National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for acid base-pair geometry

  1. Hybridization and sequencing of nucleic acids using base pair mismatches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  2. Automated DNA Base Pair Calling Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-07-07

    The procedure solves the problem of calling the DNA base pair sequence from two channel electropherogram separations in an automated fashion. The core of the program involves a peak picking algorithm based upon first, second, and third derivative spectra for each electropherogram channel, signal levels as a function of time, peak spacing, base pair signal to noise sequence patterns, frequency vs ratio of the two channel histograms, and confidence levels generated during the run. Themore » ratios of the two channels at peak centers can be used to accurately and reproducibly determine the base pair sequence. A further enhancement is a novel Gaussian deconvolution used to determine the peak heights used in generating the ratio.« less

  3. Method for sequencing DNA base pairs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sessler, Andrew M.; Dawson, John

    1993-01-01

    The base pairs of a DNA structure are sequenced with the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The DNA structure is scanned by the STM probe tip, and, as it is being scanned, the DNA structure is separately subjected to a sequence of infrared radiation from four different sources, each source being selected to preferentially excite one of the four different bases in the DNA structure. Each particular base being scanned is subjected to such sequence of infrared radiation from the four different sources as that particular base is being scanned. The DNA structure as a whole is separately imaged for each subjection thereof to radiation from one only of each source.

  4. Method for sequencing DNA base pairs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sessler, A.M.; Dawson, J.

    1993-12-14

    The base pairs of a DNA structure are sequenced with the use of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The DNA structure is scanned by the STM probe tip, and, as it is being scanned, the DNA structure is separately subjected to a sequence of infrared radiation from four different sources, each source being selected to preferentially excite one of the four different bases in the DNA structure. Each particular base being scanned is subjected to such sequence of infrared radiation from the four different sources as that particular base is being scanned. The DNA structure as a whole is separately imaged for each subjection thereof to radiation from one only of each source. 6 figures.

  5. B-DNA structure is intrinsically polymorphic: even at the level of base pair positions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Woods, Kristen Kruger; Moulaei, Tinoush; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2012-10-23

    Increasingly exact measurement of single crystal X-ray diffraction data offers detailed characterization of DNA conformation, hydration and electrostatics. However, instead of providing a more clear and unambiguous image of DNA, highly accurate diffraction data reveal polymorphism of the DNA atomic positions and conformation and hydration. Here we describe an accurate X-ray structure of B-DNA, painstakingly fit to a multistate model that contains multiple competing positions of most of the backbone and of entire base pairs. Two of ten base-pairs of CCAGGCCTGG are in multiple states distinguished primarily by differences in slide. Similarly, all the surrounding ions are seen to fractionally occupy discrete competing and overlapping sites. And finally, the vast majority of water molecules show strong evidence of multiple competing sites. Conventional resolution appears to give a false sense of homogeneity in conformation and interactions of DNA. In addition, conventional resolution yields an average structure that is not accurate, in that it is different from any of the multiple discrete structures observed at high resolution. Because base pair positional heterogeneity has not always been incorporated into model-building, even some high and ultrahigh-resolution structures of DNA do not indicate the full extent of conformational polymorphism.

  6. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Geometry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geometry ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor Geometry...

  7. Common Geometry Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore » top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less

  8. Geometry Matters | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geometry Matters Researchers have discovered how the geometry of gold nanoparticles affects their images. Gold nanoparticles can be imaged optically and their movements can be seen...

  9. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  10. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  11. Integral geometry and holography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-10-27

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulkmore » curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.« less

  12. Integral geometry and holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-10-27

    We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.

  13. Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry You are accessing a...

  14. Vortex lattices and crystalline geometries (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vortex lattices and crystalline geometries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vortex lattices and crystalline geometries Authors: Bao, Ning ; Harrison, Sarah ; Kachru, ...

  15. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varadarajan, Uday

    2003-07-10

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.

  16. Dynamics, Spectral Geometry and Topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burghelea, Dan

    2011-02-10

    The paper is an informal report on joint work with Stefan Haller on Dynamics in relation with Topology and Spectral Geometry. By dynamics one means a smooth vector field on a closed smooth manifold; the elements of dynamics of concern are the rest points, instantons and closed trajectories. One discusses their counting in the case of a generic vector field which has some additional properties satisfied by a still very large class of vector fields.

  17. A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests Abstract A simple method of estimating flow geometry and pore geometry from conservative tracer tests in single phase geothermal...

  18. NATURAL CONVECTION IN ROOM GEOMETRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, Fred; Kammerud, R.; Ruberg, K.

    1980-06-01

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in room geometries in two and three dimensions. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment reported here. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single thermal zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. The results indicate that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may be in error by as much as 50% as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure. It is also found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface.

  19. FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Isadore M.

    2008-03-04

    The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

  20. COLLOQUIUM: Quantum Mechanics and Spacetime Geometry | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 25, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Quantum Mechanics and Spacetime Geometry Professor Juan Maldacena Institute for Advanced Study Quantum...

  1. Minimal five dimensional supergravities and complex geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2010-07-28

    We discuss the relation between solutions admitting Killing spinors of minimal super-gravities in five dimensions, both timelike and null, and complex geometries. For the timelike solutions the results may be summarised as follows. In the ungauged case (vanishing cosmological constant {Lambda} 0) the solutions are determined in terms of a hyper-Kaehler base space; in the gauged case ({Lambda}<0) the complex geometry is Kaehler; in the de Sitter case ({Lambda}>0) the complex geometry is hyper-Kaehler with torsion (HKT). For the null solutions we shall focus on the de Sitter case, for which the solutions are determined by a constrained Einstein-Weyl 3-geometry called Gauduchon-Tod space. The method for constructing explicit solutions is discussed in each case.

  2. Phase distribution in complex geometry conduits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Lopez de Bertodano, M.; Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1992-12-31

    Some of the most important and challenging problems in two-phase flow today have to do with the understanding and prediction of multidimensional phenomena, in particular, lateral phase distribution in both simple and complex geometry conduits. A prior review paper summarized the state-of-the-art in the understanding of phase distribution phenomena, and the ability to perform mechanistic multidimensional predictions. The purpose of this paper is to update that review, with particular emphasis on complex geometry conduit predictive capabilities.

  3. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popple, Richard A. Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify arrangements equivalent to equiangular geometries but using fewer beams. Furthermore, SBA provides the value of the objective function as the number of beams is increased, allowing the planner to select the minimal beam number that achieves the clinical goals. The method is simple to implement and could readily be incorporated into an existing optimization system.

  4. Geometry-Preserving Topological Landscapes (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geometry-Preserving Topological Landscapes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geometry-Preserving Topological Landscapes You are accessing a document from the Department...

  5. Geometry-Preserving Topological Landscapes (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geometry-Preserving Topological Landscapes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geometry-Preserving Topological Landscapes Authors: Beketayev, Kenes ; Weber, Gunther ;...

  6. Noncommutative geometry for three-dimensional topological insulators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Noncommutative geometry for three-dimensional topological insulators Title: Noncommutative geometry for three-dimensional topological insulators Authors: Neupert, Titus ; Santos, ...

  7. Complex Geometry Creation and Turbulent Conjugate Heat Transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Complex Geometry Creation and Turbulent Conjugate Heat Transfer Modeling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Complex Geometry Creation and Turbulent Conjugate ...

  8. Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-06-09

    DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.

  9. Inductor Geometry With Improved Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, H; Ngo, KDT; Moss, J; Lim, MHF; Rey, E

    2014-10-01

    The "constant-flux" concept is leveraged to achieve high magnetic-energy density, leading to inductor geometries with height significantly lower than that of conventional products. Techniques to shape the core and to distribute the winding turns to shape a desirable field profile are described for the two basic classes of magnetic geometries: those with the winding enclosed by the core and those with the core enclosed by the winding. A relatively constant flux distribution is advantageous not only from the density standpoint, but also from the thermal standpoint via the reduction of hot spots, and from the reliability standpoint via the suppression of flux crowding. In this journal paper on a constant-flux inductor (CFI) with enclosed winding, the foci are operating principle, dc analysis, and basic design procedure. Prototype cores and windings were routed from powder-iron disks and copper sheets, respectively. The design of CFI was validated by the assembled inductor prototype.

  10. Extraction electrode geometry for a calutron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to an improved geometry for the extraction electrode and the ground electrode utilized in the operation of a calutron. The improved electrodes are constructed in a partial-picture-frame fashion with the slits of both electrodes formed by two tungsten elongated rods. Additional parallel spaced-apart rods in each electrode are used to establish equipotential surfaces over the rest of the front of the ion source. (auth)

  11. The geometry of electron wave functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminov, Yurii A

    2013-02-28

    To each wave function we assign a codimension-two submanifold in Euclidean space. We study the case of the wave function of a single electron in the hydrogen atom or other hydrogen-type atoms with quantum numbers n, l, m in detail. We prove theorems describing the behaviour of the scalar and sectional curvature of the constructed submanifold, depending on the quantum numbers. We also consider the external geometry of the submanifold. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  12. RGG: Reactor geometry (and mesh) generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, R.; Tautges, T.

    2012-07-01

    The reactor geometry (and mesh) generator RGG takes advantage of information about repeated structures in both assembly and core lattices to simplify the creation of geometry and mesh. It is released as open source software as a part of the MeshKit mesh generation library. The methodology operates in three stages. First, assembly geometry models of various types are generated by a tool called AssyGen. Next, the assembly model or models are meshed by using MeshKit tools or the CUBIT mesh generation tool-kit, optionally based on a journal file output by AssyGen. After one or more assembly model meshes have been constructed, a tool called CoreGen uses a copy/move/merge process to arrange the model meshes into a core model. In this paper, we present the current state of tools and new features in RGG. We also discuss the parallel-enabled CoreGen, which in several cases achieves super-linear speedups since the problems fit in available RAM at higher processor counts. Several RGG applications - 1/6 VHTR model, 1/4 PWR reactor core, and a full-core model for Monju - are reported. (authors)

  13. The surface geometry of exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, B. V.; Baldini-Neto, E.; Hirata, D.; Peru-Desenfants, S.; Berger, J.-F.; Chamon, L. C.

    2007-02-12

    We analyze the surface geometry of the spherical even-even Ca, Ni, Sn and Pb nuclei using two approaches: The relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Bogoliubov one with several parameter sets and the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov one with the Gogny force. The proton and neutron density distributions are fitted to two-parameter Fermi density distributions to obtain the half-density radii and diffuseness parameters. Those parameters allow us to determine the nature of the neutron skins predicted by the models. The calculations are compared with existing experimental data.

  14. Differential geometry, Palatini gravity and reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capriotti, S.

    2014-01-15

    The present article deals with a formulation of the so called (vacuum) Palatini gravity as a general variational principle. In order to accomplish this goal, some geometrical tools related to the geometry of the bundle of connections of the frame bundle LM are used. A generalization of Lagrange-Poincar reduction scheme to these types of variational problems allows us to relate it with the Einstein-Hilbert variational problem. Relations with some other variational problems for gravity found in the literature are discussed.

  15. Efficient evaluation of Casimir force in z-invariant geometries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CASIMIR EFFECT; ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS; GEOMETRY; INTEGRAL EQUATIONS; QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS; ...

  16. Standard Definitions of Building Geometry for Energy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides definitions and metrics of building geometry for use in building energy evaluation. Building geometry is an important input in the analysis process, yet there are no agreed-upon standard definitions of these terms for use in energy analysis. The metrics can be used for characterizing building geometry, for calculating energy performance metrics, and for conducting energy simulations.

  17. Statistics and geometry of cosmic voids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaite, Jos

    2009-11-01

    We introduce new statistical methods for the study of cosmic voids, focusing on the statistics of largest size voids. We distinguish three different types of distributions of voids, namely, Poisson-like, lognormal-like and Pareto-like distributions. The last two distributions are connected with two types of fractal geometry of the matter distribution. Scaling voids with Pareto distribution appear in fractal distributions with box-counting dimension smaller than three (its maximum value), whereas the lognormal void distribution corresponds to multifractals with box-counting dimension equal to three. Moreover, voids of the former type persist in the continuum limit, namely, as the number density of observable objects grows, giving rise to lacunar fractals, whereas voids of the latter type disappear in the continuum limit, giving rise to non-lacunar (multi)fractals. We propose both lacunar and non-lacunar multifractal models of the cosmic web structure of the Universe. A non-lacunar multifractal model is supported by current galaxy surveys as well as cosmological N-body simulations. This model suggests, in particular, that small dark matter halos and, arguably, faint galaxies are present in cosmic voids.

  18. Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Abstract The nature of solid earth tidal strain and surface load deformation due to the influence of...

  19. Geometry Description Markup Language for Physics Simulation And Analysis Applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chytracek, R.; McCormick, J.; Pokorski, W.; Santin, G.; /European Space Agency

    2007-01-23

    The Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) is a specialized XML-based language designed as an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors associated with physics measurements. It serves to implement ''geometry trees'' which correspond to the hierarchy of volumes a detector geometry can be composed of, and to allow to identify the position of individual solids, as well as to describe the materials they are made of. Being pure XML, GDML can be universally used, and in particular it can be considered as the format for interchanging geometries among different applications. In this paper we will present the current status of the development of GDML. After having discussed the contents of the latest GDML schema, which is the basic definition of the format, we will concentrate on the GDML processors. We will present the latest implementation of the GDML ''writers'' as well as ''readers'' for either Geant4 [2], [3] or ROOT [4], [10].

  20. Five Dimensional Minimal Supergravities and Four Dimensional Complex Geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, Jai; Gutowski, Jan B.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Sabra, Wafic

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the relation between solutions admitting Killing spinors of minimal supergravities in five dimensions and four dimensional complex geometries. In the ungauged case (vanishing cosmological constant {lambda} 0) the solutions are determined in terms of a hyper-Kaehler base space; in the gauged case ({lambda}<0) the complex geometry is Kaehler; in the de Sitter case ({lambda}>0) the complex geometry is hyper-Kaehler with torsion (HKT). In the latter case some details of the derivation are given. The method for constructing explicit solutions is discussed in each case.

  1. Determination of electron-nucleus collisions geometry with forward neutrons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, L.; Aschenauer, E.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-12-29

    There are a large number of physics programs one can explore in electron-nucleus collisions at a future electron-ion collider. Collision geometry is very important in these studies, while the measurement for an event-by-event geometric control is rarely discussed in the prior deep-inelastic scattering experiments off a nucleus. This paper seeks to provide some detailed studies on the potential of tagging collision geometries through forward neutron multiplicity measurements with a zero degree calorimeter. As a result, this type of geometry handle, if achieved, can be extremely beneficial in constraining nuclear effects for the electron-nucleus program at an electron-ion collider.

  2. Influence of geometry on natural convection in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.D.; Winn, C.B.; Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Strong free convection airflows occur within passive solar buildings resulting from elevated temperatures of surfaces irradiated by solar energy compared with the cooler surfaces not receiving radiation. The geometry of a building has a large influence on the directions and magnitudes of natural airflows, and thus heat transfer between zones. This investigation has utilized a variety of reduced-scale building configurations to study the effects of geometry on natural convection heat transfer. Similarity between the reduced-scale model and a full-scale passive solar building is achieved by having similar geometries and by replacing air with Freon-12 gas as the model's working fluid. Filling the model with Freon-12 gas results in similarity in Prandtl numbers and Rayleigh numbers based on temperature differences in the range from 10/sup 9/ to 10/sup 11/. Results from four geometries are described with an emphasis placed on the effects of heat loss on zone temperature stratification shifts.

  3. Rheological control on the initial geometry of the Raft River...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rheological control on the initial geometry of the Raft River detachment fault and shear zone, western United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  4. Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry Authors: Younes, W ; Ressler, J J Publication Date: 2013-08-21 OSTI Identifier: 1116982 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-648552 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States

  5. Exploiting Intrinsic Triangular Geometry in Relativistic He 3 + Au

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Collisions to Disentangle Medium Properties (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Exploiting Intrinsic Triangular Geometry in Relativistic He 3 + Au Collisions to Disentangle Medium Properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploiting Intrinsic Triangular Geometry in Relativistic He 3 + Au Collisions to Disentangle Medium Properties Authors: Nagle, J. L. ; Adare, A. ; Beckman, S. ; Koblesky, T. ; Koop, J. Orjuela ; McGlinchey, D. ; Romatschke, P. ; Carlson, J. ; Lynn, J. E. ;

  6. Spall diagnostic development for convergent geometries using momentum

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    witness windows. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Spall diagnostic development for convergent geometries using momentum witness windows. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spall diagnostic development for convergent geometries using momentum witness windows. No abstract prepared. Authors: Furnish, Michael David Publication Date: 2004-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 964145 Report Number(s): SAND2004-5837C TRN: US200922%%24 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  7. Bianchi Attractors: A Classification of Extremal Black Brane Geometries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Bianchi Attractors: A Classification of Extremal Black Brane Geometries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bianchi Attractors: A Classification of Extremal Black Brane Geometries Authors: Iizuka, Norihiro ; /CERN ; Kachru, Shamit ; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC ; Kundu, Nilay ; Narayan, Prithvi ; Sircar, Nilanjan ; Trivedi, Sandip P. ; /Tata Inst. Publication Date: 2013-07-10 OSTI Identifier: 1087393 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15686 arXiv:1201.4861 DOE

  8. Complex Geometry Creation and Turbulent Conjugate Heat Transfer Modeling

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Complex Geometry Creation and Turbulent Conjugate Heat Transfer Modeling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Complex Geometry Creation and Turbulent Conjugate Heat Transfer Modeling The multiphysics capabilities of COMSOL provide the necessary tools to simulate the turbulent thermal-fluid aspects of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Version 4.1, and later, of COMSOL provides three different turbulence models: the standard k-{var_epsilon}

  9. Triangle geometry processing for surface modeling and cartesian grid generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aftosmis, Michael J. [San Mateo, CA; Melton, John E. [Hollister, CA; Berger, Marsha J. [New York, NY

    2002-09-03

    Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.

  10. The Geometry Of Disorder: Theoretical Investigations Of Quasicrystals And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Frustrated Magnets: Quasi-Crystals And Quasi-Equivalence: Symmetries And Energies In Alloys And Biological Materials (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect The Geometry Of Disorder: Theoretical Investigations Of Quasicrystals And Frustrated Magnets: Quasi-Crystals And Quasi-Equivalence: Symmetries And Energies In Alloys And Biological Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Geometry Of Disorder: Theoretical Investigations Of Quasicrystals And Frustrated Magnets: Quasi-Crystals

  11. Tuning spin transport properties and molecular magnetoresistance through contact geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana; Sheikh Saqr Laboratory, ICMS, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 ; Delin, Anna; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala; SeRC , KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm

    2014-01-28

    Molecular spintronics seeks to unite the advantages of using organic molecules as nanoelectronic components, with the benefits of using spin as an additional degree of freedom. For technological applications, an important quantity is the molecular magnetoresistance. In this work, we show that this parameter is very sensitive to the contact geometry. To demonstrate this, we perform ab initio calculations, combining the non-equilibrium Green's function method with density functional theory, on a dithienylethene molecule placed between spin-polarized nickel leads of varying geometries. We find that, in general, the magnetoresistance is significantly higher when the contact is made to sharp tips than to flat surfaces. Interestingly, this holds true for both resonant and tunneling conduction regimes, i.e., when the molecule is in its “closed” and “open” conformations, respectively. We find that changing the lead geometry can increase the magnetoresistance by up to a factor of ∼5. We also introduce a simple model that, despite requiring minimal computational time, can recapture our ab initio results for the behavior of magnetoresistance as a function of bias voltage. This model requires as its input only the density of states on the anchoring atoms, at zero bias voltage. We also find that the non-resonant conductance in the open conformation of the molecule is significantly impacted by the lead geometry. As a result, the ratio of the current in the closed and open conformations can also be tuned by varying the geometry of the leads, and increased by ∼400%.

  12. Differential geometry on Hopf algebras and quantum groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, P.

    1994-12-15

    The differential geometry on a Hopf algebra is constructed, by using the basic axioms of Hopf algebras and noncommutative differential geometry. The space of generalized derivations on a Hopf algebra of functions is presented via the smash product, and used to define and discuss quantum Lie algebras and their properties. The Cartan calculus of the exterior derivative, Lie derivative, and inner derivation is found for both the universal and general differential calculi of an arbitrary Hopf algebra, and, by restricting to the quasitriangular case and using the numerical R-matrix formalism, the aforementioned structures for quantum groups are determined.

  13. Stationary bubbles and their tunneling channels toward trivial geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Pisin; Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-04-07

    In the path integral approach, one has to sum over all histories that start from the same initial condition in order to obtain the final condition as a superposition of histories. Applying this into black hole dynamics, we consider stable and unstable stationary bubbles as a reasonable and regular initial condition. We find examples where the bubble can either form a black hole or tunnel toward a trivial geometry, i.e., with no singularity nor event horizon. We investigate the dynamics and tunneling channels of true vacuum bubbles for various tensions. In particular, in line with the idea of superposition ofmore » geometries, we build a classically stable stationary thin-shell solution in a Minkowski background where its fate is probabilistically given by non-perturbative effects. Since there exists a tunneling channel toward a trivial geometry in the entire path integral, the entire information is encoded in the wave function. This demonstrates that the unitarity is preserved and there is no loss of information when viewed from the entire wave function of the universe, whereas a semi-classical observer, who can see only a definitive geometry, would find an effective loss of information. Ultimately, this may provide a resolution to the information loss dilemma.« less

  14. Solves Poisson's Equation in Axizymmetric Geometry on a Rectangular Mesh

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-09-10

    DATHETA4.0 computes the magnetostatic field produced by multiple point current sources in the presence of perfect conductors in axisymmetric geometry. DATHETA4.0 has an interactive user interface and solves Poisson''s equation using the ADI method on a rectangular finite-difference mesh. DATHETA4.0 uncludes models specific to applied-B ion diodes.

  15. Max Data Report Jet Stability versus Inlet Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomperski, S.; Bremer, N.

    2015-09-01

    This document describes experiments investigating the effect of inlet geometry on the flow field within a glass tank where two jets mix and impinge upon the lid. The setup mimics the outlet plenum of a fast reactor where core exit flows of different temperatures can mix in ways that induce thermal cycling in neighboring structures.

  16. From string theory to algebraic geometry and back

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinzanescu, Vasile

    2011-02-10

    We describe some facts in physics which go up to the modern string theory and the related concepts in algebraic geometry. Then we present some recent results on moduli-spaces of vector bundles on non-Kaehler Calabi-Yau 3-folds and their consequences for heterotic string theory.

  17. Geometric Transitions, Topological Strings, and Generalized Complex Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-06-29

    Mirror symmetry is one of the most beautiful symmetries in string theory. It helps us very effectively gain insights into non-perturbative worldsheet instanton effects. It was also shown that the study of mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau flux compactification leads us to the territory of ''Non-Kaehlerity''. In this thesis we demonstrate how to construct a new class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua via generalized geometric transitions. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. From a variety of sources, including super-gravity analysis and KK reduction on SU(3) structure manifolds, we conclude that string theory connects Calabi-Yau spaces to both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds and the resulting manifolds lie in generalized complex geometry. We go on to study the topological twisted models on a class of generalized complex geometry, bi-Hermitian geometry, which is the most general target space for (2, 2) world-sheet theory with non-trivial H flux turned on. We show that the usual Kaehler A and B models are generalized in a natural way. Since the gauged supergravity is the low energy effective theory for the compactifications on generalized geometries, we study the fate of flux-induced isometry gauging in N = 2 IIA and heterotic strings under non-perturbative instanton effects. Interestingly, we find we have protection mechanisms preventing the corrections to the hyper moduli spaces. Besides generalized geometries, we also discuss the possibility of new NS-NS fluxes in a new doubled formalism.

  18. Method for high-volume sequencing of nucleic acids: random and directed priming with libraries of oligonucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William

    1995-04-18

    Random and directed priming methods for determining nucleotide sequences by enzymatic sequencing techniques, using libraries of primers of lengths 8, 9 or 10 bases, are disclosed. These methods permit direct sequencing of nucleic acids as large as 45,000 base pairs or larger without the necessity for subcloning. Individual primers are used repeatedly to prime sequence reactions in many different nucleic acid molecules. Libraries containing as few as 10,000 octamers, 14,200 nonamers, or 44,000 decamers would have the capacity to determine the sequence of almost any cosmid DNA. Random priming with a fixed set of primers from a smaller library can also be used to initiate the sequencing of individual nucleic acid molecules, with the sequence being completed by directed priming with primers from the library. In contrast to random cloning techniques, a combined random and directed priming strategy is far more efficient.

  19. Method for high-volume sequencing of nucleic acids: random and directed priming with libraries of oligonucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F.W.

    1995-04-18

    Random and directed priming methods for determining nucleotide sequences by enzymatic sequencing techniques, using libraries of primers of lengths 8, 9 or 10 bases, are disclosed. These methods permit direct sequencing of nucleic acids as large as 45,000 base pairs or larger without the necessity for subcloning. Individual primers are used repeatedly to prime sequence reactions in many different nucleic acid molecules. Libraries containing as few as 10,000 octamers, 14,200 nonamers, or 44,000 decamers would have the capacity to determine the sequence of almost any cosmid DNA. Random priming with a fixed set of primers from a smaller library can also be used to initiate the sequencing of individual nucleic acid molecules, with the sequence being completed by directed priming with primers from the library. In contrast to random cloning techniques, a combined random and directed priming strategy is far more efficient. 2 figs.

  20. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  1. THE GEOMETRY OF DISORDER: THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF QUASICRYSTALS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    scitechservletspurl1015270 http:www.osti.govscitechbiblio1015270 Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS...

  2. Corrosion/erosion pipe inspection using reverse geometry radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, R.D.

    1996-07-01

    Measurement of corrosion in piping was studied using the Digiray Reverse Geometry X-ray{reg_sign} (RGX{reg_sign}) imaging system during a series of field tests. Sponsored by Shell, Exxon and Mobil oil companies, these were recently carried out at the Shell Martinez refinery facility. Results of the field tests as well as other RGX radiographs taken in the laboratory by Digiray will be described in this report.

  3. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.

    2016-02-08

    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955)] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer one that is to some extent improved.

  4. ORGBUG -- A windows-based combinatorial geometry debugger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    ORGBUG is the second half of a two part graphical display and debugging system for combinatorial geometry. The first part of the system consists of a ``view`` generator, CGVIEW. ORGBUG itself is a Microsoft Windows-based application designed to run on a 386 personal computer and to display the ``view`` produced by CGVIEW as an aid to debugging. ORGBUG also includes specific tools to facilitate the identification of geometric features which are inconsistent or in error.

  5. ORGBUG -- A windows-based combinatorial geometry debugger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    ORGBUG is the second half of a two part graphical display and debugging system for combinatorial geometry. The first part of the system consists of a view'' generator, CGVIEW. ORGBUG itself is a Microsoft Windows-based application designed to run on a 386 personal computer and to display the view'' produced by CGVIEW as an aid to debugging. ORGBUG also includes specific tools to facilitate the identification of geometric features which are inconsistent or in error.

  6. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousculp, Christopher L.; Oro, David Michael; Margolin, Len G.; Griego, Jeffrey Randall; Reinovsky, Robert Emil; Turchi, Peter John

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  7. Visualizing MCNP Tally Segment Geometry and Coupling Results with ABAQUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. R. Parry; J. A. Galbraith

    2007-11-01

    The Advanced Graphite Creep test, AGC-1, is planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. The experiment requires very detailed neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses to show compliance with programmatic and ATR safety requirements. The MCNP model used for the neutronics analysis required hundreds of tally regions to provide the desired detail. A method for visualizing the hundreds of tally region geometries and the tally region results in 3 dimensions has been created to support the AGC-1 irradiation. Additionally, a method was created which would allow ABAQUS to access the results directly for the thermal analysis of the AGC-1 experiment.

  8. Non-modal analysis of the diocotron instability: Cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailenko, V. V.; Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Azarenkov, N. A.

    2013-04-15

    The temporal evolution of the linear diocotron instability of the cylindrical annular plasma column is investigated by employing the extension of the shearing modes methodology to the cylindrical geometry. It was obtained that the spatial time-dependent distortion of the electron density initial perturbations by shear flows leads to the non-modal evolution of the potential, which was referred to as the manifestation of the continuous spectrum. The evolution process leads toward the convergence to the phase-locking configuration of the mutually growing normal modes.

  9. The role of pore geometry in single nanoparticle detection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davenport, Matthew; Healy, Ken; Pevarnik, Matthew; Teslich, Nick; Cabrini, Stefano; Morrison, Alan P.; Siwy, Zuzanna S.; Letant, Sonia E.

    2012-08-22

    In this study, we observe single nanoparticle translocation events via resistive pulse sensing using silicon nitride pores described by a range of lengths and diameters. Pores are prepared by focused ion beam milling in 50 nm-, 100 nm-, and 500 nm-thick silicon nitride membranes with diameters fabricated to accommodate spherical silica nanoparticles with sizes chosen to mimic that of virus particles. In this manner, we are able to characterize the role of pore geometry in three key components of the detection scheme, namely, event magnitude, event duration, and event frequency. We find that the electric field created by the appliedmore » voltage and the pore’s geometry is a critical factor. We develop approximations to describe this field, which are verified with computer simulations, and interactions between particles and this field. In so doing, we formulate what we believe to be the first approximation for the magnitude of ionic current blockage that explicitly addresses the invariance of access resistance of solid-state pores during particle translocation. These approximations also provide a suitable foundation for estimating the zeta potential of the particles and/or pore surface when studied in conjunction with event durations. We also verify that translocation achieved by electro-osmostic transport is an effective means of slowing translocation velocities of highly charged particles without compromising particle capture rate as compared to more traditional approaches based on electrophoretic transport.« less

  10. Geometry of the N=4, d=1 nonlinear supermultiplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellucci, S.; Krivonos, S.

    2006-12-15

    We construct the general action for N=4, d=1 nonlinear supermultiplet including the most general interaction terms which depend on the arbitrary function h obeying the Laplace equation on S{sup 3}. We find the bosonic field B which depends on the components of nonlinear supermultiplet and transforms as a full time derivative under N=4 supersymmetry. The most general interaction is generated just by a Fayet-Iliopoulos term built from this auxiliary component. Being transformed through a full time derivative under N=4, d=1 supersymmetry, this auxiliary component B may be dualized into a fourth scalar field giving rise to a four-dimensional N=4, d=1 sigma-model. We analyzed the geometry in the bosonic sector and find that it is not a hyper-Kaehler one. With a particular choice of the target space metric g the geometry in the bosonic sector coincides with the one which appears in heterotic (4, 0) sigma-model in d=2.

  11. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Brown, G.

    2015-10-07

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine powermoreperformance analysis and annual energy production. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation when arc scans are used for wind resource assessment.less

  12. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2015-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  13. Phenolate constrained geometry polymerization catalyst and method for preparing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention involves a method of preparing and the constrained geometry catalyst thereby prepared of the general formula Ar'R4(O)Ar"R'.sub.4 M(CH.sub.2 Ph).sub.2 where Ar' is a phenyl or naphthyl group; Ar" is a cyclopentadienyl or indenyl group, R and R' are H or alkyl substituents (C.ltoreq.10) and M is Ti, Zr or Hf. The synthetic method involves a simple alkane elimination approach which permits a "one-pot" procedure. The catalyst, when combined with a cocatalyst such as Pb.sub.3 C.sup.+ B(Ar.sub.3.sup.F).sub.4 BAr.sub.3.sup.F or methyl alumoxane where Ar.sup.F is a fluoroaryl group, is an effective catalyst for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins such as ethylene, propylene and styrene.

  14. Phenolate constrained geometry polymerization catalyst and method for preparing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, T.J.; Chen, Y.X.

    1999-01-05

    The subject invention involves a method of preparing and the constrained geometry catalyst thereby prepared of the general formula Ar{prime}R4(O)Ar{double_prime}R{prime}{sub 4}M(CH{sub 2}Ph){sub 2} where Ar{prime} is a phenyl or naphthyl group; Ar{double_prime} is a cyclopentadienyl or indenyl group, R and R{prime} are H or alkyl substituents (C{<=}10) and M is Ti, Zr or Hf. The synthetic method involves a simple alkane elimination approach which permits a ``one-pot`` procedure. The catalyst, when combined with a cocatalyst such as Pb{sub 3}C{sup +}B(Ar{sub 3}{sup F}){sub 4}BAr{sub 3}{sup F} or methyl alumoxane where Ar{sup F} is a fluoroaryl group, is an effective catalyst for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins such as ethylene, propylene and styrene. 1 fig.

  15. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they can be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.

  16. Electric field geometries dominate quantum transport coupling in silicon nanoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Tsung-Han E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com; Hu, Shu-Fen E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com

    2014-03-28

    Investigations on the relation between the geometries of silicon nanodevices and the quantum phenomenon they exhibit, such as the Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect and the Coulomb blockade, were conducted. An arsenic doped silicon nanoring coupled with a nanowire by electron beam lithography was fabricated. At 1.47 K, Coulomb blockade oscillations were observed under modulation from the top gate voltage, and a periodic AB oscillation of ΔB = 0.178 T was estimated for a ring radius of 86 nm under a high sweeping magnetic field. Modulating the flat top gate and the pointed side gate was performed to cluster and separate the many electron quantum dots, which demonstrated that quantum confinement and interference effects coexisted in the doped silicon nanoring.

  17. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they canmore » be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.« less

  18. Optimized Algorithm for Collision Probability Calculations in Cubic Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, R.D.M.

    2004-06-15

    An optimized algorithm for implementing a recently developed method of computing collision probabilities (CPs) in three dimensions is reported in this work for the case of a homogeneous cube. Use is made of the geometrical regularity of the domain to rewrite, in a very compact way, the approximate formulas for calculating CPs in general three-dimensional geometry that were derived in a previous work by the author. The ensuing gain in computation time is found to be substantial: While the computation time associated with the general formulas increases as K{sup 2}, where K is the number of elements used in the calculation, that of the specific formulas increases only linearly with K. Accurate numerical results are given for several test cases, and an extension of the algorithm for computing the self-collision probability for a hexahedron is reported at the end of the work.

  19. Phenomenological loop quantum geometry of the Schwarzschild black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiou, D.-W.

    2008-09-15

    The interior of a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated at the level of phenomenological dynamics with the discreteness corrections of loop quantum geometry implemented in two different improved quantization schemes. In one scheme, the classical black hole singularity is resolved by the quantum bounce, which bridges the black hole interior with a white hole interior. In the other scheme, the classical singularity is resolved and the event horizon is also diffused by the quantum bounce. Jumping over the quantum bounce, the black hole gives birth to a baby black hole with a much smaller mass. This lineage continues as each classical black hole brings forth its own descendant in the consecutive classical cycle, giving the whole extended spacetime fractal structure, until the solution eventually descends into the deep Planck regime, signaling a breakdown of the semiclassical description. The issues of scaling symmetry and no-hair theorem are also discussed.

  20. Testing cosmic geometry without dynamic distortions using voids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P.M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D. E-mail: sutter@iap.fr E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr

    2014-12-01

    We propose a novel technique to probe the expansion history of the Universe based on the clustering statistics of cosmic voids. In particular, we compute their two-point statistics in redshift space on the basis of realistic mock galaxy catalogs and apply the Alcock-Paczynski test. In contrast to galaxies, we find void auto-correlations to be marginally affected by peculiar motions, providing a model-independent measure of cosmological parameters without systematics from redshift-space distortions. Because only galaxy-galaxy and void-galaxy correlations have been considered in these types of studies before, the presented method improves both statistical and systematic uncertainties on the product of angular diameter distance and Hubble rate, furnishing the potentially cleanest probe of cosmic geometry available to date.

  1. Models to interpret bedform geometries from cross-bed data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthi, S.M. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (USA)); Banavar, J.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA)); Bayer, U. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich (West Germany))

    1990-03-01

    Semi-elliptical and sinusoidal bedform crestlines were modeled with curvature and sinuosity as parameters. Both bedform crestlines are propagated at various angles of migration over a finite area of deposition. Two computational approaches are used, a statistical random sampling (Monte Carlo) technique over the area of the deposit, and an analytical method based on topology and differential geometry. The resulting foreset azimuth distributions provide a catalogue for a variety of situations. The resulting thickness distributions have a simple shape and can be combined with the azimuth distributions to constrain further the cross-strata geometry. Paleocurrent directions obtained by these models can differ substantially from other methods, especially for obliquely migrating low-curvature bedforms. Interpretation of foreset azimuth data from outcrops and wells can be done either by visual comparison with the catalogued distributions, or by iterative computational fits. Studied examples include eolian cross-strata from the Permian Rotliegendes in the North Sea, fluvial dunes from the Devonian in the Catskills (New York State), the Triassic Schilfsandstein (West Germany) and the Paleozoic-Jurassic of the Western Desert (Egypt), as well as recent tidal dunes from the German coast of the North Sea and tidal cross-strata from the Devonian Koblentquartzit (West Germany). In all cases the semi-elliptical bedform model gave a good fit to the data, suggesting that it may be applicable over a wide range of bedforms. The data from the Western Desert could only be explained by data scatter due to channel sinuosity combining with the scatter attributed to the ellipticity of the bedform crestlines. These models, therefore, may also allow simulations of some hierarchically structured bedforms.

  2. Geometry-dependent critical currents in superconducting nanocircuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clem, John R.; Berggren, Karl K.

    2011-11-18

    In this paper, we calculate the critical currents in thin superconducting strips with sharp right-angle turns, 180{sup o} turnarounds, and more complicated geometries, where all the line widths are much smaller than the Pearl length {Lambda} = 2{lambda}{sup 2}/d. We define the critical current as the current that reduces the Gibbs-free-energy barrier to zero. We show that current crowding, which occurs whenever the current rounds a sharp turn, tends to reduce the critical current, but we also show that when the radius of curvature is less than the coherence length, this effect is partially compensated by a radius-of-curvature effect. We propose several patterns with rounded corners to avoid critical-current reduction due to current crowding. These results are relevant to superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, where they suggest a means of improving the bias conditions and reducing dark counts. These results also have relevance to normal-metal nanocircuits, as these patterns can reduce the electrical resistance, electromigration, and hot spots caused by nonuniform heating.

  3. Documentation for MeshKit - Reactor Geometry (&mesh) Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Rajeev; Mahadevan, Vijay

    2015-09-30

    This report gives documentation for using MeshKit’s Reactor Geometry (and mesh) Generator (RGG) GUI and also briefly documents other algorithms and tools available in MeshKit. RGG is a program designed to aid in modeling and meshing of complex/large hexagonal and rectilinear reactor cores. RGG uses Argonne’s SIGMA interfaces, Qt and VTK to produce an intuitive user interface. By integrating a 3D view of the reactor with the meshing tools and combining them into one user interface, RGG streamlines the task of preparing a simulation mesh and enables real-time feedback that reduces accidental scripting mistakes that could waste hours of meshing. RGG interfaces with MeshKit tools to consolidate the meshing process, meaning that going from model to mesh is as easy as a button click. This report is designed to explain RGG v 2.0 interface and provide users with the knowledge and skills to pilot RGG successfully. Brief documentation of MeshKit source code, tools and other algorithms available are also presented for developers to extend and add new algorithms to MeshKit. RGG tools work in serial and parallel and have been used to model complex reactor core models consisting of conical pins, load pads, several thousands of axially varying material properties of instrumentation pins and other interstices meshes.

  4. Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    1993-07-27

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

  5. Tailoring dielectric resonator geometries for directional scattering and Huygens metasurfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campione, Salvatore; Basilio, Lorena I.; Warne, Larry K.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2015-01-28

    In this paper we describe a methodology for tailoring the design of metamaterial dielectric resonators, which represent a promising path toward low-loss metamaterials at optical frequencies. We first describe a procedure to decompose the far field scattered by subwavelength resonators in terms of multipolar field components, providing explicit expressions for the multipolar far fields. We apply this formulation to confirm that an isolated high-permittivity dielectric cube resonator possesses frequency separated electric and magnetic dipole resonances, as well as a magnetic quadrupole resonance in close proximity to the electric dipole resonance. We then introduce multiple dielectric gaps to the resonator geometrymorein a manner suggested by perturbation theory, and demonstrate the ability to overlap the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, thereby enabling directional scattering by satisfying the first Kerker condition. We further demonstrate the ability to push the quadrupole resonance away from the degenerate dipole resonances to achieve local behavior. These properties are confirmed through the multipolar expansion and show that the use of geometries suggested by perturbation theory is a viable route to achieve purely dipole resonances for metamaterial applications such as wave-front manipulation with Huygens metasurfaces. Our results are fully scalable across any frequency bands where high-permittivity dielectric materials are available, including microwave, THz, and infrared frequencies.less

  6. The F-theory geometry with most flux vacua

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-12-28

    Applying the Ashok-Denef-Douglas estimation method to elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds suggests that a single elliptic fourfold Mmax gives rise to O(10272,000) F-theory flux vacua, and that the sum total of the numbers of flux vacua from all other F-theory geometries is suppressed by a relative factor of O(10–3000). The fourfold Mmax arises from a generic elliptic fibration over a specific toric threefold base Bmax, and gives a geometrically non-Higgsable gauge group of E89 × F48 × (G 2 × SU(2))16, of which we expect some factors to be broken by G-flux to smaller groups. It is not possible to tune anmore » SU(5) GUT group on any further divisors in Mmax, or even an SU(2) or SU(3), so the standard model gauge group appears to arise in this context only from a broken E8 factor. Furthermore, the results of this paper can either be interpreted as providing a framework for predicting how the standard model arises most naturally in F-theory and the types of dark matter to be found in a typical F-theory compactification, or as a challenge to string theorists to explain why other choices of vacua are not exponentially unlikely compared to F-theory compactifications on Mmax.« less

  7. Algorithms and tools for high-throughput geometry-based analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Algorithms and tools for high-throughput geometry-based analysis of crystalline porous materials Previous Next List Thomas F. Willems, Chris H. Rycroft, Michaeel Kazi, Juan C....

  8. Cumulus Geometry from Satellite and Surface Data at the ARM TWP...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cumulus Geometry from Satellite and Surface Data at the ARM TWP Site E. I. Kassianov, T. P. Ackerman, and R. T. Marchand Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington...

  9. The F-theory geometry with most flux vacua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-12-28

    Applying the Ashok-Denef-Douglas estimation method to elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds suggests that a single elliptic fourfold Mmax gives rise to O(10272,000) F-theory flux vacua, and that the sum total of the numbers of flux vacua from all other F-theory geometries is suppressed by a relative factor of O(10–3000). The fourfold Mmax arises from a generic elliptic fibration over a specific toric threefold base Bmax, and gives a geometrically non-Higgsable gauge group of E89 × F48 × (G 2 × SU(2))16, of which we expect some factors to be broken by G-flux to smaller groups. It is not possible to tune an SU(5) GUT group on any further divisors in Mmax, or even an SU(2) or SU(3), so the standard model gauge group appears to arise in this context only from a broken E8 factor. Furthermore, the results of this paper can either be interpreted as providing a framework for predicting how the standard model arises most naturally in F-theory and the types of dark matter to be found in a typical F-theory compactification, or as a challenge to string theorists to explain why other choices of vacua are not exponentially unlikely compared to F-theory compactifications on Mmax.

  10. Fatty acid analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  11. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  12. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  13. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  14. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  18. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  19. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  20. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  1. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  2. Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field We study the intrinsic geometry of the surface of a rotating black hole in a uniform magnetic field, using a metric discovered by Ernst and Wild. Rotating black holes are analogous to material rotating bodies according to Smarr since black holes also tend to become more oblate on being spun up. Our

  3. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  4. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  5. Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project will focus on the production of bio-succinic acid from a variety of feedstocks.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. Lewis Acid Pairs for the Activation of Biomass-derived Oxygenates in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roman, Yuriy

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this project is to understand the mechanistic aspects behind the cooperative activation of oxygenates by catalytic pairs in aqueous media. Specifically, we will investigate how the reactivity of a solid Lewis acid can be modulated by pairing the active site with other catalytic sites at the molecular level, with the ultimate goal of enhancing activation of targeted functional groups. Although unusual catalytic properties have been attributed to the cooperative effects promoted by such catalytic pairs, virtually no studies exist detailing the use heterogeneous water-tolerant Lewis pairs. A main goal of this work is to devise rational pathways for the synthesis of porous heterogeneous catalysts featuring isolated Lewis pairs that are active in the transformation of biomass-derived oxygenates in the presence of bulk water. Achieving this technical goal will require closely linking advanced synthesis techniques; detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations; strict thermodynamic arguments; and comprehensive characterization studies of both materials and reaction intermediates. For the last performance period (2014-2015), two technical aims were pursued: 1) C-C coupling using Lewis acid and base pairs in Lewis acidic zeolites. Tin-, zirconium-, and hafnium containing zeolites (e.g., Sn-, Zr-, and Hf-Beta) are versatile solid Lewis acids that selectively activate carbonyl functional groups. In this aim, we demonstrate that these zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. 2) One-pot synthesis of MWW zeolite nanosheets for activation of bulky substrates. Through post-synthetic modifications, layered zeolite precursors can be transformed into 2-dimensional (2D), zeolites with open architectures. These novel hierarchical microporous/mesoporous materials with exposed active sites can facilitate the conversion of bulky substrates while maintaining higher stability than amorphous mesoporous materials. However, post-synthetic exfoliation techniques are energy intensive, multi-step and require highly alkaline conditions that result in low silica yields and a partially amorphous product. In this aim, we demonstrate an effective one-pot synthesis method to generate exfoliated single-unit-cell thick MWW nanosheets. The new material, named MIT-1, is synthesized using a rationally-designed OSDA and results in a material with high crystallinity, surface area, and acidity that does not require post-synthetic treatments other than calcination. A parametric study of Al, Na, and water content reveals that MIT-1 crystallizes over a wide synthetic window. Characterization data show that MIT-1 has high mesoporosity with an external surface area exceeding 500 m2g-1 and a high external acid site density of 21 x 10-5 mol g-1. Catalytic tests demonstrate that MIT-1 has three-fold higher catalytic activity for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with benzyl alcohol as compared to that of other 3D MWW topology zeolites.

  8. Geometry of wrapped M5-branes in Calabi-Yau 2-folds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayyazuddin, Ansar; Husain, Tasneem Zehra; Pappa, Ioanna

    2006-06-15

    We study the geometry of M5-branes wrapping a 2-cycle which is special Lagrangian with respect to a specific complex structure in a Calabi-Yau 2-fold. Using methods recently applied to the 3-fold case, we are again able to find a characterization of the geometry, in terms of a nonintegrable almost complex structure and a (2,0) form. This time, however, due to the hyper-Kaehler nature of the underlying 2-fold, we also have the freedom of choosing a different almost complex structure with respect to which the wrapped 2-cycle is holomorphic. We show that this latter almost complex structure is integrable. We then relate our geometry to previously found geometries of M5-branes wrapping holomorphic cycles and go further to prove some previously unknown results for M5-branes on holomorphic cycles.

  9. Algorithms and tools for high-throughput geometry-based analysis of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    crystalline porous materials (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Algorithms and tools for high-throughput geometry-based analysis of crystalline porous materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algorithms and tools for high-throughput geometry-based analysis of crystalline porous materials Authors: Willems, Thomas F ; Rycroft, Chris ; Kazi, Michael ; Meza, Juan Colin ; Haranczyk, Maciej Publication Date: 2012-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1065948 DOE Contract Number:

  10. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  11. Dynamics of laser-blow-off induced Li plume in confined geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R K; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Dynamics of Li plasma plume created by laser-blow-off technique in air ambient is reported. Plasma plume dynamics and its optical emission are investigated in planar and confined geometries using time resolved shadowgraph imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. Significant differences in the plasma characteristics in confined geometry are quantitatively investigated by comparing the plasma parameters (temperature and density) in free expansion and confined geometry configurations. Dynamics and physical parameters of the primary as well as the reflected shock waves (in confined geometry) and their interactions with expanding plasma are briefly addressed. A large enhancement in the emission intensities of Li I 610.3 nm (2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}? 3d {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,5/2}) and 670.8 nm (2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}? 2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}) is correlated with the shock wave dynamics in the two geometries. Strong self reversal in the neutral emission infers an increase in the population density of neutrals within the confined plasma plume.

  12. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  13. Final Report for the grant "Applied Geometry" (DOE DE-FG02-04ER25657)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prof. Mathieu Desbrun

    2009-05-20

    The primary purpose of this 3-year DOE-funded research effort, now completed, was to develop consistent, theoretical foundations of computations on discrete geometry, to realize the promise of predictive and scalable management of large geometric datasets as handled routinely in applied sciences. Geometry (be it simple 3D shapes or higher dimensional manifolds) is indeed a central and challenging issue from the modeling and computational perspective in several sciences such as mechanics, biology, molecular dynamics, geophysics, as well as engineering. From digital maps of our world, virtual car crash simulation, predictive animation of carbon nano-tubes, to trajectory design of space missions, knowing how to process and animate digital geometry is key in many cross-disciplinary research areas.

  14. THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS DETECTOR GEOMETRIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CZT USING ONE CRYSTAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A.; Duff, M.; Teague, L.

    2011-06-21

    CdZnTe (CZT) continues to be a major thrust interest mainly due to its potential application as a room temperature radiation detector. The performance of CZT detectors is directly related to the charge collection ability which can be affected by the configuration of the electrical contact. The charge collection efficiency is determined in part by the specific geometry of the anode contact which serves as the readout electrode. In this report, contact geometries including single pixel, planar, coplanar, and dual anode will be systematically explored by comparing the performance efficiencies of the detector using both low and high energy gamma rays. To help eliminate the effect of crystal quality variations, the contact geometries were fabricated on the same crystal detector with minimal polishing between contact placements.

  15. Unconstrained plastering : all-hexahedral mesh generation via advancing front geometry decomposition (2004-2008).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blacker, Teddy Dean; Staten, Matthew L.; Kerr, Robert A.; Owen, Steven James

    2010-03-01

    The generation of all-hexahedral finite element meshes has been an area of ongoing research for the past two decades and remains an open problem. Unconstrained plastering is a new method for generating all-hexahedral finite element meshes on arbitrary volumetric geometries. Starting from an unmeshed volume boundary, unconstrained plastering generates the interior mesh topology without the constraints of a pre-defined boundary mesh. Using advancing fronts, unconstrained plastering forms partially defined hexahedral dual sheets by decomposing the geometry into simple shapes, each of which can be meshed with simple meshing primitives. By breaking from the tradition of previous advancing-front algorithms, which start from pre-meshed boundary surfaces, unconstrained plastering demonstrates that for the tested geometries, high quality, boundary aligned, orientation insensitive, all-hexahedral meshes can be generated automatically without pre-meshing the boundary. Examples are given for meshes from both solid mechanics and geotechnical applications.

  16. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Omega (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on

  17. Geometry for web microwave heating or drying to a desired profile in a waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; Patterson, Timothy F.; Ahrens, Frederick W.

    2005-11-15

    A microwave heater and/or dryer has a nonlinear or curvilinear relative slot profile geometry. In one embodiment, the microwave dryer has at least one adjustable field modifier making it possible to change the geometry of the heater or dryer when drying different webs. In another embodiment, the microwave dryer provides more uniform drying of a web when the field modifier is adjusted in response to a sensed condition of the web. Finally, a method of microwave heating and/or drying a web achieves a uniform heating and/or drying profile.

  18. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  19. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  20. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  1. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  2. The solid angle (geometry factor) for a spherical surface source and an arbitrary detector aperture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-13

    It is proven that the solid angle (or geometry factor, also called the geometrical efficiency) for a spherically symmetric outward-directed surface source with an arbitrary radius and polar angle distribution and an arbitrary detector aperture is equal to the solid angle for an isotropic point source located at the center of the spherical surface source and the same detector aperture.

  3. Achromatic recirculated chicane with fixed geometry and independently variable path length and momentum compaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R.; Neil, George R.

    2005-04-26

    A particle beam recirculated chicane geometry that, through the inducement of a pair of 180 degree bends directed by the poles of a pair of controllable magnetic fields allows for variation of dipole position, return loop radii and steering/focussing, thereby allowing the implementation of independent variation of path length and momentum compaction.

  4. Oxidation of ferrocene by thiocyanic acid in the presence of ammonium oxalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruslin, Farah bt; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2014-09-03

    A flake-like crystalline salt was obtained from the reaction of ferrocene, oxalic acid and ammonium thiocyanate in ethanol The elemental analysis and spectroscopic data were in agreement with the preliminary X-ray molecular structure. The compound consists of four ferrocenium moieties and a counter anion consisting of two (tetraisothiocyanato)iron(III) linked by an oxalato bridging group in such a way that both iron central atoms adopt octahedral geometries.

  5. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  6. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  7. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  8. Construction of hexahedral elements mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw SPR site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Roberts, Barry L.

    2015-09-01

    The three-dimensional finite element mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw site has been constructed using the sonar and seismic survey data obtained from the field. The mesh is consisting of hexahedral elements because the salt constitutive model is coded using hexahedral elements. Various ideas and techniques to construct finite element mesh capturing artificially and naturally formed geometries are provided. The techniques to reduce the number of elements as much as possible to save on computer run time with maintaining the computational accuracy is also introduced. The steps and methodologies could be applied to construct the meshes of Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry strategic petroleum reserve sites. The methodology could be applied to the complicated shape masses for not only various civil and geological structures but also biological applications such as artificial limbs.

  9. Connes distance function on fuzzy sphere and the connection between geometry and statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devi, Yendrembam Chaoba Chakraborty, Biswajit; Prajapat, Shivraj; Mukhopadhyay, Aritra K.; Scholtz, Frederik G.

    2015-04-15

    An algorithm to compute Connes spectral distance, adaptable to the Hilbert-Schmidt operatorial formulation of non-commutative quantum mechanics, was developed earlier by introducing the appropriate spectral triple and used to compute infinitesimal distances in the Moyal plane, revealing a deep connection between geometry and statistics. In this paper, using the same algorithm, the Connes spectral distance has been calculated in the Hilbert-Schmidt operatorial formulation for the fuzzy sphere whose spatial coordinates satisfy the su(2) algebra. This has been computed for both the discrete and the Perelemov’s SU(2) coherent state. Here also, we get a connection between geometry and statistics which is shown by computing the infinitesimal distance between mixed states on the quantum Hilbert space of a particular fuzzy sphere, indexed by n ∈ ℤ/2.

  10. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Serres, Nicolas

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  11. Simulating higher-dimensional geometries in GADRAS using approximate one-dimensional solutions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean James; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-02-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) software package is capable of simulating the radiation transport physics for one-dimensional models. Spherical shells are naturally one-dimensional, and have been the focus of development and benchmarking. However, some objects are not spherical in shape, such as cylinders and boxes. These are not one-dimensional. Simulating the radiation transport in two or three dimensions is unattractive because of the extra computation time required. To maintain computational efficiency, higher-dimensional geometries require approximations to simulate them in one-dimension. This report summarizes the theory behind these approximations, tests the theory against other simulations, and compares the results to experimental data. Based on the results, it is recommended that GADRAS users always attempt to approximate reality using spherical shells. However, if fissile material is present, it is imperative that the shape of the one-dimensional model matches the fissile material, including the use of slab and cylinder geometry.

  12. Results from electrostatic calibrations for measuring the Casimir force in the cylinder-plane geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Q.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Lombardo, F. C.; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Onofrio, R.

    2010-05-15

    We report on measurements performed on an apparatus aimed to study the Casimir force in the cylinder-plane configuration. The electrostatic calibrations evidence anomalous behaviors in the dependence of the electrostatic force and the minimizing potential upon distance. We discuss analogies and differences of these anomalies with respect to those already observed in the sphere-plane configuration. At the smallest explored distances we observe frequency shifts of non-Coulombian nature preventing the measurement of the Casimir force in the same range. We also report on measurements performed in the parallel-plane configuration, showing that the dependence on distance of the minimizing potential, if present at all, is milder than in the sphere-plane or cylinder-plane geometries. General considerations on the interplay between the distance-dependent minimizing potential and the precision of Casimir force measurements in the range relevant to detect the thermal corrections for all geometries are finally reported.

  13. Efficient Probability of Failure Calculations for QMU using Computational Geometry LDRD 13-0144 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Scott A.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Romero, Vicente J.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Rushdi, Ahmad A.; Abdelkader, Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    This SAND report summarizes our work on the Sandia National Laboratory LDRD project titled "Efficient Probability of Failure Calculations for QMU using Computational Geometry" which was project #165617 and proposal #13-0144. This report merely summarizes our work. Those interested in the technical details are encouraged to read the full published results, and contact the report authors for the status of the software and follow-on projects.

  14. Entropic dynamics: From entropy and information geometry to Hamiltonians and quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caticha, Ariel; Bartolomeo, Daniel; Reginatto, Marcel

    2015-01-13

    Entropic Dynamics is a framework in which quantum theory is derived as an application of entropic methods of inference. There is no underlying action principle. Instead, the dynamics is driven by entropy subject to the appropriate constraints. In this paper we show how a Hamiltonian dynamics arises as a type of non-dissipative entropic dynamics. We also show that the particular form of the 'quantum potential' that leads to the Schrdinger equation follows naturally from information geometry.

  15. Final Technical Report: Global Field Aligned Mesh and Gyrokinetic Field Solver in a Tokamak Edge Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, Julian C.

    2013-05-15

    This project was a collaboration between researchers at the California Institute of Technology and the University of California, Irvine to investigate the utility of a global field-aligned mesh and gyrokinetic field solver for simulations of the tokamak plasma edge region. Mesh generation software from UC Irvine was tested with specific tokamak edge magnetic geometry scenarios and the quality of the meshes and the solutions to the gyrokinetic Poisson equation were evaluated.

  16. Sealable stagnation flow geometries for the uniform deposition of materials and heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarty, Kevin F. (Livermore, CA); Kee, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Lutz, Andrew E. (Alamo, CA); Meeks, Ellen (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention employs a constrained stagnation flow geometry apparatus to achieve the uniform deposition of materials or heat. The present invention maximizes uniform fluxes of reactant gases to flat surfaces while minimizing the use of reagents and finite dimension edge effects. This results, among other things, in large area continuous films that are uniform in thickness, composition and structure which is important in chemical vapor deposition processes such as would be used for the fabrication of semiconductors.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter with Controlled Geometry: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom, Nathan; Lawson, Michael; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan

    2015-09-09

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel wave energy converter device concept that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The proposed concept combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter with active control surfaces. These active control surfaces allow for the device geometry to be altered, which leads to changes in the hydrodynamic properties. The device geometry will be controlled on a sea state time scale and combined with wave-to-wave power-take-off control to maximize power capture, increase capacity factor, and reduce design loads. The paper begins with a traditional linear frequency domain analysis of the device performance. Performance sensitivity to foil pitch angle, the number of activated foils, and foil cross section geometry is presented to illustrate the current design decisions; however, it is understood from previous studies that modeling of current oscillating wave energy converter designs requires the consideration of nonlinear hydrodynamics and viscous drag forces. In response, a nonlinear model is presented that highlights the shortcomings of the linear frequency domain analysis and increases the precision in predicted performance.

  18. The impact of galaxy geometry and mass evolution on the survival of star clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Martig, Marie

    2014-04-01

    Direct N-body simulations of globular clusters in a realistic Milky-Way-like potential are carried out using the code NBODY6 to determine the impact of the host galaxy disk mass and geometry on the survival of star clusters. A relation between disk mass and star-cluster dissolution timescale is derived. These N-body models show that doubling the mass of the disk from 5 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} to 10 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} halves the dissolution time of a satellite star cluster orbiting the host galaxy at 6 kpc from the galactic center. Different geometries in a disk of identical mass can determine either the survival or dissolution of a star cluster orbiting within the inner 6 kpc of the galactic center. Furthermore, disk geometry has measurable effects on the mass loss of star clusters up to 15 kpc from the galactic center. N-body simulations performed with a fine output time step show that at each disk crossing the outer layers of star clusters experiences an increase in velocity dispersion of ?5% of the average velocity dispersion in the outer section of star clusters. This leads to an enhancement of mass lossa clearly discernable effect of disk shocking. By running models with different inclinations, we determine that star clusters with an orbit that is perpendicular to the Galactic plane have larger mass loss rates than do clusters that evolve in the Galactic plane or in an inclined orbit.

  19. Lubrication with boric acid additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2000-01-01

    Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

  20. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  1. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  2. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  3. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  4. ACCELERATING FUSION REACTOR NEUTRONICS MODELING BY AUTOMATIC COUPLING OF HYBRID MONTE CARLO/DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT ON CAD GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biondo, Elliott D; Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Mosher, Scott W; Grove, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).

  5. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  6. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  8. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  9. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  10. A stochastic model for tumor geometry evolution during radiation therapy in cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yifang; Lee, Chi-Guhn; Chan, Timothy C. Y.; Cho, Young-Bin; Islam, Mohammad K.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2; Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To develop mathematical models to predict the evolution of tumor geometry in cervical cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: The authors develop two mathematical models to estimate tumor geometry change: a Markov model and an isomorphic shrinkage model. The Markov model describes tumor evolution by investigating the change in state (either tumor or nontumor) of voxels on the tumor surface. It assumes that the evolution follows a Markov process. Transition probabilities are obtained using maximum likelihood estimation and depend on the states of neighboring voxels. The isomorphic shrinkage model describes tumor shrinkage or growth in terms of layers of voxels on the tumor surface, instead of modeling individual voxels. The two proposed models were applied to data from 29 cervical cancer patients treated at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and then compared to a constant volume approach. Model performance was measured using sensitivity and specificity. Results: The Markov model outperformed both the isomorphic shrinkage and constant volume models in terms of the trade-off between sensitivity (target coverage) and specificity (normal tissue sparing). Generally, the Markov model achieved a few percentage points in improvement in either sensitivity or specificity compared to the other models. The isomorphic shrinkage model was comparable to the Markov approach under certain parameter settings. Convex tumor shapes were easier to predict. Conclusions: By modeling tumor geometry change at the voxel level using a probabilistic model, improvements in target coverage and normal tissue sparing are possible. Our Markov model is flexible and has tunable parameters to adjust model performance to meet a range of criteria. Such a model may support the development of an adaptive paradigm for radiation therapy of cervical cancer.

  11. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-11-15

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  12. Investigation of synchrotron radiation-induced photodesorption in cryosorbing quasi-cooled geometry. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anashin, V.V.; Malyshev, O.B.; Osipov, V.N.; Maslennikov, I.L.; Turner, W.C.

    1994-04-01

    We report 4.2-K photodesorption experiments in two quasi -- closed geometries-a simple tube and a tube with a coaxial perforated liner -- designed to manure separately the desorption coefficients of tightly bound and physisorbed molecules. The results are important for the beam tube vacuum of the next generation of superconducting proton colliders that have been contemplated-the 20-TeV Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in the United States and the 7.3-TeV Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  13. Layered reactive particles with controlled geometries, energies, and reactivities, and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Gregory M; Knepper, Robert Allen; Weihs, Timothy P; Gash, Alexander E; Sze, John S

    2013-04-30

    An energetic composite having a plurality of reactive particles each having a reactive multilayer construction formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis, dividing the reactive-layer-deposited rod-shaped substrate into a plurality of substantially uniform longitudinal segments, and removing the rod-shaped substrate from the longitudinal segments, so that the reactive particles have a controlled, substantially uniform, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry which facilitates handling and improves its packing fraction, while the reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity and energy density of the energetic composite.

  14. Non-modal analysis of the diocotron instability for cylindrical geometry with conducting boundary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailenko, V. V.; Seok Kim, Jin; Jo, Younghyun; June Lee, Hae; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University, 61002 Kharkiv

    2014-05-15

    The temporal evolution of the linear diocotron instability of a cylindrical annular plasma column surrounded by a conducting boundary has been investigated by using the methodology of the cylindrical shearing modes. The linear solution of the initial and boundary-value problems is obtained which is valid for any time at which linear effects dominate. The solution reveals that the initial perturbations of the electron density pass through the stage of the non-modal evolution when the perturbation experiences spatio-temporal distortion pertinent to the considered geometry of the electron column. The result is confirmed by a two-dimensional cylindrical particle-in-cell simulation.

  15. Comparison of silatrane, phosphonic acid, and carboxylic acid functional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    groups for attachment of porphyrin sensitizers to TiO2 in photoelectrochemical cells Comparison of silatrane, phosphonic acid, and carboxylic acid functional groups for attachment of porphyrin sensitizers to TiO2 in photoelectrochemical cells Authors: Brennan, B.J., Llansola Portoles, M.J., Liddell, P.A., Moore, T.A., Moore, A.L., and Gust, D. Title: Comparison of silatrane, phosphonic acid, and carboxylic acid functional groups for attachment of porphyrin sensitizers to TiO2 in

  16. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  17. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for materials with high damping and samples of arbitrary geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Remillieux, Marcel C.; Ulrich, T. J.; Payan, Cédric; Rivière, Jacques; Lake, Colton R.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves

    2015-07-23

    This paper describes resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) as a powerful and established technique for measuring elastic constants of a material with general anisotropy. The first step of this technique consists of extracting resonance frequencies and damping from the vibrational frequency spectrum measured on a sample with free boundary conditions. An inversion technique is then used to retrieve the elastic tensor from the measured resonance frequencies. As originally developed, RUS has been mostly applicable to (i) materials with small damping such that the resonances of the sample are well separated and (ii) samples with simple geometries for which analytical solutions exist.more » In this paper, these limitations are addressed with a new RUS approach adapted to materials with high damping and samples of arbitrary geometry. Resonances are extracted by fitting a sum of exponentially damped sinusoids to the measured frequency spectrum. The inversion of the elastic tensor is achieved with a genetic algorithm, which allows searching for a global minimum within a discrete and relatively wide solution space. First, the accuracy of the proposed approach is evaluated against numerical data simulated for samples with isotropic symmetry and transversely isotropic symmetry. Subsequently, the applicability of the approach is demonstrated using experimental data collected on a composite structure consisting of a cylindrical sample of Berea sandstone glued to a large piezoelectric disk. In the proposed experiments, RUS is further enhanced by the use of a 3-D laser vibrometer allowing the visualization of most of the modes in the frequency band studied.« less

  18. TEMPEST Simulations of the Plasma Transport in a Single-Null Tokamak Geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    X. Q. Xu; Bodi, K.; Cohen, R. H.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2010-05-28

    We present edge kinetic ion transport simulations of tokamak plasmas in magnetic divertor geometry using the fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST. Besides neoclassical transport, a term for divergence of anomalous kinetic radial flux is added to mock up the effect of turbulent transport. In order to study the relative roles of neoclassical and anomalous transport, TEMPEST simulations were carried out for plasma transport and flow dynamics in a single-null tokamak geometry, including the pedestal region that extends across the separatrix into the scrape-off layer and private flux region. In a series of TEMPEST simulations were conducted to investigate themore » transition of midplane pedestal heat flux and flow from the neoclassical to the turbulent limit and the transition of divertor heat flux and flow from the kinetic to the fluid regime via an anomalous transport scan and a density scan. The TEMPEST simulation results demonstrate that turbulent transport (as modelled by large diffusion) plays a similar role to collisional decorrelation of particle orbits and that the large turbulent transport (large diffusion) leads to an apparent Maxwellianization of the particle distribution. Moreover, we show the transition of parallel heat flux and flow at the entrance to the divertor plates from the fluid to the kinetic regime. For an absorbing divertor plate boundary condition, a non-half-Maxwellian is found due to the balance between upstream radial anomalous transport and energetic ion endloss.« less

  19. MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF PERIODIC PULSED REACTOR WITH MOVING GEOMETRY PARTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Yan; Gohar, Yousry

    2015-11-01

    In a periodic pulsed reactor, the reactor state varies periodically from slightly subcritical to slightly prompt supercritical for producing periodic power pulses. Such periodic state change is accomplished by a periodic movement of specific reactor parts, such as control rods or reflector sections. The analysis of such reactor is difficult to perform with the current reactor physics computer programs. Based on past experience, the utilization of the point kinetics approximations gives considerable errors in predicting the magnitude and the shape of the power pulse if the reactor has significantly different neutron life times in different zones. To accurately simulate the dynamics of this type of reactor, a Monte Carlo procedure using the transfer function TRCL/TR of the MCNP/MCNPX computer programs is utilized to model the movable reactor parts. In this paper, two algorithms simulating the geometry part movements during a neutron history tracking have been developed. Several test cases have been developed to evaluate these procedures. The numerical test cases have shown that the developed algorithms can be utilized to simulate the reactor dynamics with movable geometry parts.

  20. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for materials with high damping and samples of arbitrary geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remillieux, Marcel C.; Ulrich, T. J.; Payan, Cédric; Rivière, Jacques; Lake, Colton R.; Le Bas, Pierre -Yves

    2015-07-23

    This paper describes resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) as a powerful and established technique for measuring elastic constants of a material with general anisotropy. The first step of this technique consists of extracting resonance frequencies and damping from the vibrational frequency spectrum measured on a sample with free boundary conditions. An inversion technique is then used to retrieve the elastic tensor from the measured resonance frequencies. As originally developed, RUS has been mostly applicable to (i) materials with small damping such that the resonances of the sample are well separated and (ii) samples with simple geometries for which analytical solutions exist. In this paper, these limitations are addressed with a new RUS approach adapted to materials with high damping and samples of arbitrary geometry. Resonances are extracted by fitting a sum of exponentially damped sinusoids to the measured frequency spectrum. The inversion of the elastic tensor is achieved with a genetic algorithm, which allows searching for a global minimum within a discrete and relatively wide solution space. First, the accuracy of the proposed approach is evaluated against numerical data simulated for samples with isotropic symmetry and transversely isotropic symmetry. Subsequently, the applicability of the approach is demonstrated using experimental data collected on a composite structure consisting of a cylindrical sample of Berea sandstone glued to a large piezoelectric disk. In the proposed experiments, RUS is further enhanced by the use of a 3-D laser vibrometer allowing the visualization of most of the modes in the frequency band studied.

  1. Control studies of an automotive turbocharged diesel engine with variable geometry turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterbone, D.E.; Jai In, S.

    1988-01-01

    Major advances are being made in engine hardware, control theories and microcomputer technology. The application of advanced control and monitoring techniques to engines should enable them to meet all the restrictions imposed upon them while they operate to their full potential. Variable geometry turbocharging of automotive diesel engines is a good example of a case where the control implications need to be considered carefully. This paper reports a technique for developing the dynamic characteristics of turbocharged diesel engines with variable geometry turbine and compares the results with measurements obtained on an engine. It is the first step in the design process for a true, dynamic, multivariable controller. Most current systems are simply scheduling devices with little understanding or consideration of possible interactions between various control loops. A non-linear simulation model for a turbocharged diesel engine was used to investigate the performance of the engine. Major features of the program, aspects of constructing a model for control purposes and identification procedures of the engine dynamic are discussed.

  2. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liao, Jian -Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean -Yves; Liu, C. W.

    2014-10-07

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(OiPr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5}3- ion in the center with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The eleven hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: Six μ3-hydrides in pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected on a small crystal of the size 0.20 mm x 0.50 mm x 0.65 mm for seven daysmore » using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the final R-factor is 8.64% for 16014 reflections.« less

  3. Surface geometry of protoplanetary disks inferred from near-infrared imaging polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takami, Michihiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Gu, Pin-Gao; Karr, Jennifer L.; Chapillon, Edwige; Tang, Ya-Wen [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Dong, Ruobing [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hashimoto, Jun [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St. Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Akiyama, Eiji; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Itoh, Youchi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Carson, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Sitko, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Janson, Markus [Astrophysics Research Center, Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96402 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present a new method of analysis for determining the surface geometry of five protoplanetary disks observed with near-infrared imaging polarimetry using Subaru-HiCIAO. Using as inputs the observed distribution of polarized intensity (PI), disk inclination, assumed properties for dust scattering, and other reasonable approximations, we calculate a differential equation to derive the surface geometry. This equation is numerically integrated along the distance from the star at a given position angle. We show that, using these approximations, the local maxima in the PI distribution of spiral arms (SAO 206462, MWC 758) and rings (2MASS J16042165-2130284, PDS 70) are associated with local concave-up structures on the disk surface. We also show that the observed presence of an inner gap in scattered light still allows the possibility of a disk surface that is parallel to the light path from the star, or a disk that is shadowed by structures in the inner radii. Our analysis for rings does not show the presence of a vertical inner wall as often assumed in studies of disks with an inner gap. Finally, we summarize the implications of spiral and ring structures as potential signatures of ongoing planet formation.

  4. Optimizing RF gun cavity geometry within an automated injector design system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alicia Hofler ,Pavel Evtushenko

    2011-03-28

    RF guns play an integral role in the success of several light sources around the world, and properly designed and optimized cw superconducting RF (SRF) guns can provide a path to higher average brightness. As the need for these guns grows, it is important to have automated optimization software tools that vary the geometry of the gun cavity as part of the injector design process. This will allow designers to improve existing designs for present installations, extend the utility of these guns to other applications, and develop new designs. An evolutionary algorithm (EA) based system can provide this capability because EAs can search in parallel a large parameter space (often non-linear) and in a relatively short time identify promising regions of the space for more careful consideration. The injector designer can then evaluate more cavity design parameters during the injector optimization process against the beam performance requirements of the injector. This paper will describe an extension to the APISA software that allows the cavity geometry to be modified as part of the injector optimization and provide examples of its application to existing RF and SRF gun designs.

  5. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  6. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  7. Impact of three-dimensional geometry on the performance of isolated electron-injection infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fathipour, Vala; Jang, Sung Jun; Nia, Iman Hassani; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-01-12

    We present a quantitative study of the influence of three-dimensional geometry of the isolated electroninjection detectors on their characteristics. Significant improvements in the device performance are obtained as a result of scaling the injector diameter with respect to the trapping/absorbing layer diameters. Devices with about ten times smaller injector area with respect to the trapping/absorbing layer areas show more than an order of magnitude lower dark current, as well as an order of magnitude higher optical gain compared with devices of same size injector and trapping/absorbing layer areas. Devices with 10??m injector diameter and 30??m trapping/absorbing layer diameter show an optical gain of ?2000 at bias voltage of ?3?V with a cutoff wavelength of 1700?nm. Analytical expressions are derived for the electron-injection detector optical gain to qualitatively explain the significance of scaling the injector with respect to the absorber.

  8. High order spatial expansion for the method of characteristics applied to 3-D geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naymeh, L.; Masiello, E.; Sanchez, R.

    2013-07-01

    The method of characteristics is an efficient and flexible technique to solve the neutron transport equation and has been extensively used in two-dimensional calculations because it permits to deal with complex geometries. However, because of a very fast increase in storage requirements and number of floating operations, its direct application to three-dimensional routine transport calculations it is not still possible. In this work we introduce and analyze several modifications aimed to reduce memory requirements and to diminish the computing burden. We explore high-order spatial approximation, the use of intermediary trajectory-dependent flux expansions and the possibility of dynamic trajectory reconstruction from local tracking for typed subdomains. (authors)

  9. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for bi-directional rotation seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2009-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  10. The nonlinear characteristic scheme for X-Y geometry transport problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.F.; Wareing, T.A.; Marr, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Nonlinear Characteristic (NC) numerical scheme for solving the discrete ordinates form of the transport equation is derived for X-Y geometry. The NC scheme is based on the analytic solution of the discrete-ordinate transport equation in each mesh cell. The driving source for the transport equation is represented by a three-moment preserving, strictly positive, exponential distribution obtained using information theory methods. The analysis of two test problems demonstrates the superior behavior of the NC scheme as compared to other numerical schemes currently used to solve the transport equation. The NC scheme is found to be strictly positive and accurate on meshes where other methods yield either negative and/or remarkably inaccurate results.

  11. Ballistic electrons in an open square geometry: Selective probing of resonant-energy states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zozoulenko, I.V.; Schuster, R.; Berggren, K.-.; Ensslin, K.

    1997-04-01

    We report on the interplay between classical trajectories and quantum-mechanical effects in a square geometry. At low magnetic fields the four-terminal resistance is dominated by phenomena that depend on ballistic trajectories in a classical billiard. Superimposed on these classical effects are quantum interference effects manifested by highly periodic conductance oscillations. Numerical analysis shows that these oscillations are directly related to excitations of particular eigenstates in the square. In spite of open leads, transport through an open cavity is effectively mediated by just a few (or even a single) resonant-energy states. The leads injecting electrons into the cavity play a decisive role in a selection of the particular set of states excited in the dot. The above selection rule sets a specific frequency of the oscillations seen in the experiment. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Saturation mechanisms of backward stimulated Raman scattering in a one-dimensional geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friou, A.; Bénisti, D.; Gremillet, L.; Lefebvre, E.; Morice, O.; Siminos, E.; Strozzi, D. J.

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the saturation mechanisms of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) induced by nonlinear kinetic effects. In particular, we stress the importance of accounting for both the nonlinear frequency shift of the electron plasma wave and the growth of sidebands, in order to understand what stops the coherent growth of Raman scattering. Using a Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal approach, we provide an estimate for the maximum amplitude reached by a BSRS-driven plasma wave after the phase of monotonic growth. This estimate is in very good agreement with the results from kinetic simulations of stimulated Raman scattering using both a Vlasov and a Particle in Cell code. Our analysis, which may be generalized to a multidimensional geometry, should provide a means to estimate the limits of backward Raman amplification or the effectiveness of strategies that aim at strongly reducing Raman reflectivity in a fusion plasma.

  13. Associated particle technique in single-sided geometry for detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Tushar Kashyap, Yogesh; Shukla, Mayank; Agrawal, Ashish; Bajpai, Shefali; Patel, Tarun; Sinha, Amar

    2015-03-23

    Associated particle technique (APT) for detection of explosives is well established but has been implemented mostly for fixed portal systems. In certain situations, a portable system is required where the suspect object cannot be moved from site. This paper discusses the development of a portable APT system in single-sided geometry which can be transported to site and requires only one-sided access to the object. The system comprised D-T neutron source and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors fixed on a portable module. Different aspects of the system have been discussed such as background contribution, time selection, and elemental signatures. The system was used to detect benign samples and explosive simulants under laboratory condition. The elemental ratios obtained by analyzing the gamma spectra show good match with the theoretical ratios.

  14. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for bi-directional rotation seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2011-11-15

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  15. Functional nucleic acid probes and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2006-10-03

    The present invention provides functional nucleic acid probes, and methods of using functional nucleic acid probes, for binding a target to carry out a desired function. The probes have at least one functional nucleic acid, at least one regulating nucleic acid, and at least one attenuator. The functional nucleic acid is maintained in an inactive state by the attenuator and activated by the regulating nucleic acid only in the presence of a regulating nucleic acid target. In its activated state the functional nucleic acid can bind to its target to carry out a desired function, such as generating a signal, cleaving a nucleic acid, or catalyzing a reaction.

  16. Development of a general method for obtaining the geometry of microfluidic networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razavi, Mohammad Sayed Salimpour, M. R.; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2014-01-15

    In the present study, a general method for geometry of fluidic networks is developed with emphasis on pressure-driven flows in the microfluidic applications. The design method is based on general features of network's geometry such as cross-sectional area and length of channels. Also, the method is applicable to various cross-sectional shapes such as circular, rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal cross sections. Using constructal theory, the flow resistance, energy loss and performance of the network are optimized. Also, by this method, practical design strategies for the fabrication of microfluidic networks can be improved. The design method enables rapid prediction of fluid flow in the complex network of channels and is very useful for improving proper miniaturization and integration of microfluidic networks. Minimization of flow resistance of the network of channels leads to universal constants for consecutive cross-sectional areas and lengths. For a Y-shaped network, the optimal ratios of consecutive cross-section areas (A{sub i+1}/A{sub i}) and lengths (L{sub i+1}/L{sub i}) are obtained as A{sub i+1}/A{sub i} = 2{sup ?2/3} and L{sub i+1}/L{sub i} = 2{sup ?1/3}, respectively. It is shown that energy loss in the network is proportional to the volume of network. It is also seen when the number of channels is increased both the hydraulic resistance and the volume occupied by the network are increased in a similar manner. Furthermore, the method offers that fabrication of multi-depth and multi-width microchannels should be considered as an integral part of designing procedures. Finally, numerical simulations for the fluid flow in the network have been performed and results show very good agreement with analytic results.

  17. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  18. Models to interpret bed-form geometries from cross-bed data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthi, S.M. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (USA)); Banavar, J.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA)); Bayer, U. (Institute Erdoel und Organische Chemie, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich (West Germany))

    1990-05-01

    To improve the understanding of the relation of cross-bed azimuth distributions to bed-forms, geometric models were developed for migrating bed forms using a minimum number of parameters. Semielliptical and sinusoidal bed-form crestlines were modeled with curvature and sinuosity as parameters. Both bedform crestlines are propagated at various angles of migration over a finite area of deposition. Two computational approaches are used, a statistical random sampling (Monte Carlo) technique over the area of the deposit, and an analytical method based on topology and differential geometry. The resulting foreset azimuth distributions provide a catalog for a variety of simulations. The resulting thickness distributions have a simple shape and can be combined with the azimuth distributions to further constrain the cross-strata geometry. Paleocurrent directions obtained by these models can differ substantially from other methods, especially for obliquely migrating low-curvature bed forms. Interpretation of foreset azimuth data from outcrops and wells can be done either by visual comparison with the cataloged distributions, or by iterative computational fits. Studied examples include eolian cross-strata from the Permian Rotliegendes in the North Sea, fluvial dunes from the Devonian in the Catskills (New York state), the Triassic Schilfsandstein (Federal Republic of Germany), and the Paleozoic-Jurassic of the Western Desert (Egypt), as well as recent tidal dunes from the German coast of the North Sea and tidal cross-strata from the Devonian Koblentzquartzit (Federal Republic of Germany). In all cases the semi-elliptical bed-form model gave a good fit to the data, suggesting that it may be applicable over a wide range of bed forms. The data from the Western Desert could be explained only by data scatter due to channel sinuosity combined with the scatter attributed to the ellipticity of the bed-form crestlines.

  19. System for conversion between the boundary representation model and a constructive solid geometry model of an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Noel C.; Emery, James D.; Smith, Maurice L.

    1988-04-05

    A system converts from the boundary representation of an object to the constructive solid geometry representation thereof. The system converts the boundary representation of the object into elemental atomic geometrical units or I-bodies which are in the shape of stock primitives or regularized intersections of stock primitives. These elemental atomic geometrical units are then represented in symbolic form. The symbolic representations of the elemental atomic geometrical units are then assembled heuristically to form a constructive solid geometry representation of the object usable for manufacturing thereof. Artificial intelligence is used to determine the best constructive solid geometry representation from the boundary representation of the object. Heuristic criteria are adapted to the manufacturing environment for which the device is to be utilized. The surface finish, tolerance, and other information associated with each surface of the boundary representation of the object are mapped onto the constructive solid geometry representation of the object to produce an enhanced solid geometry representation, particularly useful for computer-aided manufacture of the object.

  20. System for conversion between the boundary representation model and a constructive solid geometry model of an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, N.C.; Emery, J.D.; Smith, M.L.

    1985-04-29

    A system converts from the boundary representation of an object to the constructive solid geometry representation thereof. The system converts the boundary representation of the object into elemental atomic geometrical units or I-bodies which are in the shape of stock primitives or regularized intersections of stock primitives. These elemental atomic geometrical units are then represented in symbolic form. The symbolic representations of the elemental atomic geometrical units are then assembled heuristically to form a constructive solid geometry representation of the object usable for manufacturing thereof. Artificial intelligence is used to determine the best constructive solid geometry representation from the boundary representation of the object. Heuristic criteria are adapted to the manufacturing environment for which the device is to be utilized. The surface finish, tolerance, and other information associated with each surface of the boundary representation of the object are mapped onto the constructive solid geometry representation of the object to produce an enhanced solid geometry representation, particularly useful for computer-aided manufacture of the object. 19 figs.

  1. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  2. Validation of Methods for Computational Catalyst Design: Geometries, Structures, and Energies of Neutral and Charged Silver Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duanmu, Kaining; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-04-30

    We report a systematic study of small silver clusters, Agn, Agn+, and Agn–, n = 1–7. We studied all possible isomers of clusters with n = 5–7. We tested 42 exchange–correlation functionals, and we assess these functionals for their accuracy in three respects: geometries (quantitative prediction of internuclear distances), structures (the nature of the lowest-energy structure, for example, whether it is planar or nonplanar), and energies. We find that the ingredients of exchange–correlation functionals are indicators of their success in predicting geometries and structures: local exchange–correlation functionals are generally better than hybrid functionals for geometries; functionals depending on kinetic energy density are the best for predicting the lowest-energy isomer correctly, especially for predicting two-dimensional to three-dimenstional transitions correctly. The accuracy for energies is less sensitive to the ingredient list. Our findings could be useful for guiding the selection of methods for computational catalyst design.

  3. NMR chemical shifts in amino acids: Effects of environments, electric field, and amine group rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Pfrommer, Bernd G.; Louie, Steven G.; Canning, Andrew

    2002-03-03

    The authors present calculations of NMR chemical shifts in crystalline phases of some representative amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and alanyl-alanine. To get an insight on how different environments affect the chemical shifts, they study the transition from the crystalline phase to completely isolated molecules of glycine. In the crystalline limit, the shifts are dominated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonds. In the molecular limit, however, dipole electric field effects dominate the behavior of the chemical shifts. They show that it is necessary to average the chemical shifts in glycine over geometries. Tensor components are analyzed to get the angle dependent proton chemical shifts, which is a more refined characterization method.

  4. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  5. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  6. Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Sano, Takeshi; Misasi, John; Hatch, Anson; Cantor, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

  7. Photodissociation dynamics of hydroxybenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yilin; Dyakov, Yuri; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, Chi-Kung; Sun Yilun; Hu Weiping

    2011-01-21

    Aromatic amino acids have large UV absorption cross-sections and low fluorescence quantum yields. Ultrafast internal conversion, which transforms electronic excitation energy to vibrational energy, was assumed to account for the photostability of amino acids. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations suggested that low fluorescence quantum yields of phenol (chromophore of tyrosine) are due to the dissociation from a repulsive excited state. Radicals generated from dissociation may undergo undesired reactions. It contradicts the observed photostability of amino acids. In this work, we explored the photodissociation dynamics of the tyrosine chromophores, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. We demonstrated that dissociation from the excited state is effectively quenched for the conformers of hydroxybenzoic acids with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Ab initio calculations show that the excited state and the ground state potential energy surfaces change significantly for the conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It shows the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited state dynamics and provides an alternative molecular mechanism for the photostability of aromatic amino acids upon irradiation of ultraviolet photons.

  8. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason William; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan A.; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Steven William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2006-05-16

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  9. Acid soluble, pepsin resistant platelet aggregating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Morris D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1982-08-31

    Acid soluble, pepsin resistant, platelet aggregating material isolated from equine arterial tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid, method of isolation and use to control bleeding.

  10. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2012-02-14

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  11. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2011-03-29

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  12. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Steven William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2008-05-06

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  13. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro

    2009-12-29

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids

  14. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2012-05-08

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  15. In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2011-10-04

    The invention provides methods and compositions for in vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids. Also provided are compositions including proteins with unnatural amino acids.

  16. SU-E-J-128: 3D Surface Reconstruction of a Patient Using Epipolar Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotoku, J; Nakabayashi, S; Kumagai, S; Ishibashi, T; Kobayashi, T; Haga, A; Saotome, N; Arai, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To obtain a 3D surface data of a patient in a non-invasive way can substantially reduce the effort for the registration of patient in radiation therapy. To achieve this goal, we introduced the multiple view stereo technique, which is known to be used in a 'photo tourism' on the internet. Methods: 70 Images were taken with a digital single-lens reflex camera from different angles and positions. The camera positions and angles were inferred later in the reconstruction step. A sparse 3D reconstruction model was locating by SIFT features, which is robust for rotation and shift variance, in each image. We then found a set of correspondences between pairs of images by computing the fundamental matrix using the eight-point algorithm with RANSAC. After the pair matching, we optimized the parameter including camera positions to minimize the reprojection error by use of bundle adjustment technique (non-linear optimization). As a final step, we performed dense reconstruction and associate a color with each point using the library of PMVS. Results: Surface data were reconstructed well by visual inspection. The human skin is reconstructed well, althogh the reconstruction was time-consuming for direct use in daily clinical practice. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction using multi view stereo geometry is a promising tool for reducing the effort of patient setup. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI(25861128)

  17. In situ probing of the active site geometry of ultrathin nanowires for the oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Haiqing; Wong, Stanislaus S.; An, Wei; Li, Yuanyuan; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Su, Dong; Anderson, Rachel M.; Crooks, Richard M.; et al

    2015-09-24

    To create truly effective electrocatalysts for the cathodic reaction governing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), namely the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), necessitates an accurate and detailed structural understanding of these electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and to precisely correlate that structure with demonstrable performance enhancement. To address this key issue, we have combined and interwoven theoretical calculations with experimental, spectroscopic observations in order to acquire useful structural insights into the active site geometry with implications for designing optimized nanoscale electrocatalysts with rationally predicted properties. Specifically, we have probed ultrathin (~2 nm) core–shell Pt~Pd9Au nanowires, which have been previously shownmore » to be excellent candidates for ORR in terms of both activity and long-term stability, from the complementary perspectives of both DFT calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The combination and correlation of data from both experimental and theoretical studies has revealed for the first time that the catalytically active structure of our ternary nanowires can actually be ascribed to a PtAu~Pd configuration, comprising a PtAu binary shell and a pure inner Pd core. Moreover, we have plausibly attributed the resulting structure to a specific synthesis step, namely the Cu underpotential deposition (UPD) followed by galvanic replacement with Pt. Thus, the fundamental insights gained into the performance of our ultrathin nanowires from our demonstrated approach will likely guide future directed efforts aimed at broadly improving upon the durability and stability of nanoscale electrocatalysts in general.« less

  18. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  19. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more » of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  20. Studies of Deteriorated Heat Transfer in Prismatic Cores Stemming from Irradiation-Induced Geometry Distortion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Brian G.; Schultz, Richard R.; McEligot, Don M.; McCreery, Glenn

    2015-08-31

    A reference design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is to use General Atomics Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). For such a configuration in normal operation, the helium coolant flow proceeds from the upper plenum to the lower plenum principally through the core coolant channels and the interstitial gaps (bypass flow) that separate the prismatic blocks from one another. Only the core prismatic blocks have coolant channels. The interstitial gaps are present throughout the core, the inner reflector region, and the out reflector region. The bypass flows in a prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) are of potential concern because they reduce the desired flow rates in the coolant channels and, thereby, can increase outlet gas temperatures and maximum fuel temperatures. Consequently, it is appropriate to account for bypass flows in reactor thermal gas dynamic analyses. The objectives of this project include the following: fundamentally understand bypass flow and heat transfer at scaled, undistorted conditions and with geometry distortions; develop improved estimates of associated loss coefficients, surface friction and heat transfer for systems and network codes; and obtain related data for validation of CFD (computational fluid dynamic) or system (e.g., RELAP5) codes which can be employed in predictions for a GCR for normal power, reduced power, and residual heat removal operations.

  1. Determining sand-body geometries for waterflood reservoirs: Examples from Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreisa, R.D.; Pinero, E. )

    1987-02-01

    Waterflood projects require an accurate knowledge of reservoir geometry and well-to-well continuity. However, sandstones with thin, multiple-pay zones can be extremely difficult to correlate with confidence. Two case studies of Pennsylvanian sandstones in Oklahoma illustrate how a model for the depositional history of such reservoirs can be an effective tool for determining reservoir continuity. In contrast, correlation criteria such as similar wireline log signatures and relative sand-body thicknesses are not reliable in many situations. In Southwest Logan field (Beaver County), 5 to 15-ft thick reservoir sands formed as shallow marine sand ridges. Their dimensions were approximated from height-to-width ratios of modern sand ridges. Then the reservoir sands were mapped using wireline logs and core data. Individual reservoir sands were approximately 1-2 km wide and stacked en echelon vertically. Thus, a line-drive waterflood pattern oriented parallel to the axes of the ridges is recommended. Tatums field (Carter County) consists of 5 to 50-ft thick sandstones deposited in various deltaic environments. Distributary channel sands have good continuity downdip, but are narrow and lenticular across depositional strike. Crevasse splay and other bay-fill sands were deposited marginal to the channels and are extremely discontinuous. This depositional model can be used to improve flood patterns for these sands, leading to improved sweep efficiency. In both examples, for effective mapping, the depositional facies models have been used to register reservoir quality and wireline log signatures.

  2. Neutronic Assessment of Transmutation Target Compositions in Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel E. Bays; Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Michael A. Pope; Benoit Forget; Mehdi Asgari

    2008-02-01

    The sodium fast reactor is under consideration for consuming the transuranic waste in the spent nuclear fuel generated by light water reactors. This work is concerned with specialized target assemblies for an oxide-fueled sodium fast reactor that are designed exclusively for burning the americium and higher mass actinide component of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The associated gamma and neutron radioactivity, as well as thermal heat, associated with decay of these actinides may significantly complicate fuel handling and fabrication of recycled fast reactor fuel. The objective of using targets is to isolate in a smaller number of assemblies these concentrations of higher actinides, thus reducing the volume of fuel having more rigorous handling requirements or a more complicated fabrication process. This is in contrast to homogeneous recycle where all recycled actinides are distributed among all fuel assemblies. Several heterogeneous core geometries were evaluated to determine the fewest target assemblies required to burn these actinides without violating a set of established fuel performance criteria. The DIF3D/REBUS code from Argonne National Laboratory was used to perform the core physics and accompanying fuel cycle calculations in support of this work. Using the REBUS code, each core design was evaluated at the equilibrium cycle condition.

  3. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  4. Probing the Geometry and Interconnectivity of Pores in Organic Aerogels Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Wang, Li Q.; Baumann, T.; Satcher, J. H.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ratcliffe, C. I.; Ripmeester, J. A.

    2004-04-28

    Aerogels represent a class of novel open-pore materials with high surface area and nanometer pore sizes. They exhibit extremely low mass densities, low thermal conductivity, good acoustic insulation, and low dielectric constants. These materials have potential applications in catalysis, advanced separation techniques, energy storage, environmental remediation, and as insulating materials. Organic aerogels are stiffer and stronger than silica aerogels and are better insulators with higher thermal resistance. Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels are typically prepared through the base-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde in aqueous solution to produce gels, which are then dried in supercritical CO2.1,2 The [resorcinol]/ [catalyst] (R/C) ratio of the starting sol-gel solution has been determined to be the dominant factor that affects the properties of RF aerogels. Since the unique microstructures of aerogels are responsible for their unusual properties, characterizing the detailed porous structures and correlating them with the processing parameters are vital to establish rational design principles for novel organic aerogels with tailored properties. In this communication we report the first use of hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR to probe the geometry and interconnectivity of pores in RF aerogels and to correlate these with synthetic conditions. Our work demonstrates that HP 129Xe NMR is so far the only method for accurately measuring the free volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for soft mesoporous materials without using any geometric models.

  5. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gheisari, R.; Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H.

    2014-01-15

    A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D{sub 2}O and solid D{sub 2} (sD{sub 2}). The D{sub 2}O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD{sub 2} as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD{sub 2}. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD{sub 2} volume) equal to 6.79 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} and 2.20 ×10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}s{sup −1}, respectively.

  6. Design of experiments and springback prediction for AHSS automotive components with complex geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgari, A.; Pereira, M.; Rolfe, B.; Dingle, M.; Hodgson, P.

    2005-08-05

    With the drive towards implementing Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) in the automotive industry; stamping engineers need to quickly answer questions about forming these strong materials into elaborate shapes. Commercially available codes have been successfully used to accurately predict formability, thickness and strains in complex parts. However, springback and twisting are still challenging subjects in numerical simulations of AHSS components. Design of Experiments (DOE) has been used in this paper to study the sensitivity of the implicit and explicit numerical results with respect to certain arrays of user input parameters in the forming of an AHSS component. Numerical results were compared to experimental measurements of the parts stamped in an industrial production line. The forming predictions of the implicit and explicit codes were in good agreement with the experimental measurements for the conventional steel grade, while lower accuracies were observed for the springback predictions. The forming predictions of the complex component with an AHSS material were also in good correlation with the respective experimental measurements. However, much lower accuracies were observed in its springback predictions. The number of integration points through the thickness and tool offset were found to be of significant importance, while coefficient of friction and Young's modulus (modeling input parameters) have no significant effect on the accuracy of the predictions for the complex geometry.

  7. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-05-07

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement.

  8. Use of non-quadratic yield surfaces in design of optimal deep-draw blank geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    Planar anisotropy in the deep-drawing of sheet can lead to the formation of ears in cylindrical cups and to undesirable metal flow in the blankholder in the general case. For design analysis purposes in non-linear finite-element codes, this anisotropy is characterized by the use of an appropriate yield surface which is then implemented into codes such as DYNA3D . The quadratic Hill yield surface offers a relatively straightforward implementation and can be formulated to be invariant to the coordinate system. Non-quadratic yield surfaces can provide more realistic strength or strain increment ratios, but they may not provide invariance and thus demand certain approximations. Forms due to Hosford and Badat et al. have been shown to more accurately address the earning phenomenon. in this work, use is made of these non-quadratic yield surfaces in order to determine the optimal blank shape for cups and other shapes using ferrous and other metal blank materials with planar anisotropy. The analyses are compared to previous experimental studies on non-uniform blank motion due to anisotropy and asymmetric geometry.

  9. In situ probing of the active site geometry of ultrathin nanowires for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Haiqing; Wong, Stanislaus S.; An, Wei; Li, Yuanyuan; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Su, Dong; Anderson, Rachel M.; Crooks, Richard M.; Adzic, Radoslav R.; Liu, Ping

    2015-09-24

    To create truly effective electrocatalysts for the cathodic reaction governing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), namely the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), necessitates an accurate and detailed structural understanding of these electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and to precisely correlate that structure with demonstrable performance enhancement. To address this key issue, we have combined and interwoven theoretical calculations with experimental, spectroscopic observations in order to acquire useful structural insights into the active site geometry with implications for designing optimized nanoscale electrocatalysts with rationally predicted properties. Specifically, we have probed ultrathin (~2 nm) core–shell Pt~Pd9Au nanowires, which have been previously shown to be excellent candidates for ORR in terms of both activity and long-term stability, from the complementary perspectives of both DFT calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The combination and correlation of data from both experimental and theoretical studies has revealed for the first time that the catalytically active structure of our ternary nanowires can actually be ascribed to a PtAu~Pd configuration, comprising a PtAu binary shell and a pure inner Pd core. Moreover, we have plausibly attributed the resulting structure to a specific synthesis step, namely the Cu underpotential deposition (UPD) followed by galvanic replacement with Pt. Thus, the fundamental insights gained into the performance of our ultrathin nanowires from our demonstrated approach will likely guide future directed efforts aimed at broadly improving upon the durability and stability of nanoscale electrocatalysts in general.

  10. A Coupled Neutron-Photon 3-D Combinatorial Geometry Monte Carlo Transport Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-06-12

    TART97 is a coupled neutron-photon, 3 dimensional, combinatorial geometry, time dependent Monte Carlo transport code. This code can run on any modern computer. It is a complete system to assist you with input preparation, running Monte Carlo calculations, and analysis of output results. TART97 is also incredibly fast: if you have used similar codes, you will be amazed at how fast this code is compared to other similar codes. Use of the entire system canmore » save you a great deal of time and energy. TART 97 is distributed on CD. This CD contains on-line documentation for all codes included in the system, the codes configured to run on a variety of computers, and many example problems that you can use to familiarize yourself with the system. TART97 completely supersedes all older versions of TART, and it is strongly recommended that users only use the most recent version of TART97 and ist data files.« less

  11. Indentation and overall compression behavior of multilayered thin-film composites. Effect of undulating layer geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jamison, Ryan D.; Shen, Y. -L.

    2015-03-19

    Two finite element models are used to investigate the behavior of aluminum/silicon carbide thin-film layered composites with imperfect internal geometry when subjected to various loadings. In both models, undulating layers are represented by regular waveforms with various amplitudes, wavelengths, and phase offsets. First, uniaxial compressive loading of the composite is considered. The modulus and stress/strain response of the composite is sensitive to both loading direction and frequency of the undulation. Second, the nanoindentation response of the composite is investigated. The derived hardness and modulus are shown to be sensitive to the presence of undulating layers and the relative size ofmore » the indenter to the undulation. Undulating layers create bands of tensile and compressive stress in the indentation direction that are significantly different from the flat layers. The amount of equivalent plastic strain in the Al layers is increased by the presence of undulating layers. The correlations between the two forms of loading, and the implications to composite property measurement are carefully examined in this study.« less

  12. Thermal Stability of Acetohydroxamic Acid/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2002-03-13

    The transmutation of transuranic actinides and long-lived fission products in spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel has been proposed as one element of the Advanced Accelerator Applications Program. Preparation of targets for irradiation in an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor would involve dissolution of the fuel and separation of uranium, technetium, and iodine from the transuranic actinides and other fission products. The UREX solvent extraction process is being developed to reject and isolate the transuranic actinides in the acid waste stream by scrubbing with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). To ensure that a runaway reaction will not occur between nitric acid and AHA, an analogue of hydroxyl amine, thermal stability tests were performed to identify if any processing conditions could lead to a runaway reaction.

  13. Ab initio calculations of singlet and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grana, A.M.; Head-Gordon, M. |; Lee, T.J.

    1995-03-16

    Ab initio calculations of vertical excitations to single and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid are reported, using the CIS, CIS(D), and CCSD methods. The effects of basis set composition and calculational methods are investigated. The nature of the electronic transitions are examined by decomposing the difference density into the sum of detachment and attachment densities. Counterparts for the three lowest singlet excited states of nitric acid survive relatively unperturbed in chlorine nitrate, while other low lying singlet states of chlorine nitrate appear to be directly dissociative in the CIO chromophore. These results suggest an assignment of the two main peaks in the experimental chlorine nitrate absorption spectrum. In addition, triplet vertical excitations and the lowest optimized triplet geometries of both molecules are studied. 70 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  15. High speed nucleic acid sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid. Each type of labeled nucleotide comprises an acceptor fluorophore attached to a phosphate portion of the nucleotide such that the fluorophore is removed upon incorporation into a growing strand. Fluorescent signal is emitted via fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the donor fluorophore and the acceptor fluorophore as each nucleotide is incorporated into the growing strand. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing strand.

  16. Identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2005-02-08

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  17. Geometry, lateral variability, and preservation of downlapped regressive shelf deposits, eastern Tyrrhenian Margin, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, M.E. ); Trincardi, F. )

    1990-05-01

    The shelf of the eastern Tyrrhenian margin changes substantially in width, shelf-break depth, and sea-floor steepness over relatively short distances, largely due to marked lateral changes in geologic structure. Remnants of late Pleistocene prograded coastal deposits are locally preserved on the middle and outer parts of this complex shelf. Through the authors studies of these prograded deposits they recognize two major controls on the distribution, lateral extent, thickness, and preservation potential. First, prograded (downlapped) deposits formed only where the physiographic shelf break was deeper than the lowstand shoreline, thus providing accommodation space for the lowstand deposits. Second, the proximity and relative size of sediment sources and the local coastal dispersal system influenced the geometry of the deposit. Mid-shelf and shelf-margin bodies composed of seaward-steepening downlapping reflectors were deposited as thin-to-thick continuous prograding sheets over an irregular eroded shelf surface and onto the shelf edge during the last fall and lowstand of sea level. A dearth of sediment at the end of lowstand conditions led to a switch from deposition to erosion. During sea level rise, shoreface erosion produced a major marine erosional (ravinement) surface landward of the 120-m isobath, and much, and in many places all, of the downlapping deposit was removed. Preservation of downlapping deposits is largely a function of their thickness. Thick continuous deposits are common on the shelf edge, whereas on the mid-shelf only thin remnants are preserved locally where depressions or morphologic steps were present in the shelf surface.

  18. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, James E. Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2014-05-14

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice because the Xe plasma density peaks further upstream.

  19. Sizes, graphitic structures and fractal geometry of light-duty diesel engine particulates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. O.; Zhu, J.; Ciatti, S.; Choi, M. Y.; Energy Systems; Drexel Univ.

    2003-01-01

    The particulate matter of a light-duty diesel engine was characterized in its morphology, sizes, internal microstructures, and fractal geometry. A thermophoretic sampling system was employed to collect particulates directly from the exhaust manifold of a 1.7-liter turbocharged common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The particulate samples collected at various engine-operating conditions were then analyzed by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an image processing/data acquisition system. Results showed that mean primary particle diameters (dp), and radii of gyration (Rg), ranged from 19.4 nm to 32.5 nm and 77.4 nm to 134.1 nm, respectively, through the entire engine-operating conditions of 675 rpm (idling) to 4000 rpm and 0% to 100% loads. It was also revealed that the other important parameters sensitive to the particulate formation, such as exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) rate, equivalence ratio, and temperature, affected particle sizes significantly. Bigger primary particles were measured at higher EGR rates, higher equivalence ratios (fuel-rich), and lower exhaust temperatures. Fractal dimensions (D{sup f}) were measured at a range of 1.5 - 1.7, which are smaller than those measured for heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine particulates in our previous study. This finding implies that the light-duty diesel engine used in this study produces more stretched chain-like shape particles, while the heavy-duty diesel engine emits more spherical particles. The microstructures of diesel particulates were observed at high TEM magnifications and further analyzed by a Raman spectroscope. Raman spectra revealed an atomic structure of the particulates produced at high engine loads, which is similar to that of typical graphite.

  20. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  1. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  2. Method of increasing conversion of a fatty acid to its corresponding dicarboxylic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craft, David L.; Wilson, C. Ron; Eirich, Dudley; Zhang, Yeyan

    2004-09-14

    A nucleic acid sequence including a CYP promoter operably linked to nucleic acid encoding a heterologous protein is provided to increase transcription of the nucleic acid. Expression vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acid sequence are also provided. The methods and compositions described herein are especially useful in the production of polycarboxylic acids by yeast cells.

  3. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  4. Effects of self-heating and phase change on the thermal profile of hydrogen isotopes in confined geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxamusa, S. Field, J.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; Suratwala, T.; Sater, J.

    2014-03-28

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.

  5. Phase-Field Simulations of GaN Growth by Selective Area Epitaxy on Complex Mask Geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aagesen, Larry K.; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Han, Jung; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2015-05-15

    Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of GaNgrowth by selective area epitaxy were performed. Furthermore, this model includes a crystallographic-orientation-dependent deposition rate and arbitrarily complex mask geometries. The orientation-dependent deposition rate can be determined from experimental measurements of the relative growth rates of low-index crystallographic facets. Growth on various complex mask geometries was simulated on both c-plane and a-plane template layers. Agreement was observed between simulations and experiment, including complex phenomena occurring at the intersections between facets. The sources of the discrepancies between simulated and experimental morphologies were also investigated. We found that the model provides a route to optimize masks and processing conditions during materials synthesis for solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other electronic and opto-electronic applications.

  6. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  7. Phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy from complex mask geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aagesen, Larry K.; Thornton, Katsuyo; Coltrin, Michael E.; Han, Jung

    2015-05-21

    Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy were performed. The model includes a crystallographic-orientation-dependent deposition rate and arbitrarily complex mask geometries. The orientation-dependent deposition rate can be determined from experimental measurements of the relative growth rates of low-index crystallographic facets. Growth on various complex mask geometries was simulated on both c-plane and a-plane template layers. Agreement was observed between simulations and experiment, including complex phenomena occurring at the intersections between facets. The sources of the discrepancies between simulated and experimental morphologies were also investigated. The model provides a route to optimize masks and processing conditions during materials synthesis for solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other electronic and opto-electronic applications.

  8. Phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy on complex mask geometries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aagesen, Larry K.; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Han, Jung; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2015-05-15

    Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy were performed. Furthermore, this model includes a crystallographic-orientation-dependent deposition rate and arbitrarily complex mask geometries. The orientation-dependent deposition rate can be determined from experimental measurements of the relative growth rates of low-index crystallographic facets. Growth on various complex mask geometries was simulated on both c-plane and a-plane template layers. Agreement was observed between simulations and experiment, including complex phenomena occurring at the intersections between facets. The sources of the discrepancies between simulated and experimental morphologies were also investigated. We found that the model provides a route to optimize masks andmore » processing conditions during materials synthesis for solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other electronic and opto-electronic applications.« less

  9. Enhancing efficiency and power of quantum-dots resonant tunneling thermoelectrics in three-terminal geometry by cooperative effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-11-21

    We propose a scheme of multilayer thermoelectric engine where one electric current is coupled to two temperature gradients in three-terminal geometry. This is realized by resonant tunneling through quantum dots embedded in two thermal and electrical resisting polymer matrix layers between highly conducting semiconductor layers. There are two thermoelectric effects, one of which is pertaining to inelastic transport processes (if energies of quantum dots in the two layers are different), while the other exists also for elastic transport processes. These two correspond to the transverse and longitudinal thermoelectric effects, respectively, and are associated with different temperature gradients. We show that cooperation between the two thermoelectric effects leads to markedly improved figure of merit and power factor, which is confirmed by numerical calculation using material parameters. Such enhancement is robust against phonon heat conduction and energy level broadening. Therefore, we demonstrated cooperative effect as an additional way to effectively improve performance of thermoelectrics in three-terminal geometry.

  10. Flows and torques in Brownian ferrofluids subjected to rotating uniform magnetic fields in a cylindrical and annular geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres-Diaz, I.; Cortes, A.; Rinaldi, C.; Cedeño-Mattei, Y.; Perales-Perez, O.

    2014-01-15

    Ferrofluid flow in cylindrical and annular geometries under the influence of a uniform rotating magnetic field was studied experimentally using aqueous ferrofluids consisting of low concentrations (<0.01 v/v) of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with Brownian relaxation to test the ferrohydrodynamic equations, elucidate the existence of couple stresses, and determine the value of the spin viscosity in these fluids. An ultrasound technique was used to measure bulk velocity profiles in the spin-up (cylindrical) and annular geometries, varying the intensity and frequency of the rotating magnetic field generated by a two pole stator winding. Additionally, torque measurements in the cylindrical geometry were made. Results show rigid-body like velocity profiles in the bulk, and no dependence on the axial direction. Experimental velocity profiles were in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the spin diffusion theory, with a value of the spin viscosity of ∼10{sup −8} kg m/s, two orders of magnitude larger than the value estimated earlier for iron oxide based ferrofluids, and 12 orders of magnitude larger than estimated using dimensional arguments valid in the infinite dilution limit. These results provide further evidence of the existence of couple stresses in ferrofluids and their role in driving the spin-up flow phenomenon.

  11. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  12. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  13. Myriant Succinic Acid BioRefinery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -based Succinic Acid * Life Cycle Analysis of Bio-succinic acid production using the IPCC 2007 (GWP) method 5 MySAB Quad Chart Overview * Project start date BP1 - 3...

  14. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamrock, Steven J.; Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2009-04-14

    An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

  15. Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing a plurality of a nucleic acid array, comprising, in order, the steps of amplifying in situ nucleic acid molecules of a first randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array comprising a heterogeneous pool of nucleic acid molecules affixed to a support, transferring at least a subset of the nucleic acid molecules produced by such amplifying to a second support, and affixing the subset so transferred to the second support to form a second randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array, wherein the nucleic acid molecules of the second array occupy positions that correspond to those of the nucleic acid molecules from which they were amplified on the first array, so that the first array serves as a template to produce a plurality, is disclosed.

  16. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  17. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  18. Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid Molecular Dynamics Simulations Carried Out at NERSC June 18, 2015 Lynn Yarris, (510) 486-5375, lcyarris@lbl.gov Saykally co2 in water When gaseous carbon dioxide is dissolved in water, its hydrophobic nature carves out a cylindrical cavity, setting the stage for the proton transfer reactions that produce carbonic acid. Blink your eyes and it's long gone. Carbonic acid exists for only a tiny fraction of a second

  19. NITRIC ACID RECPVERY FROM WASTE COLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acids ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of rutheniuim.

  20. Nitric acid recovery from waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

  1. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  2. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  3. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc

    1999-01-01

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  4. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  5. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  6. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  7. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  8. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  9. Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery Recycling March 23, 2011 Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet In 2004, the US...

  11. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  12. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-05-30

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  13. Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Berkeley Lab Study Holds Implications for Geological and Biological Processes October 23, 2014 Contact: Lynn Yarris, lcyarris@lbl.gov, 510.486.5375 CarbonicAcid Though carbonic acid exists for only a fraction of a second before changing into a mix of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions, it is critical to both the health of the atmosphere and the human body. Though it garners few public headlines, carbonic acid, the

  14. Double stranded nucleic acid biochips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

    2006-05-23

    This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

  15. Finite-size scaling analysis of spin correlations and fluctuations of two quantum dots in a T-shape geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Martins, G. B.; Al Hassanieh, Khaled A; Feiguin, A. E.; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2008-01-01

    The study of interacting nanostructures such as quantum dots is a playground for several novel numerical approaches. Recently developed methods such as the time-dependent density matrix renormalization approach or the embedded-cluster approximation rely on the numerical solution of clusters of finite-size. For the interpretation of numerical results, it is important to understand finite-size and boundary effects. Here, we study spin fluctuations and spin spin correlations of two dots coupled in a T-shape geometry. Depending on odd even effects, quite different results emerge from clusters that do not differ much in size. r 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study of ionization chamber detectors vis-a-vis a CCD detector for dispersive XAS measurement in transmission geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poswal, A. K.; Agrawal, A.; Bhattachryya, D.; Jha, S. N.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2013-02-05

    We have designed and fabricated parallel plate ionization chamber detectors and voltage vs. current characteristics (V-I curve) of the detectors were recorded with synchrotron radiation to qualify for use in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. After qualifying the ionization chambers, the detectors were used in the dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-08) at INDUS-2 SRS in Turbo-XAS geometry. Using the same setup and under the same setting, XAS spectra were also recorded with a CCD detector and the observation on relative performance of the ionization chamber vis-a-vis the CCD detector is presented in this paper.

  17. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-08-17

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  18. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-12-21

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  19. Exit blade geometry and part-load performance of small axial flow propeller turbines: An experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz

    2010-09-15

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects of exit blade geometry on the part-load performance of low-head, axial flow propeller turbines is presented. Even as these turbines find important applications in small-scale energy generation using micro-hydro, the relationship between the layout of blade profile, geometry and turbine performance continues to be poorly characterized. The experimental results presented here help understand the relationship between exit tip angle, discharge through the turbine, shaft power, and efficiency. The modification was implemented on two different propeller runners and it was found that the power and efficiency gains from decreasing the exit tip angle could be explained by a theoretical model presented here based on classical theory of turbomachines. In particular, the focus is on the behaviour of internal parameters like the runner loss coefficient, relative flow angle at exit, mean axial flow velocity and net tangential flow velocity. The study concluded that the effects of exit tip modification were significant. The introspective discussion on the theoretical model's limitation and test facility suggests wider and continued experimentation pertaining to the internal parameters like inlet vortex profile and exit swirl profile. It also recommends thorough validation of the model and its improvement so that it can be made capable for accurate characterization of blade geometric effects. (author)

  20. Development of a Rhesus Monkey Lung Geometry Model and Application to Particle Deposition in Comparison to Humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; McClellan, Gene; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Harkema, Jack R.; Carey, Stephen A.; Schelegle, Edward; Hyde, D.; Kimbell, Julia; Miller, Frederick J.

    2012-11-01

    The exposure-dose-response characterization of an inhalation hazard established in an animal species needs to be translated to an equivalent characterization in humans relative to comparable doses or exposure scenarios. Here, the first geometry model of the conducting airways for rhesus monkeys is developed based upon CT images of the conducting airways of a 6-month-old male, rhesus monkey. An algorithm was developed for adding the alveolar region airways using published rhesus morphometric data. The resultant lung geometry model can be used in mechanistic particle or gaseous dosimetry models. Such dosimetry models require estimates of the upper respiratory tract volume of the animal and the functional residual capacity, as well as of the tidal volume and breathing frequency of the animal. The relationship of these variables to rhesus monkeys of differing body weights was established by synthesizing and modeling published data as well as modeling pulmonary function measurements on 121 rhesus control animals. Deposition patterns of particles up to 10 ?m in size were examined for endotracheal and and up to 5 ?m for spontaneous breathing in infant and young adult monkeys and compared to those for humans. Deposition fraction of respirable size particles was found to be higher in the conducting airways of infant and young adult rhesus monkeys compared to humans. Due to the filtering effect of the conducting airways, pulmonary deposition in rhesus monkeys was lower than that in humans. Future research areas are identified that would either allow replacing assumptions or improving the newly developed lung model.

  1. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

    1996-10-01

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

  2. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R.; Niemeyer, Christof M.; Smith, Cassandra L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, Donald J.; Rusckowski, Mary

    1999-10-12

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  3. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R.; Niemeyer, Christof M.; Smith, Cassandra L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, Donald J.; Rusckowski, Mary

    1996-01-01

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  4. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Dickson, Todd Jay

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0.degree. and 80.degree. C. in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  5. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.

    1998-04-28

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  6. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  7. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose to yield glucose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsao, George T.; Ladisch, Michael R.; Bose, Arindam

    1979-01-01

    A process to yield glucose from cellulose through acid hydrolysis. Cellulose is recovered from cellulosic materials, preferably by pretreating the cellulosic materials by dissolving the cellulosic materials in Cadoxen or a chelating metal caustic swelling solvent and then precipitating the cellulose therefrom. Hydrolysis is accomplished using an acid, preferably dilute sulfuric acid, and the glucose is yielded substantially without side products. Lignin may be removed either before or after hydrolysis.

  8. Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane Colorado School of Mines Contact CSM About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIn this invention we report the synthesis of a copolymer of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and vinyl zirconium phosphorous (VZP) acid has been achieved for the production of ion exchange membranes. DescriptionCharacterization of the membrane has been accomplished using a

  9. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  10. Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbonic acid with important implications for both geological and biological concerns. ... mixing technology in which two aqueous samples rapidly mix and flow through a finely ...

  11. SU-E-T-106: Development of a Collision Prediction Algorithm for Determining Problematic Geometry for SBRT Treatments Using a Stereotactic Body Frame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagar, M; Friesen, S; Mannarino, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Collision between the gantry and the couch or patient during Radiotherapy is not a common concern for conventional RT (static fields or arc). With the increase in the application of stereotactic planning techniques to the body, collisions have become a greater concern. Non-coplanar beam geometry is desirable in stereotatic treatments in order to achieve sharp gradients and a high conformality. Non-coplanar geometry is less intuitive in the body and often requires an iterative process of planning and dry runs to guarantee deliverability. Methods: Purpose written software was developed in order to predict the likelihood of collision between the head of the gantry and the couch, patient or stereotatic body frame. Using the DICOM plan and structures set, exported by the treatment planning system, this software is able to predict the possibility of a collision. Given the plan's isocenter, treatment geometry and exterior contours, the software is able to determine if a particular beam/arc is clinically deliverable or if collision is imminent. Results: The software was tested on real world treatment plans with untreatable beam geometry. Both static non-coplanar and VMAT plans were tested. Of these, the collision prediction software could identify all as having potentially problematic geometry. Re-plans of the same cases were also tested and validated as deliverable. Conclusion: This software is capable of giving good initial indication of deliverability for treatment plans that utilize complex geometry (SBRT) or have lateral isocenters. This software is not intended to replace the standard pre-treatment QA dry run. The effectiveness is limited to those portions of the patient and immobilization devices that have been included in the simulation CT and contoured in the planning system. It will however aid the planner in reducing the iterations required to create complex treatment geometries necessary to achieve ideal conformality and organ sparing.

  12. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  13. Modeling of divertor geometry effects in China fusion engineering testing reactor by SOLPS/B2-Eirene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, M. L.; Chen, Y. P.; Li, G. Q.; Luo, Z. P.; Guo, H. Y.; Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei 230031; General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 ; Ye, M. Y.; Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei 230031 ; Tendler, M.

    2014-05-15

    The China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) is currently under design. The SOLPS/B2-Eirene code package is utilized for the design and optimization of the divertor geometry for CFETR. Detailed modeling is carried out for an ITER-like divertor configuration and one with relatively open inner divertor structure, to assess, in particular, peak power loading on the divertor target, which is a key issue for the operation of a next-step fusion machine, such as ITER and CFETR. As expected, the divertor peak heat flux greatly exceeds the maximum steady-state heat load of 10 MW/m{sup 2}, which is a limit dictated by engineering, for both divertor configurations with a wide range of edge plasma conditions. Ar puffing is effective at reducing divertor peak heat fluxes below 10 MW/m{sup 2} even at relatively low densities for both cases, favoring the divertor configuration with more open inner divertor structure.

  14. Technique for fabrication of ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments with sub-megaampere currents

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Steiner, A. M.; Patel, S. G.; Jordan, N. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2015-11-19

    In this study, we describe a technique for fabricating ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments using sub-MA currents. Liners are formed by wrapping a 400 nm, rectangular strip of aluminum foil around a dumbbell-shaped support structure with a non-conducting center rod, so that the liner dimensions are 1 cm in height, 6.55 mm in diameter, and 400 nm in thickness. The liner-plasmas are imploded by discharging ~600 kA with ~200 ns rise time using a 1 MA linear transformer driver, and the resulting implosions are imaged four times per shot using laser-shadowgraphy at 532 nm. As amore » result, this technique enables the study of plasma implosion physics, including the magneto Rayleigh-Taylor, sausage, and kink instabilities on initially solid, imploding metallic liners with university-scale pulsed power machines.« less

  15. Zero-field spin torque oscillation in Co{sub 2}(Fe, Mn)Si with a point contact geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T. Kubota, T.; Yako, H.; Takanashi, K.; Seki, T.

    2015-03-02

    We show spin torque oscillation at zero external magnetic field using a point-contact giant magnetoresistance device with a highly spin-polarized Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.6}Si (CFMS) Heusler alloy. The device emitted a high rf power (P{sub rf}) signal with a narrow spectral linewidth of 3?MHz without external magnetic field. Depending on the applied current, mode changes were clearly observed, and a large P{sub rf} of 25.7 nW was achieved. The large P{sub rf} and the high coherency of oscillation are attributable to the combination of the high spin-polarization of CFMS and the advantages of point-contact geometry.

  16. Hydraulic Geometry and Microtopography of Tidal Freshwater Forested Wetlands and Implications for Restoration, Columbia River, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Coleman, Andre M.; Borde, Amy B.; Sinks, Ian A.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrologic reconnection of tidal channels, riverine floodplains, and main stem channels are among responses by ecological restoration practitioners to the increasing fragmentation and land conversion occurring in coastal and riparian zones. Design standards and monitoring of such ecological restoration depend upon the characterization of reference sites that vary within and among regions. Few locales, such as the 235 km tidal portion of the Columbia River on the West Coast U.S.A., remain in which the reference conditions and restoration responses of tidal freshwater forested wetlands on temperate zone large river floodplains can be compared. This study developed hydraulic geometry relationships for Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) dominated tidal forests (swamps) in the vicinity of Grays Bay on the Columbia River some 37 km from the Pacific Coast using field surveys and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Scaling relationships between catchment area and the parameters of channel cross-sectional area at outlet and total channel length were comparable to tidally influenced systems of San Francisco Bay and the United Kingdom. Dike breaching, culvert replacement, and tide gate replacement all affected channel cross-sectional geometry through changes in the frequency of over-marsh flows. Radiocarbon dating of buried wood provided evidence of changes in sedimentation rates associated with diking, and restoration trajectories may be confounded by historical subsidence behind dikes rendering topographical relationships with water level incomparable to reference conditions. At the same time, buried wood is influencing the development of channel morphology toward characteristics resembling reference conditions. Ecological restoration goals and practices in tidal forested wetland regions of large river floodplains should reflect the interactions of these controlling factors.

  17. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  18. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  19. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is .sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  20. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is .sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  1. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  2. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  3. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  4. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shoup, Timothy

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  5. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  6. Bond-valence methods for pKa prediction. II. Bond-valence, electrostatic, molecular geometry, and solvation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Doud, Darrin

    2006-08-15

    In a previous contribution, we outlined a method for predicting (hydr)oxy-acid and oxide surface acidity constants based on three main factors: bond valence, Me?O bond ionicity, and molecular shape. Here electrostatics calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to qualitatively show that Me?O bond ionicity controls the extent to which the electrostatic work of proton removal departs from ideality, bond valence controls the extent of solvation of individual functional groups, and bond valence and molecular shape controls local dielectric response. These results are consistent with our model of acidity, but completely at odds with other methods of predicting acidity constants for use in multisite complexation models. In particular, our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of solvated monomers clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding between (hydr)oxo-groups and water molecules adjusts to obey the valence sum rule, rather than maintaining a fixed valence based on the coordination of the oxygen atom as predicted by the standard MUSIC model.

  7. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  8. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2014-08-26

    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  9. Kolorsafe Liquid Acid Neutralizer Safety Data Sheet

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Kolorsafe Liquid Acid Neutralizer Safety Data Sheet according to Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 58 / Monday, March 26, 2012 / Rules and Regulations Revision Date: 03/07/2014 Date of issue: 03/07/2014 Version: 1.0 03/07/2014 EN (English US) 1/8 SECTION 1: IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE/MIXTURE AND OF THE COMPANY Product Identifier Product Form: Mixture Product Name: Kolorsafe Liquid Acid Neutralizer Product Code: 4100 series Intended Use of the Product Spill cleanup/ neutralize acids. For

  10. Phenolic acid esterases, coding sequences and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, David L.; Kataeva, Irina; Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    2002-01-01

    Described herein are four phenolic acid esterases, three of which correspond to domains of previously unknown function within bacterial xylanases, from XynY and XynZ of Clostridium thermocellum and from a xylanase of Ruminococcus. The fourth specifically exemplified xylanase is a protein encoded within the genome of Orpinomyces PC-2. The amino acids of these polypeptides and nucleotide sequences encoding them are provided. Recombinant host cells, expression vectors and methods for the recombinant production of phenolic acid esterases are also provided.

  11. Methods for analyzing nucleic acid sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid. The method provides a complex comprising a polymerase enzyme, a target nucleic acid molecule, and a primer, wherein the complex is immobilized on a support Fluorescent label is attached to a terminal phosphate group of the nucleotide or nucleotide analog. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The time duration of the signal from labeled nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated is distinguished from freely diffusing labels by a longer retention in the observation volume for the nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated than for the freely diffusing labels.

  12. Surfactant addition to phosphoric acid electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F. (Monroeville, PA); Kunkle, Richard P. (Irwin, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell having an improved electrolyte comprising concentrated H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and at least 0.5 wt. percent lauryl dimethyl amine.

  13. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  14. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  15. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  16. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  17. Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M.; Mitra, Robi D.

    2010-08-31

    Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.

  18. A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Wednesday, 28 November 2007 00:00 Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical

  19. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  20. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiangyun; Xie, Jianming; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-10-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  1. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiangyun; Xie, Jianming; Schultz, Peter G.

    2012-06-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  2. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  3. ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alter, H.W.; Barney, D.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the treatment of radioactivc waste nitric acid solutions. The nitric acid solution is neutralized with an alkali metal hydroxide in an amount sufficient to precipitate insoluble hydroxides, and after separation of the precipitate the solution is electrolyzed to convert the alkali nitrate formed, to alkali hydroxide, gaseous ammonla and oxygen. The solution is then reusable after reducing the volume by evaporating the water and dissolved ammonia.

  4. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, III, Anthony L.

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  5. No reduction using sublimination of cyanuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A method of reducing the NO content of a gas stream comprises contacting the gas stream with an amount of HNCO at a temperature effective for heat-induced decomposition of cyanuric acid, said amount and temperature being effective for the resultant lowering of the NO content of the gas stream, said cyanuric acid being particulate and having a particle size of less than 90 .mu.m.

  6. NO reduction using sublimation of cyanuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, R.A.

    1996-05-21

    A method of reducing the NO content of a gas stream comprises contacting the gas stream with an amount of HNCO at a temperature effective for heat-induced decomposition of cyanuric acid, said amount and temperature being effective for the resultant lowering of the NO content of the gas stream, said cyanuric acid being particulate and having a particle size of less than 90 {micro}m. 1 fig.

  7. Scattering Techniques and Geometries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    grains - Thin films - Texture (crystallite orientation) - Real time experiments (electrochemistry, stress-strain) Get to know your beamlines incident scattered Detector Q...

  8. Effect of cantilever geometry on the optical lever sensitivities and thermal noise method of the atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sader, John E.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul

    2014-11-15

    Calibration of the optical lever sensitivities of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers is especially important for determining the force in AFM measurements. These sensitivities depend critically on the cantilever mode used and are known to differ for static and dynamic measurements. Here, we calculate the ratio of the dynamic and static sensitivities for several common AFM cantilevers, whose shapes vary considerably, and experimentally verify these results. The dynamic-to-static optical lever sensitivity ratio is found to range from 1.09 to 1.41 for the cantilevers studied in stark contrast to the constant value of 1.09 used widely in current calibration studies. This analysis shows that accuracy of the thermal noise method for the static spring constant is strongly dependent on cantilever geometry neglect of these dynamic-to-static factors can induce errors exceeding 100%. We also discuss a simple experimental approach to non-invasively and simultaneously determine the dynamic and static spring constants and optical lever sensitivities of cantilevers of arbitrary shape, which is applicable to all AFM platforms that have the thermal noise method for spring constant calibration.

  9. Geometry-dependent penetration fields in superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? platelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    By: Curran, P. J.; Clem, J. R.; Bending, S. J.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Tamegai, T.

    2010-10-01

    Magneto-optical imaging has been used to study vortex penetration into regular polygon-shaped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} platelets with various geometries (disks, pentagons, squares, and triangles) but known fixed areas. In all cases we observe an exponential dependence of the field of first penetration, H{sub p}, on temperature, consistent with a dominant Bean-Livingston barrier for pancake vortices at our measurement temperatures (45-80 K). However, the penetration field consistently decreases with decreasing degree of sample symmetry, in stark contrast to conventional estimates of demagnetization factors using equivalent ellipsoids based on inscribed circles, which predict the reverse trend. Surprisingly, this observation does not appear to have been reported in the literature before. We demonstrate empirically that estimates using equivalent ellipsoids based on circumscribed circles predict the correct qualitative experimental trend in H{sub p}. Our work has important implications for the estimation of appropriate effective demagnetization factors for flux penetration into arbitrarily shaped superconducting bodies.

  10. THE GEOMETRY EFFECTS OF AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE ON THE DETECTION OF COOL NEUTRAL GAS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, S. J.

    2012-03-20

    Recent high-redshift surveys for 21 cm absorption in damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems (DLAs) take the number of published searches at z{sub abs} > 2 to 25, the same number as at z{sub abs} < 2, although the detection rate at high redshift remains significantly lower (20% compared to 60%). Using the known properties of the DLAs to estimate the unknown profile widths of the 21 cm non-detections and including the limits via a survival analysis, we show that the mean spin temperature/covering factor degeneracy at high redshift is, on average, double that of the low-redshift sample. This value is significantly lower than the previous factor of eight for the spin temperatures and is about the same factor as in the angular diameter distance ratios between the low- and high-redshift samples. That is, without the need for the several pivotal assumptions, which lead to an evolution in the spin temperature, we show that the observed distribution of 21 cm detections in DLAs can be accounted for by the geometry effects of an expanding universe. That is, as yet there is no evidence of the spin temperature of gas-rich galaxies evolving with redshift.

  11. Geometry-dependent penetration fields of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? platelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, P. J.; Clem, J. R.; Bending, S. J.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Tamegai, T.

    2010-10-01

    Magneto-optical imaging has been used to study vortex penetration into regular polygon-shaped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} platelets with various geometries (disks, pentagons, squares, and triangles) but known fixed areas. In all cases we observe an exponential dependence of the field of first penetration, H{sub p}, on temperature, consistent with a dominant Bean-Livingston barrier for pancake vortices at our measurement temperatures (45-80 K). However, the penetration field consistently decreases with decreasing degree of sample symmetry, in stark contrast to conventional estimates of demagnetization factors using equivalent ellipsoids based on inscribed circles, which predict the reverse trend. Surprisingly, this observation does not appear to have been reported in the literature before. We demonstrate empirically that estimates using equivalent ellipsoids based on circumscribed circles predict the correct qualitative experimental trend in Hp. Our work has important implications for the estimation of appropriate effective demagnetization factors for flux penetration into arbitrarily shaped superconducting bodies.

  12. Electron correlations and two-photon states in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules: A peculiar role of geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aryanpour, Karan; Shukla, Alok; Mazumdar, Sumit; College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721

    2014-03-14

    We present numerical studies of one- and two-photon excited states ordering in a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules: coronene, hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene, and circumcoronene, all possessing D{sub 6h} point group symmetry versus ovalene with D{sub 2h} symmetry, within the Pariser-Parr-Pople model of interacting ?-electrons. The calculated energies of the two-photon states as well as their relative two-photon absorption cross-sections within the interacting model are qualitatively different from single-particle descriptions. More remarkably, a peculiar role of molecular geometry is found. The consequence of electron correlations is far stronger for ovalene, where the lowest spin-singlet two-photon state is a quantum superposition of pairs of lowest spin triplet states, as in the linear polyenes. The same is not true for D{sub 6h} group hydrocarbons. Our work indicates significant covalent character, in valence bond language, of the ground state, the lowest spin triplet state and a few of the lowest two-photon states in D{sub 2h} ovalene but not in those with D{sub 6h} symmetry.

  13. A Local Incident Flux Response Expansion Transport Method for Coupling to the Diffusion Method in Cylindrical Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dingkang Zhang; Farzad Rahnema; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2013-09-01

    A local incident flux response expansion transport method is developed to generate transport solutions for coupling to diffusion theory codes regardless of their solution method (e.g., fine mesh, nodal, response based, finite element, etc.) for reactor core calculations in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cylindrical geometries. In this approach, a Monte Carlo method is first used to precompute the local transport solution (i.e., response function library) for each unique transport coarse node, in which diffusion theory is not valid due to strong transport effects. The response function library is then used to iteratively determine the albedo coefficients on the diffusion-transport interfaces, which are then used as the coupling parameters within the diffusion code. This interface coupling technique allows a seamless integration of the transport and diffusion methods. The new method retains the detailed heterogeneity of the transport nodes and naturally constructs any local solution within them by a simple superposition of local responses to all incoming fluxes from the contiguous coarse nodes. A new technique is also developed for coupling to fine-mesh diffusion methods/codes. The local transport method/module is tested in 2-D and 3-D pebble-bed reactor benchmark problems consisting of an inner reflector, an annular fuel region, and a controlled outer reflector. It is found that the results predicted by the transport module agree very well with the reference fluxes calculated directly by MCNP in both benchmark problems.

  14. Structure-Property Relationships of Polymer Brushes in Restricted Geometries and their Utilization as Ultra-Low Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, Tonya Lynn; Faller, Roland

    2015-09-28

    Though polymer films are widely used to modify or tailor the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of interfaces in both solid and liquid systems, the rational design of interface- or surface-active polymer modifiers has been hampered by a lack of information about the behavior and structure-property relationships of this class of molecules. This is especially true for systems in which the role of the polymer is to modify the interaction between two solid surfaces in intimate contact and under load, to cause them to be mechanically coupled (e.g. to promote adhesion and wetting) or to minimize their interaction (e.g. lubrication, colloidal stabilization, etc.). Detailed structural information on these systems has largely been precluded by the many difficulties and challenges associated with direct experimental measurements of polymer structure in these geometries. As a result, many practitioners have been forced to employ indirect measurements or rely wholly on theoretical modeling. This has resulted in an incomplete understanding of the structure-property relationships, which are relied upon for the rational design of improved polymer modifiers. Over the course of this current research program, we made direct measurements of the structure of polymers at the interface between two solid surfaces under confinement and elucidated the fundamental physics behind these phenomena using atomistic and coarse grained simulations. The research has potential to lead to new lubricants and wear reducing agents to improve efficiency.

  15. Fourier harmonics of high-p{sub T} particles probing the fluctuating initial condition geometries in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betz, Barbara; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2011-08-15

    Second Fourier harmonics of jet quenching have been thoroughly explored in the literature and shown to be sensitive to the underlying jet path-length dependence of energy loss and the differences between the mean eccentricity predicted by Glauber and color glass condensate (CGC)/Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (KLN) models of initial conditions. We compute the jet path-length dependence of energy-loss for higher azimuthal harmonics of jet-fragments in a generalized model of energy-loss for Relativistc Heavy Ion Collider energies and find, however, that even the high-p{sub T} second moment is most sensitive to the poorly known early time evolution during the first fm/c. Moreover, we demonstrate that higher-jet harmonics are remarkably insensitive to the initial conditions, while the different v{sub n}(N{sub part}) vs v{sub n}{sup I{sub AA}}(N{sub part}) correlations between the moments of monojet and dijet nuclear modifications factors remain a most sensitive probe to differentiate between Glauber and CGC/KLN initial state geometries of the strongly-coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  16. Distribution of air-water mixtures in parallel vertical channels as an effect of the header geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchitto, Annalisa; Fossa, Marco; Guglielmini, Giovanni

    2009-07-15

    Uneven phase distribution in heat exchangers is a cause of severe reductions in thermal performances of refrigeration equipment. To date, no general design rules are available to avoid phase separation in manifolds with several outlet channels, and even predicting the phase and mass distribution in parallel channels is a demanding task. In the present paper, measurements of two-phase air-water distributions are reported with reference to a horizontal header supplying 16 vertical upward channels. The effects of the operating conditions, the header geometry and the inlet port nozzle were investigated in the ranges of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.2-1.2 and 1.5-16.5 m/s, respectively. Among the fitting devices used, the insertion of a co-axial, multi-hole distributor inside the header confirmed the possibility of greatly improving the liquid and gas flow distribution by the proper selection of position, diameter and number of the flow openings between the supplying distributor and the system of parallel channels connected to the header. (author)

  17. Testing a Model of Planck-Scale Quantum Geometry With Broadband Correlation of Colocated 40m Interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCuller, Lee Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The Holometer is designed to test for a Planck diffractive-scaling uncertainty in long-baseline position measurements due to an underlying noncommutative geometry normalized to relate Black hole entropy bounds of the Holographic principle to the now-finite number of position states. The experiment overlaps two independent 40 meter optical Michelson interferometers to detect the proposed uncertainty as a common broadband length fluctuation. 150 hours of instrument cross-correlation data are analyzed to test the prediction of a correlated noise magnitude of $7\\times10^{−21}$~m/$\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ with an effective bandwidth of 750kHz. The interferometers each have a quantum-limited sensitivity of $2.5\\times 10^{−18}$~m/$\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$, but their correlation with a time-bandwidth product of $4\\times 10^{11}$ digs between the noise floors in search for the covarying geometric jitter. The data presents an exclusion of 5 standard deviations for the tested model. This exclus ion is defended through analysis of the calibration methods for the instrument as well as further sub shot noise characterization of the optical systems to limit spurious background-correlations from undermining the signal.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chien-Chih Liu, J.

    1993-12-31

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of falling molten lithium or Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) jets encircles the reactor`s central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel. X-rays from the fusion microexplosion will ablate a thin layer of blanket material from the surfaces which face toward the fusion site. This generates a highly energetic vapor, which mostly coalesces in the central cavity. The blast expansion from the central cavity generates a shock which propagates through the segmented blanket - a complex geometry, gas-continuous two-phase medium. The impulse that the blast gives to the liquid as it vents past, the gas shock on the chamber wall, and ultimately the liquid impact on the wall are all important quantities to the HYLIFE structural designers.

  19. A numerical study of geometry dependent errors in velocity, temperature, and density measurements from single grid planar retarding potential analyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R. L.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Klenzing, J. H.

    2010-08-15

    Planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) have been utilized numerous times on high profile missions such as the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program to measure plasma composition, temperature, density, and the velocity component perpendicular to the plane of the instrument aperture. These instruments use biased grids to approximate ideal biased planes. These grids introduce perturbations in the electric potential distribution inside the instrument and when unaccounted for cause errors in the measured plasma parameters. Traditionally, the grids utilized in RPAs have been made of fine wires woven into a mesh. Previous studies on the errors caused by grids in RPAs have approximated woven grids with a truly flat grid. Using a commercial ion optics software package, errors in inferred parameters caused by both woven and flat grids are examined. A flat grid geometry shows the smallest temperature and density errors, while the double thick flat grid displays minimal errors for velocities over the temperature and velocity range used. Wire thickness along the dominant flow direction is found to be a critical design parameter in regard to errors in all three inferred plasma parameters. The results shown for each case provide valuable design guidelines for future RPA development.

  20. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SPACETIME GEOMETRY AROUND 10 STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES FROM THE DISK'S THERMAL SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Lingyao; Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo

    2014-12-20

    In a previous paper, one of us (C. Bambi) described a code to compute the thermal spectrum of geometrically thin and optically thick accretion disks around generic stationary and axisymmetric black holes, which are not necessarily of the Kerr type. As the structure of the accretion disk and the propagation of electromagnetic radiation from the disk to the distant observer depend on the background metric, the analysis of the thermal spectrum of thin disks can be used to test the actual nature of black hole candidates. In this paper, we consider the 10 stellar-mass black hole candidates for which the spin parameter has already been estimated from the analysis of the disk's thermal spectrum under the assumption of the Kerr background, and we translate the measurements reported in the literature into constraints on the spin parameter-deformation parameter plane. The analysis of the disk's thermal spectrum can be used to estimate only one parameter of the geometry close to the compact object; therefore, it is not possible to get independent measurements of both the spin and the deformation parameters. The constraints obtained here will be used in combination with other measurements in future work with the final goal of breaking the degeneracy between the spin and possible deviations from the Kerr solution and thus test the Kerr black hole hypothesis.

  1. Mutant Fatty Acid Desaturase and Method for Directed Mutagenesis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby...

  2. EMC Electropolishing TEM Samples Using Perchloric Acid and Methanol |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory EMC Electropolishing TEM Samples Using Perchloric Acid and Methanol PDF icon Electropolishing_Using_Perchloric_Acid_and_Methanol

  3. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion ...

  4. High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D Presented at the NREL ... DC, August 11-12, 2011. PDF icon High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) ...

  5. Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lead Acid Battery Consortium Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium Place: Durham, North Carolina Zip: 27713 Sector: Vehicles Product: The ALABC is...

  6. A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important...

  7. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines You are accessing ...

  8. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines This study ...

  9. Extraction of Phosphonic Acids from Urine Samples and Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phosphonic Acids from Urine Samples and Analysis by Gas Chromatography with Detection by ... Title: Extraction of Phosphonic Acids from Urine Samples and Analysis by Gas ...

  10. Acid soluble platelet aggregating material isolated from human umbilical cord

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Morris D.

    1983-01-01

    Acid soluble, pepsin sensitive platelet aggregating material isolated from human umbilical cord tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid, method of isolation and use to control bleeding.

  11. REDUCTION OF ACIDITY OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS BY USE OF FORMALDEHYDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Healy, T.V.

    1958-05-20

    A continuous method is described of concentrating by evaporation and reducing the nitrate ion content of an aqueous solution of metallic salts containing nitric acid not in excess of 8N. It consists of heating the solution and then passing formaldehyde into the heated solution to bring about decomposition of the nitric acid. The evolved gases containing NO are contacted countercurrently with an aqueous metal salt solution containing nitric acid in excess of 8N so as to bring about decomposition of the nitric acid and lower the normality to at least 8N, whereupon it is passed into the body of heated solution.

  12. Thermodynamic Features of Benzene-1,2-Diphosphonic Acid Complexes with Several Metal Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syouhei Nishihama; Ryan P. Witty; Leigh R Martin; Kenneth L. Nash

    2013-08-01

    Among his many contributions to the advancement of f-element chemistry and separation science, Professor Gregory R. Choppins research group completed numerous investigations featuring the application of distribution techniques to the determination of metal complexation equilibrium quotients. Most of these studies focused on the chemistry of lanthanide and actinide complexes. In keeping with that tradition, this report discusses the complex formation equilibrium constants for complexes of trivalent europium (Eu3+) with benzene-1,2-diphosphonic acid (H4BzDP) determined using solvent extraction distribution experiments in 0.2 M (Na,H)ClO4 media in the temperature range of 5 45 degrees C. Protonation constants for HnBzDP4-n and stoichiometry and stability of BzDP4- complexes with Zn2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ have also been determined using potentiometric titration (at I = 0.1 M) and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Heats of protonation of HnBzDPn-4 species have been determined by titration calorimetry. From the temperature dependence of the complex Eu3+-HnBzDPn-4 equilibrium constant, a composite enthalpy (?H = -15.1 (+/-1.0) kJ mol-1) of complexation has been computed. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters with literature reports on other diphosphonic acids and structurally similar carboxylic acids indicates that exothermic heats of complexation are unique to the Eu-BzDP system. Comparisons with thermodynamic data from the literature indicate that the fixed geometry imposed by the benzene ring enhances complex stability.

  13. Investigating the significance of zero-point motion in small molecular clusters of sulphuric acid and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinson, Jake L. Ford, Ian J.; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-01-14

    The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei, and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics method at the density functional level of theory. The general effect of zero-point motion is to distort the mean structure slightly, and to promote the extent of proton transfer with respect to classical behaviour. In a particular configuration of one sulphuric acid molecule with three waters, the range of positions explored by a proton between a sulphuric acid and a water molecule at 300 K (a broad range in contrast to the confinement suggested by geometry optimisation at 0 K) is clearly affected by the inclusion of zero point motion, and similar effects are observed for other configurations.

  14. EXTINCTION AND DUST GEOMETRY IN M83 H II REGIONS: AN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WFC3 STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guilin; Calzetti, Daniela; Hong, Sungryong; Whitmore, Bradley; Chandar, Rupali; O'Connell, Robert W.; Blair, William P.; Cohen, Seth H.; Kim, Hwihyun; Frogel, Jay A.

    2013-12-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 narrow-band imaging of the starburst galaxy M83 targeting the hydrogen recombination lines (H?, H?, and Pa?), which we use to investigate the dust extinction in the H II regions. We derive extinction maps with 6pc spatial resolution from two combinations of hydrogen lines (H?/H? and H?/Pa?), and show that the longer wavelengths probe larger optical depths, with A{sub V} values larger by ?1mag than those derived from the shorter wavelengths. This difference leads to a factor ?2 discrepancy in the extinction-corrected H? luminosity, a significant effect when studying extragalactic H II regions. By comparing these observations to a series of simple models, we conclude that a large diversity of absorber/emitter geometric configurations can account for the data, implying a more complex physical structure than the classical foreground ''dust screen'' assumption. However, most data points are bracketed by the foreground screen and a model where dust and emitters are uniformly mixed. When averaged over large (?100-200pc) scales, the extinction becomes consistent with a ''dust screen'', suggesting that other geometries tend to be restricted to more local scales. Moreover, the extinction in any region can be described by a combination of the foreground screen and the uniform mixture model with weights of 1/3 and 2/3 in the center (?2kpc), respectively, and 2/3 and 1/3 for the rest of the disk. This simple prescription significantly improves the accuracy of the dust extinction corrections and can be especially useful for pixel-based analyses of galaxies similar to M83.

  15. EFFECT OF COMBUSTOR INLET GEOMETRY ON ACOUSTIC SIGNATURE AND FLOW FIELD BEHAVIOUR OF THE LOW SWIRL INJECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelsen, Peter L.; Littlejohn, David; Cheng, Robert K.; Portillo, J. Enrique; Martin, Scott M.

    2009-11-30

    Low Swirl Injector (LSI) technology is a lean premixed combustion method that is being developed for fuel-flexible gas turbines. The objective of this study is to characterize the fuel effects and influences of combustor geometry on the LSI's overall acoustic signatures and flowfields. The experiments consist of 24 flames at atmospheric condition with bulk flows ranging between 10 and 18 m/s. The flames burn CH{sub 4} (at {phi} = 0.6 & 0.7) and a blend of 90% H{sub 2} - 10% CH{sub 4} by volume (at {phi} = 0.35 & 0.4). Two combustor configurations are used, consisting of a cylindrical chamber with and without a divergent quarl at the dump plane. The data consist of pressure spectral distributions at five positions within the system and 2D flowfield information measured by Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). The results show that acoustic oscillations increase with U{sub 0} and {phi}. However, the levels in the 90% H{sub 2} flames are significantly higher than in the CH{sub 4} flames. For both fuels, the use of the quarl reduces the fluctuating pressures in the combustion chamber by up to a factor of 7. The PIV results suggest this to be a consequence of the quarl restricting the formation of large vortices in the outer shear layer. A Generalized Instability Model (GIM) was applied to analyze the acoustic response of baseline flames for each of the two fuels. The measured frequencies and the stability trends for these two cases are predicted and the triggered acoustic mode shapes identified.

  16. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  17. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  18. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  19. Oxidative cleavage of erucic acid for the synthesis of brassylic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed J. Nasrullah; Pooja Thapliyal; Erica N. Pfarr; Nicholas S. Dusek; Kristofer L. Schiele; James A. Bahr

    2010-10-29

    The main focus of this work is to synthesize Brassylic Acid (BA) using oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is an industrial oilseed grown in North Dakota. Crambe has potential as an industrial fatty acid feedstock as a source of Erucic acid (EA). It has approximately 50-60 % of EA, a C{sub 22} monounsaturated fatty acid. Oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids derived from oilseeds produces long chain (9, 11, and 13 carbon atoms) dibasic and monobasic acids. These acids are known commercial feedstocks for the preparation of nylons, polyesters, waxes, surfactants, and perfumes. Other sources of EA are Rapeseed seed oil which 50-60 % of EA. Rapeseed is grown outside USA. The oxidative cleavage of EA was done using a high throughput parallel pressure reactor system. Kinetics of the reaction shows that BA yields reach a saturation at 12 hours. H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} was found to be the best catalyst for the oxidative cleavage of EA. High yields of BA were obtained at 80 C with bubbling of O{sub 2} or 10 bar of O{sub 2} for 12 hours.

  20. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  1. Transcription factor-based biosensors for detecting dicarboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Jeffrey; Keasling, Jay

    2014-02-18

    The invention provides methods and compositions for detecting dicarboxylic acids using a transcription factor biosensor.

  2. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  3. Influence of sweeping detonation-wave loading on damage evolution during spallation loading of tantalum in both a planar and curved geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, George Thompson III; Hull, Lawrence Mark; Livescu, Veronica; Faulkner, James; Briggs, Matthew E.; Meyer, Ross Keith; Andrews, Heather Lynn; Hare, Steven John; Jakulewicz, Micah Shawn; Shinas, Michael A.

    2015-03-30

    Widespread research over the past five decades has provided a wealth of experimental data and insight concerning the shock hardening, damage evolution, and the spallation response of materials subjected to square-topped shock-wave loading profiles. However, fewer quantitative studies have been conducted on the effect of direct, in-contact, high explosive (HE)-driven Taylor wave (unsupported shocks) loading on the shock hardening, damage evolution, or spallation response of materials. Systematic studies quantifying the effect of sweeping-detonation wave loading are yet sparser. In this study, the damage evolution and spallation response of Ta is shown to be critically dependent on the peak shock stress, the geometry of the sample (flat or curved plate geometry), and the shock obliquity during sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading. Sweepingwave loading in the flat-plate geometry is observed to: a) yield a lower spall strength than previously documented for 1-D supported-shock-wave loading, b) exhibit increased shock hardening as a function of increasing obliquity, and c) lead to an increased incidence of deformation twin formation with increasing shock obliquity. Sweeping-wave loading of a 10 cm radius curved Ta plate is observed to: a) lead to an increase in the shear stress as a function of increasing obliquity, b) display a more developed level of damage evolution, extensive voids and coalescence, and lower spall strength with obliquity in the curved plate than seen in the flat-plate sweeping-detonation wave loading for an equivalent HE loading, and c) no increased propensity for deformation twin formation with increasing obliquity as seen in the flat-plate geometry. The overall observations comparing and contrasting the flat versus curved sweeping-wave spall experiments with 1D loaded spallation behavior suggests a coupled influence of obliquity and geometry on dynamic shock-induced damage evolution and spall strength. Coupled experimental and modeling research to quantify the combined effects of sweeping-wave loading with increasingly complex sample geometries on the shockwave response of materials is clearly crucial to providing the basis for developing and thereafter validation of predictive modeling capability.

  4. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  5. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

    1996-10-08

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer is described made from monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4-oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2 by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  6. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Coleman, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4-oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2 by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  7. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Coleman, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylene glycols, propylene and polypropylene glycols, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  8. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J.-H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V,; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O'Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  9. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  10. Adsorption of fulvic acid on goethite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filius, J.D.; Lumsdon, D.G.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsduk, W.H. van

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of fulvic acid by goethite was determined experimentally as a function of concentration, pH, and ionic strength. The data were described with the CD-MUSIC model of Hiemstra and Van Riemsdijk (1996), which allows the distribution of charge of the bound fulvate molecule over a surface region. Simultaneously, the concentration, pH, and salt dependency of the binding of fulvic acid can be described. Using the same parameters, the basic charging behavior of the goethite in the absence of fulvic acid could be described well. The surface species used in the model indicate that inner sphere coordination of carboxylic groups of the fulvate molecule is important at low pH, whereas at high pH the outer sphere coordination with reactive groups of the fulvate molecule with high proton affinity is important.

  11. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer were selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylene glycols, propylene and polypropylene glycols, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide where the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  12. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  13. Formic acid fuel cells and catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Larsen, Robert; Ha, Su Yun

    2010-06-22

    An exemplary fuel cell of the invention includes a formic acid fuel solution in communication with an anode (12, 134), an oxidizer in communication with a cathode (16, 135) electrically linked to the anode, and an anode catalyst that includes Pd. An exemplary formic acid fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (130) includes a proton-conducting membrane (131) having opposing first (132) and second surfaces (133), a cathode catalyst on the second membrane surface, and an anode catalyst including Pd on the first surface.

  14. Formic acid fuel cells and catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Larsen, Robert; Ha, Su Yun

    2010-06-22

    An exemplary fuel cell of the invention includes a formic acid fuel solution in communication with an anode (12, 134), an oxidizer in communication with a cathode (16, 135) electrically linked to the anode, and an anode catalyst that includes Pd. An exemplary formic acid fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (130) includes a proton-conducting membrane (131) having opposing first (132) and second surfaces (133), a cathode catalyst on the second membrane surface, and an anode catalyst including Pd on the first surface.

  15. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  16. Method of Identifying a Base in a Nucleic Acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    1999-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  17. Probe kit for identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  18. A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one

  19. Acid fracturing of carbonate gas reservoirs in Sichuan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, M.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the geological characteristics of Sinian-furassic carbonate gas reservoirs in the Sichuan basin, China. Based on these characteristics, a mechanism of acid fracturing is proposed for such reservoirs. Included are the results of a research in acid fracturing fluids and field operation conditions for matrix acidizing and acid fracturing in Sichuan. The acid fracturing method is shown to be an effective stimulation technique for the carbonate strata in this area.

  20. A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one

  1. A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one

  2. A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one

  3. Microseismic and deformation imaging of hydraulic fracture growth and geometry in the C sand interval, GRI/DOE M-Site project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warpinski, N.R.; Uhl, J.E.; Engler, B.P.

    1997-08-01

    Six hydraulic-fracture injections into a fluvial sandstone at a depth of 4300 ft were monitored with multi-level tri-axial seismic receivers in two wells and an inclinometer array in one well, resulting in maps of the growth and final geometry of each fracture injection. These diagnostic images show the progression of height and length growth with fluid volume, rate and viscosity. Complexities associated with shut downs and high treatment pressures can be observed. Validation of the seismic geometry was made with the inclinometers and diagnostic procedures in an intersecting well. Fracture information related to deformation, such as fracture closure pressure, residual widths, and final prop distribution, were obtained from the inclinometer data.

  4. Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as seen in Joint URBAN 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Lundquist, J; D.Mirocha, J

    2006-09-06

    As accurate modeling of atmospheric flows in urban environments requires sophisticated representation of complex urban geometries, much work has been devoted to treatment of the urban surface. However, the importance of the larger-scale flow impinging upon the urban complex to the flow, transport and dispersion within it and downwind has received less attention. Building-resolving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are commonly employed to investigate interactions between the flow and three-dimensional structures comprising the urban environment, however such models are typically forced with simplified boundary conditions that fail to include important regional-scale phenomena that can strongly influence the flow within the urban complex and downwind. This paper investigates the interaction of an important and frequently occurring regional-scale phenomenon, the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), with urban-scale turbulence and dispersion in Oklahoma City using data from the Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003) field experiment. Two simulations of nocturnal tracer release experiments from JU2003 using Lawrence Livermore National laboratory's FEM3MP CFD model yield differing levels of agreement with the observations in wind speed, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and concentration profiles in the urban wake, approximately 750m downwind of the central business district. Profiles of several observed turbulence parameters at this location indicate characteristics of both bottom-up and top-down boundary layers during each of the experiments. These data are consistent with turbulence production due to at least two sources, the complex flow structures of the urban area and the region of strong vertical wind shear occurring beneath the LLJs present each night. While strong LLJs occurred each night, their structures varied considerably, resulting in significant differences in the magnitudes of the turbulence parameters observed during the two experiments. As FEM3MP was forced only with an upwind velocity profile that did not adequately represent the LLJ, the downward propagation of TKE observed during the experiments was absent from the simulations. As such, the differing levels of agreement between the simulations and observations during the two experiments can, in part, be explained by their exclusion of this important larger-scale influence. We demonstrate the ability of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to simulate accurate velocity fields during each night, and identify the use of regional-scale simulation data as a promising approach for representing the effects of important regional-scale phenomena such as the LLJ, on urban-scale simulations.

  5. Two-dimensional DORT discrete ordinates X-Y geometry neutron flux calculations for the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, C.O.

    1990-07-01

    Results are reported for two-dimensional discrete ordinates, X-Y geometry calculations performed for seven Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations. The calculations were performed in support of an effort to reassess the neutron fluence received by the reactor vessel. Nickel foil measurement data indicated considerable underprediction of fluences by the previously used multigroup removal- diffusion method. Therefore, calculations by a more accurate method were deemed appropriate. For each core configuration, data are presented for (1) integral fluxes in the core and near the vessel wall, (2) neutron spectra at selected locations, (3) isoflux contours superimposed on the geometry models, (4) plots of the geometry models, and (5) input for the calculations. The initial calculations were performed with several mesh sizes. Comparisons of the results from these calculations indicated that the uncertainty in the calculated fluxes should be less than 10%. However, three-dimensional effects (such as axial asymmetry in the fuel loading) could contribute to much greater uncertainty in the calculated neutron fluxes. 7 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Use of radial self-field geometry for intense pulsed ion beam generation above 6 MeV on Hermes III.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renk, Timothy Jerome; Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef; Ginn, William Craig; Mikkelson, Kenneth A.; Schall, Michael; Cooper, Gary Wayne

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the generation and propagation of intense pulsed ion beams at the 6 MeV level and above using the Hermes III facility at Sandia National Laboratories. While high-power ion beams have previously been produced using Hermes III, we have conducted systematic studies of several ion diode geometries for the purpose of maximizing focused ion energy for a number of applications. A self-field axial-gap diode of the pinch reflex type and operated in positive polarity yielded beam power below predicted levels. This is ascribed both to power flow losses of unknown origin upstream of the diode load in Hermes positive polarity operation, and to anomalies in beam focusing in this configuration. A change to a radial self-field geometry and negative polarity operation resulted in greatly increased beam voltage (> 6 MeV) and estimated ion current. A comprehensive diagnostic set was developed to characterize beam performance, including both time-dependent and time-integrated measurements of local and total beam power. A substantial high-energy ion population was identified propagating in reverse direction, i.e. from the back side of the anode in the electron beam dump. While significant progress was made in increasing beam power, further improvements in assessing the beam focusing envelope will be required before ultimate ion generation efficiency with this geometry can be completely determined.

  7. Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nghiem, N.P.; Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1999-02-09

    The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of (a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; (b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; (c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; (d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/l up to about 1 g/l; (e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; (f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of {>=}1 g/l; and (g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism. 7 figs.

  8. Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nghiem, Nhuan Phu; Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/L up to about 1 g/L; e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of .gtoreq.1 g/L; and g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism.

  9. Corrosion free phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell with an electrolyte fuel system which supplies electrolyte via a wick disposed adjacent a cathode to an absorbent matrix which transports the electrolyte to portions of the cathode and an anode which overlaps the cathode on all sides to prevent corrosion within the cell.

  10. Nucleic acid-coupled colorimetric analyte detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H.; Jonas, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes and membrane conformational changes through the detection of color changes in biopolymeric materials. In particular, the present invention provide for the direct colorimetric detection of analytes using nucleic acid ligands at surfaces of polydiacetylene liposomes and related molecular layer systems.

  11. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  12. NO reduction using sublimation of cyanuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    An arrangement for reducing the NO content of a gas stream comprises contacting the gas stream with HNCO at a temperature effective for heat induced decomposition of HNCO and for resultant lowering of the NO content of the gas stream. Preferably, the HNCO is generated by sublimation of cyanuric acid.

  13. No reduction using sublimation of cyanuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    An arrangement for reducing the NO content of a gas stream comprises contacting the gas stream with NHCO into a temperature effective for heat induced decomposition of HNCO and for resultant lowering of the NO content of the gas stream. Preferably, the HNCO is generated by sublimation of cyanuric acid.

  14. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  15. Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

  16. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Baker, Frederick S.; Armstrong, Beth L.

    2011-09-13

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  17. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  18. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  19. Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Bullock, Sr., Jack C.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    1990-01-01

    A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

  20. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2012-02-21

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang, William A. Goddard, Yongchun Tang

    2005-05-05

    In the second year of this project, we continued our effort to develop low temperature decarboxylation catalysts and investigate the behavior of these catalysts at different reaction conditions. We conducted a large number of dynamic measurements with crude oil and model compounds to obtain the information at different reaction stages, which was scheduled as the Task2 in our work plan. We developed a novel adsorption method to remove naphthenic acid from crude oil using naturally occurring materials such as clays. Our results show promise as an industrial application. The theoretical modeling proposed several possible reaction pathways and predicted the reactivity depending on the catalysts employed. From all of these studies, we obtained more comprehensive understanding about catalytic decarboxylation and oil upgrading based on the naphthenic acid removal concept.

  2. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  3. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

  4. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  5. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  6. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  7. No reduction using sublimation of cyanuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert

    1989-01-01

    An arrangement for reducing the NO content of a gas stream comprises contacting the gas stream with HNCO at a temperature effective for heat induced decomposition of HNCO and for resultant lowering of the NO content of the gas stream. Preferably, the HNCO is generated by sublimation of cyanuric acid and CO or other H-atom generating species is also present or added to the gas stream.

  8. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2013-04-02

    A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

  9. Brnsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brnsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Jiang, Juncong and Yaghi, Omar, M. Bronsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks. Chem. Rev., 115, 6966-6997 (2015)....

  10. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Joe N. (San Ramon, CA); Straume, Tore (Tracy, CA); Bogen, Kenneth T. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

  11. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  12. A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Wednesday, 28 November 2007 00:00 Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are...

  13. Brnsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    List Jiang, Juncong and Yaghi, Omar, M. Bronsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks. Chem. Rev., 115, 6966-6997 (2015). DOI: 10.1021acs.chemrev.5b00221 Bronsted Acidity in MOFs...

  14. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery Recycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery Recycling March 23, 2011 Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet In 2004, the US Geological Survey estimated that 95% of lead in the United States is recycled, primarily from used lead acid batteries. A broader 2009 European study estimated that globally about 52% of lead is recycled, and a 2008 Asian study estimated a global recycle rate of 68%. Unfortunately, many incidents over the past decade

  16. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  17. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  18. Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pruett, David J.; Howerton, William B.

    1982-01-01

    Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.

  19. Quantification of false positive reduction in nucleic acid purificatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; DNA; ELECTRODYNAMICS; FEVER; GENETICS; HYBRIDIZATION; NUCLEIC ACIDS; OLIGONUCLEOTIDES; PURIFICATION; TARGETS; TESTING ...

  20. Theoretical Study of Trimethylacetic Acid Adsorption on CeO 2 (111) Surface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Weina; Thevuthasan, S.; Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Ping

    2016-01-11

    We investigated trimethylacetic acid (TMAA) adsorption on stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient CeO2(111) surfaces using density functional theory that accounts for the on-site Coulomb interaction via a Hubbard term (DFT+U) and long-range dispersion correction. Both the molecular state and dissociative state (TMAA → TMA– + H+) were identified on stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient CeO2(111) surfaces. For the stoichiometric surface, two thermodynamically favorable configurations with adsorption energies of the order of -30 kcal/mol are identified; one is a molecule adsorption state, and the other one is a dissociative state. For the oxygen-deficient surface, dissociative states are more favorable than molecular states. Moreover, the mostmore » favorable configuration is the dissociative adsorption of TMAA with the adsorption energy of the order of -77 kcal/mol. The dissociated TMA moiety takes the position of oxygen vacancy, forming three Ce–O bonds. The signature vibrational frequencies for these thermodynamically stable structures are reported as well as their electronic structures. The effects of long-range dispersion interactions are found to be negligible for geometries but important for adsorption energies.« less

  1. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2013-07-16

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  2. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  3. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dumesic, James A.; West; Ryan M.

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  4. Method for nucleic acid isolation using supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nivens, David E.; Applegate, Bruce M.

    1999-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of a microorganism in an environmental sample involves contacting the sample with a supercritical fluid to isolate nucleic acid from the microorganism, then detecting the presence of a particular sequence within the isolated nucleic acid. The nucleic acid may optionally be subjected to further purification.

  5. Method for nucleic acid isolation using supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nivens, D.E.; Applegate, B.M.

    1999-07-13

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of a microorganism in an environmental sample involves contacting the sample with a supercritical fluid to isolate nucleic acid from the microorganism, then detecting the presence of a particular sequence within the isolated nucleic acid. The nucleic acid may optionally be subjected to further purification. 4 figs.

  6. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2012-02-14

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  7. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  8. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2015-04-14

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  9. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2014-02-25

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  10. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2008-04-01

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  11. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  12. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2009-05-05

    The present invention provides an endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  13. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2010-10-12

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  14. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2010-10-05

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  15. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2008-11-11

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  16. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  17. EGVIII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-05-23

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl8, and the corresponding EGVIII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVIII, recombinant EGVIII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  18. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-06-06

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  19. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-05-16

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  20. Platform/foreslope facies and buildup geometry resulting from short-term and long-term eustatic sea level fluctuations: latemar buildup (Middle Triassic), Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, M.T.; Goldhammer, R.

    1987-05-01

    Superimposed short-term and long-term eustatic sea level fluctuations directly controlled Latemar platform stratigraphy and indirectly influenced the deeper water facies and overall buildup geometry. Deeper water facies, the foreslope and toe of slope, are a function of platform submergence (highstand shedding) and subaerial exposure (lowstand lithification and erosion) and thus only indirectly reflect eustatic fluctuations. The Latemar consists of a platform core (3-4 km wide, 700 m thick) with a narrow margin, flanked by foreslope (30-35/sup 0/ dips), toe of slope, and basin deposits. The shallowing-upward platform sequence records a long-term (about 10 m.y.) eustatic sea level oscillation with an amplitude of about 150 m. The lower 250 m marks an initial catch-up phase (subtidal carbonates); the upper 450 m marks the sequential keep-up phase (meter-scale cyclic carbonates). These cycles record platform submergence and exposure caused by short-term (10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ years) Milankovitch eustatic oscillations superimposed on the long-term trend. Platform submergence and exposure conditions result in contrasting foreslope deposits. During highstands, platform-derived sands bypass the foreslope, accumulating as toe-of-slope graded beds and basin turbidites. During lowstands, sand supply ceases, producing basin hard-grounds. Foreslope megabreccias contain margin-derived boundstone clasts, with only minor platform-derived sands (highstands) and lithified clasts (lowstands). As the platform margin/foreslope contact is nearly vertical, a progressively increasing volume of foreslope megabreccia was needed to maintain the depositional geometry. This coincides with the most commonly exposed platform interval, suggesting that platform exposure determines buildup flank geometry by controlling megabreccia clast production.

  1. Nucleic acid analysis using terminal-phosphate-labeled nucleotides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-04-22

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  2. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis II. Amino Acids

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Stepka, W.; Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1948-05-25

    The radioactive amino acid's synthesized from C{sup 14}O{sub 2} by green algae both in the light and in the dark after CO{sub 2}-free preillumination have been separated and identified using paper chromatography and radioautography. The radioactive amino acids identified were aspartic acid, alanine and smaller amounts of 3- and 4-carbon amino acids. This finding as well as the total absence of radioactive glutamic acid substantiates the mechanism for reduction of CO{sub 2} previously postulated by members of this laboratory.

  3. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strain, James E.; Ross, Harley H.

    1981-01-01

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  4. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strain, J.E.; Ross, H.H.

    1980-01-11

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  5. Nucleic Acid Database: a Repository of Three-Dimensional Information about Nucleic Acids

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Berman, H. M.; Olson, W. K.; Beveridge, D. L.; Westbrook, J.; Gelbin, A.; Demeny, T.; Hsieh, S. H.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Schneider, B.

    The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) provides 3-D structural information about nucleic acids. It is a relational database designed to facilitate the easy search for nucleic acid structures using any of the stored primary or derived structural features. Reports can then be created describing any properties of the selected structures and structures may be viewed in several different formats, including the mmCIF format, the NDB Atlas format, the NDB coordinate format, or the PDB coordinate format. Browsing structure images created directly from coordinates in the repository can also be done. More than 7000 structures have been released as of May 2014. This website also includes a number of specialized tools and interfaces. The NDB Project is funded by the National Institutes of Health and has been funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy in the past.

  6. Nucleic Acid Database: a Repository of Three-Dimensional Information about Nucleic Acids

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Berman, H. M.; Olson, W. K.; Beveridge, D. L.; Westbrook, J.; Gelbin, A.; Demeny, T.; Hsieh, S. H.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Schneider, B.

    The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) provides 3-D structural information about nucleic acids.  It is a relational database designed to facilitate the easy search for nucleic acid structures using any of the stored primary or derived structural features. Reports can then be created describing any properties of the selected structures and structures may be viewed in several different formats, including the mmCIF format, the NDB Atlas format, the NDB coordinate format, or the PDB coordinate format. Browsing structure images created directly from coordinates in the repository can also be done. More than 7000 structures have been released as of May 2014. This website also includes a number of specialized tools and interfaces. The NDB Project is funded by the National Institutes of Health and has been funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy in the past.

  7. Acid rain legislation and local areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control.

  8. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages 02

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Mast, Andrea L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  9. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  10. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  11. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  12. Role of acid catalysis in dimethyl ether conversion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Acidity plays an important role in the conversion of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) to hydrocarbons and oxygenates. In the conversion to hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst, Broensted acidity is the main contributor to the first hydrocarbon formed. Here, acidity is also an important factor in determining olefin, paraffin, and aromatic content in the final product distribution. Catalyst life has also been found to be related to acidity content in zeolites. DME conversion to oxygenates is especially dependent on high acidity catalysts. Superacids like BF{sub 3}, HF-BF{sub 3}, and CF{sub 3}COOH have been used in the past for conversion of DME in carbonylation reactions to form methyl acetate and acetic acid at high pressures. Recently, heteropoly acids and their corresponding metal substituted salts have been used to convert DME to industrially important petrochemicals resulting in shorter reaction times and without the use of harsh operating conditions.

  13. Synthesis of alpha-amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jr., Jefferson W.

    1983-01-01

    A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the snythesis methods of the prior art.

  14. Synthesis of alpha-amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jr., Jefferson W.

    1983-01-01

    A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  15. Synthesis of alpha-amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jr., Jefferson W.

    1983-01-01

    A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  16. Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulanovsky, Levy

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

  17. Comment on Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D. D. Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Umansky, M. V.

    2014-05-15

    In the recently published paper Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)], the authors raise interesting and important issues concerning divertor physics and design. However, the paper contains significant errors: (a) The conceptual framework used in it for the evaluation of divertor quality is reduced to the assessment of the magnetic field structure in the outer Scrape-Off Layer. This framework is incorrect because processes affecting the pedestal, the private flux region and all of the divertor legs (four, in the case of a snowflake) are an inseparable part of divertor operation. (b) The concept of the divertor index focuses on only one feature of the magnetic field structure and can be quite misleading when applied to divertor design. (c) The suggestion to rename the divertor configurations experimentally realized on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) and DIII-D (Doublet III-D) from snowflakes to X-divertors is not justified: it is not based on comparison of these configurations with the prototypical X-divertor, and it ignores the fact that the NSTX and DIII-D poloidal magnetic field geometries fit very well into the snowflake two-null prescription.

  18. CFD study of natural convection mixing in a steam generator mock-up: Comparison between full geometry and porous media approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehbi, A.; Badreddine, H.

    2012-07-01

    In CFD simulations of flow mixing in a steam generator (SG) during natural circulation, one is faced with the problem of representing the thousands of SG U-tubes. Typically simplifications are made to render the problem computationally tractable. In particular, one or a number of tubes are lumped in one volume which is treated as a single porous medium. This approach dramatically reduces the computational size of the problem and hence simulation time. In this work, we endeavor to investigate the adequacy of this approach by performing two separate simulations of flow in a mock-up with 262 U-tubes, i.e. one in which the porous media model is used for the tube bundle, and another in which the full geometry is represented. In both simulations, the Reynolds Stress (RMS) model of turbulence is used. We show that in steady state conditions, the porous media treatment yields results which are comparable to those of the full geometry representation (temperature distribution, recirculation ratio, hot plume spread, etc). Hence, the porous media approach can be extended with a good degree of confidence to the full scale SG. (authors)

  19. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  20. The influence of chemisorbed molecules on mass transfer in H-ZSM-5-type zeolites and the location of Broensted acid sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caro, J.; Buelow, M. ); Kaerger, J.; Pfeifer, H. )

    1988-11-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis is one of the most important applications of zeolites. Therefore, various methods have been developed to determine the strength and concentration of Bronsted acid sites in zeolites. Among them, in the last few years, {sup 1}H MAS NMR has become a powerful tool. In addition to the accessibility of the acid sites probed by chemisorption of N-bases, the steric environment of these catalytically active sites is of importance since it imposes constraints on the geometry of the transition state. However, only a few studies have been reported on this topic. Information was obtained from quantum chemical calculations, catalytic experiments, I.R. spectroscopy, and the arrangement of guest molecules. From these investigations it has been concluded that in H-ZSM-5 the channel intersections should be preferential location centers for the Bronsted acid sites. In adsorption technology, in the use of zeolites as shape-selective adsorbents, modification of the molecular sieve properties by chemisorption of nitrogen-containing bases (N-compounds) has become a common technique. The authors have applied the NMR pulsed field gradient technique to study the influence of chemisorbed N-compounds on transport properties of molecular sieves, considering the chemisorbed compounds as transport obstacles.

  1. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  2. Separation of certain carboxylic acids utilizing cation exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Sopher, David W. (Maarssenbroek, NL)

    1984-01-01

    A method of substantially separating monofunctional lower carboxylic acids from a liquid mixture containing the acids wherein the pH of the mixture is adjusted to a value in the range of from about 1 to about 5 to form protonated acids. The mixture is heated to an elevated temperature not greater than about 100.degree. C. and brought in contact with one side of a perfluorinated cation exchange membrane having sulfonate or carboxylate groups or mixtures thereof with the mixture containing the protonated acids. A pressure gradient can be established across the membrane with the mixture being under higher pressure, so that protonated monofunctional lower carboxylic acids pass through the membrane at a substantially faster rate than the remainder of the mixture thereby substantially separating the acids from the mixture.

  3. Synthesis of alpha-amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1983-01-25

    A method is described for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(OSOCl)CN, R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(Cl)CN and [R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(CN)O][sub 2]SO wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art. No Drawings

  4. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Caught in the Act | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lightsource Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Caught in the Act Monday, March 31, 2014 The Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteome consists of 5993 proteins, of which 853 are involved in primary metabolic processes critical for the survival and functioning of the cell1. Fatty acid biosynthesis is at the core of primary metabolism responsible for the synthesis of fatty acids, essential metabolites that are the major components of cellular membranes and energy storage. Due to the high prevalence of

  5. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  6. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  7. Quantification of false positive reduction in nucleic acid purification on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hemorrhagic fever DNA. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Quantification of false positive reduction in nucleic acid purification on hemorrhagic fever DNA. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantification of false positive reduction in nucleic acid purification on hemorrhagic fever DNA. Columbia University has developed a sensitive highly multiplexed system for genetic identification of nucleic acid targets. The primary obstacle to implementing this technology is the high rate of

  8. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-03-31

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

  9. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  10. RCPO1 - A Monte Carlo program for solving neutron and photon transport problems in three dimensional geometry with detailed energy description and depletion capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondis, L.A., II; Tyburski, L.J.; Moskowitz, B.S.

    2000-03-01

    The RCP01 Monte Carlo program is used to analyze many geometries of interest in nuclear design and analysis of light water moderated reactors such as the core in its pressure vessel with complex piping arrangement, fuel storage arrays, shipping and container arrangements, and neutron detector configurations. Written in FORTRAN and in use on a variety of computers, it is capable of estimating steady state neutron or photon reaction rates and neutron multiplication factors. The energy range covered in neutron calculations is that relevant to the fission process and subsequent slowing-down and thermalization, i.e., 20 MeV to 0 eV. The same energy range is covered for photon calculations.

  11. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  12. DOE specification: Flooded-type lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    This document contains a ``fill-in-the-blanks`` guide specification for procurement of flooded-type lead-acid storage batteries, for uninterruptible power supply applications.

  13. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  14. Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured ... acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing ...

  15. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis More Documents & Publications MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop Summary Report PAFC Cost Challenges DFC Technology Status...

  16. Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    acid is a highly desirable renewable chemical platform, which, using this process, can be converted into Methyl Tetrahydrofuran (Me-THF) with reasonable yield. The...

  17. Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Acid Cleaning Solutions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CARBON STEELS; CLEANING; CLOSURES; CORROSION; DISSOLUTION; NITRIC ACID; OXIDES; REMOVAL; SLUDGES; SODIUM HYDROXIDES; TANKS; TESTING...

  18. Hydrogenation of Glutamic Acid to Pyroglutaminol and Prolinol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Hydrogenation of Glutamic Acid to Pyroglutaminol and Prolinol...

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Acid Pueblo Canyon - NM 03

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Acid Pueblo Canyon - NM 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Acid/Pueblo Canyon, NM Alternate Name(s): Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Plant (TA-45) Acid/Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyon NM.03-3 Location: Canyons in the Pajarito Plateau Region in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos, NM NM.03-3 Historical Operations: Late 1943 or early 1944, head of the south fork of Acid Canyon received untreated liquid waste containing tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, uranium, plutonium, and americium discharged from

  20. LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. ... for the purpose of this review include temperatures ... boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium ...

  1. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-06-08

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. A series of tests to determine whether the polymer will be formed is currently being outlined. The first phase will be a simple experiment where a simulated SRAT supernatant containing the 80:20 blend of glycolic - formic acid could be irradiated in the Co-60 gamma source at SRNL to a very large dose resembling the dose received by the radioactive SRAT solution after several weeks. The resulting solution could then be heated to simulate refluxing in the SRAT process. Finally a radioactive demonstration of the SRAT process should be performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells to confirm successful execution of the glycolic - formic acid flowsheet.

  2. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  3. A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments...

  4. Production of anteiso-branched fatty acids in Escherichia coli...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Production of anteiso-branched fatty acids in Escherichia coli; next generation biofuels with improved cold-flow properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production of ...

  5. Regulating for the long term: SMCRA and acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shea, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    With the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), regulators and industry representatives expected to solve the problem of pollution of the Nation`s waterways caused by acidic discharges from coal mines. Eighteen years after the passage of SMCRA, hard issues of predicting, regulating and treating acid mine drainage remain. Acid mine drainage is most common in the coal seams of the Midwest and Appalachia: Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Ohio, Illinois, and Tennessee. This article discusses regulation of coal mines and acid mine drainage for the long term.

  6. Quantification of false positive reduction in nucleic acid purificatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hemorrhagic fever DNA. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantification of false positive reduction in nucleic acid purification on hemorrhagic fever DNA. You are ...

  7. Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shih-Perng; Moon, Seung H.; Coleman, Robert

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains.

  8. RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification...

  9. CRC handbook of chromatography: Nucleic acids and related compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krstulovic, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book's contents include: Structure Elucidation of Nucleic Acid Components; Fundamentals of HPLC; Analysis of Nucleic Acids and Oligonucleotides; Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Tissues; Gel Filtration Chromatography of RNAs and DNS Fragments; Separation of tRNAs and Oligonucleotides by Mixed Mode Chromatography; Anion-Exchange and Reversed-Phase HPLC of Synthetic Oligonucleotides; Nucleic Acid Components in Biological Fluids; RPLC Separation of RNA and DNA Hydrolysates; Nucleotides in Tissue Extracts; and Determination of Adenine Nucleotides and Creatine Phosphate in Various Mammalian Tissues.

  10. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  11. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. However, an irradiation test with a simulated SRAT product supernate containing glycolic acid in an oxygen depleted atmosphere found no evidence of polymerization.

  12. EFFECTS OF NITRIC ACID ON CRITICALITY SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-18

    As nitric acid molarity is increased, there are two competing phenomena affecting the reactivity of the system. First, there is interaction between each of the 10 wells in the basket-like insert. As the molarity of the nitric acid solution is increased (it moves from 100% water to 100% HNO{sub 3}), the hydrogen atom density decreases by about 80%. However, it remains a relatively efficient moderator. The moderating ratio of nitric acid is about 90% that of water. As the media between the wells is changed from 100% water to 100% nitric acid, the density of the media increases by 50%. A higher density typically leads to a better reflector. However, when the macroscopic scattering cross sections are considered, nitric acid is a much worse reflector than water. The effectiveness of nitric acid as a reflector is about 40% that of water. Since the media between the wells become a worse reflector and still remains an effective moderator, interaction between the wells increases. This phenomenon will cause reactivity to increase as nitric acid molarity increases. The seond phenomenon is due to the moderating ratio changing in the high concentration fissile-nitric acid solution in the 10 wells. Since the wells contain relatively small volumes of high concentration solutions, a small decrease in moderating power has a large effect on reactivity. This is due to the fact that neutrons are more likely to escape the high concentration fissile solution before causing another fission event. The result of this phenomenon is that as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases. Recent studies have shown that the second phenomenon is indeed the dominating force in determining reactivity changes in relation to nitric acid molarity changes. When considering the system as a whole, as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases.

  13. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  14. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-03-22

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  15. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2009-04-28

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  16. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2011-12-06

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  17. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  18. Production of amino acids using auxotrophic mutants of methylotrophic bacillus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Richard S.; Flickinger, Michael C.; Schendel, Frederick J.; Guettler, Michael V.

    2001-07-17

    A method of producing amino acids by culturing an amino acid auxotroph of a biologically pure strain of a type I methylotrophic bacterium of the genus Bacillus which exhibits sustained growth at 50.degree. C. using methanol as a carbon and energy source and requiring vitamin B.sub.12 and biotin is provided.

  19. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, G.A.; Smith, J.W.; Ihle, N.C.

    1982-07-08

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with Portland cement to form concrete.

  20. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  1. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for mercury detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2013-02-05

    A nucleic acid enzyme comprises an oligonucleotide containing thymine bases. The nucleic acid enzyme is dependent on both Hg.sup.2+and a second ion as cofactors, to produce a product from a substrate. The substrate comprises a ribonucleotide, a deoxyribonucleotide, or both.

  2. Preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakar; Spivey, James Jerry; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  3. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA; Smith, Jeffrey W [Lancaster, OH; Ihle, Nathan C [Walla Walla, WA

    1984-01-01

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with portland cement to form concrete.

  4. Solid phase sequencing of double-stranded nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Dong-Jing (Waltham, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Koster, Hubert (Concord, MA); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA)

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing of target double-stranded nucleic acid sequences, to nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probe comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include nucleic acids in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated determination of molecular weights and identification of the target sequence.

  5. Preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-09-15

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  6. Surface-active properties of humic and sulfochlorohumic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryabova, I.N.; Mustafina, G.A.; Akkulova, Z.G.; Satymbaeva, A.S.

    2009-10-15

    The surface tension of alkaline solutions of humic acids and their sulfochloroderivatives, which are synthesized by sulfonation of chlorohumic acids isolated from coal chlorinated by the electrochemical method, is investigated. It is established that humic compounds possess weak surface activity. Basic adsorption parameters are calculated.

  7. Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kabalka, George W.; Srivastava, Rajiv R.

    2000-03-14

    Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed.

  8. Boron containing amino acid compounds and methods for their use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, John D.; Coderre, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides new boron containing amino acid compounds and methods for making these compounds by contacting melphalan or another nitrogen mustard derivative and sodium borocaptate. The present invention also provides a method of treating a mammal having a tumor by administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the new boron containing amino acid compounds.

  9. Nucleic acids encoding metal uptake transporters and their uses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Antosiewicz, Danuta M.; Schachtman, Daniel P.; Clemens, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides LCT1 nucleic acids which encode metal ion uptake transporters. The invention also provides methods of modulating heavy metal and alkali metal uptake in plants. The methods involve producing transgenic plants comprising a recombinant expression cassette containing an LCT1 nucleic acid linked to a plant promoter.

  10. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-07-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH{sub 3}). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear.

  11. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-06-30

    Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

  12. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanklin, John (Shoreham, NY); Whittle, Edward J. (Greenport, NY)

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  13. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  14. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-14

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  15. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  16. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  17. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  18. Human jagged polypeptide, encoding nucleic acids and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Linheng; Hood, Leroy

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides an isolated polypeptide exhibiting substantially the same amino acid sequence as JAGGED, or an active fragment thereof, provided that the polypeptide does not have the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:6. The invention further provides an isolated nucleic acid molecule containing a nucleotide sequence encoding substantially the same amino acid sequence as JAGGED, or an active fragment thereof, provided that the nucleotide sequence does not encode the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:6. Also provided herein is a method of inhibiting differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells by contacting the progenitor cells with an isolated JAGGED polypeptide, or active fragment thereof. The invention additionally provides a method of diagnosing Alagille Syndrome in an individual. The method consists of detecting an Alagille Syndrome disease-associated mutation linked to a JAGGED locus.

  19. Nucleic acids encoding human trithorax protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Glen A.; Djabali, Malek; Selleri, Licia; Parry, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an isolated peptide having the characteristics of human trithorax protein (as well as DNA encoding same, antisense DNA derived therefrom and antagonists therefor). The invention peptide is characterized by having a DNA binding domain comprising multiple zinc fingers and at least 40% amino acid identity with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein and at least 70% conserved sequence with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein, and wherein said peptide is encoded by a gene located at chromosome 11 of the human genome at q23. Also provided are methods for the treatment of subject(s) suffering from immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer by administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of one of the above-described agents (i.e., peptide, antagonist therefor, DNA encoding said peptide or antisense DNA derived therefrom). Also provided is a method for the diagnosis, in a subject, of immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer associated with disruption of chromosome 11 at q23.

  20. Method for analyzing nucleic acids by means of a substrate having a microchannel structure containing immobilized nucleic acid probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Foote, Robert S.

    2003-12-09

    A method and apparatus for analyzing nucleic acids includes immobilizing nucleic probes at specific sites within a microchannel structure and moving target nucleic acids into proximity to the probes in order to allow hybridization and fluorescence detection of specific target sequences.