeshKit mesh generation library. The methodology operates in three stages. First, assembly geometry models of various types are generated by a tool called AssyGen. Next, the assembly model or models are meshed by using MeshKit tools or the CUBIT mesh generation tool-kit, optionally based on a journal file output by AssyGen. After one or more assembly model meshes have been constructed, a tool called CoreGen uses a copy/move/merge process to arrange the model meshes into a core model. In this paper, we present the current state of tools and new features in RGG. We also discuss the parallel-enabled CoreGen, which in several cases achieves super-linear speedups since the problems fit in available RAM at higher processor counts. Several RGG applications - 1/6 VHTR model, 1/4 PWR reactor core, and a full-core model for Monju - are reported. (authors)
TOPICS IN ABSOLUTE ANABELIAN GEOMETRY III: GLOBAL RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHMS
Anabelian Geometry §I3. Dismantling the Two Combinatorial Dimensions of a Ring §I4. Mono-anabelian Log
Some integral geometry problems on Finsler and Riemannian ...
Yernat M. Assylbekov
2012-06-23
Institute of Mathematics Informatics and Mechanics. Kazakhstan. Joint work with Nurlan Dairbekov. Yernat M. Assylbekov. Integral geometry problems on Finsler ...
Harmonic Analysis and Geometries of Digital Data Bases
Maggioni, Mauro
Harmonic Analysis and Geometries of Digital Data Bases AMS Session Special Sesson, 2010 () Harmonic Analysis of Data Bases January 14, 2010 1 / 41 #12;Local geometry described by a graph, Gavish) Harmonic Analysis of Data Bases January 14, 2010 2 / 41 #12;Local geometry described by a graph
Simultaneous Cast Shadows, Illumination and Geometry Inference Using Hypergraphs
Samaras, Dimitris
Simultaneous Cast Shadows, Illumination and Geometry Inference Using Hypergraphs Alexandros Abstract--The cast shadows in an image provide important information about illumination and geometry environment, a set of geometry parameters, and an estimate of the cast shadows in the scene given a single
Zia, Taiba
2013-01-01
Jordan. “Acid Attacks: Bangladesh’s Efforts to Stop thesubcontinent, especially in Bangladesh and Pakistan, and inon acid crimes in Bangladesh, for instance). Reliable data
Differential geometry, Palatini gravity and reduction
Capriotti, S.
2014-01-15
The present article deals with a formulation of the so called (vacuum) Palatini gravity as a general variational principle. In order to accomplish this goal, some geometrical tools related to the geometry of the bundle of connections of the frame bundle LM are used. A generalization of Lagrange-Poincaré reduction scheme to these types of variational problems allows us to relate it with the Einstein-Hilbert variational problem. Relations with some other variational problems for gravity found in the literature are discussed.
Loy, D.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; Yamanaka, S.A.; McClain, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Encapsulants and Foams Dept.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Encapsulants and Foams Dept.; Greaves, J.; Hobson, S.; Shea, K.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
1998-12-01
In this study, the authors utilized the substitution geometry of triethoxysilyl groups about an organic bridging group to control the outcome of the sol-gel polymerization process. The substitution geometry of two triethoxysilyl groups about a carbon-carbon double bond was determined to have a profound effect on sol-gel polymerizations of the E (1) and Z (2) ethenylene-bridged monomers and vinylidene-bridged monomer (3) and on the porosity in the resulting xerogels. {sup 29}Si NMR and chemical ionization mass spectrometry were used to elucidate the early sol-gel chemistry in the acid-catalyzed polymerizations of 1--3. Trans substitution about the ethenylene-bridging group in 1 led to acyclic and monocyclic dimers and trimers as condensation products under acidic conditions and only microporous gels under both acidic and basic conditions. In contrast, cyclization reactions dominated the sol-gel chemistry of 2 beginning with intramolecular cyclization to give the cyclic disilsesquioxane (4) and continued with the formation of cyclic oligomers, including a bicyclic dimer. The cyclization of 2 slowed the rate of gelation compared to 1 and afforded microporous xerogels under acidic conditions and mesoporous gels under basic conditions. The sol-gel chemistry of the vinylidene monomer (3) was strongly retarded by the formation of a cyclic dimer (5). Only mesoporous gels were formed under basic conditions after 9 months; no gels were obtained under acidic conditions.
Structure of Six-Dimensional Microstate Geometries
de Lange, Paul; Vercnocke, Bert
2015-01-01
We investigate the structure of smooth and horizonless microstate geometries in six dimensions, in the spirit of the five-dimensional analysis of Gibbons and Warner [arXiv:1305.0957]. In six dimensions, which is the natural setting for horizonless geometries with the charges of the D1-D5-P black hole, the natural black objects are strings and there are no Chern-Simons terms for the tensor gauge fields. However, we still find that the same reasoning applies: in absence of horizons, there can be no smooth stationary solutions without non-trivial topology. We use topological arguments to describe the Smarr formula in various examples: the uplift of the five-dimensional minimal supergravity microstates to six dimensions, the two-charge D1-D5 microstates, and the non-extremal JMaRT solution. We also discuss D1-D5-P superstrata and confirm that the Smarr formula gives the same result as for the D1-D5 supertubes which are topologically equivalent.
Surveying Diffusion in Complex Geometries. An Essay
Denis Grebenkov
2009-09-08
The surrounding world surprises us by the beauty and variety of complex shapes that emerge from nanometric to macroscopic scales. Natural or manufactured materials (sandstones, sedimentary rocks and cement), colloidal solutions (proteins and DNA), biological cells, tissues and organs (lungs, kidneys and placenta), they all present irregularly shaped "scenes" for a fundamental transport "performance", that is, diffusion. Here, the geometrical complexity, entangled with the stochastic character of diffusive motion, results in numerous fascinating and sometimes unexpected effects like diffusion screening or localization. These effects control many diffusion-mediated processes that play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis, biochemical mechanisms, electrochemistry, growth phenomena, oil recovery, or building industry. In spite of a long and rich history of academic and industrial research in this field, it is striking to see how little we know about diffusion in complex geometries, especially the one which occurs in three dimensions. We present our recent results on restricted diffusion. We look into the role of geometrical complexity at different levels, from boundary microroughness to hierarchical structure and connectivity of the whole diffusion-confining domain. We develop a new approach which consists in combining fast random walk algorithms with spectral tools. The main focus is on studying diffusion in model complex geometries (von Koch boundaries, Kitaoka acinus, etc.), as well as on developing and testing spectral methods. We aim at extending this knowledge and at applying the accomplished arsenal of theoretical and numerical tools to structures found in nature and industry.
Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing
Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio
1996-01-01
were acidized with three stage treatments of 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl), 12% HCL-3% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and 15% HCL. No additives were used in the acid. Comparisons were made between cores acidized with a variety of saturating fluids. Petrographic...
Schottel, Brandi Lee
2009-05-15
]- and [PF6]- interacting with simple heteroaromatic rings of varying degrees of ?-acidity. Based on the final optimized complex geometries and Atoms in Molecules (AIM) critical point analyses, it was determined that anion-? interactions involving multiatomic...
Geometry and experience: Einstein's 1921 paper and Hilbert's axiomatic system
De Gandt, Francois [Universite Lille III, UMR 8163 'Savoirs et Textes', BP 60149, 59653 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)
2006-06-19
In his 1921 paper Geometrie und Erfahrung, Einstein decribes the new epistemological status of geometry, divorced from any intuitive or a priori content. He calls that 'axiomatics', following Hilbert's theoretical developments on axiomatic systems, which started with the stimulus given by a talk by Hermann Wiener in 1891 and progressed until the Foundations of geometry in 1899. Difficult questions arise: how is a theoretical system related to an intuitive empirical content?.
Black Hole Initial Data with a Horizon of Prescribed Geometry
Brian Smith
2007-10-04
The purpose of this work is to construct asymptotically flat, time symmetric initial data with an apparent horizon of prescribed intrinsic geometry. To do this, we use the parabolic partial differential equation for prescribing scalar curvature. In this equation the horizon geometry is contained within the freely specifiable part of the metric. This contrasts with the conformal method in which the geometry of the horizon can only be specified up to a conformal factor.
Geometry and Mechanics of Thin Growing Bilayers
Matteo Pezzulla; Gabriel P. Smith; Paola Nardinocchi; Douglas P. Holmes
2015-10-29
We investigate how thin sheets of arbitrary shapes morph under the isotropic in-plane expansion of their top surface, which may represent several stimuli such as nonuniform heating, local swelling and differential growth. Inspired by geometry, an analytical model is presented that rationalizes how the shape of the disk influences morphing, from the initial spherical bending to the final isometric limit. We introduce a new measure of slenderness $\\gamma$ that describes a sheet in terms of both thickness and plate shape. We find that the mean curvature of the isometric state is three fourth's the natural curvature, which we verify by numerics and experiments. We finally investigate the emergence of a preferred direction of bending in the isometric state, guided by numerical analyses. The scalability of our model suggests that it is suitable to describe the morphing of sheets spanning several orders of magnitude.
Complex geometry and pre-metric electromagnetism
D. H. Delphenich
2004-12-10
The intimate link between complex geometry and the problem of the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism is explored. In particular, the relationship between 3+1 decompositions of R4 and the decompositions of the vector space of bivectors over R4 into real and imaginary subspaces relative to a choice of complex structure is emphasized. The role of the various scalar products on the space of bivectors that are defined in terms of a volume element on R4 and a complex structure on the space of bivectors that makes it C-linear isomorphic to C3 is discussed in the context of formulation of a theory of electromagnetism in which the Lorentzian metric on spacetime follows as a consequence of the existence of electromagnetic waves, not a prior assumption.
Crystalline Scaling Geometries from Vortex Lattices
Ning Bao; Sarah Harrison
2013-06-25
We study magnetic geometries with Lifshitz and/or hyperscaling violation exponents (both with a hard wall cutoff in the IR and a smooth black brane horizon) which have a complex scalar field which couples to the magnetic field. The complex scalar is unstable to the production of a vortex lattice in the IR. The lattice is a normalizable mode which is relevant (i.e. grows into the IR.) When one considers linearized backreaction of the lattice on the metric and gauge field, the metric forms a crystalline structure. We analyze the scaling of the free energy, thermodynamic entropy, and entanglement in the lattice phase and find that in the smeared limit, the leading order correction to thermodynamic properties due to the lattice has the scaling behavior of a theory with a hyperscaling violation exponent between 0 and 1, indicating a flow to an effectively lower-dimensional theory in the deep IR.
Interferometric Tests of Planckian Quantum Geometry Models
Ohkyung Kwon; Craig J. Hogan
2015-10-01
The effect of Planck scale quantum geometrical effects on measurements with interferometers is estimated with standard physics, and with a variety of proposed extensions. It is shown that effects are negligible in standard field theory with canonically quantized gravity. Statistical noise levels are estimated in a variety of proposals for non-standard metric fluctuations, and these alternatives are constrained using upper bounds on stochastic metric fluctuations from LIGO. Idealized models of several interferometer system architectures are used to predict signal noise spectra in a quantum geometry that cannot be described by a fluctuating metric, in which position noise arises from holographic bounds on directional information. Predictions in this case are shown to be close to current and projected experimental bounds.
Interferometric Probes of Planckian Quantum Geometry
Ohkyung Kwon; Craig J. Hogan
2015-02-24
The effect of Planck scale quantum geometrical effects on measurements with interferometers is estimated with standard physics, and with a variety of proposed extensions. It is shown that effects are negligible in standard field theory with canonically quantized gravity. Statistical noise levels are estimated in a variety of proposals for non-standard metric fluctuations, and these alternatives are constrained using upper bounds on stochastic metric fluctuations from LIGO. Idealized models of several interferometer system architectures are used to predict signal noise spectra in a quantum geometry that cannot be described by a fluctuating metric, in which position noise arises from holographic bounds on directional information. Predictions in this case are shown to be close to current and projected experimental bounds.
The Sticky Geometry of the Cosmic Web
Johan Hidding; Rien van de Weygaert; Gert Vegter; Bernard J. T. Jones; Monique Teillaud
2012-05-08
In this video we highlight the application of Computational Geometry to our understanding of the formation and dynamics of the Cosmic Web. The emergence of this intricate and pervasive weblike structure of the Universe on Megaparsec scales can be approximated by a well-known equation from fluid mechanics, the Burgers' equation. The solution to this equation can be obtained from a geometrical formalism. We have extended and improved this method by invoking weighted Delaunay and Voronoi tessellations. The duality between these tessellations finds a remarkable and profound reflection in the description of physical systems in Eulerian and Lagrangian terms. The resulting Adhesion formalism provides deep insight into the dynamics and topology of the Cosmic Web. It uncovers a direct connection between the conditions in the very early Universe and the complex spatial patterns that emerged out of these under the influence of gravity.
Thermodynamics and geometry of strange quark matter
H. Gholizade; A. Altaibayeva; R. Myrzakulov
2014-12-21
We study thermodynamic of strange quark matter (SQM) using the analytic expressions of free and internal energies. We investigate two regimes of the high density and low density separately. As a vital program, in the case of a massless gluon and massless quarks at finite temperature, we also present a geometry of thermodynamics for the gluon and Bosons using a Legendre invariance metric, it is so called as geometrothermodynamic (GTD) to better understanding of the phase transition. The GTD metric and its second order scalar invariant have been obtained, and we clarify the phase transition by study the singularities of the scalar curvature of this Riemannian metric. This method is ensemble dependence and to complete the phase transition. Meanwhile, we also investigate enthalpy and entropy and internal energy representations. Our work exposes new pictures of the nature of phase transitions in SQM.
Efficient Dense Reconstruction Using Geometry and Image Consistency Constraints
Shashkov, Mikhail M; Mak, Jason; Recker, Shawn; Nguyen, Connie; Owens, John; Joy, Kenneth I
2015-01-01
Efficient Dense Reconstruction Using Geometry and Imagebenefit from dense and efficient multi-view reconstructionare made possible by efficient, accurate, and dense modeling
Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure...
Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report:...
Classical Geometry of De Sitter Spacetime : An Introductory Review
Yoonbai Kim; Chae Young Oh; Namil Park
2002-12-29
Classical geometry of de Sitter spacetime is reviewed in arbitrary dimensions. Topics include coordinate systems, geodesic motions, and Penrose diagrams with detailed calculations.
efficient spectral-galerkin methods iv. spherical geometries
1999-10-21
EFFICIENT SPECTRAL-GALERKIN METHODS IV. SPHERICAL GEOMETRIES. ?. JIE SHEN†. SIAM J. SCI. COMPUT. c 1999 Society for Industrial and Applied ...
Topologies to geometries in protein folding: Hierarchical and nonhierarchical scenarios
Berry, R. Stephen
Topologies to geometries in protein folding: Hierarchical and nonhierarchical scenarios Ariel Ferna presents a method to portray protein folding dynamics at a coarse resolution, based on a pattern
Lee, Tonghun
that make building block chemicals. Ethanol is blended with gasoline, reducing our dependence on petroleum for high valued products, including: Aspartic acid Glucaric acid Glycerol Sorbitol Some companies already
Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)
2001-01-01
This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.
Early History of Algebra and Geometry Modern History
Tribute Early History of Algebra and Geometry Modern History From Algebraic to Weak Subintegral. Vitulli Algebraic to Subintegral Extensions #12;Tribute Early History of Algebra and Geometry Modern History Etta Zuber Falconer (1933 - 2002) "My entire career has been devoted to increasing the number
Line geometry and electromagnetism III: groups of transformations
D. H. Delphenich
2014-04-16
The role of linear and projective groups of transformations in line geometry and electromagnetism is examined in accordance with Klein's Erlanger Programm for geometries. The group of collineations of real projective space is chosen as the most general group, and reductions to some of its various subgroups are then detailed according to their relevance to electromagnetic fields, and especially wave-like ones.
Statistics and Differential Geometry 18-466 Mathematical Statistics
Le Ny, Jerome
Statistics and Differential Geometry 18-466 Mathematical Statistics Jerome Le Ny December 14, 2005 of statistical curvature [Efr75], that most of the main concepts and methods of differ- ential geometry are of substantial interest in connection with the theory of statistical inference. This report describes in simple
Optimized Prediction for Geometry Compression of Triangle Meshes
Chiang, Yi-Jen
ACI-0118915. z yjc@poly.edu. Research supported in part by NSF Grant ACI-0118915, NSF CAREER Grant CCR- 0093373, and NSF ITR Grant CCR-0081964. x memon@poly.edu. Research supported in part by NSF Grant ACI for geometry compression, and has been adopted for the MPEG-4 standard for mesh geometry coding [18]. However
Twenty-second European Workshop on Computational Geometry Delphi, Greece
Karavelas, Menelaos
#12;Abstracts Twenty-second European Workshop on Computational Geometry Delphi, Greece March 27 by the authors. Workshop logo by Menelaos Karavelas. Printed in Greece. Sponsors UNIVERSITY OF IOANNINA Workshop on Computational Geometry held at Delphi, Greece, on March 2729, 2006. These papers are also
Summer School on Applicable Algebraic Geometry: Additional Funding
Sottile, Frank
software. We will also have guest lectures explaining cur- rent research topics. This multi-tiered menu and techniques from algebraic geometry to problems in applied mathematics and engineering. Part thematic year "Applications of Algebraic Geometry" is showcasing these trends and will lead to further
Overture Past Interlude Present Interlude Future Finale Geometry's Future
Lee, Carl
Overture Past Interlude Present Interlude Future Finale Geometry's Future: Past, Present, and Future Carl Lee University of Kentucky http://www.ms.uky.edu/lee NCTM -- April 2011 Geometry's Future UK #12;Overture Past Interlude Present Interlude Future Finale Overture Past Interlude Present Interlude
Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption of *Peptidesin Transmission Geometry
Vertes, Akos
~~~_ Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption of *Peptidesin Transmission Geometry Akos Vertes* Laszlo, Francc The possibility of performing matrix-assisted laser &sorption experiments in trknsmission geometry large molecules. Because of the clearlv demonstrated matrix-assisted laser ionization in a homogeneous
GRworkbench: A Computational System Based on Differential Geometry
Susan M Scott; Benjamin J K Evans; Antony C Searle
2001-11-19
We have developed a new tool for numerical work in General Relativity: GRworkbench. While past tools have been ad hoc, GRworkbench closely follows the framework of Differential Geometry to provide a robust and general way of computing on analytically defined space-times. We discuss the relationship between Differential Geometry and C++ classes in GRworkbench, and demonstrate their utility.
Mass Effects and Internal Space Geometry in Triatomic Reaction Dynamics
Koon, Wang Sang
Mass Effects and Internal Space Geometry in Triatomic Reaction Dynamics Tomohiro Yanao , Wang S reaction dynamics is analyzed using the geometry of the associated internal space. Atomic masses equations of motion, which act as velocity-dependent forces in a coordinate chart. By statistically averag
Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions
Stefanopoulou, Anna
Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions A.G. Stefanopoulouz Introduction In this paper we consider an automotive control problem for a variable geometry turbocharged (VGT torque output as compared to (non-turbocharged) naturally aspirated engines 13]. The power generated
On Solving a Problem in Algebraic Geometry by Cluster Computing ?
program is implemented in the software library CASA on top of the computer algebra system Maple (computer algebra software for constructive algebraic geometry) which has been developed on topOn Solving a Problem in Algebraic Geometry by Cluster Computing ? Wolfgang Schreiner, Christian
Volumetric Geometry Reconstruction of Turbine Blades for Aircraft Engines
Jüttler, Bert
Volumetric Geometry Reconstruction of Turbine Blades for Aircraft Engines David Großmann1 and Bert features throughout the process. Keywords: volumetric geometry reconstruction, turbine blades, trivari- ate. The volumetric B-spline parametrization which is discussed in the present paper enables us to explore new
Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.
2005-04-05
The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.
Nucleic acid detection compositions
Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)
2008-08-05
The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.
Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)
2010-11-09
The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.
Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)
2007-12-11
The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.
Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry
Roy, S.; Parks, D.H.; Seu, K.A.; Turner, J.J.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.H.; Cabrini, S.; Kevan, S.D.; Su, R.
2011-02-03
Lensless X-ray imaging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography, and Fourier transform holography can provide time-resolved, diffraction-limited images. Nearly all examples of these techniques have focused on transmission geometry, restricting the samples and reciprocal spaces that can be investigated. We report a lensless X-ray technique developed for imaging in Bragg and small-angle scattering geometries, which may also find application in transmission geometries. We demonstrate this by imaging a nanofabricated pseudorandom binary structure in small-angle reflection geometry. The technique can be used with extended objects, places no restriction on sample size, and requires no additional sample masking. The realization of X-ray lensless imaging in reflection geometry opens up the possibility of single-shot imaging of surfaces in thin films, buried interfaces in magnetic multilayers, organic photovoltaic and field-effect transistor devices, or Bragg planes in a single crystal.
Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.
2005-03-29
The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.
Statistics and geometry of cosmic voids
Gaite, José
2009-11-01
We introduce new statistical methods for the study of cosmic voids, focusing on the statistics of largest size voids. We distinguish three different types of distributions of voids, namely, Poisson-like, lognormal-like and Pareto-like distributions. The last two distributions are connected with two types of fractal geometry of the matter distribution. Scaling voids with Pareto distribution appear in fractal distributions with box-counting dimension smaller than three (its maximum value), whereas the lognormal void distribution corresponds to multifractals with box-counting dimension equal to three. Moreover, voids of the former type persist in the continuum limit, namely, as the number density of observable objects grows, giving rise to lacunar fractals, whereas voids of the latter type disappear in the continuum limit, giving rise to non-lacunar (multi)fractals. We propose both lacunar and non-lacunar multifractal models of the cosmic web structure of the Universe. A non-lacunar multifractal model is supported by current galaxy surveys as well as cosmological N-body simulations. This model suggests, in particular, that small dark matter halos and, arguably, faint galaxies are present in cosmic voids.
On Minkowski space and finite geometry
Marko Orel
2014-10-08
The main aim of this interdisciplinary paper is to characterize all maps on finite Minkowski space of arbitrary dimension $n$ that map pairs of distinct light-like events into pairs of distinct light-like events. Neither bijectivity of maps nor preservation of light-likeness in the opposite direction, i.e. from codomain to domain, is assumed. We succeed in in many cases, which include the one with $n$ divisible by 4 and the one with $n$ odd and $\\geq 9$, by showing that both bijectivity of maps and the preservation of light-likeness in the opposite direction is obtained automatically. In general, the problem of whether there exist non-bijective mappings that map pairs od distinct light-like events into pairs of distinct light-like events is shown to be related to one of the central problems in finite geometry, namely to existence of ovoids in orthogonal polar space. This problem is still unsolved in general despite a huge amount of research done in this area in the last few decades. The proofs are based on the study of a core of an affine polar graph, which yields results that are closely related to the ones obtained previously by Cameron and Kazanidis for the point graph of a polar space.
Geometry of Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization
Albert Schwarz
1992-05-26
The present paper is devoted to the study of geometry of Batalin-Vilkovisky quantization procedure. The main mathematical objects under consideration are P-manifolds and SP-manifolds (supermanifolds provided with an odd symplectic structure and, in the case of SP-manifolds, with a volume element). The Batalin-Vilkovisky procedure leads to consideration of integrals of the superharmonic functions over Lagrangian submanifolds. The choice of Lagrangian submanifold can be interpreted as a choice of gauge condition; Batalin and Vilkovisky proved that in some sense their procedure is gauge independent. We prove much more general theorem of the same kind. This theorem leads to a conjecture that one can modify the quantization procedure in such a way as to avoid the use of the notion of Lagrangian submanifold. In the next paper we will show that this is really so at least in the semiclassical approximation. Namely the physical quantities can be expressed as integrals over some set of critical points of solution S to the master equation with the integrand expressed in terms of Reidemeister torsion. This leads to a simplification of quantization procedure and to the possibility to get rigorous results also in the infinite-dimensional case. The present paper contains also a compete classification of P-manifolds and SP-manifolds. The classification is interesting by itself, but in this paper it plays also a role of an important tool in the proof of other results.
Microorganisms for producing organic acids
Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett
2014-09-30
Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.
Pope, Christopher
Geometry and Group Theory ABSTRACT In this course, we develop the basic notions of Manifolds and Geometry, with applications in physics, and also we develop the basic notions of the theory of Lie Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2 General Relativity; Einstein's Theory of Gravitation 73 2.1 The Equivalence Principle
Introduction to M(atrix) theory and noncommutative geometry
A. Konechny; A. Schwarz
2001-07-29
Noncommutative geometry is based on an idea that an associative algebra can be regarded as "an algebra of functions on a noncommutative space". The major contribution to noncommutative geometry was made by A. Connes, who, in particular, analyzed Yang-Mills theories on noncommutative spaces, using important notions that were introduced in his papers (connection, Chern character, etc). It was found recently that Yang-Mills theories on noncommutative spaces appear naturally in string/M-theory; the notions and results of noncommutative geometry were applied very successfully to the problems of physics. In this paper we give a mostly self-contained review of some aspects of M(atrix) theory, of Connes' noncommutative geometry and of applications of noncommutative geometry to M(atrix) theory. The topics include introduction to BFSS and IKKT matrix models, compactifications on noncommutative tori, a review of basic notions of noncommutative geometry with a detailed discussion of noncommutative tori, Morita equivalence and $SO(d,d|{\\mathbb Z})$-duality, an elementary discussion of instantons and noncommutative orbifolds. The review is primarily intended for physicists who would like to learn some basic techniques of noncommutative geometry and how they can be applied in string theory and to mathematicians who would like to learn about some new problems arising in theoretical physics.
Five Dimensional Minimal Supergravities and Four Dimensional Complex Geometries
Grover, Jai; Gutowski, Jan B.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Sabra, Wafic
2009-05-01
We discuss the relation between solutions admitting Killing spinors of minimal supergravities in five dimensions and four dimensional complex geometries. In the ungauged case (vanishing cosmological constant {lambda} 0) the solutions are determined in terms of a hyper-Kaehler base space; in the gauged case ({lambda}<0) the complex geometry is Kaehler; in the de Sitter case ({lambda}>0) the complex geometry is hyper-Kaehler with torsion (HKT). In the latter case some details of the derivation are given. The method for constructing explicit solutions is discussed in each case.
The causal structure of spacetime is a parameterized Randers geometry
Skakala, Jozef
2010-01-01
There is a by now well-established isomorphism between stationary 4-dimensional spacetimes and 3-dimensional purely spatial Randers geometries - these Randers geometries being a particular case of the more general class of 3-dimensional Finsler geometries. We point out that in stably causal spacetimes, by using the (time-dependent) ADM decomposition, this result can be extended to general non-stationary spacetimes - the causal structure (conformal structure) of the full spacetime is completely encoded in a parameterized (time-dependent) class of Randers spaces, which can then be used to define a Fermat principle, and also to reconstruct the null cones and causal structure.
Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)
2009-10-13
A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.
Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)
2011-11-01
A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.
Dave Heldebrant
2012-12-31
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.
HYDROFLUORIC ACID Safety Office
Davis, Lloyd M.
in industrial processes: glass etching, metal cleaning, laboratory reagents, etc. Can be found in household products: rust removers, automotive detailing products, stain removers. #12;Hydrofluoric Acid Chemical
Geometry-dependent critical currents in superconducting nanocircuits
Clem, John R.
In this paper, we calculate the critical currents in thin superconducting strips with sharp right-angle turns, 180? turnarounds, and more complicated geometries, where all the line widths are much smaller than the Pearl ...
Mechanical Equations on Bi-Para Conformal Geometry
Zeki Kasap; Mehmet Tekkoyun
2012-09-22
This study is an extented analogue to conformal geometry of the paper given by [14]. Also, the geometric and physical results related to bi-para-conformal-dynamical systems are also presented.
Computer-assisted proofs in geometry and physics
Minton, Gregory T. (Gregory Thomas)
2013-01-01
In this dissertation we apply computer-assisted proof techniques to two problems, one in discrete geometry and one in celestial mechanics. Our main tool is an effective inverse function theorem which shows that, in favorable ...
The Effects of Geometry on Flexible Duct CFD Simulations
Ugursal, A.; Culp, C.
2008-01-01
dynamics (CFD) simulations allow variable configurations and are emerging as an alternative to laboratory measurements. Issues with the CFD simulations of flexible ducts have been modeling the complex geometry and the computational requirements to complete...
Algorithmic Semi-algebraic Geometry and Topology – Recent ...
2007-09-17
problems in semi-algebraic geometry, their history, as well as brief ...... finite partition of Ri into semi-algebraic subsets, called the cells of level i, which satisfy the ...
Layer-by-layer assembly in confined geometries
DeRocher, Jonathan P
2011-01-01
The fundamental nature of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in confined geometries was investigated for a number of different chemical systems. The first part of this thesis concerns the modification of microfluidic and ...
Exploring Geometries of SRF Cavities for a Future Muon Collider
Geng, Rong-Li
application of super- conducting RF cavities in a future muon collider. Such RF cavities are expected to workExploring Geometries of SRF Cavities for a Future Muon Collider Rong-Li Geng LEPP, Cornell
Microfluidic extensional rheometry using a hyperbolic contraction geometry
Ober, Thomas J.
Microfluidic devices are ideally suited for the study of complex fluids undergoing large deformation rates in the absence of inertial complications. In particular, a microfluidic contraction geometry can be utilized to ...
Influence of geometry on natural convection in buildings
White, M.D.; Winn, C.B.; Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.
1985-01-01
Strong free convection airflows occur within passive solar buildings resulting from elevated temperatures of surfaces irradiated by solar energy compared with the cooler surfaces not receiving radiation. The geometry of a building has a large influence on the directions and magnitudes of natural airflows, and thus heat transfer between zones. This investigation has utilized a variety of reduced-scale building configurations to study the effects of geometry on natural convection heat transfer. Similarity between the reduced-scale model and a full-scale passive solar building is achieved by having similar geometries and by replacing air with Freon-12 gas as the model's working fluid. Filling the model with Freon-12 gas results in similarity in Prandtl numbers and Rayleigh numbers based on temperature differences in the range from 10/sup 9/ to 10/sup 11/. Results from four geometries are described with an emphasis placed on the effects of heat loss on zone temperature stratification shifts.
Investigation of Created Fracture Geometry through Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Analysis
Ahmed, Ibraheem 1987-
2012-11-30
Successful development of shale gas reservoirs is highly dependent on hydraulic fracture treatments. Many questions remain in regards to the geometry of the created fractures. Production data analysis from some shale gas wells quantifies a much...
A pre-introduction to algebraic geometry by pictures
2006-07-20
A pre-introduction to algebraic geometry by pictures. Donu Arapura. A complex algebraic plane curve is the set of complex solutions to a polynomial equation f(x,
Some properties of evolving wormhole geometries within nonlinear electrodynamics
Aaron V. B. Arellano; Nora Breton; Ricardo Garcia-Salcedo
2008-04-24
In this paper we review some properties for the evolving wormhole solution of Einstein equations coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics. We integrate the geodesic equations in the effective geometry obeyed by photons; we check out the weak field limit and find the traversability conditions. Then we analyze the case when the lagrangian depends on two electromagnetic invariants and it turns out that there is not a more general solution within the assumed geometry.
Searching for higher dimensional wormholes with noncommutative geometry
Farook Rahaman; P. K. F. Kuhfittig; Saibal Ray; Safiqul Islam
2012-11-29
Noncommutative geometry, an offshoot of string theory, replaces point-like structures with smeared objects and has recently been extended to higher dimensions. The purpose of this letter is to obtain wormhole solutions with this extended noncommutative geometry as a background. It is found through this investigation that wormhole solutions exist in the usual four, as well as in five dimensions, but they do not exist in higher-dimensional spacetimes.
Triangle geometry processing for surface modeling and cartesian grid generation
Aftosmis, Michael J. (San Mateo, CA) [San Mateo, CA; Melton, John E. (Hollister, CA) [Hollister, CA; Berger, Marsha J. (New York, NY) [New York, NY
2002-09-03
Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.
Review of `Principles of algebraic geometry' (Griffiths and Harris).pdf
publications whose sheer mass threatened to unbalance algebraic geometry. .... geometry is an impressive scholarly work, not only as a compendium of basic.
Fay, James A.
1983-01-01
High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...
Tuning spin transport properties and molecular magnetoresistance through contact geometry
Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana; Sheikh Saqr Laboratory, ICMS, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 ; Delin, Anna; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala; SeRC , KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm
2014-01-28
Molecular spintronics seeks to unite the advantages of using organic molecules as nanoelectronic components, with the benefits of using spin as an additional degree of freedom. For technological applications, an important quantity is the molecular magnetoresistance. In this work, we show that this parameter is very sensitive to the contact geometry. To demonstrate this, we perform ab initio calculations, combining the non-equilibrium Green's function method with density functional theory, on a dithienylethene molecule placed between spin-polarized nickel leads of varying geometries. We find that, in general, the magnetoresistance is significantly higher when the contact is made to sharp tips than to flat surfaces. Interestingly, this holds true for both resonant and tunneling conduction regimes, i.e., when the molecule is in its “closed” and “open” conformations, respectively. We find that changing the lead geometry can increase the magnetoresistance by up to a factor of ?5. We also introduce a simple model that, despite requiring minimal computational time, can recapture our ab initio results for the behavior of magnetoresistance as a function of bias voltage. This model requires as its input only the density of states on the anchoring atoms, at zero bias voltage. We also find that the non-resonant conductance in the open conformation of the molecule is significantly impacted by the lead geometry. As a result, the ratio of the current in the closed and open conformations can also be tuned by varying the geometry of the leads, and increased by ?400%.
Extension of information geometry for modelling non-statistical systems
Ben Anthonis
2015-01-05
In this dissertation, an abstract formalism extending information geometry is introduced. This framework encompasses a broad range of modelling problems, including possible applications in machine learning and in the information theoretical foundations of quantum theory. Its purely geometrical foundations make no use of probability theory and very little assumptions about the data or the models are made. Starting only from a divergence function, a Riemannian geometrical structure consisting of a metric tensor and an affine connection is constructed and its properties are investigated. Also the relation to information geometry and in particular the geometry of exponential families of probability distributions is elucidated. It turns out this geometrical framework offers a straightforward way to determine whether or not a parametrised family of distributions can be written in exponential form. Apart from the main theoretical chapter, the dissertation also contains a chapter of examples illustrating the application of the formalism and its geometric properties, a brief introduction to differential geometry and a historical overview of the development of information geometry.
Turk, Stacey N.
2010-01-14
We hypothesized that subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue would differ in monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types...
Numerical Code for LHCD Simulations with Self-consistent Treatment of Alpha Particles in Tokamak Geometry
Downstream Hydraulic Geometry of Alluvial Channels Jong-Seok Lee, A.M.ASCE1
Julien, Pierre Y.
Downstream Hydraulic Geometry of Alluvial Channels Jong-Seok Lee, A.M.ASCE1 ; and Pierre Y. Julien. A larger database for the downstream hydraulic geometry of alluvial channels is examined through with meandering to braided planform geometry. The five parameters describing downstream hydraulic geometry are
Effects of Divertor Geometry and Chemical Sputtering on Impurity Behaviour and Plasma Performance in JET
Discrimination of particle masses in multivariant space-time geometry
Yuri A. Rylov
2007-12-11
Multivariance of geometry means that at the point $P_{0}$ there exist many vectors $P_{0}P_{1}$, $\\P_{0}P_{2}$,... which are equivalent (equal) to the vector $\\Q_{0}Q_{1}$ at the point $Q_{0}$, but they are not equivalent between themselves. The discrimination capacity (zero-variance) of geometry appears, when at the point $P_{0}$ there are no vectors, which are equivalent to the vector $Q_{0}Q_{1}$ at the point $Q_{0}$. It is shown, that in some multivariant space-time geometries some particles of small mass may be discriminated (i.e. either they do not exist, or their evolution is impossible). The possibility of some particle discrimination may appear to be important for explanation of the discrete character of mass spectrum of elementary particles.
Torsional Newton-Cartan Geometry and Lifshitz Holography
Morten H. Christensen; Jelle Hartong; Niels A. Obers; Blaise Rollier
2014-09-19
We obtain the Lifshitz UV completion in a specific model for z=2 Lifshitz geometries. We use a vielbein formalism which enables identification of all the sources as leading components of well-chosen bulk fields. We show that the geometry induced from the bulk onto the boundary is a novel extension of Newton-Cartan geometry with a specific torsion tensor. We explicitly compute all the vevs including the boundary stress-energy tensor and their Ward identities. After using local symmetries/Ward identities the system exhibits 6+6 sources and vevs. The FG expansion exhibits, however, an additional free function which is related to an irrelevant operator whose source has been turned off. We show that this is related to a second UV completion.
On Thermodynamics and Phase Space of Near Horizon Extremal Geometries
Hajian, Kamal
2015-01-01
Near Horizon Extremal Geometries (NHEG), are geometries which may appear in the near horizon region of the extremal black holes. These geometries have $SL(2,\\mathbb{R})\\!\\times\\!U(1)^n$ isometry, and constitute a family of solutions to the theory under consideration. In the first part of this report, their thermodynamic properties are reviewed, and their three universal laws are derived. In addition, at the end of the first part, the role of these laws in black hole thermodynamics is presented. In the second part of this thesis, we review building their classical phase space in the Einstein-Hilbert theory. The elements in the NHEG phase space manifold are built by appropriately chosen coordinate transformations of the original metric. These coordinate transformations are generated by some vector fields, dubbed "symplectic symmetry generators." To fully specify the phase space, we also need to identify the symplectic structure. In order to fix the symplectic structure, we use the formulation of Covariant Phase...
On the geometry of Kähler-Poisson structures
Joakim Arnlind; Gerhard Huisken
2012-11-14
We prove that the Riemannian geometry of almost K\\"ahler manifolds can be expressed in terms of the Poisson algebra of smooth functions on the manifold. Subsequently, K\\"ahler-Poisson algebras are introduced, and it is shown that a corresponding purely algebraic theory of geometry and curvature can be developed. As an illustration of the new concepts we give an algebraic proof of the statement that a bound on the (algebraic) Ricci curvature induces a bound on the eigenvalues of the (algebraic) Laplace operator, in analogy with the well-known theorem in Riemannian geometry. As the correspondence between Poisson brackets of smooth functions and commutators of operators lies at the heart of quantization, a purely Poisson algebraic proof of, for instance, such a "Gap Theorem", might lead to an understanding of spectral properties in a corresponding quantum mechanical system.
Optical reference geometry of the Kerr-Newman spacetimes
Zden?k Stuchlík; Stanislav Hledík; Josef Jurá?
2008-03-17
Properties of the optical reference geometry related to Kerr-Newman black-hole and naked-singularity spacetimes are illustrated using embedding diagrams of their equatorial plane. Among all inertial forces defined in the framework of the optical geometry, just the centrifugal force plays a fundamental role in connection to the embedding diagrams because it changes sign at the turning points of the diagrams. The limits of embeddability are given, and it is established which of the photon circular orbits hosted the by Kerr-Newman spacetimes appear in the embeddable regions. Some typical embedding diagrams are constructed, and the Kerr-Newman backgrounds are classified according to the number of embeddable regions of the optical geometry as well as the number of their turning points. Embedding diagrams are closely related to the notion of the radius of gyration which is useful for analyzing fluid rotating in strong gravitational fields.
Nontrivial Geometries: Bounds on the Curvature of the Universe
Laura Mersini-Houghton; Yun Wang; Pia Mukherjee; Ervin Kafexhiu
2007-05-02
Probing the geometry of the universe is one of the most important endevours in cosmology. Current observational data from the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy (CMB), galaxy surveys and type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) strongly constrain the curvature of the universe to be close to zero for a universe dominated by a cosmological constant or dark energy with a constant equation of state. Here we investigate the role of cosmic priors on deriving these tight bounds on geometry, by considering a landscape motivated scenario with an oscillating curvature term. We perform a likelihood analysis of current data under such a model of non-trivial geometry and find that the uncertainties on curvature, and correspondingly on parameters of the matter and dark energy sectors, are larger. Future dark energy experiments together with CMB data from experiments like Planck could dramatically improve our ability to constrain cosmic curvature under such models enabling us to probe possible imprints of quantum gravity.
From Special Geometry to Black Hole Partition Functions
Thomas Mohaupt
2008-12-22
These notes are based on lectures given at the Erwin-Schrodinger Insitut in Vienna in 2006/07 and at the 2007 School on Attractor Mechanism in Frascati. Lecture I: special geometry from the superconformal point of view. Lecture II: black hole attractor mechanism, its underlying variational principle, and black hole partition functions. Lecture III: large and small BPS black holes in N=4 supergravity. Lecture IV: state counting for N=4 string compactifications. Appendix A: special geometry from the mathematical point of view. Appendix B: review of modular forms. Contains four problems which allow the readers to develop some of the key concepts by themselves.
Controlling Electromagnetic Fields at Boundaries of Arbitrary Geometries
Teo, Jonathon Yi Han; Molardi, Carlo; Genevet, Patrice
2015-01-01
Rapid developments in the emerging field of stretchable and conformable photonics necessitate analytical expressions for boundary conditions at metasurfaces of arbitrary geometries. Here, we introduce the concept of conformal boundary optics: a design theory that determines the optical response for designer input and output fields at such interfaces. Given any object, we can realise coatings to achieve exotic effects like optical illusions and anomalous diffraction behaviour. This approach is relevant to a broad range of applications from conventional refractive optics to the design of the next-generation of wearable optical components. This concept can be generalized to other fields of research where designer interfaces with nontrivial geometries are encountered.
On the material geometry of continuously defective corrugated graphene sheets
Andrzej Trzesowski
2014-12-22
Geometrical objects describing the material geometry of continuously defective graphene sheets are introduced and their compatibility conditions are formulated. Effective edge dislocations embedded in the Riemann-Cartan material space and defined by their scalar density and by local Burgers vectors, are considered. The case of secondary curvature-type defects created by this distribution of dislocations is analysed in terms of the material space. The variational geometry of the material space closely related with the existence of a characteristic length parameter is proposed. The formula which describes, in a reference temperature, the influence of dislocations on the material Riemannian metric, is given.
On the isothermal geometry of corrugated graphene sheets
Andrzej Trzesowski
2014-12-22
Variational geometries describing corrugated graphene sheets are proposed. The isothermal thermomechanical properties of these sheets are described by a 2-dimensional Weyl space. The equation that couples the Weyl geometry with isothermal distributions of the temperature of graphene sheets, is formulated. This material space is observed in a 3-dimensional orthogonal configurational point space as regular surfaces which are endowed with a thermal state vector field fulfilling the isothermal thermal state equation. It enables to introduce a non-topological dimensionless thermal shape parameter of non-developable graphene sheets. The properties of the congruence of lines generated by the thermal state vector field are discussed.
Distributional energy momentum tensor of the extended Kerr geometry
H. Balasin
1997-02-27
We generalize previous work on the energy-momentum tensor-distribution of the Kerr geometry by extending the manifold structure into the negative mass region. Since the extension of the flat part of the Kerr-Schild decomposition from one sheet to the double cover develops a singularity at the branch surface we have to take its non-smoothness into account. It is however possible to find a geometry within the generalized Kerr-Schild class that is in the Colombeau-sense associated to the maximally analytic Kerr-metric.
THE GEOMETRY OF DISORDER: THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF QUASICRYSTALS...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
scitechservletspurl1015270 http:www.osti.govscitechbiblio1015270 Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS...
NANOFLARE STATISTICS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES: FRACTAL GEOMETRY AND TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS
Parnell, Clare E.
of nanoflares in a quiet-Sun region covering a comprehensive temperature range of Te % 1 4 MK. We detected. We synthesize the temperature-biased frequency distributions from each wavelength and findNANOFLARE STATISTICS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES: FRACTAL GEOMETRY AND TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS Markus J
Vibration Enhances Geometry Perception with Tactile Shape Displays Mara Oyarzbal *
Tachi, Susumu
Vibration Enhances Geometry Perception with Tactile Shape Displays María Oyarzábal * Masashi, but little is known about the effects of vibrating displayed shapes. This study examines passive touch, but it was readily detected when the pattern was vibrated at 5 Hz. A central raised bar was incorrectly perceived
Geometry & Topology 18 (2014) 20792126 Realisation and dismantlability
Przytycki, Piotr
2014-01-01
msp Geometry & Topology 18 (2014) 20792126 Realisation and dismantlability SEBASTIAN HENSEL DAMIAN OSAJDA PIOTR PRZYTYCKI We prove that a finite group acting on an infinite graph with dismantling is contractible. We study dismantling properties of the arc, disc and sphere graphs. We apply our theory to prove
Industrial Geometry: Recent Advances and Applications in CAD
Pottmann, Helmut
Industrial Geometry: Recent Advances and Applications in CAD H. Pottmann a, S. Leopoldseder a M, Austria bUniversity of Hong Kong, 421 Chow Yei Ching Bldg, Pokfulam Rd, Hong Kong Abstract Industrial Vision and Image Processing, Computer Graphics and Scientific Visualization. In this paper, Industrial
FOURTH ORDER PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ON GENERAL GEOMETRIES
FOURTH ORDER PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ON GENERAL GEOMETRIES By John B. Greer Andrea L0436 Phone: 612/624-6066 Fax: 612/626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;Fourth Order Partial Differential (Bertalm´io, Cheng, Osher, and Sapiro 2001) to fourth order PDEs including the Cahn- Hilliard equation
IDS120h GEOMETRY SHIELDING VESSELS: STAINLESS STEEL vs. TUNGSTEN
McDonald, Kirk
IDS120h GEOMETRY SHIELDING VESSELS: STAINLESS STEEL vs. TUNGSTEN SHIELDING MATERIAL: 60%WC+40%H2 O shielding vessels (STST OR W) Different cases of shielding material. >mars1510/MCNP >10-11 MeV NEUTRON ENERGY CUTOFF >SHIELDING:60%WC+40%H2 O (STST or W VESSELS), 80%WC+20%He, 80%W+20%He (W VESSELS) >4 MW
IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS
McDonald, Kirk
IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS SHIELDING MATERIAL: 60% W + 40% He vs SHIELDING Nicholas Souchlas, PBL (10/18/2011) 1 #12;IDS120h with shielding vessels. # Different cases ENERGY CUTOFF >SHIELDING: 60% W + 40% He , 80% W + 20% He, 88% W + 12% He ( WITH W VESSELS) >4 MW proton
j. differential geometry 92 (2012) 1-29
Enciso, Alberto
2012-01-01
j. differential geometry 92 (2012) 1-29 CRITICAL POINTS OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS ON COMPLETE MANIFOLDSTam Green's function on a complete open Riemannian surface of finite type admits a topological upper bound and harmonic in M\\{y}. The study of the Green's functions of the Laplacian in a complete Riemannian manifold
Statistics of Knots, Geometry of Conformations, and Evolution of Proteins
Minnesota, University of
Statistics of Knots, Geometry of Conformations, and Evolution of Proteins Rhonald C. Lua, Alexander of America Like shoelaces, the backbones of proteins may get entangled and form knots. However, only a few knots in native proteins have been identified so far. To more quantitatively assess the rarity of knots
Islamic Star Patterns in Absolute Geometry CRAIG S. KAPLAN
Waterloo, University of
Islamic Star Patterns in Absolute Geometry CRAIG S. KAPLAN University of Waterloo and DAVID H' addresses: C. S. Kaplan, School of Computer Science, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 23, No. 2, April 2004, Pages 97119. #12;98 · C. S. Kaplan and D. H. Salesin
Propagation of gravitons in the shock wave geometry
Lang, Ruitian
2009-01-01
In this thesis, I study propagation of gravitons in the shock wave geometry in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, with the goal to uncover some constraint on the supergravity action in the AdS space. In studying ...
Max Data Report Jet Stability versus Inlet Geometry
Lomperski, S.; Bremer, N.
2015-09-01
This document describes experiments investigating the effect of inlet geometry on the flow field within a glass tank where two jets mix and impinge upon the lid. The setup mimics the outlet plenum of a fast reactor where core exit flows of different temperatures can mix in ways that induce thermal cycling in neighboring structures.
Tropical geometry of statistical models Lior Pachter and Bernd Sturmfels
Marcolli, Matilde
for graphical models in statistical learning theory (5), but it differs from other (more classical) notionsTropical geometry of statistical models Lior Pachter and Bernd Sturmfels Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Communicated by Stephen E. Fienberg, Carnegie Mellon University
Geometry and Optimal Packing of Twisted Columns and Filaments
Gregory M. Grason
2015-01-30
This review presents recent progress in understanding constraints and consequences of close-packing geometry of filamentous or columnar materials possessing non-trivial textures, focusing in particular on the common motifs of twisted and toroidal structures. The mathematical framework is presented that relates spacing between line-like, filamentous elements to their backbone orientations, highlighting the explicit connection between the inter-filament {\\it metric} properties and the geometry of non-Euclidean surfaces. The consequences of the hidden connection between packing in twisted filament bundles and packing on positively curved surfaces, like the Thomson problem, are demonstrated for the defect-riddled ground states of physical models of twisted filament bundles. The connection between the "ideal" geometry of {\\it fibrations} of curved three-dimensional space, including the Hopf fibration, and the non-Euclidean constraints of filament packing in twisted and toroidal bundles is presented, with a focus on the broader dependence of metric geometry on the simultaneous twisting and folded of multi-filament bundles.
Optical geometry analysis of the electromagnetic self-force
Sebastiano Sonego; Marek A. Abramowicz
2006-02-17
We present an analysis of the behaviour of the electromagnetic self-force for charged particles in a conformally static spacetime, interpreting the results with the help of optical geometry. Some conditions for the vanishing of the local terms in the self-force are derived and discussed.
Adhesion and the Geometry of the Cosmic Web
Johan Hidding; Rien van de Weygaert; Gert Vegter; Bernard J. T. Jones
2012-11-22
We present a new way to formulate the geometry of the Cosmic Web in terms of Lagrangian space. The Adhesion model has an ingenious geometric interpretation out of which the spine of the Cosmic Web emerges naturally. Within this context we demonstrate a deep connection of the relation between Eulerian and Lagrangian space with that between Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations.
ON LOCAL GEOMETRY OF VECTOR DISTRIBUTIONS WITH GIVEN JACOBI SYMBOLS
Zelenko, Igor
ON LOCAL GEOMETRY OF VECTOR DISTRIBUTIONS WITH GIVEN JACOBI SYMBOLS BORIS DOUBROV AND IGOR ZELENKO generating distribution, the Jacobi symbol. In contrast to the classical Tanaka symbol, the set of Jacobi Jacobi symbol. We describe all Jacobi symbols for which this procedure ends up in a finite number
Emergence of Time from Dimensional Reduction in Noncommutative Geometry
Chong-Sun Chu; Olaf Lechtenfeld
2006-01-19
By considering a new form of dimensional reduction for noncommutative field theory, we show that the signature of spacetime may be changed. In particular, it is demonstrated that a temporal dimension can emerge from a purely Euclidean geometry. We suggest that this mechanism may hint at the origin of time in the fundamental theory of quantum gravity.
THE MOBIUS GEOMETRY OF HYPERSURFACES, II MICHAEL BOLT
Bolt, Michael
THE M¨OBIUS GEOMETRY OF HYPERSURFACES, II MICHAEL BOLT 1. Introduction Let r be a defining function|2 + Re (z2 2) = 0} Date: September 18, 2009. This is based on work supported by the National Science;2 MICHAEL BOLT under an affine map of the form F(z) = Az + b where 0 = det A R. The converse of Theorem 1
J. ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY 00 (XXXX) 000-000
Némethi, András
J. ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY 00 (XXXX) 000-000 S 1056-3911(XX)0000-0 THE DEGREE algebraic group, and let ae : G ! GL(V ) be an irreducible algebraic representation. Then ae induces [?], Lascoux [?], Boole, Tevelev [?], Gelfand-Kapranov-Zelevinsky [?, Ch.13,14], see a summary in [?, Ch.7
Potential optimisation of the ATLAS reconstruction geometry description.
Andrews, Holly
2015-01-01
The offline reconstruction software of high energy physics experiments often uses a simplified geometry and material model in order to speed up the process of material effect integration within the event reconstruction. This geometry model is also often used for fast simulation purposes, in ATLAS for the fast track simulation FATRAS. As part of a 12 week summer project undertaken at CERN, the use of material property maps within the FATRAS software were explored. A new material properties map was developed that relies on less data storage, allowing for a higher level of geometric properties to be stored over a greater range of the geometry. This is done by compressing to an acceptable memory level. A new manipulator tool was also created that is able to correct the quantity of material assigned to individual layers within the tracking geometry via an array of scaling factors for each layer, which leads to more accuracy in reconstruction parameters. This new tool has been developed within the ATLAS offline fra...
Introduction to Algebraic Geometry Unit code: MATH32062
Sidorov, Nikita
MATH32062 Introduction to Algebraic Geometry Unit code: MATH32062 Credit Rating: 10 Unit level?: N Requisites Prerequisite MATH20212 - Algebraic Structures 2 (Compulsory) Additional Requirements MATH32062 pre-requsites None. Aims To introduce students to the basic notions of affine and projective
MATH5765: Algebraic Geometry (2004, S2) Lecturer: Daniel Chan
Chan, Daniel
MATH5765: Algebraic Geometry (2004, S2) Lecturer: Daniel Chan E-Mail: danielch@maths.unsw.edu.au Webpage: www.maths.unsw.edu.au/danielch Office: Red Centre (East Wing) Room 4104 Office Phone No.: 9385 on Additional Assessment in Later Years on the webpage http://www.maths
UNCORRECTED Grid geometry effects on convection in ocean climate models
Kuhlbrodt, Till
is the 12 improvement of convection parameterization schemes, but the question of grid geometry also plays.elsevier.com/locate/omodol OCEMOD 100 No. of Pages 18, DTD = 4.3.1 28 August 2003 Type ARTICLE IN PRESS #12;UNCORRECTED PROOF 26 1 density gradient actually vanishes, one observes a strong vertical turbulent mixing to 32 depths of 2 km
Modelling and geometry optimisation of wave energy converters
Nřrvĺg, Kjetil
Modelling and geometry optimisation of wave energy converters Adi Kurniawan Supervisors: Prof;Research questions Modelling How to develop more realistic wave energy converter (WEC) models while wave energy converter (WEC) models while at the same time reduce their simulation time? Optimisation
Mathematical features of Whitehead's point-free geometry
Gerla, Giangiacomo
1 Mathematical features of Whitehead's point- free geometry In HANDBOOK OF WHITEHEADIAN PROCESS quote computability theory, lat- tice theory, computer science. Now, the basic ideas of point over' and is the symbol for the fundamental relation of extension." Moreover, Whitehead in PNK lists
Polymer geometry and Li+ conduction in poly(ethylene oxide)
Averbuch, Amir
Polymer geometry and Li+ conduction in poly(ethylene oxide) L. Gitelman a , M. Israeli b, , A: Lithium battery Polymer molecule Brownian motion Simulation Conductivity PEO a b s t r a c t We study of the amorphous PE structure is increased by mechanical stretching due to the unraveling of loops in the polymer
Geometries of inhomogeneities with minimum field concentration Liping Liua,1
Liu, Liping
of these new geometries. Keywords: Stress concentration, E-inclusion, Optimal design This work is dedicated criteria of materials are often formulated in terms of "yield stress" or "ultimate stress", meaning- fore, a precise analysis of field concentration is critical for the safety and reliability
Geometric Transitions, Topological Strings, and Generalized Complex Geometry
Chuang, Wu-yen; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2007-06-29
Mirror symmetry is one of the most beautiful symmetries in string theory. It helps us very effectively gain insights into non-perturbative worldsheet instanton effects. It was also shown that the study of mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau flux compactification leads us to the territory of ''Non-Kaehlerity''. In this thesis we demonstrate how to construct a new class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua via generalized geometric transitions. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. From a variety of sources, including super-gravity analysis and KK reduction on SU(3) structure manifolds, we conclude that string theory connects Calabi-Yau spaces to both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds and the resulting manifolds lie in generalized complex geometry. We go on to study the topological twisted models on a class of generalized complex geometry, bi-Hermitian geometry, which is the most general target space for (2, 2) world-sheet theory with non-trivial H flux turned on. We show that the usual Kaehler A and B models are generalized in a natural way. Since the gauged supergravity is the low energy effective theory for the compactifications on generalized geometries, we study the fate of flux-induced isometry gauging in N = 2 IIA and heterotic strings under non-perturbative instanton effects. Interestingly, we find we have protection mechanisms preventing the corrections to the hyper moduli spaces. Besides generalized geometries, we also discuss the possibility of new NS-NS fluxes in a new doubled formalism.
Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters
Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)
2003-06-24
A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.
Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)
2000-01-01
The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.
Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M
2013-12-31
Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.
Acidizing of Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids
Yang, Fei
2012-10-19
Mud acid, which is composed of HCl and HF, is commonly used to remove the formation damage in sandstone reservoirs. However, many problems are associated with HCl, especially at high temperatures. Formic-HF acids have served as an alternative...
Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells
Sasongko, Hari
2012-07-16
In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...
Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process
Mikhailov, Miroslav I.
2009-05-15
Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...
Multi linear formulation of differential geometry and matrix regularizations
Joakim Arnlind; Jens Hoppe; Gerhard Huisken
2010-09-24
We prove that many aspects of the differential geometry of embedded Riemannian manifolds can be formulated in terms of multi linear algebraic structures on the space of smooth functions. In particular, we find algebraic expressions for Weingarten's formula, the Ricci curvature and the Codazzi-Mainardi equations. For matrix analogues of embedded surfaces we define discrete curvatures and Euler characteristics, and a non-commutative Gauss--Bonnet theorem is shown to follow. We derive simple expressions for the discrete Gauss curvature in terms of matrices representing the embedding coordinates, and a large class of explicit examples is provided. Furthermore, we illustrate the fact that techniques from differential geometry can carry over to matrix analogues by proving that a bound on the discrete Gauss curvature implies a bound on the eigenvalues of the discrete Laplace operator.
Experimental study of flame propagation in semiconfined geometries with obstacles
Urtiew, P.A.; Brandeis, J.; Hogan, W.J.
1982-02-08
Accidents in which large quantities of liquefied natural gas (LNG) or other combustible materials are spilled can potentially lead to disastrous consequences, especially if the dispersing combustible cloud finds a suitable ignition source. So far, very little is known about the detailed behavior of a large burning cloud. Full-scale experiments are economically prohibitive, and therefore one must rely on laboratory and field experiments of smaller size, scaling up the results to make predictions about larger spill accidents. In this paper we describe our laboratory-scale experiments with a combustible propane/air mixture in various partially confined geometries. We summarize the experimental results and compare them with calculated results based on numerical simulations of the experiments. Our observations suggest that the geometry of the partial confinement is of primary importance; turbulence-producing obstacles can cause acceleration in the flame front and, more important, can cause a faster burnout of the combustible vapor.
Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity
Gabriele U. Varieschi; Kellie L. Ault
2015-10-31
We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions, the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions, as was the case of the original solutions. In particular, the resulting geometry does not require the use of exotic matter at or near the wormhole throat. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.
Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity
Varieschi, Gabriele U
2015-01-01
We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions, the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions, as was the case of the original solutions. In particular, the resulting geometry does not require the use of exotic matter at or near the wormhole throat. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.
New embedding of Schwarzschild geometry. II. Interior solution
R. Burghardt
2002-03-01
We embed the Schwarzschild interior solution in a five-dimensional flat space and show that the systems of the interior and the exterior solution are based on the same geometrical principles. It turns out that the energy tensor of the matter has its origin in the five-dimensional structure of the geometry and is built up by the generalized second fundamental forms. Thus, the matter is already geometrized. The Codazzi equations are the field equations for the matter field.
Simulating gyrokinetic microinstabilities in stellarator geometry with GS2
Baumgaertel, J. A.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Belli, E. A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Dorland, W. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Xanthopoulos, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)
2011-12-15
The nonlinear gyrokinetic code GS2 has been extended to treat non-axisymmetric stellarator geometry. Electromagnetic perturbations and multiple trapped particle regions are allowed. Here, linear, collisionless, electrostatic simulations of the quasi-axisymmetric, three-field period national compact stellarator experiment (NCSX) design QAS3-C82 have been successfully benchmarked against the eigenvalue code FULL. Quantitatively, the linear stability calculations of GS2 and FULL agree to within {approx}10%.
A Study Of Aperiodic (Random) Arrays of Various Geometries
Buchanan, Kristopher Ryan
2012-07-16
intensity given in(0.2.19). ? ?? ? ? ? ? ?E g X g x f x dx ? ?? ? ? (0.2.18) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 1 , , , N N av n m n m m n U E U U f f d d... A STUDY OF APERIODIC (RANDOM) ARRAYS OF VARIOUS GEOMETRIES A Thesis by KRISTOPHER RYAN BUCHANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...
Corrosion/erosion pipe inspection using reverse geometry radiography
Albert, R.D.
1996-07-01
Measurement of corrosion in piping was studied using the Digiray Reverse Geometry X-ray{reg_sign} (RGX{reg_sign}) imaging system during a series of field tests. Sponsored by Shell, Exxon and Mobil oil companies, these were recently carried out at the Shell Martinez refinery facility. Results of the field tests as well as other RGX radiographs taken in the laboratory by Digiray will be described in this report.
F-theory and N=1 Quivers from Polyvalent Geometry
Belhaj, Adil
2015-01-01
We study four dimensional quiver gauge models from F-theory compactified on fourfolds with hyper-K\\"{a}hler structure. Using intersecting complex toric surfaces, we derive a class of N=1 quivers with charged fundamental matter placed on external nodes. The emphasis is on how local Calabi-Yau equations solve the corresponding physical constraints including the anomaly cancelation condition. Concretely, a linear chain of SU(N) groups with flavor symmetries has been constructed using polyvalent toric geometry.
Distributional Schwarzschild Geometry from nonsmooth regularization via Horizon
Jaykov Foukzon
2015-06-24
In this paper we leave the neighborhood of the singularity at the origin and turn to the singularity at the horizon. Using nonlinear superdistributional geometry and supergeneralized functions it seems possible to show that the horizon singularity is not only a coordinate singularity without leaving Schwarzschild coordinates. However the Tolman formula for the total energy $E$ of a static and asymptotically flat spacetime, gives $E=m$, as it should be. New class Colombeau solutions to Einstein field equations is obtained.
Emergent geometry in N=6 Chern-Simons-matter theory
Diego Trancanelli
2009-05-13
We investigate a strong coupling expansion of N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory obtained from the semiclassical analysis of low energy, effective degrees of freedom given by the eigenvalues of a certain matrix model. We show how the orbifolded sphere S^7/Z_k of the dual geometry emerges dynamically from the distribution of the eigenvalues. As a test of this approach we compute the energy of off-diagonal excitations, finding perfect agreement with the dispersion relation of giant magnons.
Oxidation of ferrocene by thiocyanic acid in the presence of ammonium oxalate
Ruslin, Farah bt; Yamin, Bohari M.
2014-09-03
A flake-like crystalline salt was obtained from the reaction of ferrocene, oxalic acid and ammonium thiocyanate in ethanol The elemental analysis and spectroscopic data were in agreement with the preliminary X-ray molecular structure. The compound consists of four ferrocenium moieties and a counter anion consisting of two (tetraisothiocyanato)iron(III) linked by an oxalato bridging group in such a way that both iron central atoms adopt octahedral geometries.
Gonzalez, R.L.; Pasternack, G.B.
2015-01-01
Transect-based hydraulic geometry is well established butet al. , 2012) as well as hydraulic data: water surface
Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process
King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.
1995-05-02
Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.
Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas
Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.
2014-07-01
Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.
Geometry Optimization of Kringle 1 of Plasminogen Using the PM3
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
Geometry Optimization of Kringle 1 of Plasminogen Using the PM3 Semiempirical Method ANDREW D July 1999 ABSTRACT: The results of a geometry optimization on the 1226 atom Kringle 1 of plasminogen with a conjugate gradient density matrix search replacing the diagonalization step. The geometry was optimized
MATH 632: ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY II: Schemes Assoc. Professor Karen E. Smith
Smith, Karen E.
MATH 632: ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY II: Schemes Assoc. Professor Karen E. Smith Algebraic geometry is one prerequisites for Math 632 are the alpha series in algebra and in topol ogy/geometry. Knowledge of the basic ideas from Math 631 is also necessary. Scheme theory is founded on commutative algebra, so familiarity
Research paper Changes in hydraulic geometry of the Hwang River below the Hapcheon
Julien, Pierre Y.
for correspondence) ABSTRACT The changes in hydraulic geometry of the Hwang River downstream of Hapcheon Dam have; alluvial channels; downstream hydraulic geometry; dams; re-regulation dams; Hwang River 1 Introduction DamsResearch paper Changes in hydraulic geometry of the Hwang River below the Hapcheon Re
Composition for nucleic acid sequencing
Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)
2008-08-26
The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.
Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids
Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)
2002-01-01
The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.
Szigethy, Geza
2011-01-01
of linker geometry on uranyl complexation by rigidly- linkedof linker geometry on uranyl complexation by rigidly-linkedUSA Keywords: Uranium, uranyl, HOPO, coordination geometry,
Hessian matrix, specific heats, Nambu brackets, and thermodynamic geometry
Seyed Ali Hosseini Mansoori; Behrouz Mirza; Mohamadreza Fazel
2015-05-06
As an extension to our earlier work \\cite{Mirza2}, we employ the Nambu brackets to prove that the divergences of heat capacities correspond to their counterparts in thermodynamic geometry. We also obtain a simple representation for the conformal transformations that connect different thermodynamics metrics to each other. Using our bracket approach, we obtain interesting exact relations between the Hessian matrix with any number of parameters and specific heat capacities. Finally, we employ this approach to investigate some thermodynamic properties of the Meyers-Perry black holes with three spins.
Noncommutative geometry, Grand Symmetry and twisted spectral triple
Agostino Devastato
2015-03-09
In the noncommutative geometry approach to the standard model we discuss the possibility to derive the extra scalar field sv- initially suggested by particle physicist to stabilize the electroweak vacuum - from a "grand algebra" that contains the usual standard model algebra. We introduce the Connes-Moscovici twisted spectral triples for the Grand Symmetry model, to cure a technical problem, that is the appearance, together with the field sv, of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded, and also permits to understand the breaking making the computation of the Higgs mass compatible with the 126 GeV experimental value.
Non-modal analysis of the diocotron instability: Cylindrical geometry
Mikhailenko, V. V.; Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Azarenkov, N. A.
2013-04-15
The temporal evolution of the linear diocotron instability of the cylindrical annular plasma column is investigated by employing the extension of the shearing modes methodology to the cylindrical geometry. It was obtained that the spatial time-dependent distortion of the electron density initial perturbations by shear flows leads to the non-modal evolution of the potential, which was referred to as the manifestation of the continuous spectrum. The evolution process leads toward the convergence to the phase-locking configuration of the mutually growing normal modes.
Precise adiabatic transport and geometry of quantum Hall states
Klevtsov, Semyon
2015-01-01
We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the non-dissipative component of the viscous tensor there exists a third independent kinetic coefficient which is precise on the quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number over moduli space of surfaces of genus two or higher and therefore is precise. As such it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states.
Worldline Numerics for Energy-Momentum Tensors in Casimir Geometries
Schafer, Marco; Gies, Holger
2015-01-01
We develop the worldline formalism for computations of composite operators such as the fluctuation induced energy-momentum tensor. As an example, we use a fluctuating real scalar field subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions. The resulting worldline representation can be evaluated by worldline Monte-Carlo methods in continuous spacetime. We benchmark this worldline numerical algorithm with the aid of analytically accessible single-plate and parallel-plate Casimir configurations, providing a detailed analysis of statistical and systematic errors. The method generalizes straightforwardly to arbitrary Casimir geometries and general background potentials.
Coulomb Potential of a Point Mass in Theta Noncommutative Geometry
A. Lewis Licht
2006-05-14
The form of the Coulomb potential of a point in a noncommutative geometry is investigated. A distinction is made between measured distance and "coordinate" distance. The "effective" value of an operator is defined as its expectation value in a probe state of minimum coordinate dispersion. We find the effective value of the Coulomb potential to be finite at the origin, the effective charge density to be Gaussian, and the effective total electrostatic energy to be finite. The operator corresponding to the total electrostatic energy is found however to still be infinite.
Acoustic geometry for general relativistic barotropic irrotational fluid flow
Visser, Matt
2010-01-01
"Acoustic spacetimes", in which techniques of differential geometry are used to investigate sound propagation in moving fluids, have attracted considerable attention over the last few decades. Most of the models currently considered in the literature are based on non-relativistic barotropic irrotational fluids, defined in a flat Newtonian background. The extension, first to special relativistic barotropic fluid flow, and then to general relativistic barotropic fluid flow in an arbitrary background, is less straightforward than it might at first appear. In this article we provide a pedagogical and simple derivation of the general relativistic "acoustic spacetime" in an arbitrary (d+1) dimensional curved-space background.
Nucleic acid detection methods
Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.
1998-05-19
The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.
Nucleic Acid Detection Methods
Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)
1998-05-19
The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.
Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Brown, G.
2015-10-07
Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine powermore »performance analysis and annual energy production. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation when arc scans are used for wind resource assessment.« less
A physically based connection between fractional calculus and fractal geometry
Butera, Salvatore
2015-01-01
We show a relation between fractional calculus and fractals, based only on physical and geometrical considerations. The link has been found in the physical origins of the power-laws, ruling the evolution of many natural phenomena, whose long memory and hereditary properties are mathematically modelled by differential operators of non integer order. Dealing with the relevant example of a viscous fluid seeping through a fractal shaped porous medium, we show that, once a physical phenomenon or process takes place on an underlying fractal geometry, then a power-law naturally comes up in ruling its evolution, whose order is related to the anomalous dimension of such geometry, as well as to the model used to describe the physics involved. By linearizing the non linear dependence of the response of the system at hand to a proper forcing action then, exploiting the Boltzmann superposition principle, a fractional differential equation is found, describing the dynamics of the system itself. The order of such equation i...
Using Surface Impedance for Calculating Wakefields in Flat Geometry
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady
2015-03-01
Beginning with Maxwell's equations and assuming only that the wall interaction can be approximated by a surface impedance, we derive formulas for the generalized longitudinal and transverse impedance in flat geometry, from which the wakefields can also be obtained. From the generalized impedances, by taking the proper limits, we obtain the normal longitudinal, dipole, and quad impedances in flat geometry. These equations can be applied to any surface impedance, such as the known dc, ac, and anomalous skin models of wall resistance, a model of wall roughness, or one for a pipe with small, periodic corrugations. We show that, formore »the particular case of dc wall resistance, the longitudinal impedance obtained here agrees with a known result in the literature, a result that was derived from a very general formula by Henke and Napoly. As concrete example, we apply our results to representative beam and machine parameters in the undulator region of LCLS-II and estimate the impact of the transverse wakes on the machine performance.« less
Geometry of the N=4, d=1 nonlinear supermultiplet
Bellucci, S.; Krivonos, S.
2006-12-15
We construct the general action for N=4, d=1 nonlinear supermultiplet including the most general interaction terms which depend on the arbitrary function h obeying the Laplace equation on S{sup 3}. We find the bosonic field B which depends on the components of nonlinear supermultiplet and transforms as a full time derivative under N=4 supersymmetry. The most general interaction is generated just by a Fayet-Iliopoulos term built from this auxiliary component. Being transformed through a full time derivative under N=4, d=1 supersymmetry, this auxiliary component B may be dualized into a fourth scalar field giving rise to a four-dimensional N=4, d=1 sigma-model. We analyzed the geometry in the bosonic sector and find that it is not a hyper-Kaehler one. With a particular choice of the target space metric g the geometry in the bosonic sector coincides with the one which appears in heterotic (4, 0) sigma-model in d=2.
Acidic gas capture by diamines
Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)
2011-05-10
Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.
Gilliland, Patti Lynn
1978-01-01
molecules not directly involved in the TCA cycle, aspartate and glutamate, have been the subject of several investigations, primarily in relation to amino acid transport. The uptake of the dicarboxylic amino acids is fre- quently studied in conjunction... with the uptake of the structurally similar TCA cycle compounds (22, 44, 76). In 1968, Jacobson snd Metzenberg (29) reported that aspartate and glutamate uptake by N. crassa was gene-controlled. Pall (44) has described a mycelial amino acid transport system...
Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass
G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry
2003-05-31
This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.
Mecham, Robert
ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain fatty acids such as caprylic acid to serum will precipitate most serum proteins with the exception or ammonium sulfate precipitation, caprylic acid will yield a relatively pure antibody preparation. 1. Measure
Toohey, Darin W.
account for about 70 percent of annual SO2 emissions and 30 percent of NOx emissions in the United States acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Electric utility plants and NOx are harmful to the lungs and can cause disease and premature death. Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12
A Novel Visualization of the Geometry of Special Relativity
Marr, John H
2015-01-01
The mathematical treatment and graphical representation of Special Relativity (SR) are well established, yet carry deep implications that remain hard to visualize. This paper presents a new graphical interpretation of the geometry of SR that may, by complementing the standard works, aid the understanding of SR and its fundamental principles in a more intuitive way. From the axiom that the velocity of light remains constant to any inertial observer, the geodesic is presented as a line of constant angle on the complex plane across a set of diverging reference frames. The resultant curve is a logarithmic spiral, and this view of the geodesic is extended to illustrate the relativistic Doppler effect, time dilation, length contraction, the twin paradox, and relativistic radar distance in an original way, whilst retaining the essential mathematical relationships of SR. Using a computer-generated graphical representation of photon trajectories allows a visual comparison between the relativistic relationships and the...
Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals
Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.
2015-07-21
A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.
Phenolate constrained geometry polymerization catalyst and method for preparing
Marks, T.J.; Chen, Y.X.
1999-01-05
The subject invention involves a method of preparing and the constrained geometry catalyst thereby prepared of the general formula Ar{prime}R4(O)Ar{double_prime}R{prime}{sub 4}M(CH{sub 2}Ph){sub 2} where Ar{prime} is a phenyl or naphthyl group; Ar{double_prime} is a cyclopentadienyl or indenyl group, R and R{prime} are H or alkyl substituents (C{<=}10) and M is Ti, Zr or Hf. The synthetic method involves a simple alkane elimination approach which permits a ``one-pot`` procedure. The catalyst, when combined with a cocatalyst such as Pb{sub 3}C{sup +}B(Ar{sub 3}{sup F}){sub 4}BAr{sub 3}{sup F} or methyl alumoxane where Ar{sup F} is a fluoroaryl group, is an effective catalyst for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins such as ethylene, propylene and styrene. 1 fig.
Phenolate constrained geometry polymerization catalyst and method for preparing
Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Chicago, IL)
1999-01-01
The subject invention involves a method of preparing and the constrained geometry catalyst thereby prepared of the general formula Ar'R4(O)Ar"R'.sub.4 M(CH.sub.2 Ph).sub.2 where Ar' is a phenyl or naphthyl group; Ar" is a cyclopentadienyl or indenyl group, R and R' are H or alkyl substituents (C.ltoreq.10) and M is Ti, Zr or Hf. The synthetic method involves a simple alkane elimination approach which permits a "one-pot" procedure. The catalyst, when combined with a cocatalyst such as Pb.sub.3 C.sup.+ B(Ar.sub.3.sup.F).sub.4 BAr.sub.3.sup.F or methyl alumoxane where Ar.sup.F is a fluoroaryl group, is an effective catalyst for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins such as ethylene, propylene and styrene.
Electric field geometries dominate quantum transport coupling in silicon nanoring
Lee, Tsung-Han, E-mail: askaleeg@gmail.com, E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com; Hu, Shu-Fen, E-mail: askaleeg@gmail.com, E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)
2014-03-28
Investigations on the relation between the geometries of silicon nanodevices and the quantum phenomenon they exhibit, such as the Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect and the Coulomb blockade, were conducted. An arsenic doped silicon nanoring coupled with a nanowire by electron beam lithography was fabricated. At 1.47?K, Coulomb blockade oscillations were observed under modulation from the top gate voltage, and a periodic AB oscillation of ?B?=?0.178?T was estimated for a ring radius of 86?nm under a high sweeping magnetic field. Modulating the flat top gate and the pointed side gate was performed to cluster and separate the many electron quantum dots, which demonstrated that quantum confinement and interference effects coexisted in the doped silicon nanoring.
Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre
2015-08-01
Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they canmore »be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.« less
Models to interpret bedform geometries from cross-bed data
Luthi, S.M. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (USA)); Banavar, J.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA)); Bayer, U. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich (West Germany))
1990-03-01
Semi-elliptical and sinusoidal bedform crestlines were modeled with curvature and sinuosity as parameters. Both bedform crestlines are propagated at various angles of migration over a finite area of deposition. Two computational approaches are used, a statistical random sampling (Monte Carlo) technique over the area of the deposit, and an analytical method based on topology and differential geometry. The resulting foreset azimuth distributions provide a catalogue for a variety of situations. The resulting thickness distributions have a simple shape and can be combined with the azimuth distributions to constrain further the cross-strata geometry. Paleocurrent directions obtained by these models can differ substantially from other methods, especially for obliquely migrating low-curvature bedforms. Interpretation of foreset azimuth data from outcrops and wells can be done either by visual comparison with the catalogued distributions, or by iterative computational fits. Studied examples include eolian cross-strata from the Permian Rotliegendes in the North Sea, fluvial dunes from the Devonian in the Catskills (New York State), the Triassic Schilfsandstein (West Germany) and the Paleozoic-Jurassic of the Western Desert (Egypt), as well as recent tidal dunes from the German coast of the North Sea and tidal cross-strata from the Devonian Koblentquartzit (West Germany). In all cases the semi-elliptical bedform model gave a good fit to the data, suggesting that it may be applicable over a wide range of bedforms. The data from the Western Desert could only be explained by data scatter due to channel sinuosity combining with the scatter attributed to the ellipticity of the bedform crestlines. These models, therefore, may also allow simulations of some hierarchically structured bedforms.
Geometry and Dynamics of Emergent Spacetime from Entanglement Spectrum
Hiroaki Matsueda
2015-08-03
We examine geometry and dynamics of classical spacetime derived from entanglement spectrum. The spacetime is a kind of canonical parameter space defined by the Fisher information metric. As a concrete example, we focus on the spectrum for free fermions in spatially one dimension. The spectrum has exponential family form like thermal probability distribution owing to mixed-state feature emerging from truncation of environmental degrees of freedom. In this case, the Fisher metric is given by the second derivative of the Hessian potential that can be identified with the entanglement entropy. We emphasize that the canonical parameters are nontrivial functions of partial system size by the truncation, filling fraction of fermions, and time. Then, the precise determination of this nontrivial mapping is necessary to derive the functional form of the Hessian potential that leads to correct entanglement entropy scaling. By this potential, we find that the emergent geometry becomes anti-de Sitter spacetime with imaginary time, and a radial axis as well as spacetime coordinates appears spontaneously. We also find that the information of the UV limit of the original free fermions lives in the boundary of the anti-de Sitter spacetime. These findings strongly suggest that the Hessian potential for free fermions has enough geometrical meaning associated with gauge-gravity correspondence. Furthermore, some deformation of the spectrum near the conformal fixed point is mapped onto spacetime dynamics. The fluctuation of the entanglement entropy embedded into the spacetime behaves like free scaler field, and the dynamics is described by the Einstein equation with a negative cosmological constant. Therefore, the Einstein equation can be regarded as the equation of original quantum state.
Macroscopic traversable wormholes with zero tidal forces inspired by noncommutative geometry
Peter K. F. Kuhfittig
2015-01-08
This paper addresses the following issues: (1) the possible existence of macroscopic traversable wormholes, given a noncommutative-geometry background, and (2) the possibility of allowing zero tidal forces, given a known density. It is shown that whenever the energy density describes a classical wormhole, the resulting solution is incompatible with quantum field theory. If the energy density originates from noncommutative geometry, then zero tidal forces are allowed. Also attributable to the noncommutative geometry is the violation of the null energy condition. The wormhole geometry satisfies the usual requirements, including asymptotic flatness.
Gonzalez, R.L.; Pasternack, G.B.
2015-01-01
material entrainment and hydraulic geometry of gravel-bedbed rivers. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 135( 1), 66-Jonas, M.M. , 2001. Hydraulic design of stream restoration
Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae
Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.
1956-01-01
METABOLISM OF THlOCTlC ACID IN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY ThisMETABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. , C.METABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. C.
Carbonic Acid Shows Promise in Geology, Biology
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
The Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Berkeley Lab Study Holds Implications for Geological and Biological Processes October 23,...
In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids
Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric L. (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)
2012-05-08
The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.
In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids
Schultz, Peter (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)
2011-03-29
The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.
In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids
Schultz, Peter (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Steven William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)
2008-05-06
The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.
In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids
Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric L. (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)
2012-02-14
The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.
In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids
Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric L. (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA); Santoro, Stephen William (Cambridge, MA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)
2011-10-04
The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.
In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids
Schultz, Peter (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Anderson, John Christopher (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Liu, David R. (Lexington, MA); Magliery, Thomas J. (North Haven, CT); Meggers, Eric (Philadelphia, PA); Mehl, Ryan Aaron (Lancaster, PA); Pastrnak, Miro (San Diego, CA)
2009-12-29
The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids
Controlling acid rain : policy issues
Fay, James A.
1983-01-01
The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...
Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning
Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.
2001-09-05
Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....
Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition
Fay, James A.
1988-01-01
This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...
Phosphonic acid based exchange resins
Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.
1995-09-12
An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.
Phosphonic acid based exchange resins
Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)
1995-01-01
An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.
Ramírez, Jorge A.
On downstream hydraulic geometry and optimal energy expenditure: case study of the Ashley the network. We look at energy expenditure from two perspectives. (1) In the context of downstream hydraulic Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Downstream hydraulic geometry; River networks; Energy
Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity
Fitzpatrick, Richard
into helical magnetic islands. Such islands de- grade plasma confinement because heat and particles are ableTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity R Phys. Plasmas 12, 122308 (2005); 10.1063/1.2141928 Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry
Krysl, Svatopluk
C -algebras Oscillator or Segal-Shale-Weil representation Geometry: Associating the oscillator or Segal-Shale-Weil representation Geometry: Associating the oscillator to symplectic manifolds Global and (x) = 0 implies x = 0 2 S. KrĂ˝sl #12;C -algebras Oscillator or Segal-Shale-Weil representation
Varshney, Amitabh
-Dependent Lighting Chang Ha Lee, Xuejun Hao, and Amitabh Varshney, Member, IEEE Abstract-- In this paper we introduce geometry- dependent lighting that allows lighting parameters to be defined independently and possibly discrepantly over an object or scene based on the local geometry. We present and discuss Light Collages
Laminar Flow of a Sheared Vortex Crystal: Scars in Flat Geometry M.-Carmen Miguel,1
Miguel-Lopez, Carmen
Laminar Flow of a Sheared Vortex Crystal: Scars in Flat Geometry M.-Carmen Miguel,1 Adil Mughal,2 November 2010; published 15 June 2011) We consider the laminar flow of a vortex crystal in the Corbino disk geometry. Laminar flow can be induced by thermal fluctuations melting the crystal, but also by shear stress
Wahle, Andreas
Geometry and Catheter Position on Dose Delivery in Intracoronary Brachytherapy Andreas Wahle, # Senior---Instent restenosis is commonly observed in coronary arteries after intervention. Intravascular brachytherapy has been models for brachytherapy with beta (#) radiation neglect vessel geometry as well as the position
A fixed point formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry III: representations of
KĂ¶hler, Kai
A fixed point formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry III: representations We give a new proof of the Jantzen sum formula for integral repre- sentations of Chevalley formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry to generalized flag varieties. Our proof involves
Influence of HSX Geometry on Drift Waves Tariq Rafiq and C.C. Hegna
Hudson, Stuart
Influence of HSX Geometry on Drift Waves Tariq Rafiq and C.C. Hegna US/Japan meeting 2006 #12 and Magnetic Geometry #12;The Equilibrium The VMEC code is used to generate equilibrium data for the nested electron drift wave model, numerical method and numerical results #12;The eigenvalue equation: Using
Role of Eye, Head, and Shoulder Geometry in the Planning of Accurate Arm Movements
Henriques, Denise Y. P.
Role of Eye, Head, and Shoulder Geometry in the Planning of Accurate Arm Movements D.Y.P. HENRIQUES and shoulder geometry in the planning of accurate arm movements. J Neurophysiol 87: 16771685, 2002; 10.1152/jn with the continuous changes in eye, head, and arm positions. This is a geometrically complex process because the eyes
N/Z dependence of balance energy throughout the colliding geometries
Sakshi Gautam; Rajeev K. Puri
2011-07-28
We study the N/Z dependence of balance energy throughout the mass range for colliding geometry varying from central to peripheral ones. Our results indicate that balance energy decreases linearly with increase in N/Z ratio for all the masses throughout the colliding geometry range. Also, the N/Z dependence of balance energy is sensitive to symmetry energy.
SIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND SHADOW EFFECTS IN 3D ORGANIC POLYMER SOLAR CELLS
Kassegne, Samuel Kinde
levels of Solar panels and new production capacity is driving solar PV prices lower and thereby, bringingSIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND SHADOW EFFECTS IN 3D ORGANIC POLYMER SOLAR CELLS OF THE THESIS Simulation of Geometry and Shadow Effects in 3D Organic Polymer Solar Cells by Mihir Prakashbhai
Preprint 0 (2001) ?{? 1 Recovering Mesh Geometry from a Sti ness Matrix
Stathopoulos, Andreas
2001-01-01
Preprint 0 (2001) ?{? 1 Recovering Mesh Geometry from a Sti#11;ness Matrix Andreas Stathopoulos#11;ness matrix A and a PDE, construct a mesh M such that the #12;nite-element formulation of the PDE. Keywords: Sti#11;ness matrix, mesh, geometry, triangulation, angles, graph embedding, graph drawing, non
A FIRST PRINCIPLES BASED METHOD FOR THE PREDICTION OF LOADING OVER FIXED AND ROTARY WING GEOMETRIES
A FIRST PRINCIPLES BASED METHOD FOR THE PREDICTION OF LOADING OVER FIXED AND ROTARY WING GEOMETRIES Lakshmi N. Sankar and Mert Berkman School of Aerospace Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology-principles based techniques for the prediction of fixed and rotary wing wake geometry are described
Topology, Geometry, and Stability: Protein Folding and Evolution
Simmons, Walter
2015-01-01
The protein folding problem must ultimately be solved on all length scales from the atomic up through a hierarchy of complicated structures. By analyzing the stability of the folding process using physics and mathematics, this paper shows that features without length scales, i.e. topological features, are potentially of central importance. Topology is a natural mathematical tool for the study of shape and we avail ourselves of that tool to examine the relationship between the amino acid sequence and the shapes of protein molecules. We apply what we learn to conjectures about their biological evolution.
The Cornell Potential from General Geometries in AdS / QCD
C D White
2007-07-02
We consider the heavy quark-antiquark potential in the AdS / QCD correspondence, focusing in particular on a recently calculated AdS-like metric deformed by back-reaction effects. We find that tuning the long-distance behaviour of the potential leads to a discrepancy at small distances, and discuss how to better constrain AdS / QCD geometries. A systematic comparison of various geometries is presented, based on goodness of fit to lattice data in the quenched approximation. The back-reacted geometry is seen to be phenomenologically favoured over an alternative geometry with the same number of parameters, although it does not perform as well as some other geometries.
Geometry-dependent critical currents in superconducting nanocircuits
Clem, John R.; Berggren, Karl K.
2011-11-18
In this paper, we calculate the critical currents in thin superconducting strips with sharp right-angle turns, 180{sup o} turnarounds, and more complicated geometries, where all the line widths are much smaller than the Pearl length {Lambda} = 2{lambda}{sup 2}/d. We define the critical current as the current that reduces the Gibbs-free-energy barrier to zero. We show that current crowding, which occurs whenever the current rounds a sharp turn, tends to reduce the critical current, but we also show that when the radius of curvature is less than the coherence length, this effect is partially compensated by a radius-of-curvature effect. We propose several patterns with rounded corners to avoid critical-current reduction due to current crowding. These results are relevant to superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, where they suggest a means of improving the bias conditions and reducing dark counts. These results also have relevance to normal-metal nanocircuits, as these patterns can reduce the electrical resistance, electromigration, and hot spots caused by nonuniform heating.
Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and Huygens’ metasurfaces
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Campione, Salvatore; Basilio, Lorena I.; Warne, Larry K.; Sinclair, Michael B.
2015-01-28
In this paper we describe a methodology for tailoring the design of metamaterial dielectric resonators, which represent a promising path toward low-loss metamaterials at optical frequencies. We first describe a procedure to decompose the far field scattered by subwavelength resonators in terms of multipolar field components, providing explicit expressions for the multipolar far fields. We apply this formulation to confirm that an isolated high-permittivity dielectric cube resonator possesses frequency separated electric and magnetic dipole resonances, as well as a magnetic quadrupole resonance in close proximity to the electric dipole resonance. We then introduce multiple dielectric gaps to the resonator geometrymore »in a manner suggested by perturbation theory, and demonstrate the ability to overlap the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, thereby enabling directional scattering by satisfying the first Kerker condition. We further demonstrate the ability to push the quadrupole resonance away from the degenerate dipole resonances to achieve local behavior. These properties are confirmed through the multipolar expansion and show that the use of geometries suggested by perturbation theory is a viable route to achieve purely dipole resonances for metamaterial applications such as wave-front manipulation with Huygens’ metasurfaces. Our results are fully scalable across any frequency bands where high-permittivity dielectric materials are available, including microwave, THz, and infrared frequencies.« less
$?$-Ray Pulsars: Emission Zones and Viewing Geometries, A Computer Animation
I. -A. Yadigaroglu; Roger W. Romani
1994-06-08
The computer animation illustrates the geometries described in a paper by the same authors. The preprint is available as number 9401045. The opening scene shows dipole field lines emanating from the polar caps of a rotating neutron star. The dipole axis is inclined along the green rods. The field lines shown are defined from the condition that they be tangent to the light cylinder (the cylindrical radius at which the tangential velocity of rotation reaches the speed of light). The static dipole field lines are smoothly morphed into the correct retarted-potential vacuum solutions. A red surface spanning these field lines is painted. In the next scene the blue surfaces represent the outer gaps above the surface of last closed field lines. High energy emission (blue) is produced in these outer gaps, and is beamed tangentially along the field lines. The radio emission (green) originates close to the surface of the star and is beamed along the dipole axes. The inclination angle $\\alpha$ of the dipole and the viewing angle $\\zeta$ are chosen to match the Crab parameters; $\\alpha$ = 70, $\\zeta$ = 65. The corresponding light curve is computed and shown for these angles, and the red dot traces rotation phase. The next scene shows the situation for angles appropriate to PSR1706-44; $\\alpha$ = 45, $\\zeta$ = 65. The final scene is a possibility for Geminga; $\\alpha$ = 20, $\\zeta$ = 75. These angles are poorly constrained as there is no radio emission.
Phase space descriptions for simplicial 4d geometries
Bianca Dittrich; James P. Ryan
2010-06-17
Starting from the canonical phase space for discretised (4d) BF-theory, we implement a canonical version of the simplicity constraints and construct phase spaces for simplicial geometries. Our construction allows us to study the connection between different versions of Regge calculus and approaches using connection variables, such as loop quantum gravity. We find that on a fixed triangulation the (gauge invariant) phase space associated to loop quantum gravity is genuinely larger than the one for length and even area Regge calculus. Rather, it corresponds to the phase space of area-angle Regge calculus, as defined by Dittrich and Speziale in [arXiv:0802.0864] (prior to the imposition of gluing constraints, that ensure the metricity of the triangulation). We argue that this is due to the fact that the simplicity constraints are not fully implemented in canonical loop quantum gravity. Finally, we show that for a subclass of triangulations one can construct first class Hamiltonian and Diffeomorphism constraints leading to flat 4d space-times.
Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry
Dietle, Lannie (Houston, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)
1993-07-27
A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.
Plasma confinement by circularly polarized electromagnetic field in toroidal geometry
Svidzinski, Vladimir A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2007-10-15
A novel plasma confinement concept based on plasma confinement by electromagnetic pressure of circularly polarized electromagnetic fields is proposed. Practical implementation of this concept in a toroidal device is suggested. In this concept the confining field frequency is in the lower range such that the size of the device is much smaller than the vacuum wavelength. Most of the previous radio-frequency (rf) confinement concepts of unmagnetized plasma were related to confinement in rf cavities which operated at high frequency for which the size of the cavity is comparable to the wavelength. Operation at lower frequencies simplifies rf design, reduces Ohmic losses in the conducting walls and probably makes application of superconductors for wall materials more feasible. It is demonstrated that circular (or nearly circular) polarization of the electromagnetic field is required for confinement from both the equilibrium and stability considerations. Numerical analysis of plasma confinement for magnetohydrodynamic plasma model in two-dimensional toroidal geometry is performed. Within this model plasma is confined by the applied rf fields and its equilibrium is stable. Technically feasible compact and medium size toroidal plasma confinement devices based on this concept are proposed. Application of this approach to the fusion reactor requires use of superconducting materials for the toroidal shell to reduce the Ohmic losses. Further theoretical and experimental studies are required for a more reliable conclusion about the attractiveness of this plasma confinement concept.
Collision Geometry and Flow in Uranium+Uranium Collisions
Andy Goldschmidt; Zhi Qiu; Chun Shen; Ulrich Heinz
2015-02-02
Using event-by-event viscous fluid dynamics to evolve fluctuating initial density profiles from the Monte-Carlo Glauber model for U+U collisions, we report a "knee"-like structure in the elliptic flow as a function of collision centrality, located near 0.5% centrality as measured by the final charged multiplicity. This knee is due to the preferential selection of tip-on-tip collision geometries by a high-multiplicity trigger. Such a knee structure is not seen in the STAR data. This rules out the two-component MC-Glauber model for initial energy and entropy production. An enrichment of tip-tip configurations by triggering solely on high-multiplicity in the U+U collisions thus does not work. On the other hand, using the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) coupled with event-shape engineering, we identify the selection purity of body-body and tip-tip events in the full-overlap U+U collisions. With additional constraints on the asymmetry of the ZDC signals one can further increases the probability of selecting tip-tip events in U+U collisions.
Collision Geometry and Flow in Uranium+Uranium Collisions
Andy Goldschmidt; Zhi Qiu; Chun Shen; Ulrich Heinz
2015-07-14
Using event-by-event viscous fluid dynamics to evolve fluctuating initial density profiles from the Monte-Carlo Glauber model for U+U collisions, we report a "knee"-like structure in the elliptic flow as a function of collision centrality, located around the 0.5% most central collisions as measured by the final charged multiplicity. This knee is due to the preferential selection of tip-on-tip collision geometries by a high-multiplicity trigger. Such a knee structure is not seen in the STAR data. This rules out the two-component MC-Glauber model for initial energy and entropy production. Hence an enrichment of tip-tip configurations by triggering solely on high-multiplicity in the U+U collisions does not work. On the other hand, by using the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) coupled with event-shape engineering such a selection is possible. We identify the selection purity of body-body and tip-tip events in full-overlap U+U collisions. By additionally constraining the asymmetry of the ZDC signals we can further increase the probability of selecting tip-tip events in U+U collisions.
Quantum Riemannian geometry of phase space and nonassociativity
Edwin J. Beggs; Shahn Majid
2014-10-29
Noncommutative or `quantum' differential geometry has emerged in recent years as a process for quantizing not only a classical space into a noncommutative algebra (as familiar in quantum mechanics) but also differential forms, bundles and Riemannian structures at this level. The data for the algebra quantisation is a classical Poisson bracket, the data for the quantum differential forms is a Poisson-compatible connection it was recently shown that after this, classical data such as classical bundles, metrics etc. all become quantised in a canonical `functorial' way at least to 1st order in deformation theory. There are, however, fresh compatibility conditions between the classical Riemannian and the Poisson structures as well as new physics such as nonassociativity at 2nd order. We give an introduction to this theory and some details for the case of CP${}^n$ where the commutation relations have the canonical form $[w^i,\\bar w^j]=\\mathrm{i}\\lambda\\delta_{ij}$ similar to the proposal of Penrose for quantum twistor space. Our work provides a canonical but ultimately nonassociative differential calculus on this algebra and quantises the metric and Levi-Civita connection at lowest order in $\\lambda$.
Collision Geometry and Flow in Uranium+Uranium Collisions
Goldschmidt, Andy; Shen, Chun; Heinz, Ulrich
2015-01-01
Using event-by-event viscous fluid dynamics to evolve fluctuating initial density profiles from the Monte-Carlo Glauber model for U+U collisions, we report a "knee"-like structure in the elliptic flow as a function of collision centrality, located around the 0.5% most central collisions as measured by the final charged multiplicity. This knee is due to the preferential selection of tip-on-tip collision geometries by a high-multiplicity trigger. Such a knee structure is not seen in the STAR data. This rules out the two-component MC-Glauber model for initial energy and entropy production. Hence an enrichment of tip-tip configurations by triggering solely on high-multiplicity in the U+U collisions does not work. On the other hand, by using the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) coupled with event-shape engineering such a selection is possible. We identify the selection purity of body-body and tip-tip events in full-overlap U+U collisions. By additionally constraining the asymmetry of the ZDC signals we can further ...
Collision Geometry and Flow in Uranium+Uranium Collisions
Goldschmidt, Andy; Shen, Chun; Heinz, Ulrich
2015-01-01
Using event-by-event viscous fluid dynamics to evolve fluctuating initial density profiles from the Monte-Carlo Glauber model for U+U collisions, we report a "knee"-like structure in the elliptic flow as a function of collision centrality, located near 0.5% centrality as measured by the final charged multiplicity. This knee is due to the preferential selection of tip-on-tip collision geometries by a high-multiplicity trigger. Such a knee structure is not seen in the STAR data. This rules out the two-component MC-Glauber model for initial energy and entropy production. An enrichment of tip-tip configurations by triggering solely on high-multiplicity in the U+U collisions thus does not work. On the other hand, using the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) coupled with event-shape engineering, we identify the selection purity of body-body and tip-tip events in the full-overlap U+U collisions. With additional constraints on the asymmetry of the ZDC signals one can further increases the probability of selecting tip-ti...
Axisymmetric curvature-driven instability in a model divertor geometry
Farmer, W. A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2013-09-15
A model problem is presented which qualitatively describes a pressure-driven instability which can occur near the null-point in the divertor region of a tokamak where the poloidal field becomes small. The model problem is described by a horizontal slot with a vertical magnetic field which plays the role of the poloidal field. Line-tying boundary conditions are applied at the planes defining the slot. A toroidal field lying parallel to the planes is assumed to be very strong, thereby constraining the possible structure of the perturbations. Axisymmetric perturbations which leave the toroidal field unperturbed are analyzed. Ideal magnetohydrodynamics is used, and the instability threshold is determined by the energy principle. Because of the boundary conditions, the Euler equation is, in general, non-separable except at marginal stability. This problem may be useful in understanding the source of heat transport into the private flux region in a snowflake divertor which possesses a large region of small poloidal field, and for code benchmarking as it yields simple analytic results in an interesting geometry.
Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide
King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)
2001-01-01
Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.
Thermal Stability of Acetohydroxamic Acid/Nitric Acid Solutions
Rudisill, T.S.
2002-03-13
The transmutation of transuranic actinides and long-lived fission products in spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel has been proposed as one element of the Advanced Accelerator Applications Program. Preparation of targets for irradiation in an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor would involve dissolution of the fuel and separation of uranium, technetium, and iodine from the transuranic actinides and other fission products. The UREX solvent extraction process is being developed to reject and isolate the transuranic actinides in the acid waste stream by scrubbing with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). To ensure that a runaway reaction will not occur between nitric acid and AHA, an analogue of hydroxyl amine, thermal stability tests were performed to identify if any processing conditions could lead to a runaway reaction.
Yoon, Young-Gui; Pfrommer, Bernd G.; Louie, Steven G.; Canning, Andrew
2002-03-03
The authors present calculations of NMR chemical shifts in crystalline phases of some representative amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and alanyl-alanine. To get an insight on how different environments affect the chemical shifts, they study the transition from the crystalline phase to completely isolated molecules of glycine. In the crystalline limit, the shifts are dominated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonds. In the molecular limit, however, dipole electric field effects dominate the behavior of the chemical shifts. They show that it is necessary to average the chemical shifts in glycine over geometries. Tensor components are analyzed to get the angle dependent proton chemical shifts, which is a more refined characterization method.
Extended Gauss-Bonnet gravities in Weyl geometry
Jose Beltran Jimenez; Tomi S. Koivisto
2014-02-08
In this paper we consider an extended Gauss-Bonnet gravity theory in arbitrary dimensions and in a space provided with a Weyl connection, which is torsionless but not metric-compatible, the non-metricity tensor being determined by a vector field. The considered action consists of the usual Einstein-Hilbert action plus all the terms quadratic in the curvature that reduce to the usual Gauss-Bonnet term for vanishing Weyl connection, i.e., when only the Levi-Civita part of the connection is present. We expand the action in terms of Riemannian quantities and obtain vector-tensor theories. We find that all the free parameters only appear in the kinetic term of the vector field so that two branches are possible: one with a propagating vector field and another one where the vector field does not propagate. We focus on the propagating case. We find that in 4 dimensions, the theory is equivalent to Einstein's gravity plus a Proca field. This field is naturally decoupled from matter so that it represents a natural candidate for dark matter. Also in d=4, we discuss a non-trivial cubic term in the curvature that can be constructed without spoiling the second order nature of the field equations because it leads to the vector-tensor Horndeski interaction. In arbitrary dimensions, the theory becomes more involved. We show that, even though the vector field presents kinetic interactions which do not have U(1) symmetry, there are no additional propagating degrees of freedom with respect to the usual massive case. Interestingly, we show that this relies on the fact that the corresponding Stueckelberg field belongs to a specific class within the general Horndeski theories. Finally, since Weyl geometries are the natural ground to build scale invariant theories, we apply the usual Weyl-gauging in order to make the Horndeski action locally scale invariant and discuss on new terms that can be added.
Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants
Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.
1995-07-04
The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.
Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants
Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)
1995-01-01
The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.
Soop, K
1966-01-01
Differences between hydrogen and heavy liquid geometry programs and some details about fitting in the program drat
Automatic Generation of a JET 3D Neutronics Model from CAD Geometry Data for Monte Carlo Calculations
Astrid Lambrecht; Antoine Canaguier-Durand; Romain Guérout; Serge Reynaud
2010-06-17
We present calculations of the quantum and thermal Casimir interaction between real mirrors in electromagnetic fields using the scattering approach. We begin with a pedagogical introduction of this approach in simple cases where the scattering is specular. We then discuss the more general case of stationary arbitrarily shaped mirrors and present in particular applications to two geometries of interest for experiments, that is corrugated plates and the plane-sphere geometry. The results nicely illustrate the rich correlations existing between material properties, temperature and geometry in the Casimir effect.
Acidizing High-Temperature Carbonate Formations Using Methanesulfonic Acid
Ortega, Alexis
2015-03-25
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is the most commonly used stimulation fluid for high-temperature wells drilled in carbonate reservoirs due to its high dissolving power and low cost. However, the high corrosion rate of HCl on well tubulars could make its use...
roof by using the developed computational tools 031.PDF Keywords: Architectural Geometry, Procedural an innovative computational design tool used to edit architectural geometry interactively and demonstrates the process of designing geometry using the developed tool. The background, related work, implementation
GAMM-Mitteilungen, 7 August 2014 Geometry Processing from an Elastic Perspective
Wardetzky, Max
, such as 3D printers, the processing of highly resolved complex geometries has estab- lished itself hardware, such as laser range scanners for the acquisition of 3D ge- ometries, and new software
The geometry of vacuum static spaces and deformations of scalar curvature
Yuan, Wei
2015-01-01
2 Classifications of vacuum static spaces 2.1 Bach flatness3.3 Conformal rigidity of vacuum static space . 4 Brown-Yorkiv Abstract The geometry of vacuum static spaces and
Anomalous dispersion in a dipole flow geometry P. Kurowski, I. Ippolito, and J. P. Hulin
Hinch, John
- pole geometry between an injection and a pumping well. l-4 For example, in geothermal operations one- culated between two vertical wells intersecting the fracture or layer.' The common practice in quantifying
Cullinan, Michael A. (Michael Arthur)
2008-01-01
This paper presents tunable process parameters that may be used to control the geometry of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The results may be used to grow MWCNTs with desired stiffness properties. This is important ...
Creating deformations and tunnels in a surface using layered geometry with adaptive filtering
Brooks, Jacob Kirk
2005-11-01
With this thesis, I present a method for creating footprints and tunnels in a surface through the use of layered geometry. Rather than using a single geometric surface, deformations are created through the interaction of a polygonal object...
Geometry of binocular imaging II : The augmented eye Victor S. Grinberg
Siegel, Mel
periscopes. It is the nature of these magnifying optical devices that the transverse (normal) magnification imaging, stereo imaging, binoculars, stereomicroscope, periscope, simulation, projective geometry 1, stereomicroscopes, and binocular periscopes. Usually optical devices introduce certain geometric distortions
Combining recognition and geometry for data-driven 3D reconstruction
Owens, Andrew (Andrew Hale)
2013-01-01
Today's multi-view 3D reconstruction techniques rely almost exclusively on depth cues that come from multiple view geometry. While these cues can be used to produce highly accurate reconstructions, the resulting point ...
Automatically Recovering Geometry and Texture from Large Sets of Calibrated Images
Mellor, J.P.
1999-10-22
Three-dimensional models which contain both geometry and texture have numerous applications such as urban planning, physical simulation, and virtual environments. A major focus of computer vision (and recently graphics) ...
Integral geometry of tensor fields on a class of non-simple ...
main results up to 1994 on the integral geometry problem considered in this paper. Some recent results include [Sh2], [Ch], [SU3], [D], [Pe], [SSU], [ShU].
SEGMENTING CROSSING FIBER GEOMETRIES USING FLUID MECHANICS TENSOR DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION TRACTOGRAPHY
Thompson, Paul
SEGMENTING CROSSING FIBER GEOMETRIES USING FLUID MECHANICS TENSOR DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION introduce a fluid mechanics based tractography method that estimates the most likely connection path between using fluid mechanics based tractography has demonstrated superior performance vs. other competing
A distributional approach to the geometry of 2D dislocations at the mesoscale
Lisbon, University of
A distributional approach to the geometry of 2D dislocations at the mesoscale Part A: General introduce the meso-scale as defined by some average distance between the dislocations. The laws governing
"A First Course in Geometric Topology and Differential Geometry" Ethan D. Bloch
Bloch, Ethan
ERRATA FOR "A First Course in Geometric Topology and Differential Geometry" Ethan D. Bloch Birkh or regular mail at the following address: Ethan D. Bloch Bard College Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504 bloch
Miniature Hourglass Shaped Actuator Geometry Study Using A Finite Element Simulation
Elwell, Roston Clement
2011-08-08
This project investigated a miniature, hourglass-shaped actuator (MHA) and how its geometry affects performance. A custom, self-contained, finite-element simulation code predicts how each MHA deforms when pressurized ...
Geometry of wrapped M5-branes in Calabi-Yau 2-folds
Fayyazuddin, Ansar; Husain, Tasneem Zehra; Pappa, Ioanna
2006-06-15
We study the geometry of M5-branes wrapping a 2-cycle which is special Lagrangian with respect to a specific complex structure in a Calabi-Yau 2-fold. Using methods recently applied to the 3-fold case, we are again able to find a characterization of the geometry, in terms of a nonintegrable almost complex structure and a (2,0) form. This time, however, due to the hyper-Kaehler nature of the underlying 2-fold, we also have the freedom of choosing a different almost complex structure with respect to which the wrapped 2-cycle is holomorphic. We show that this latter almost complex structure is integrable. We then relate our geometry to previously found geometries of M5-branes wrapping holomorphic cycles and go further to prove some previously unknown results for M5-branes on holomorphic cycles.
The geometry of vacuum static spaces and deformations of scalar curvature
Yuan, Wei
2015-01-01
2 Classifications of vacuum static spaces 2.1 Bach flatness3.3 Conformal rigidity of vacuum static space . 4 Brown-YorkThe geometry of vacuum static spaces and deformations of
Riemannian Geometry Based on the Takagi's Factorization of the Metric Tensor
Juan Mendez
2015-07-05
The Riemannian geometry is one of the main theoretical pieces in Modern Mathematics and Physics. The study of Riemann Geometry in the relevant literature is performed by using a well defined analytical path. Usually it starts from the concept of metric as the primary concept and by using the connections as an intermediate geometric object, it is achieved the curvature and its properties. This paper presents a different analytical path to analyze the Riemannian geometry. It is based on a set of intermediate geometric objects obtained from the Takagi's factorization of the metric tensor. These intermediate objects allow a new viewpoint for the analysis of the geometry, provide conditions for the curved vs. flat manifolds, and also provide a new decomposition of the curvature tensor in canonical parts, which can be useful for Theoretical Physics.
Ohannessian, Mesrob I., 1981-
2005-01-01
This thesis develops a method to simulate and visualize the fields and energy flows in electric circuits, using a simplified physical model based on an idealized geometry. The physical models combine and extend previously ...
Griffin, Ryan A
2006-01-01
The aim of this thesis was to further characterize the effectiveness of field responsive fluids (FRFs) in geometries pertinent to the soldier and to examine the effects of specific geometric and kinematic parameters, ...
Elliot, William J., S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2005-01-01
The intent of the investigation is to try to characterize the nature of scattered acoustical energy off of the face of a concrete masonry unit with an atypical geometry. The nature of the tests conducted would be in ...
Numerical Study of Geometry and Rotation Dependence on the Flow in Labyrinth Seals
Yamsani, Vamshi Krishna
2011-10-21
A computational study was conducted on the flow, both compressible and incompressible, in a labyrinth seal at various geometries and rotation rates. The computations were performed using the commercial software Fluent® ...
Lipfert, F.W.
1992-12-31
Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H{sup +} concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ``clear air``) aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions.
Process for forming sulfuric acid
Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA)
1981-01-01
An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.
Effect of pore geometry in porous media on the miscibility of crude oil and carbon dioxide
Sarkhosh, Hamed
1977-01-01
EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECT OF PORE GEOMETRY IN POROUS MEDIA ON THE MISCIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL AND CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by HAMED SARKHOSH Approved as to styie and content by Chai, an of Committee Head...
Comparison of Three Cre-LoxP Based Paired-End Library Construction Methods
Peng, Ze; Nath, Nandita; Tritt, Andrew; Liang, Shoudan; Han, James; Pennacchio, Len; Chen, Feng
2013-03-26
Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo whole genome shotgun assembly. The ability of generating mate pairs with > 8 Kb insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. To make mate paired libraries for next generation sequencing, DNA fragments need to be circularized to bring the ends together. There are several methods that can be used for DNA circulation, namely ligation, hybridization and Cre-LoxP recombination. With higher circularization efficiency with large insert DNA fragments, Cre-LoxP recombination method generally has been used for constructing >8 kb insert size paired-end libraries. Second fragmentation step is also crucial for maintaining high library complexity and uniform genome coverage. Here we will describe the following three fragmentation methods: restriction enzyme digestion, random shearing and nick translation. We will present the comparison results for these three methods. Our data showed that all three methods are able to generate paired-end libraries with greater than 20 kb insert. Advantages and disadvantages of these three methods will be discussed as well.
Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays
Church, George M. (Brookline, MA)
2002-01-01
A method of producing a plurality of a nucleic acid array, comprising, in order, the steps of amplifying in situ nucleic acid molecules of a first randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array comprising a heterogeneous pool of nucleic acid molecules affixed to a support, transferring at least a subset of the nucleic acid molecules produced by such amplifying to a second support, and affixing the subset so transferred to the second support to form a second randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array, wherein the nucleic acid molecules of the second array occupy positions that correspond to those of the nucleic acid molecules from which they were amplified on the first array, so that the first array serves as a template to produce a plurality, is disclosed.
Modeling of Acid Fracturing in Carbonate Reservoirs
Al Jawad, Murtada s
2014-06-05
The acid fracturing process is a thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and geochemical (THMG)-coupled phenomena in which the behavior of these variables are interrelated. To model the flow behavior of an acid into a fracture, mass and momentum balance...
PREDICTING TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR IN CARBONATE ACIDIZING TREATMENTS
Tan, Xuehao
2010-01-16
........................................................................................ 4 1.4 Objective and Procedures .................................................................. 4 1.5 Outline .............................................................................................. 5 2. ACID INJECTION PROBLEM.......................................................... 10 2.4 Wormhole Growth Model.................................................................. 11 2.5 Modified Volumetric Model .............................................................. 14 2.6 Solution of Acid Injection Problem...
Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues
Greenhalgh, W.O.
1987-02-27
Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.
Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer
Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)
2009-04-14
An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.
Chemical Additive Selection in Matrix Acidizing
Weidner, Jason 1981-
2011-05-09
critical detail of weak acid chemistry. One concern when using any acid in oilfield operations is the corrosion of well tubulars. Thus operators often choose to pump corrosion inhibitor, a chemical additive electrostatically attracted... to the negative charge of the well casing or production tubing, to decrease the rate at which the acid accesses well tubular surfaces (Crowe and Minor 1985). A typical working concentration of corrosion inhibitor is 1-2 wt% of injected acid (Smith et al. 1978...
Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid
Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)
1995-01-01
A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.
Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid
Bonsignore, P.V.
1995-11-28
A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.
Metabolically active eukaryotic communities in extremely acidic mine drainage
Baker, Brett J; Lutz, M A; Dawson, S C; Bond, P L; Banfield, J F
2004-01-01
Microbial communities in acid mine drainage. FEMS Microbiol.Biogeochem- istry of acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain,in an extreme acid mine drainage environment. Appl. Environ.
Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions
Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.
2014-08-26
This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.
Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions
Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (San Diego, CA); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)
2011-02-15
This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.
Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions
Deiters, Alexander (La Jolla, CA); Cropp, T. Ashton (Bethesda, MD); Chin, Jason W. (Cambridge, GB); Anderson, J. Christopher (San Francisco, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)
2011-08-09
This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.
Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions
Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G
2013-05-21
This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.
Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters
Moens, L.
1999-05-25
A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.
Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters
Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)
1999-01-01
A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.
Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid
Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.
2011-10-21
The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.
Hydrochloric Acid-Catalyzed Levulinic Acid Formation from Cellulose: Data and Kinetic
California at Riverside, University of
Hydrochloric Acid-Catalyzed Levulinic Acid Formation from Cellulose: Data and Kinetic Model.com). In this study, the kinetics of the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH101 of conditions: 160200 C, hydrochloric acid concentrations of 0.3090.927 M (11.333.8 g/l), cellulose
Acid Diversion in Carbonate Reservoirs Using Polymer-Based In-Situ Gelled Acids
Gomaa, Ahmed Mohamed Mohamed
2012-07-16
and determine factors that impact its performance. Lab test of polymer-based in-situ gelled acids reveal that polymer and other additives separate out of the acid when these acids are prepared in high salinity water. In coreflood tests, in-situ gelled acid...
Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules
Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu
2006-06-06
The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.
Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules
Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu
2006-05-30
The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.
Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts
Oh, George N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)
2014-07-01
The reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)·2(H{sub 2}O). ?- and ?-An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2{sub 1}/n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O) with a layered structure. - Highlights: • U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) phosphites were synthesized by solution-state methods. • A new uranyl phosphite structure is based upon uranyl phosphite anionic sheets. • New U and Th phosphites have framework structures.
Dynamics of laser-blow-off induced Li plume in confined geometry
Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R K; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)
2013-08-15
Dynamics of Li plasma plume created by laser-blow-off technique in air ambient is reported. Plasma plume dynamics and its optical emission are investigated in planar and confined geometries using time resolved shadowgraph imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. Significant differences in the plasma characteristics in confined geometry are quantitatively investigated by comparing the plasma parameters (temperature and density) in free expansion and confined geometry configurations. Dynamics and physical parameters of the primary as well as the reflected shock waves (in confined geometry) and their interactions with expanding plasma are briefly addressed. A large enhancement in the emission intensities of Li I 610.3 nm (2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}? 3d {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,5/2}) and 670.8 nm (2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}? 2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}) is correlated with the shock wave dynamics in the two geometries. Strong self reversal in the neutral emission infers an increase in the population density of neutrals within the confined plasma plume.
Acid Fracture and Fracture Conductivity Study of Field Rock Samples
Underwood, Jarrod
2013-11-15
Acid fracturing is a well stimulation strategy designed to increase the productivity of a producing well. The parameters of acid fracturing and the effects of acid interaction on specific rock samples can be studied experimentally. Acid injection...
Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell
Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA)
2010-08-17
A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.
Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell
Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA)
2010-12-21
A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.
A new approach to euclidean plane geometry based on projective geometric algebra
Charles Gunn
2015-08-30
The article presents a new approach to euclidean plane geometry based on projective geometric algebra (PGA), designed for anyone with an interest in plane geometry, or who wishes to familiarize themselves with PGA. We explore in detail the geometric product involving pairs and triples of basic elements (lines and points), and show it encodes a wealth of fundamental metric and non-metric properties, whereby the seamless integration of euclidean and ideal aspects is particularly noteworthy. We apply the algebra to a variety of familiar topics in plane euclidean geometry, and show it compares favorably with other approaches in regard to completeness, compactness, practicality, and elegance. Numerous figures accompany the text. For readers with the requisite mathematical background, a self-contained coordinate-free introduction to the algebra is provided in an appendix.
Proof-of-principle of a new geometry for sampling calorimetry using inorganic scintillator plates
Becker, R; Gendotti, A; Huang, Q; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Lutterer, S; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pandolfi, F; Pauss, F; Peruzzi, M; Quittnat, M; Wallny, R
2015-01-01
A novel geometry for a sampling calorimeter employing inorganic scintillators as an active medium is presented. To overcome the mechanical challenges of construction, an innovative light collection geometry has been pioneered, that minimises the complexity of construction. First test results are presented, demonstrating a successful signal extraction. The geometry consists of a sampling calorimeter with passive absorber layers interleaved with layers of an active medium made of inorganic scintillating crystals. Wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibres run along the four long, chamfered edges of the stack, transporting the light to photodetectors at the rear. To maximise the amount of scintillation light reaching the WLS fibres, the scintillator chamfers are depolished. It is shown herein that this concept is working for cerium fluoride (CeF$_3$) as a scintillator. Coupled to it, several different types of materials have been tested as WLS medium. In particular, materials that might be sufficiently resistant to the Hi...
Role of colliding geometry on the balance energy of mass-asymmetric systems
Supriya Goyal
2011-04-16
We study the role of colliding geometry on the balance energy (Ebal) of mass-asymmetric systems by varying the mass asymmetry ({\\eta} = AT - Ap/AT + AP, where AT and AP are the masses of the target and projectile, respectively) from 0.1 to 0.7, over the mass range 40-240 and on the mass dependence of the balance energy. Our findings reveal that colliding geometry has a significant effect on the Ebal of asymmetric systems. We find that, as we go from central collisions to peripheral ones, the effect of mass asymmetry on Ebal increases throughout the mass range. Interestingly, we find that for every fixed system mass (Atot) the effect of the impact parameter variation is almost uniform throughout the mass-asymmetry range. For each {\\eta}, Ebal follows a power-law behavior (\\propto A{\\tau}) at all colliding geometries
FZ2MC: A Tool for Monte Carlo Transport Code Geometry Manipulation
Hackel, B M; Nielsen Jr., D E; Procassini, R J
2009-02-25
The process of creating and validating combinatorial geometry representations of complex systems for use in Monte Carlo transport simulations can be both time consuming and error prone. To simplify this process, a tool has been developed which employs extensions of the Form-Z commercial solid modeling tool. The resultant FZ2MC (Form-Z to Monte Carlo) tool permits users to create, modify and validate Monte Carlo geometry and material composition input data. Plugin modules that export this data to an input file, as well as parse data from existing input files, have been developed for several Monte Carlo codes. The FZ2MC tool is envisioned as a 'universal' tool for the manipulation of Monte Carlo geometry and material data. To this end, collaboration on the development of plug-in modules for additional Monte Carlo codes is desired.
Beyond the Standard Model with noncommutative geometry, strolling towards quantum gravity
Martinetti, Pierre
2015-01-01
Noncommutative geometry, in its many incarnations, appears at the crossroad of various researches in theoretical and mathematical physics: from models of quantum space-time (with or without breaking of Lorentz symmetry) to loop gravity and string theory, from early considerations on UV-divergencies in quantum field theory to recent models of gauge theories on noncommutative spacetime, from Connes description of the standard model of elementary particles to recent Pati-Salam like extensions. We list several of these applications, emphasizing also the original point of view brought by noncommutative geometry on the nature of time. This text serves as an introduction to the volume of proceedings of the parallel session "Noncommutative geometry and quantum gravity", as a part of the conference "Conceptual and technical challenges in quantum gravity" organized at the University of Rome "La Sapienza" in September 2014.
The effect of discharge chamber geometry on the ignition of low-pressure rf capacitive discharges
Lisovskiy, V.; Martins, S.; Landry, K.; Douai, D.; Booth, J.-P.; Cassagne, V.; Yegorenkov, V. [Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128, France and Kharkov National University, Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Unaxis Displays Division France SAS, 5, Rue Leon Blum, Palaiseau 91120 (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Unaxis Displays Division France SAS, 5, Rue Leon Blum, Palaiseau 91120 (France); Kharkov National University, Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine)
2005-09-15
This paper reports measured and calculated breakdown curves in several gases of rf capacitive discharges excited at 13.56 MHz in chambers of three different geometries: parallel plates surrounded by a dielectric cylinder ('symmetric parallel plate'), parallel plates surrounded by a grounded metallic cylinder ('asymmetric parallel plate'), and parallel plates inside a much larger grounded metallic chamber ('large chamber'). The breakdown curves for the symmetric chamber have a multivalued section at low pressure. For the asymmetric chamber the breakdown curves are shifted to lower pressures and rf voltages, but the multivalued feature is still present. At higher pressures the breakdown voltages are much lower than for the symmetric geometry. For the large chamber geometry the multivalued behavior is not observed. The breakdown curves were also calculated using a numerical model based on fluid equations, giving results that are in satisfactory agreement with the measurements.
New black holes of vacuum Einstein equations with hyperscaling violation and Nil geometry horizons
Mokhtar Hassaine
2015-03-05
In this paper, we present a new solution of the vacuum Einstein equations in five dimensions which is a static black hole with hyperscaling violation and with a three-dimensional horizon modeled by one the eight Thurston geometries, namely the Nil geometry. This homogeneous geometry is non-trivial in the sense that it is neither of constant curvature nor a product of constant curvature manifolds. Using the Hamiltonian formalism, we identify the mass and entropy of the black hole solution. Curiously enough, in spite of the fact that the entropy turns to be negative, the mass is positive and the first law of thermodynamics holds. We also discuss the extension in higher dimension.
A new approach to euclidean plane geometry based on projective geometric algebra
Charles Gunn
2015-03-27
The article presents a new approach to euclidean plane geometry based on projective geometric algebra (PGA). After introducing the algebra, it presents the first detailed study of the geometric product of basic elements: pairs of lines, pairs of points, a point-line pair, 3 lines, and 3 points, with particular attention to the seamless integration of euclidean and ideal aspects. This yields a compact, powerful geometric toolkit which the article then applies to a variety of topics in plane euclidean geometry: distance formulae, sums and differences of points and of lines, isometries via sandwiches, the join operator, orthogonal projection, and a step-by-step solution of a sample geometric construction. In conclusion, the article compares the PGA approach to the analytic geometric approach and also alternative geometric algebra approaches to plane geometry. Numerous figures accompany the text. For readers with the requisite mathematical background, a self-contained coordinate-free introduction to the algebra is provided in an appendix.
Superanalogs of symplectic and contact geometry and their applications to quantum field theory
Albert Schwarz
1994-06-17
The paper contains a short review of the theory of symplectic and contact manifolds and of the generalization of this theory to the case of supermanifolds. It is shown that this generalization can be used to obtain some important results in quantum field theory. In particular, regarding $N$-superconformal geometry as particular case of contact complex geometry, one can better understand $N=2$ superconformal field theory and its connection to topological conformal field theory. The odd symplectic geometry constitutes a mathematical basis of Batalin-Vilkovisky procedure of quantization of gauge theories. The exposition is based mostly on published papers. However, the paper contains also a review of some unpublished results (in the section devoted to the axiomatics of $N=2$ superconformal theory and topological quantum field theory). The paper will be published in Berezin memorial volume.
Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake
Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2013-10-15
Advanced divertors are magnetic geometries where a second X-point is added in the divertor region to address the serious challenges of burning plasma power exhaust. Invoking physical arguments, numerical work, and detailed model magnetic field analysis, we investigate the magnetic field structure of advanced divertors in the physically relevant region for power exhaust—the scrape-off layer. A primary result of our analysis is the emergence of a physical “metric,” the Divertor Index DI, which quantifies the flux expansion increase as one goes from the main X-point to the strike point. It clearly separates three geometries with distinct consequences for divertor physics—the Standard Divertor (DI = 1), and two advanced geometries—the X-Divertor (XD, DI > 1) and the Snowflake (DI < 1). The XD, therefore, cannot be classified as one variant of the Snowflake. By this measure, recent National Spherical Torus Experiment and DIIID experiments are X-Divertors, not Snowflakes.
Double stranded nucleic acid biochips
Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia
2006-05-23
This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.
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Schneider, Kai
2015-01-01
Immersed boundary methods for computing confined fluid and plasma flows in complex geometries are reviewed. The mathematical principle of the volume penalization technique is described and simple examples for imposing Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in one dimension are given. Applications for fluid and plasma turbulence in two and three space dimensions illustrate the applicability and the efficiency of the method in computing flows in complex geometries, for example in toroidal geometries with asymmetric poloidal cross-sections.
Canonical transformation for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry
Brizard, Alain J
2014-01-01
The generating function for the canonical transformation from the parallel canonical coordinates $(p_{\\|},s)$ to the action-angle coordinates $(J,\\zeta)$ for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is presented. Drawing on the analogy between the phase-space portraits of the librating/rotating pendulum and the trapped/passing guiding-center orbits, the generating function is expressed in terms of the Jacobi zeta function, which can then readily be used to obtain an explicit expression for the bounce-center transformation for trapped-particles in axisymmetric tokamak geometry.
Geometry for web microwave heating or drying to a desired profile in a waveguide
Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; Patterson, Timothy F.; Ahrens, Frederick W.
2005-11-15
A microwave heater and/or dryer has a nonlinear or curvilinear relative slot profile geometry. In one embodiment, the microwave dryer has at least one adjustable field modifier making it possible to change the geometry of the heater or dryer when drying different webs. In another embodiment, the microwave dryer provides more uniform drying of a web when the field modifier is adjusted in response to a sensed condition of the web. Finally, a method of microwave heating and/or drying a web achieves a uniform heating and/or drying profile.
Design and Comparison of a 1 MW / 5s HTS SMES with Toroidal and Solenoidal Geometry
Morandi, Antonio; Gholizad, Babak; Grilli, Francesco; Sirois, Frédéric; Zermeńo, Víctor M R
2015-01-01
The design of a HTS SMES coil with solenoidal and toroidal geometry is carried out based on a commercially available 2G HTS conductor. A SMES system of practical interest (1 MW / 5 s) is considered. The comparison between ideal toroidal and solenoidal geometry is first discussed and the criteria used for choosing the geometrical parameters of the coils' bore are explained. The design of the real coil is then carried out and the final amount of conductor needed is compared. A preliminary comparison of the two coils in terms of AC loss during one charge discharge cycle is also discussed.
Role of colliding geometry on the N/Z dependence of balance energy
Sakshi Gautam; Aman D. Sood; Rajeev K. Puri
2011-08-01
We study the role of colliding geometry on the N/Z dependence of balance energy using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. Our study reveals that the N/Z dependence of balance energy becomes much steeper for peripheral collisions as compared to the central collisions. We also study the effect of system mass on the impact parameter dependence of N/Z dependence of balance energy. The study shows that lighter systems shows greater sensitivity to colliding geometry towards the N/Z dependence.
Canonical transformation for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry
Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Duthoit, François-Xavier [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); SNU Division of Graduate Education for Sustainabilization of Foundation Energy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
The generating function for the canonical transformation from the parallel canonical coordinates (s,p{sub ||}) to the action-angle coordinates (?, J) for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is presented. Drawing on the analogy between the phase-space portraits of the librating/rotating pendulum and the trapped/passing guiding-center orbits, the generating function is expressed in terms of the Jacobi zeta function, which can then readily be used to obtain an explicit expression for the bounce-center transformation for trapped/passing-particle guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry.
Fuzzy Geometry via the Spinor Bundle, with Applications to Holographic Space-time and Matrix Theory
Tom Banks; John Kehayias
2011-11-02
We present a new framework for defining fuzzy approximations to geometry in terms of a cutoff on the spectrum of the Dirac operator, and a generalization of it that we call the Dirac-Flux operator. This framework does not require a symplectic form on the manifold, and is completely rotation invariant on an arbitrary n-sphere. The framework is motivated by the formalism of Holographic Space-Time (HST), whose fundamental variables are sections of the spinor bundle over a compact Euclidean manifold. The strong holographic principle (SHP) requires the space of these sections to be finite dimensional. We discuss applications of fuzzy spinor geometry to HST and to Matrix Theory.
Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs
Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)
1996-01-01
The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.
Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs
Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)
1999-10-12
The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.
Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs
Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.
1996-10-01
The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.
Acid rain information book. Draft final report
None
1980-12-01
Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.
Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters
Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.
1998-04-28
This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.
Understanding Naphthenic Acid Corrosion in Refinery Settings
Patrick, Brian Neil
2015-01-01
R. & Tordo, S. , 2005. Crude oil price differentials andfiles/08105.Technical Paper_Crude Oil Price DifferentialsAcids Present in Crude Oils Using Nanospray Fourier
Investigating intermediates in 6-methylsalicylic acid biosynthesis
Potter, Helen Katherine
2011-07-12
.3.1 Chlorination ............................................................................................ 174 A2.3.2 Coupling of amino acids.......................................................................... 174 A2.3.3 Protecting groups...
Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.
Nair, Sankar
Geometry of nanopore devices fabricated by electron beam lithography: Simulations and experimental 2013 Keywords: Nanopore Simulation Electron beam lithography Penelope Nanotechnology Monte Carlo a b be fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) with high density (on the order of 10 devices per cm2
TORIC GEOMETRY AND THE SEMPLE-NASH MODIFICATION PEDRO D. GONZALEZ PEREZ AND BERNARD TEISSIER
González Pérez, Pedro Daniel
TORIC GEOMETRY AND THE SEMPLE-NASH MODIFICATION PEDRO D. GONZ´ALEZ P´EREZ AND BERNARD TEISSIER. In the second part this is used to show that iterating the Semple-Nash modification or its characteristic]. If the field is of characteristic zero, this blowing-up is isomor- phic to the Semple-Nash modification. Recall
Alice Boner and the Geometry of Temple Cave Art of India
Moody, Robert Vaughan
Alice Boner and the Geometry of Temple Cave Art of India Robert V. Moody Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G1 Introduction Alice Boner (1889 1936 until 1978. Her passion was oriental art, particularly the art of India. India's rich cultural
Condat, Laurent
gipsa-lab AGPiG ARCHITECTURE GEOMETRIE PERCEPTION IMAGES GESTES Equipe AGPiG-Architecture géométrie programmation parallčle Gestion dynamique d'architecture THÉMATIQUES RESPONSABLES Dominique ATTALI Dominique vidéos Mesures de courbure Suivi d'activités Identification d'expressions Attention visuelle Architecture
Growth, geometry, and mechanics of a blooming lily Haiyi Lianga,b
Liang, Haiyi
Growth, geometry, and mechanics of a blooming lily Haiyi Lianga,b and L. Mahadevana,1 Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02138; and Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China wrinkle as the flower opens, suggesting that differential growth drives the deployment of these laminar
ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM
Faou, Erwan
ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM GABRIEL CALOZ, MONIQUE DAUGE, ERWAN FAOU, VICTOR P´ERON ABSTRACT. We consider the equations of electromagnetism set on a domain made in electromagnetism. This effect describes the rapid decay of electromagnetic fields with depth inside a metallic
The Geometry of Intersecting Tubes Applied to Controlling a Robotic Welding Torch
Stockie, John
The Geometry of Intersecting Tubes Applied to Controlling a Robotic Welding Torch John M. Stockie Abstract: The question of how to control a robotic welding torch to trace the joint between two cylindrical that increase its applicability to more advanced mathematics courses. Keywords: pipe welding, cylinders
Journal for Geometry and Graphics Volume 9 (2005), No. 1, 107117.
Nawratil, Georg
2005-01-01
is to be cut with an assumed cutting plane. The subjects are asked to choose one correct cross section among 5 Abilities in Austria and Germany E. Tsutsumi1 , H.-P. Schr¨ocker2 , H. Stachel3 , G. Weiss4 1School: Mental Cutting Test, spatial ability, Descriptive Geometry education MSC 2000: 51N05 ISSN 1433-8157/$ 2
Bertozzi, Andrea L.
Fourth order partial differential equations on general geometries John B. Greer a,*, Andrea L surfaces, J. Comput. Phys. 174 (2) (2001) 759780] to fourth order PDEs including the Cahn and large stencil sizes, are shared by standard fourth order equations in Euclidean domains, but others
Soatto, Stefano
Fourth Order Partial Differential Equations on General Geometries John B. Greer Andrea L differential equations on implicit surfaces (Bertalm´io, Cheng, Osher, and Sapiro 2001) to fourth order PDEs, such as time-stepping restrictions and large stencil sizes, are shared by standard fourth order equations
Trace Formula in Noncommutative Geometry and the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function
Connes, Alain
Trace Formula in Noncommutative Geometry and the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function Alain CONNES interpretation of the explicit formulas of number theory as a trace formula on the noncommutative space of Adele classes. This reduces the Riemann hypothesis to the validity of the trace formula and eliminates
Geometry & Topology 17 (2013) 157234 A cyclic extension of the earthquake flow I
Mondello, Gabriele
2013-01-01
msp Geometry & Topology 17 (2013) 157234 A cyclic extension of the earthquake flow I FRANCESCO at least 2. We describe an action of the circle on T T , which limits to the earthquake flow when one of the main properties of the earthquake flow, for instance it satisfies an extension of Thurston's Earthquake
GREEN'S FUNCTIONS, ELECTRIC NETWORKS, AND THE GEOMETRY OF HYPERBOLIC RIEMANN SURFACES
generated fundamental group and infinite volume, Green's function g(·, q) exists on X--i.e. g is harmonicGREEN'S FUNCTIONS, ELECTRIC NETWORKS, AND THE GEOMETRY OF HYPERBOLIC RIEMANN SURFACES Jeffrey an electric network with the surface and studying a discrete problem on the network. Our goal in this paper
IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS CONTINUED
McDonald, Kirk
IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH SHIELDING VESSELS ENERGY FLOW ANALYSIS CONTINUED SHIELDING MATERIAL: 60% W with shielding vessels. # Different cases of shielding material. # N = 100,000 AND N = 500,000 events simulations CUTOFF >SHIELDING: 60% W + 40% He , 80% W + 20% He, 88% W + 12% He ( WITH W VESSELS) >4 MW proton beam
Siminovitch, M.
1998-02-10
A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.
THE GEOMETRY OF EMBEDDED CONSTANT MEAN CURVATURE TORI IN THE 3-SPHERE VIA INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS
Hauswirth, Laurent
THE GEOMETRY OF EMBEDDED CONSTANT MEAN CURVATURE TORI IN THE 3-SPHERE VIA INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS L Alexandrov embedded cylinders is explicitly determined. We prove that all embedded cmc tori in the 3-sphere are surfaces of revolution using a combination of integrable systems methods and geometric analysis techniques
Geometry and seismic properties of the subducting Cocos plate in central Mexico
Jackson, Jennifer M.
in central Mexico Y. Kim,1 R. W. Clayton,1 and J. M. Jackson1 Received 31 August 2009; revised 22 December of the interface of the Cocos plate beneath central Mexico are determined from the receiver functions (RFs. Jackson (2010), Geometry and seismic properties of the subducting Cocos plate in central Mexico, J
Geometry Optimization with QM/MM, ONIOM, and Other Combined Methods. I. Microiterations
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
Geometry Optimization with QM/MM, ONIOM, and Other Combined Methods. I. Microiterations Abstract: Hybrid energy methods such as QM/MM and ONIOM, that combine different levels of theory into one of theory and the larger, remaining region treated by an inexpensive method such as molecular mechanics (MM
Grujicic, Mica
2004-01-01
according to the type of membrane (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, etc.) they use. One of the most promising fuel cells are the so-called poly- mer geometry optimization in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells M. Grujicic, C.L. Zhao, K
Compact formulas for guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry
Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States)
2011-02-15
Compact formulas for trapped-particle and passing-particle guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry are given in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions and complete elliptic integrals. These formulas can find applications in bounce-center kinetic theory as well as guiding-center Fokker-Planck kinetic theory.
Crystalline Dieudonn'e module theory via formal and rigid geometry
de Jong, A. Johan
Crystalline Dieudonn'e module theory via formal and rigid geometry ................................................................ 85 Introduction Let S be a base scheme in characteristic p. Consider the crystalline Dieudonn] * *and [MM]. In [B] and [BBM] Grothendieck's formalism of crystalline sites and crystals* * is devel
Cost of Antibiotic Resistance and the Geometry of Ana Sousa,*,1
Gordo, Isabel
implications to understanding the spread and maintenance of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Key wordsCost of Antibiotic Resistance and the Geometry of Adaptation Ana Sousa,*,1 Sara Magalha~es,2 causes antibiotic resistance. Using a system with multiple molecular markers, we estimate
arXiv:condmat/0002194 Geometry, Statistics and Asymptotics of Quantum Pumps
Voloch, Felipe
arXiv:condÂmat/0002194 v2 31 May 2000 Geometry, Statistics and Asymptotics of Quantum Pumps J. EÂ¨uttiker et. al. (BPT) relating the adiabatically pumped current to the S matrix and its (time) derivatives. We relate the charge in BPT to Berry's phase and the corresponding Brouwer pumping formula
Skorobogatiy, Maksim
where, in my opinion, plastic MOFs can be an enabling and cost-effective technology. 2. Photonic bandgapPOLYMER MICROSTRUCTURED OPTICAL FIBERS - OVERVIEW OF THE NOVEL GEOMETRIES AND FUNCTIONAL PLASTICS in their structure hundreds of sub-micron layers of two different plastics for application in photonic textiles
Solar Cooling Using Variable Geometry Ejectors Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems
Solar Cooling Using Variable Geometry Ejectors M. Dennis Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems-mail:Mike.Dennis@anu.edu.au ABSTRACT Solar heat driven cooling systems are an attractive concept. The need for cooling is associated with high ambient temperatures. Ejector based cooling systems have been in existence for some time but have
SHIELDING STUDIES FOR THE MUON COLLIDER TARGET (From STUDY II to IDS120f Geometries)
McDonald, Kirk
COLLECTING TANK (BEAM DUMP) AND REMOVAL SYSTEM. 8. SHIELDING CONFIGURATIONS (WC BEADS+H2O). 2 #12;TARGETSHIELDING STUDIES FOR THE MUON COLLIDER TARGET (From STUDY II to IDS120f Geometries) NICHOLAS. RADIATION DAMAGE. STRUCTURAL/MECHANICAL LIMITS FOR SUPERCONDUCTING COILS. SHIELDING MATERIAL. RESULTS
Acoustically driven cavitation cluster collapse in planar geometry Ivan van der Kroon,1
Ohl, Claus-Dieter
in hydrodynamic cavitation. Their damaging potential is explained with a collective cavi- tation collapse front in spallation neutron sources 14 . In hydrodynamics cavitation, the positions of the cavities in the clusterAcoustically driven cavitation cluster collapse in planar geometry Ivan van der Kroon,1 Pedro A
Geometry and supersymmetry of heterotic warped flux AdS backgrounds
Beck, S W; Papadopoulos, G
2015-01-01
We classify the geometries of the most general warped, flux AdS backgrounds of heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We show under some mild assumptions that there are no $AdS_n$ backgrounds with $n\
Projection from Yang-Mills Geometry to AdS Space
B. E. Eichinger
2015-01-22
The geometry that yields the gauge potential and curvature form of Yang-Mills theory is known to be $Sp(2)/Sp(1)\\times Sp(1)\\sim S^4$. The projective metric for this space will be constructed and the curvature tensor will be shown to consist of both self-dual and anti-self-dual components. In the central projection, one hemisphere of $S^4$ is mapped onto the other, such that one hemisphere, excluding the equator, is equivalent to a four dimensional ball. This enables a mapping between the compact geometry of YM theory and relativity, with the double cover of the equator mapping to infinity in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. By interpreting the YM geometry (instanton) as the space of interactions between two particles it is suggested that the $Sp(2)/Sp(1)\\times Sp(1)$ YM quaternionic geometry can be generalized to $n$ fermions, each having an $Sp(1)\\sim SU(2)$ gauge group.
Weber, Stefan
Prof. Dr. Irina Markina, University of Bergen, Norway Sub-Riemannian geometry on infinite, University of Bergen, Norway Dazu laden herzlich ein: Prof. Dr. Wolfram Bauer, Prof. Dr. Joachim Escher, Prof.ifam.uni-hannover.de/~escher/de/os_anal.php Prof. Dr. Alexander Vasiliev, University of Bergen, Norway Euler-Arnold equations in sub
Jet-like circulations occur in the `simple' geometries of gas planets and Earth's
#12;Jet-like circulations occur in the `simple' geometries of gas planets and Earth's liquid to barotropize jets => life cycles of BC instability. large-scale PV gradients act as source of eddy entrophy The Jet Stream Conundrum Baldwin, Rhines, Huang & McIntyre, Nature 2007 #12;For Earth's oceans, density
Fayer, Michael D.
Geometry and Nanolength Scales versus Interface Interactions: Water Dynamics in AOT Lamellar water/interface interactions, the dynamic interactions between water and interfaces are studied structures with known water layer thickness as well as well-defined monodispersed spherical reverse micelles
Metric Relativity and the Dynamical Bridge: highlights of Riemannian geometry in physics
Novello, Mario
2015-01-01
We present an overview of recent developments concerning modifications of the geometry of space-time to describe various physical processes of interactions among classical and quantum configurations. We concentrate in two main lines of research: the Metric Relativity and the Dynamical Bridge.
Metric Relativity and the Dynamical Bridge: highlights of Riemannian geometry in physics
Mario Novello; Eduardo Bittencourt
2015-08-21
We present an overview of recent developments concerning modifications of the geometry of space-time to describe various physical processes of interactions among classical and quantum configurations. We concentrate in two main lines of research: the Metric Relativity and the Dynamical Bridge.
The excess free energy as a function of R for the pore and disk geometries.
Zhou, Jiajia
: National Basic Research Program of China (2011CB605700) National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaThe excess free energy as a function of R for the pore and disk geometries. The line tension (20874019, 20990231, 21104010) Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Deutsche
THE EFFECTS OF FREESTALL SURFACES AND GEOMETRY ON DAIRY CATTLE Cassandra Blaine Tucker
Farrell, Anthony P.
THE EFFECTS OF FREESTALL SURFACES AND GEOMETRY ON DAIRY CATTLE BEHAVIOR by Cassandra Blaine Tucker aspect of providing appropriate housing systems for dairy cattle (Bos taurus) is a suitable space, height, etc.) on the behavior of cattle. Two main categories of behavior were measured: preferences
Broughton, S. Allen
Introduction Basic Structure Symmetries Labelling and Potential Energy Future Work Geometry from and Potential Energy local potential energy terms 5 Future Work #12;Introduction Basic Structure Symmetries Labelling and Potential Energy Future Work nanotubes nanotube - cartoon picture - 1 Here is a cartoon model
On the classical geometry of embedded manifolds in terms of Nambu brackets
Joakim Arnlind; Jens Hoppe; Gerhard Huisken
2010-03-31
We prove that many aspects of the differential geometry of embedded Riemannian manifolds can be formulated in terms of a multi-linear algebraic structure on the space of smooth functions. In particular, we find algebraic expressions for Weingarten's formula, the Ricci curvature and the Codazzi-Mainardi equations.
Vaziri, Ashkan
Adhesively bonded lap joints with extreme interface geometry Babak Haghpanah, Shihung Chiu, Ashkan 2013 Keywords: Adhesively bonded joint Interface profile Failure Finite element a b s t r a c t The role of adhesiveadherend interface morphology (through intentional deviation from a flat joint plane
PEMFC ELECTROCHEMISTRY: SIMULATION OF NONEQUILIBRIUM SURFACE CHEMISTRY ON 3-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRIES
Pitsch, Heinz
PEMFC ELECTROCHEMISTRY: SIMULATION OF NONEQUILIBRIUM SURFACE CHEMISTRY ON 3-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRIES in transportation [1]. Carbon-supported platinum catalysts are com- monly used in the catalyst layer of PEMFC due used to describe oxygen reduction on Pt-nanoparticles in PEMFC will be discussed next, followed
Error of the network approximation for densely packed composites with irregular geometry
Novikov, Alexei
the concentration of the filling inclusions is high is particularly relevant to polymer/ceramic composites, because a polymer matrix compensates for the brittle nature of ceramics which is their main weakness. A surveyError of the network approximation for densely packed composites with irregular geometry Leonid
Improvement of PNP Problem Computational Efficiency For Known Target Geometry of Cubesats
Hafer, William
2012-07-16
processing burden of the PNP solution by taking advantage of the known target geometry. We did this by considering a specific P3P solver and a specific point-cloud correspondence (PCC) solver for disambiguating/improving the estimate, and modifying them both...
Appelö, Daniel
; curvilinear grids ; finite differences; stability; energy estimate; seismic wave propagation 1 IntroductionA stable finite difference method for the elastic wave equation on complex geometries with free Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA 2 Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence
Wave Energy Converter Design Tool for Point Absorbers with Arbitrary Device Geometry Kelley Ruehl
Siefert, Chris
Wave Energy Converter Design Tool for Point Absorbers with Arbitrary Device Geometry Kelley Ruehl University Corvallis, OR, USA ABSTRACT In order to promote and support the wave energy industry, a Wave strategies. KEY WORDS: wave energy; point absorber; time-domain; design tool. INTRODUCTION Wave Energy
On bicycle tire tracks geometry, hatchet planimeter, Menzin's conjecture and oscillation
Tabachnikov, Sergei
On bicycle tire tracks geometry, hatchet planimeter, Menzin's conjecture and oscillation of unicycle tracks Mark Levi and Serge Tabachnikov April 13, 2008 Abstract The model of a bicycle is a unit wheel is fixed on the bicycle frame); the same model describes the hatchet planimeter. The trajectory
Evolution from A +2 Defect to +1/2 Defects in a Cylindrical Geometry
crystals. Details on various aspects of dislocation theory can be found in [9]. Different nematic director In this work the dynamics of liquid crystal ordering in a cylindrical geometry are considered. We study a system with liquid crystalline properties that exhibits translational symmetry along the cylinder axis
Statistical geometry of particle packings. II. ``Weak spots'' in liquids Srikanth Sastry,1,
Stillinger, Frank
spinodal concept. Analysis of spontaneous density fluctuations in the equilibrium and superheated liquid strongly suppressed in the crystalline state. Liquid-state theory has attained substantial quantitative aspects of the statistical geometry of fluctuating void space in the liquid state. This collection
Differential Geometry and its Applications 3 (1993) 265-284 North-Holland
Tabachnikov, Sergei
1993-01-01
of Lagrangian and Legendrian 2-web Serge Tabachnikov Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Arkansas Tabachnikov S., Geometry of Lagrangian and Legendrian 2-web, Diff. Geom. Appl. 3 (1993) 265-284. Abstract: Four types of web structures are considered: a I-web with Lagrangian leaves in a symplectic manifold
Two phase flows in karstic geometry Daozhi Han, Dong Sun and Xiaoming Wang
exchange membrane fuel cell technology, cardiovascular modeling, we must deal with karstic geometry such as flows in unconfined karst aquifers, karst oil reservoir, proton membrane exchange fuel cell, multiphase an important role in many engineering and environmental science applications. In some applications
INFLUENCE OF GEOMETRY ON THE MEAN FLOW WITHIN URBAN STREET CANYONS A COMPARISON OF WIND TUNNEL
Savory, Eric
INFLUENCE OF GEOMETRY ON THE MEAN FLOW WITHIN URBAN STREET CANYONS A COMPARISON OF WIND TUNNEL. A comparison between numerical simulations and wind tunnel modelling has been per- formed to examine ); = Kinematic viscosity of air (m2 s-1 ). 1. Introduction Many different aspects of the wind flow within urban
Fundamenta Informaticae 46 (2001) 145158 145 A Categorical Axiomatisation of Region-Based Geometry
Bennett, Brandon
2001-01-01
-Based GeometryŁ Brandon BennettÝ School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK Ö Ň ÓŇ ÓŃÔşĐ ×ş ş suggestions of Anthony G. Cohn, Paolo Torrini and an anonymous reviewer are also acknowledged. ÝAddress for correspondence: School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK 1 This is really a theory of `regions
Fundamenta Informaticae 46 (2001) 145--158 145 A Categorical Axiomatisation of RegionBased Geometry
Leeds, University of
2001-01-01
Based Geometry #3; Brandon Bennett y School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK brandon@comp.leeds suggestions of Anthony G. Cohn, Paolo Torrini and an anonymous reviewer are also acknowledged. y Address for correspondence: School of Computing, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK 1 This is really a theory of `regions
Eurographics Symposium on Geometry Processing 2011 Mario Botsch and Scott Schaefer
Amenta, Nina
/Image Generation--Line and curve generation, I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling of the concept shape. While surfaced sketches are generally not suitable as production specifications or fi- nal that automates a significant portion of the s
SPHDOE 35396 Analysis of Hydrofracture Geometry and Matrix/Fracture Interactions During
Patzek, Tadeusz W.
SPHDOE 35396 Analysis of Hydrofracture Geometry and Matrix/Fracture Interactions During Steam the perforated interval of the upper injection well suggests that a horizontal fracture, or network of natural fractures, opened within the formation and linked to the injection hydrofracture. Our analysis indicates
Douglas, David R.; Neil, George R.
2005-04-26
A particle beam recirculated chicane geometry that, through the inducement of a pair of 180 degree bends directed by the poles of a pair of controllable magnetic fields allows for variation of dipole position, return loop radii and steering/focussing, thereby allowing the implementation of independent variation of path length and momentum compaction.
Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids
Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett
2014-05-06
Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.
Effects of Acid Additives on Spent Acid Flowback through Carbonate Cores
Nasir, Ehsaan Ahmad
2012-07-16
these challenges, different chemicals, or additives, are added to the acid solution such as corrosion inhibitors and iron control agents. These additives may change the relative permeability of the spent acid, and formation wettability, and may either hinder...
A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids
Wan, J.
2011-01-01
base properties of a goethite surface model: A theoreticalcomplexation of U(VI) on goethite (alpha-FeOOH). Geochim.acid and humic-acid on goethite, gibbsite and imogolite. J.
Etten, Jordan Ruby
2015-05-05
stimulation design. Optimum interstitial velocity determines the injection rate for a treatment, and the optimum pore volume to breakthrough, PVbt-opt, suggests the total volume of acid needed. Studies of carbonate matrix acidizing have focused on the role...
Non-essential amino acid metabolism in rats
Crooks, James Darrell
1971-01-01
-bound amino acids were studied' The amino acids studied were asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, arginine, and praline. Growth rates of rats increased with increased levels of glutamate in the diet. Effects of level... of dietary glutamic acid on endogenous pool size;, of the free amino acids were studied. No consistent patterns were observed. The pool sizes of all but four of the free amino acids increased after the ingestion of a meal. Glucose levels decreased...
J. Brian Pitts
2015-09-09
Klein-Gordon gravity, 1920s-30s particle physics, and 1890s Neumann-Seeliger modified gravity suggest a "graviton mass term" *algebraic* in the potential. Unlike Nordstr\\"om's "massless" theory, massive scalar gravity is invariant under the Poincar\\'e group but not the 15-parameter conformal group. It thus exhibits the whole Minkowski space-time structure, indirectly for volumes. Massive scalar gravity is plausible as a field theory, but violates Einstein's principles of general covariance, general relativity, equivalence, and Mach. Geometry is a poor guide: matter sees a conformally flat metric due to universal coupling, but gravity sees the rest of the flat metric (on long distances) in the mass term. What is the `true' geometry, in line with Poincar\\'e's modal conventionality argument? Infinitely many theories exhibit this bimetric `geometry,' all with the total stress-energy's trace as source; geometry does not explain the field equations. The irrelevance of the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild construction to conventionalism is evident given multi-geometry theories. As Seeliger envisaged, the smooth massless limit yields underdetermination between massless and massive scalar gravities---an unconceived alternative. One version easily could have been developed before GR; it would have motivated thinking of Einstein's equations along the lines of his newly reappreciated "physical strategy" and suggested a rivalry from massive spin 2 for GR (massless spin 2, Pauli-Fierz 1939). The Putnam-Gr\\"unbaum debate on conventionality is revisited given a broad modal scope. Massive scalar gravity licenses a historically plausible rational reconstruction of much of space-time philosophy in light of particle physics. An appendix reconsiders the Malament-Weatherall-Manchak conformal restriction of conventionality and constructs the `universal force' in the null cones.
Fitzpatrick, Richard
magnetic islands. Such islands degrade plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travelTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. II. Islands interacting with resistive walls-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity Phys. Plasmas 12
Fitzpatrick, Richard
magnetic islands. Such islands degrade plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travelTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatrick.1063/1.4863498 Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: Determination of the island phase velocity Phys
Fitzpatrick, Richard
plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travel radially from one side of an islandEffect of drift-acoustic waves on magnetic island stability in slab geometry R. Fitzpatrick and F island stability in slab geometry R. Fitzpatrick and F. L. Waelbroeck Department of Physics, Institute
Savage, Heather M.
in the suprajacent fold shapes. Differences between the kinematic and mechanical fault-fold relationships highlight rights reserved. Keywords: Fault-bend folding; Mechanical models; Kinematic models; Fault geometry and mechanical models have been used to analyze fault-cored folds. Kinematic models, which balance the geometry
Birge, Norman
valve geometry Charles E. Moreaua Department of Physics, Albion College, Albion, Michigan 49224 Ion C exchange-biased spin valve geometry that inserts a Ni "spoiler" layer into a Py/Cu/Py spin valve. Fits In the context of ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic F/N multilayers or spin valves, the size of the giant
Wahle, Andreas
Geometry and Catheter Position on Dose Delivery in Intracoronary Brachytherapy Andreas Wahle, Senior Member--In-stent restenosis is commonly observed in coronary arteries after intervention. Intravascular brachytherapy has been models for brachytherapy with beta () radiation neglect vessel geometry as well as the position
McDonald, Kirk
IDS120h GEOMETRY WITH MODIFIED Hg POOL VESSEL SIMULATIONS FOR 60% W + 40% He SHIELDING (P12 'POINT POWER DISTRIBUTION. Nicholas Souchlas, PBL (1/24/2012) 1 #12;IDS120hm: (m IS FOR) modified Hg pool 'POINT'). >GAUSSIAN PROFILE: x = y = 0.12 cm. 2 #12;3 IDS120hm GEOMETRY = IDS120h WITH MODIFIED Hg POOL
Long, Marshall B.
April 1, 2000 / Vol. 25, No. 7 / OPTICS LETTERS 457 Effect of light-collection geometry is valid only when incoming rays are parallel, whereas most practical optical setups used for emission angle. A ray-tracing simulation was performed to aid in understanding how optical collection geometry
Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree
Mauroy, Benjamin - Laboratoire Matičre et Systčmes Complexes, Université Paris 7
Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree.1088/1478-3975/8/5/056006 Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree, then therapeutic draining of mucus plays a critical role to keep mucus levels in the lungs acceptable
Isliker, Heinz
Integrable perturbed magnetic fields in toroidal geometry: An exact analytical flux surface label, 056114 (2012); 10.1063/1.3694842 Driving toroidally asymmetric current through the tokamak scrape-off in toroidal geometry: An exact analytical flux surface label for large aspect ratio N. Kallinikos, H. Isliker
Aslaksen, Helmer
#12;Contents 1. An Introduction to Architecture and Geometry 2 2. The Basics Forms and the Methods;1. Introduction Architecture and geometry are symbiotic in nature, virtually an inseparable pair. Understanding and architectural design is evident throughout history. The angles of inclination of the walls of the Egyptian
Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases
Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D
2013-10-29
The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.
Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages
Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.
2003-01-06
When nitrates and prussic acid accumulate in forage, the feed may not be safe for livestock consumption. Learn the symptoms of nitrate and prussic acid poisoning and which plants are most likely to pose a risk to livestock. Also learn sampling...
Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids
Cook, Ronald Lee (Lakewood, CO); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Golden, CO); Myers, Andrew William (Arvada, CO); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Boulder, CO); Elliott, Brian John (Superior, CO); Kreutzer, Cory (Brighton, CO); Wilson, Carolina (Arvada, CO); Meiser, Manfred (Aurora, CO)
2007-07-17
Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.
Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging
Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.
1998-10-06
The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.
Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging
Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.
1998-09-15
The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.
Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging
Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)
1998-09-15
The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.
Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging
Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)
1998-10-06
The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.
Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi
12 Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi Jon K. Magnuson and Linda L. Lasure 1. Introduction Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal overshadowed by the successful deploy- ment of the -lactam processes.Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal
M. Novello; F. T. Falciano; E. Goulart
2011-11-08
We show that Maxwell's electromagnetism can be mapped into the Born-Infeld theory in a curved space-time, which depends only on the electromagnetic field in a specific way. This map is valid for any value of the two lorentz invariants $F$ and $G$ confirming that we have included all possible solutions of Maxwell's equations. Our result seems to show that specifying the dynamics and the space-time structure of a given theory can be viewed merely as a choice of representation to describe the physical system.
Koustubh Kabe
2010-02-10
A spin (dependent) system treatment of gravity is adopted akin to the Sen-Ashtekar treatment. Time is reinserted into the space ``fluid'' at the quantum Level. This time - the Lorentzian one- is shown to be a vorticity of a ``fluid particle'' of the space and the effect is integrated over all the fluid particles to incorporate time in quantum gravity. This spacetime is viewed as a fluid of future light cones called the SU(2) dipoles of causality here in the paper.The future light cone structure is soldered internally to the new variables derived in this paper to accomodate a background free physics of quantum strings. The emergence of spacetime is shown to be a first order phase transition and that of separation of gravity from the unified field to be a second order phase transition. For the former case the cosmic time is chosen as the order parameter and for the latter case the angular momentum is chosen as the order parameter. A quantum blackhole thus nucleates at transition temperature which is the Planck temperature, $\\tau_{pl}$. Then the SU(2) dipoles enable interpretation of this black hole as a gravity gauge SL(2,$\\mathbb{C}$) dual of the U(1) gauge ferromagnetic phase. The usual QFT interpretation of this effect is the existence of locally Lorentzian spacetimes.
Wei, Q.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Lombardo, F. C.; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Onofrio, R.
2010-05-15
We report on measurements performed on an apparatus aimed to study the Casimir force in the cylinder-plane configuration. The electrostatic calibrations evidence anomalous behaviors in the dependence of the electrostatic force and the minimizing potential upon distance. We discuss analogies and differences of these anomalies with respect to those already observed in the sphere-plane configuration. At the smallest explored distances we observe frequency shifts of non-Coulombian nature preventing the measurement of the Casimir force in the same range. We also report on measurements performed in the parallel-plane configuration, showing that the dependence on distance of the minimizing potential, if present at all, is milder than in the sphere-plane or cylinder-plane geometries. General considerations on the interplay between the distance-dependent minimizing potential and the precision of Casimir force measurements in the range relevant to detect the thermal corrections for all geometries are finally reported.
Connes distance function on fuzzy sphere and the connection between geometry and statistics
Devi, Yendrembam Chaoba Chakraborty, Biswajit; Prajapat, Shivraj; Mukhopadhyay, Aritra K.; Scholtz, Frederik G.
2015-04-15
An algorithm to compute Connes spectral distance, adaptable to the Hilbert-Schmidt operatorial formulation of non-commutative quantum mechanics, was developed earlier by introducing the appropriate spectral triple and used to compute infinitesimal distances in the Moyal plane, revealing a deep connection between geometry and statistics. In this paper, using the same algorithm, the Connes spectral distance has been calculated in the Hilbert-Schmidt operatorial formulation for the fuzzy sphere whose spatial coordinates satisfy the su(2) algebra. This has been computed for both the discrete and the Perelemov’s SU(2) coherent state. Here also, we get a connection between geometry and statistics which is shown by computing the infinitesimal distance between mixed states on the quantum Hilbert space of a particular fuzzy sphere, indexed by n ? ?/2.
Simulating higher-dimensional geometries in GADRAS using approximate one-dimensional solutions.
Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean James; Harding, Lee T.
2013-02-01
The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) software package is capable of simulating the radiation transport physics for one-dimensional models. Spherical shells are naturally one-dimensional, and have been the focus of development and benchmarking. However, some objects are not spherical in shape, such as cylinders and boxes. These are not one-dimensional. Simulating the radiation transport in two or three dimensions is unattractive because of the extra computation time required. To maintain computational efficiency, higher-dimensional geometries require approximations to simulate them in one-dimension. This report summarizes the theory behind these approximations, tests the theory against other simulations, and compares the results to experimental data. Based on the results, it is recommended that GADRAS users always attempt to approximate reality using spherical shells. However, if fissile material is present, it is imperative that the shape of the one-dimensional model matches the fissile material, including the use of slab and cylinder geometry.
Noncommutative geometry of AdS coordinates on a D-brane
Lawrence B. Crowell
2012-07-02
In this short paper the noncommutative geometry and quantization of branes and the AdS is discussed. The question in part addresses an open problem left by this author in [1] on how branes are generated by stringy physics. The breaking of an open type I string into two strings generates a nascent brane at the new endpoints with inflationary cosmologies. This was left as a conjecture at the end of this paper on the role of quantum critical points in the onset of inflationary cosmology. The noncommutative geometry of the clock and lapse functions for the AdS-brane are derived as is the number of degrees of freedom which appear. The role of the AdS spacetime, or in particular its boundary, in cosmology is discussed in an elementary regularization scheme of the cosmological constant on the boundary. This is compared to schemes of conformal compactification of the AdS spacetime and the Heisenberg group.
Optimal electrode geometries for 2-dimensional ion arrays with bi-layer ion traps
F. N. Krauth; J. Alonso; J. P. Home
2014-11-04
We investigate electrode geometries required to produce periodic 2-dimensional ion-trap arrays with the ions placed between two planes of electrodes. We present a generalization of previous methods for traps containing a single electrode plane to this new geometry, and show that for a given ion-electrode distance and applied voltages, the inter-ion distance can be reduced by a factor of up to 3 relative to single-plane traps. This represents an increase by a factor of 9 in the trap density and a factor of 27 in the exchange coupling between the oscillatory motion of neighboring ions. The resulting traps are also considerably deeper for bi-layer structures than for single-plane traps. These results could offer a useful path towards 2-dimensional ion arrays for quantum simulation. We also discuss issues with the fabrication of such traps.
Serres, Nicolas (Epinal, FR)
2010-11-09
A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.
Optical reference geometry and inertial forces in Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes
Jiri Kovar; Zdenek Stuchlik
2007-01-03
Optical reference geometry and related concept of inertial forces are investigated in Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes. Properties of the inertial forces are summarized and their typical behaviour is illustrated. The intuitive 'Newtonian' application of the forces in the relativistic dynamics is demonstrated in the case of the test particle circular motion, static equilibrium positions and perfect fluid toroidal configurations. Features of the optical geometry are illustrated by the embedding diagrams of its equatorial plane. The embedding diagrams do not cover whole the stationary regions of the spacetimes, therefore the limits of embeddability are established. A shape of the embedding diagrams is related to the behaviour of the centrifugal force and it is characterized by the number of turning points of the diagrams. Discussion of the number of embeddable photon circular orbits is also included and the typical embedding diagrams are constructed. The Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes are classified according to the properties of the inertial forces and embedding diagrams.
Geometry of N=1 Super Yang-Mills Theory in Curved Superspace
A. Konechny; A. Schwarz
1996-09-12
We give a new description of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory in curved superspace. It is based on the induced geometry approach to a curved superspace in which it is viewed as a surface embedded into C(4|2). The complex structure on C(4|2) supplied with a standard volume element induces a special Cauchy-Riemann (SCR)-structure on the embedded surface. We give an explicit construction of SYM theory in terms of intrinsic geometry of the superspace defined by this SCR-structure and a CR-bundle over the superspace. We write a manifestly SCR-covariant Lagrangian for SYM coupled with matter. We also show that in a special gauge our formulation coincides with the standard one which uses Lorentz connections. Some useful auxiliary results about the integration over surfaces in superspace are obtained.
Bounds on the interior geometry and pressure profile of static fluid spheres
Damien Martin; Matt Visser
2003-06-10
It is a famous result of relativistic stellar structure that (under mild technical conditions) a static fluid sphere satisfies the Buchdahl--Bondi bound 2M/R <= 8/9; the surprise here being that the bound is not 2M/R <= 1. In this article we provide further generalizations of this bound by placing a number of constraints on the interior geometry (the metric components), on the local acceleration due to gravity, on various combinations of the internal density and pressure profiles, and on the internal compactness 2m(r)/r of static fluid spheres. We do this by adapting the standard tool of comparing the generic fluid sphere with a Schwarzschild interior geometry of the same mass and radius -- in particular we obtain several results for the pressure profile (not merely the central pressure) that are considerably more subtle than might first be expected.
Biondo, Elliott D; Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Mosher, Scott W; Grove, Robert E
2015-01-01
Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).
Sandstone Acidizing Using Chelating Agents and their Interaction with Clays
George, Noble Thekkemelathethil 1987-
2013-01-09
in the application of acidizing, coreflood tests were performed on Berea and Bandera sandstone cores. Another disadvantage of mud acid has been the fast spending at clay mineral surfaces leading to depletion of acid strength, migration of fines, and formation...
Experimental Study of Acid Fracture Conductivity of Austin Chalk Formation
Nino Penaloza, Andrea
2013-05-01
Acid fracture conductivity and the effect of key variables in the etching process during acid fracturing can be assessed at the laboratory scale. This is accomplished by using an experimental apparatus that simulates acid injection fluxes comparable...
Experimental High Velocity Acid Jetting in Limestone Carbonates
Holland, Christopher
2014-04-30
Acid jetting is a well stimulation technique that is used in carbonate reservoirs. It typically involves injecting acid down hole at high flow rates through small orifices which cause high velocities of acid to strike the borehole wall...
Studies of metaphosphate acids and metaphosphate anhydrides in aprotic media
Chakarawet, Khetpakorn
2015-01-01
The chemistry of metaphosphate acids has historically been studied in aqueous media, where acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and solvent leveling effects of these strong acids have prevented their observations and rigorous ...
Sealable stagnation flow geometries for the uniform deposition of materials and heat
McCarty, Kevin F. (Livermore, CA); Kee, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Lutz, Andrew E. (Alamo, CA); Meeks, Ellen (Livermore, CA)
2001-01-01
The present invention employs a constrained stagnation flow geometry apparatus to achieve the uniform deposition of materials or heat. The present invention maximizes uniform fluxes of reactant gases to flat surfaces while minimizing the use of reagents and finite dimension edge effects. This results, among other things, in large area continuous films that are uniform in thickness, composition and structure which is important in chemical vapor deposition processes such as would be used for the fabrication of semiconductors.
Schmuck, Markus
2012-01-01
We formally derive an effective catalyst layer model comprising the reduction of oxygen for periodically distributed pore geometries. By assumption, the pores are completely filled with water and the surrounding walls consist of catalyst particles which are attached to an electron conducting microstructure. The macroscopic transport equations are established by a multi-scale approach, based on microscopic phenomena at the pore level, and serve as a first step toward future optimization of catalyst layer designs.
Markus Schmuck; Peter Berg
2012-04-30
We formally derive an effective catalyst layer model comprising the reduction of oxygen for periodically distributed pore geometries. By assumption, the pores are completely filled with water and the surrounding walls consist of catalyst particles which are attached to an electron conducting microstructure. The macroscopic transport equations are established by a multi-scale approach, based on microscopic phenomena at the pore level, and serve as a first step toward future optimization of catalyst layer designs.
A brief introduction to the noncommutative geometry description of particle physics standard model
Pierre Martinetti
2003-06-17
Notes from a course given at Oujda university, Morocco, october 2002 - march 2003 within the support of a fellowship from the Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie. These notes present a brief introduction to Connes' non commutative geometry description of the standard model of particle physics. The notion of distance is emphasized, especially the possible interpretation of the Higgs field as the component of a discrete internal dimension. These notes are in french and are taken from the author's phD thesis.
Cummings, Julian C.
2013-05-15
This project was a collaboration between researchers at the California Institute of Technology and the University of California, Irvine to investigate the utility of a global field-aligned mesh and gyrokinetic field solver for simulations of the tokamak plasma edge region. Mesh generation software from UC Irvine was tested with specific tokamak edge magnetic geometry scenarios and the quality of the meshes and the solutions to the gyrokinetic Poisson equation were evaluated.
Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates
Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.
2002-06-01
The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.
AdS Geometry, projective embedded coordinates and associated isometry groups
Roldao da Rocha; E. Capelas de Oliveira
2006-03-20
This work is intended to investigate the geometry of anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS), from the point of view of the Laplacian Comparison Theorem (LCT), and to give another description of the hyperbolical embedding standard formalism of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes in a pseudo-Euclidean spacetime. It is shown how to reproduce some geometrical properties of AdS, from the LCT in AdS, choosing suitable functions that satisfy basic properties of Riemannian geometry. We also introduce and discuss the well-known embedding of a 4-sphere and a 4-hyperboloid in a 5-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean spacetime, reviewing the usual formalism of spherical embedding and the way how it can retrieve the Robertson-Walker metric. With the choice of the de Sitter metric static frame, we write the so-called reduced model in suitable coordinates. We assume the existence of projective coordinates, since de Sitter spacetime is orientable. From these coordinates, obtained when stereographic projection of the de Sitter 4-hemisphere is done, we consider the Beltrami geodesic representation, which gives a more general formulation of the seminal full model described by Schrodinger, concerning the geometry and the topology of de Sitter spacetime. Our formalism retrieves the classical one if we consider the metric terms over the de Sitter splitting on Minkowski spacetime. From the covariant derivatives we find the acceleration of moving particles, Killing vectors and the isometry group generators associated to de the Sitter spacetime.
Webs, Lenard schemes, and the local geometry of bihamiltonian Toda and Lax structures
Israel M. Gelfand; Ilya Zakharevich
2000-03-27
We introduce a criterion that a given bihamiltonian structure allows a local coordinate system where both brackets have constant coefficients. This criterion is applied to the bihamiltonian open Toda lattice in a generic point, which is shown to be locally isomorphic to a Kronecker odd-dimensional pair of brackets with constant coefficients. This shows that the open Toda lattice cannot be locally represented as a product of two bihamiltonian structures. In a generic point the bihamiltonian periodic Toda lattice is shown to be isomorphic to a product of two open Toda lattices (one of which is a (trivial) structure of dimension 1). While the above results might be obtained by more traditional methods, we use an approach based on general results on geometry of webs. This demonstrates a possibility to apply a geometric language to problems on bihamiltonian integrable systems, such a possibility may be no less important than the particular results proven in this paper. Based on these geometric approaches, we conjecture that decompositions similar to the decomposition of the periodic Toda lattice exist in local geometry of the Volterra system, the complete Toda lattice, the multidimensional Euler top, and a regular bihamiltonian Lie coalgebra. We also state general conjectures about geometry of more general ``homogeneous'' finite-dimensional bihamiltonian structures. The class of homogeneous structures is shown to coincide with the class of system integrable by Lenard scheme. The bihamiltonian structures which allow a non-degenerate Lax structure are shown to be locally isomorphic to the open Toda lattice.
Solutions of Two Dimensional Viscous Accretion and Winds In Kerr Black Hole Geometry
S. K. Chakrabarti
1996-11-04
We extend our previous studies of shock waves and shock-free solutions in thin accretion and winds in pseudo-Newtonian geometry to the case when the flow is ``two-dimensional'' and around a ``Kerr black hole''. We present equations for fully general relativistic viscous transonic flows and classify the parameter space according to whether or not shocks form in an inviscid flow. We discuss the behaviors of shear, angular momentum distribution, heating and cooling in viscous flows. We obtain a very significant result: we find that in weak viscosity limit the presence of the standing shock waves is more generic in the sense that flows away from the equatorial plane can produce shock waves in a wider range of parameter space. Similar conclusion also holds when the angular momentum of the black hole is increased. Generally, our conclusions regarding the shape of the shock waves are found to agree with results of the existing numerical simulations of the two dimensional accretion in Schwarzschild geometry. In a strong viscosity limit, the shocks may be located farther out or disappear completely as in the pseudo-Newtonian geometry.
Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids
Beer, Neil Reginald
2014-08-26
A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.
Phenolic acid esterases, coding sequences and methods
Blum, David L. (San Diego, CA); Kataeva, Irina (Athens, GA); Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA)
2002-01-01
Described herein are four phenolic acid esterases, three of which correspond to domains of previously unknown function within bacterial xylanases, from XynY and XynZ of Clostridium thermocellum and from a xylanase of Ruminococcus. The fourth specifically exemplified xylanase is a protein encoded within the genome of Orpinomyces PC-2. The amino acids of these polypeptides and nucleotide sequences encoding them are provided. Recombinant host cells, expression vectors and methods for the recombinant production of phenolic acid esterases are also provided.
Geometry dependence of RMT-based methods to extract the low-energy constants Sigma and F
Christoph Lehner; Jacques Bloch; Shoji Hashimoto; Tilo Wettig
2011-06-21
The lowest-order low-energy constants $\\Sigma$ and $F$ of chiral pertubation theory can be extracted from lattice data using methods based on the equivalence of random matrix theory (RMT) and QCD in the epsilon regime. We discuss how the choice of the lattice geometry affects such methods. In particular, we show how to minimize systematic deviations from RMT by an optimal choice of the lattice geometry in the case of two light quark flavors. We illustrate our findings by determining $\\Sigma$ and $F$ from lattice configurations with two dynamical overlap fermions generated by JLQCD, using two different lattice geometries.
HLB Progress on Tahiti acid lime grafted onto eight rootstocks
Stuchi, E. S.; Reiff, E. T.; Sempionato, O. R.; Parolin, L. G.; Bassanezi, R. B.
2014-01-01
Progress on Tahiti acid lime grafted onto eight rootstocksthe main Tahiti (Persian) lime producer in Brazil with 65%the performance of Tahiti acid lime grafted onto eight
High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D More Documents & Publications Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis 2011...
Microbial engineering for the production of fatty acids and fatty...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Microbial engineering for the production of fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microbial engineering for the production of fatty...
Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...
Dicus, Christina Marie
2008-10-10
The purpose of this study was first to develop a method by which a detailed porosity classification system could be utilized to understand the relationship between pore/pore-throat geometry, genetic porosity type, and ...
Long range transport of acid rain precursors
Fay, James A.
1983-01-01
A model of the long range transport of primary and secondary pollutants derived by Fay and Rosenzweig (1) is applied to the problem of the transport of acid rain precursors. The model describes the long term average (annual ...
Guidance Document SafeHandlingofHydrofluoricAcid
-sleeved, buttoned lab coat, long pants and closed-toe shoes. Other PPE may be required, such as face shield, foot hydrofluoric acid in containers made of polyethylene, polypropylene, Teflon, lead or platinum. Do not use
Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins
Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)
1994-01-01
An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.
Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins
Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.
1996-07-23
An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.
Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins
Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)
1996-01-01
An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.
Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins
Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.
1994-01-25
An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.
3D characterization of acidized fracture surfaces
Malagon Nieto, Camilo
2007-09-17
generated by the profilometer identified hydrodynamic channels that could not be identified by the naked eye in acidized surfaces. The plots clarified the existence of rock heterogeneities and revealed how the processes of dissolution function in chalk rock...
Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays
Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Mitra, Robi D. (Chestnut Hill, MA)
2010-08-31
Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.
2010-01-01
R.G.B and J.A.E. ). Keywords: biomass · carboxylic acids ·10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis ofaro- matic compounds from biomass resources could provide a
Primer on lead-acid storage batteries
1995-09-01
This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.
Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids
Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Zhang, Kun (Brighton, MA)
2008-06-17
Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).
Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids
Wang, Jiangyun (San Diego, CA); Xie, Jianming (San Diego, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)
2012-06-05
The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.
Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids
Wang, Jiangyun (San Diego, CA); Xie, Jianming (San Diego, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)
2010-10-05
The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.
NO reduction using sublimation of cyanuric acid
Perry, R.A.
1996-05-21
A method of reducing the NO content of a gas stream comprises contacting the gas stream with an amount of HNCO at a temperature effective for heat-induced decomposition of cyanuric acid, said amount and temperature being effective for the resultant lowering of the NO content of the gas stream, said cyanuric acid being particulate and having a particle size of less than 90 {micro}m. 1 fig.