National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ac power voltage

  1. Fast switching, modular high-voltage DC/AC-power supplies for RF-Amplifiers and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex, J.; Schminke, W. [Thomcast AG, Turgi (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A new kind of high voltage high-power Pulse-Step Modulator (PSM) for broadcast transmitters, accelerator sources, for NBI (Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma Heating), gyrotrons and klystrons has been developed. Since its first introduction in 1984 for broadcast transmitters, more than 100 high-power sound broadcast transmitters had been equipped with the first generation of the PSM modulators, using Gate Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) as switching elements. Recently, due to faster switching elements and making use of the latest DSP technologies (Digital Signal Processing), the performance data and areas of application could be extended further. In 1994, a precision high voltage source for MW gyrotrons was installed at CRPP in Lausanne. Supplementary very low cost solutions for lower powers but high voltages had been developed. Hence, today, a large area of applications can be satisfied with the family of solutions. The paper describes the principle of operation, the related control systems and refers to some particular applications of the PSM amplifiers, especially the newest developments and corresponding field results.

  2. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F.

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  3. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  4. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  5. Monitoring Current, Voltage and Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring Current, Voltage and Power in Photovoltaic Systems Anton Driesse 1 , Joshua S. Stein 2 , Daniel Riley 2 , Craig Carmignani 2 1 PV Performance Labs, Freiburg, Germany 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Abstract - Accurate photovoltaic system performance monitoring is critical for profitable long-term operation. Irradiance, temperature, power, current and voltage signals contain rapid fluctuations that are not observable by typical monitoring systems. Nevertheless

  6. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  7. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  8. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  9. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick; Crocker, Robert Ward; Yee, Daniel Dadwa; Dils, David Wright

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  10. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick; Crocker, Robert Ward; Yee, Daniel Dadwa; Dils, David Wright

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  11. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E.; Wojtczuk, Steve; Jacobson, Gerard F.; Hagans, Karla G.

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  12. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced ac voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines collocated with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by means of grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed at discrete locations along the pipeline where the peak induced voltages occur. The degree of mitigation achieved is dependent upon the local soil resistivity at these locations. On occasion it may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system, for example, a parallel buried wire connected to the pipe at periodic intervals. In this situation the a priori calculation of mitigated voltage levels is sometimes made assuming an average value for the soil resistivity. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability upon the predicted mitigated voltage levels is examined. It is found that the predicted levels exhibit a statistical variability which precludes a precise determination of the mitigated voltage levels. Thus, post commissioning testing of the emplaced mitigation system is advisable.

  13. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  14. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  15. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  16. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  17. Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.

    2005-01-04

    A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.

  18. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  19. System for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Steven P.; Durall, Robert L.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1989-01-01

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over AC power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an AC power line. The modulation signal frequency range in selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the AC power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal.

  20. A system for tranmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, S.P.; Durall, R.L.; Haynes, H.D.

    1987-07-30

    A system for transmitting low frequency analog signals over ac power lines using FM modulation. A low frequency analog signal to be transmitted is first applied to a voltage-to-frequency converter where it is converted to a signal whose frequency varies in proportion to the analog signal amplitude. This signal is then used to modulate the carrier frequency of an FM transmitter coupled to an ac power line. The modulation signal frequency range is selected to be within the response band of the FM transmitter. The FM modulated carrier signal is received by an FM receiver coupled to the ac power line, demodulated and the demodulated signal frequency is converted by a frequency-to-voltage converter back to the form of the original low frequency analog input signal. 4 figs.

  1. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  2. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  3. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    buildings has significant energy savings potential through the elimination of inverters necessary to convert DC source power into AC (Alternating Current) as well as the...

  4. Living and Working Safely Around High-Voltage Power Lines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2001-06-01

    High-voltage transmission lines can be just as safe as the electrical wiring in the homes--or just as dangerous. The crucial factor is ourselves: they must learn to behave safely around them. This booklet is a basic safety guide for those who live and work around power lines. It deals primarily with nuisance shocks due to induced voltages, and with potential electric shock hazards from contact with high-voltage lines. References on possible long-term biological effects of transmission lines are shown. In preparing this booklet, the Bonneville Power Administration has drawn on more than 50 years of experience with high-voltage transmission. BPA operates one of the world`s largest networks of long-distance, high-voltage lines. This system has more than 400 substations and about 15,000 miles of transmission lines, almost 4,400 miles of which are operated at 500,000 volts.

  5. Programmable AC power supply for simulating power transient expected in fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focus on control engineering of the programmable AC power source which has capability to simulate power transient expected in fusion reactor. To generate the programmable power source, AC-AC power electronics converter is adopted to control the power of a set of heaters to represent the transient phenomena of heat exchangers or heat sources of a fusion reactor. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma operation scenario is used as the basic reference for producing this transient power source. (authors)

  6. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  7. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  8. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced AC voltages on pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines co-located with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed where the peak induced voltages occur. Mitigation depends on the local soil resistivity. It may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability is examined.

  9. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line ...

  10. Voltage Regulator Chip: Power Supplies on a Chip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: CPES at Virginia Tech is finding ways to save real estate on a computer's motherboard that could be used for other critical functions. Every computer processor today contains a voltage regulator that automatically maintains a constant level of electricity entering the device. These regulators contain bulky components and take up about 30% of a computer's motherboard. CPES at Virginia Tech is developing a voltage regulator that uses semiconductors made of gallium nitride on silicon (GaN-on-Si) and high-frequency soft magnetic material. These materials are integrated on a small, 3D chip that can handle the same amount of power as traditional voltage regulators at 1/10 the size and with improved efficiency. The small size also frees up to 90% of the motherboard space occupied by current voltage regulators.

  11. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, Neil Richard; King, Robert Dean; Schwartz, James Edward

    1999-01-01

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  12. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, N.R.; King, R.D.; Schwartz, J.E.

    1999-05-11

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals. 10 figs.

  13. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  14. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  15. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  16. Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2010-04-30

    Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

  17. AC power | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power switch Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are assisting General Electric Co. in developing an electrical...

  18. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC ... Report Number(s): US RE37126 DOE Contract Number: AC05-84OR21400 Resource Type: Patent ...

  19. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  20. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Burra, Rajni K.; Acharya, Kaustuva

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  1. The War of the Currents: AC vs. DC Power | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Power Company decided to award Westinghouse -- who had licensed Tesla's polyphase AC induction motor patent -- the contract to generate power from Niagara Falls. Although some...

  2. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, Gary R.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  3. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  4. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Power System Transition to a Modern Grid Distribution ... farms * Higher DC and AC transmission voltages - Reduce line losses * Low loss cables * Cyber ...

  5. AC Resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to primary power frequency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Harold

    1982-01-01

    An AC resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a PFN, is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase AC power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  6. Ac resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to preimary power requency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1979-12-07

    An ac resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a pulse forming network (PFN), is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase ac power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  7. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  8. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, Douglas C.; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Donohue, David L.; Lewis, Trousdale A.

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  9. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  10. PMU-Aided Voltage Security Assessment for a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, H.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, J. J.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-08

    Because wind power penetration levels in electric power systems are continuously increasing, voltage stability is a critical issue for maintaining power system security and operation. The traditional methods to analyze voltage stability can be classified into two categories: dynamic and steady-state. Dynamic analysis relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations; however, this method needs to exhaust faults at all locations to find the security region for voltage at a single bus. With the widely located phasor measurement units (PMUs), the Thevenin equivalent matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. This paper proposes a method based on a Thevenin equivalent matrix to identify system locations that will have the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plant’s point of interconnection. The number of dynamic voltage stability analysis runs is greatly reduced by using the proposed method. The numerical results demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed approach for voltage security assessment for a wind power plant.

  11. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J. Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  12. Direct current uninterruptible power supply method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Gautam

    2003-12-02

    A method and system are described for providing a direct current (DC) uninterruptible power supply with the method including, for example: continuously supplying fuel to a turbine; converting mechanical power from the turbine into alternating current (AC) electrical power; converting the AC electrical power to DC power within a predetermined voltage level range; supplying the DC power to a load; and maintaining a DC load voltage within the predetermined voltage level range by adjusting the amount of fuel supplied to the turbine.

  13. Method for reducing fuel cell output voltage to permit low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, Carl A.; Landau, Michael B.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel cell performance is degraded by recycling a portion of the cathode exhaust through the cells and, if necessary, also reducing the total air flow to the cells for the purpose of permitting operation below a power level which would otherwise result in excessive voltage.

  14. Utility-Scale Power Router: Dynamic Control of Grid Assets Using Direct AC Converter Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Georgia Tech is developing a cost-effective, utility-scale power router that uses an enhanced transformer to more efficiently direct power on the grid. Existing power routing technologies are too expensive for widespread use, but the ability to route grid power to match real-time demand and power outages would significantly reduce energy costs for utilities, municipalities, and consumers. Georgia Tech is adding a power converter to an existing grid transformer to better control power flows at about 1/10th the cost of existing power routing solutions. Transformers convert the high-voltage electricity that is transmitted through the grid into the low-voltage electricity that is used by homes and businesses. The added converter uses fewer steps to convert some types of power and eliminates unnecessary power storage, among other improvements. The enhanced transformer is more efficient, and it would still work even if the converter fails, ensuring grid reliability.

  15. Methods for determining optical power, for power-normalizing laser measurements, and for stabilizing power of lasers via compliance voltage sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S; Phillips, Mark C

    2015-04-07

    A method is disclosed for power normalization of spectroscopic signatures obtained from laser based chemical sensors that employs the compliance voltage across a quantum cascade laser device within an external cavity laser. The method obviates the need for a dedicated optical detector used specifically for power normalization purposes. A method is also disclosed that employs the compliance voltage developed across the laser device within an external cavity semiconductor laser to power-stabilize the laser mode of the semiconductor laser by adjusting drive current to the laser such that the output optical power from the external cavity semiconductor laser remains constant.

  16. Digital ac monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer. 24 figs.

  17. Digital ac monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.

  18. Breakdown voltage improvement of standard MOS technologies targeted at smart power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, P.M.; Simas, M.I.C.; Lanca, M.; Finco, S.; Behrens, F.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents and discusses trade-offs of three different design techniques intended to improve the breakdown voltage of n-type lateral medium power transistors to be fabricated in a conventional low cost CMOS technology. A thorough analysis of the static and dynamic characteristics of the modified structures was carried out with the support of a two-dimensional device simulator. The motivation behind this work was the construction of a low cost smart power microsystem, including control, sensing and protection circuitries, targeted at an electronic ballast for efficient control of the power delivered to fluorescent lamps.

  19. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  20. Effects of moisture on the life of power plant cables: Part 1, Medium-voltage cables; Part 2, Low-voltage cables. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toman, G.J.; Morris, G.W.; Holzman, P.

    1994-08-01

    Motivated by the concern that in-service moisture may decrease the useful life of medium and low-voltage electrical cables in power plants, EPRI investigators surveyed plant operators, examined cable failure experience, and assessed the need to develop unproved life prediction techniques. The survey revealed that only 34 medium-voltage cable failures have occurred in the more than 1000 plant-years of experience represented. In addition, moisture effects such as voltage-induced water-freeing have not been the primary cause of the failures but are one contributor among several, including manufacturing defects, installation damage, and inadvertent damage to cable by field equipment the study concludes that medium-voltage cables are rehable and there is insufficient interest on the part of surveyed utilities to warrant further R&D on cable condition evaluation techniques at this time. In addition, moisture-related degradation is not a significant concern for low-voltage cables. This two-part report discusses,the limitations of existing cable field testing techniques and highlights measures for maximizing the useful life of medium- and low-voltage power plant cables.

  1. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more » and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Altogether, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.« less

  2. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the ? pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E.? M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M.? E.; Wenger, D.? F.; Fowler, W.? E.; Johnson, W.? A.; Basilio, L.? I.; Coats, R.? S.; Jennings, C.? A.; Sinars, D.? B.; et al

    2014-11-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerators vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerators vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerators magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)moreand a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R.D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Taken together, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.less

  3. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Vesey, R. A.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Martin, M. R.; Schrafel, P. C.; Lewis, S. A.; Moore, J. K.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerators vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerators vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerators magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Altogether, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.

  4. ANUEADflM-31 Electric Power High-Voltage Transmission Lines:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ANUEADflM-31 Electric Power High-Voltage Transmission Lines: Design Options, Cost, and Electric and Magnetic Field Levels by J.B. Stoffel,' E.D. Pentecost, R.D. Roman, and P.A. Traczyk Environmental Assessment Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 November 1994 Work sponsored by United States Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Office of Fuels Program Stoffel is affiliated with Argonne's Electronics and Computing

  5. Low Voltage, Low Power Organic Light Emitting Transistors for AMOLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Reynolds, J. R. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Low voltage, low power dissipation, high aperture ratio organic light emitting transistors are demonstrated. The high level of performance is enabled by a carbon nanotube source electrode that permits integration of the drive transistor and the organic light emitting diode into an efficient single stacked device. Given the demonstrated performance, this technology could break the technical logjam holding back widespread deployment of active matrix organic light emitting displays at flat panel screen sizes.

  6. A probabilistic approach to calculating AC induction levels on power line collocated pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    For calculating induced voltage levels on pipelines paralleling overhead power lines available computational methods assume that the line circuit currents are balanced, i.e., equal. In this paper probabilistic computational methods are used to calculate induction levels for the more realistic assumption that the line currents carry a small randomly fluctuating component, and therefore, are unbalanced. Results show that limiting consideration to the balanced currents case can result in substantially underestimated induced voltage levels on the pipeline.

  7. Impact of Wind Power Plants on Voltage and Transient Stability of Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Pai, M. A.

    2008-09-30

    A standard three-machine, nine-bus wind power system is studied and augmented by a radially connected wind power plant that contains 22 wind turbine generators.

  8. PMU-Aided Voltage Security Assessment for a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PMU-Aided Voltage Security Assessment for a Wind Power Plant Preprint H. Jiang, 1 Y.C. Zhang, 2 J.J. Zhang, 1 and E. Muljadi 2 1 University of Denver 2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at the 2015 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting Denver, Colorado July 26-30, 2015 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5D00-63846 April 2015 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government

  9. A high voltage pulse power supply for metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Sochugov, N. S.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2010-12-15

    We describe the design and implementation of a high voltage pulse power supply (pulser) that supports the operation of a repetitively pulsed filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition facility in plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (Mepiiid) mode. Negative pulses (micropulses) of up to 20 kV in magnitude and 20 A peak current are provided in gated pulse packets (macropulses) over a broad range of possible pulse width and duty cycle. Application of the system consisting of filtered vacuum arc and high voltage pulser is demonstrated by forming diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films with and without substrate bias provided by the pulser. Significantly enhanced film/substrate adhesion is observed when the pulser is used to induce interface mixing between the DLC film and the underlying Si substrate.

  10. Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    power-distribution feeder (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Authors: Stolbova, Irina ; Backhaus, Scott ; Chertkov, Michael Publication Date: 2015-02-23 OSTI Identifier: 1180264 Grant/Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

  11. New methods for computing a closest saddle node bifurcation and worst case load power margin for voltage collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, I. ); Lu, Liming )

    1993-08-01

    Voltage collapse and blackout can occur in an electric power system when load powers vary so that the system loses stability in a saddle node bifurcation. The authors propose new iterative and direct methods to compute load powers at which bifurcation occurs and which are locally closest to the current operating load powers. The distance in load power parameter space to this locally closest bifurcation is an index of voltage collapse. The pattern of load power increase need not be predicted; instead the index is a worst case load power margin. The computations are illustrated in the 6 dimensional load power parameter space of a 5 bus power system. The normal vector and curvature of a hypersurface of critical load powers at which bifurcation occurs are also computed. The sensitivity of the index to parameters and controls is easily obtained from the normal vector.

  12. Halbach array generator/motor having an automatically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-02-22

    A motor/generator having its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along its axis of rotation. The rotor includes a Halbach array. The stator windings are switched or commutated to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor/generator. The voltage and power are automatically regulated by using centrifugal force to change the diameter of the rotor, and thereby vary the radial gap in between the stator and the rotating Halbach array, as a function of the angular velocity of the rotor.

  13. Halbach array generator/motor having mechanically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-06-14

    A motor/generator has its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along the axis of rotation of the rotor. The rotor includes a Halbach array of magnets. The voltage and power outputs are regulated by varying the radial gap in between the stator windings and the rotating Halbach array. The gap is varied by extensible and retractable supports attached to the stator windings that can move the windings in a radial direction.

  14. ESBWR response to an extended station blackout/loss of all AC power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, A. J.; Marquino, W.

    2012-07-01

    U.S. federal regulations require light water cooled nuclear power plants to cope with Station Blackouts for a predetermined amount of time based on design factors for the plant. U.S. regulations define Station Blackout (SBO) as a loss of the offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency AC power system. According to U.S. regulations, typically the coping period for an SBO is 4 hours and can be as long as 16 hours for currently operating BWR plants. Being able to cope with an SBO and loss of all AC power is required by international regulators as well. The U.S. licensing basis for the ESBWR is a coping period of 72 hours for an SBO based on U.S. NRC requirements for passive safety plants. In the event of an extended SBO (viz., greater than 72 hours), the ESBWR response shows that the design is able to cope with the event for at least 7 days without AC electrical power or operator action. ESBWR is a Generation III+ reactor design with an array of passive safety systems. The ESBWR primary success path for mitigation of an SBO event is the Isolation Condenser System (ICS). The ICS is a passive, closed loop, safety system that initiates automatically on a loss of power. Upon Station Blackout or loss of all AC power, the ICS begins removing decay heat from the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) by (i) condensing the steam into water in heat exchangers located in pools of water above the containment, and (ii) transferring the decay heat to the atmosphere. The condensed water is then returned by gravity to cool the reactor again. The ICS alone is capable of maintaining the ESBWR in a safe shutdown condition after an SBO for an extended period. The fuel remains covered throughout the SBO event. The ICS is able to remove decay heat from the RPV for at least 7 days and maintains the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. The water level in the RPV remains well above the top of active fuel for the duration of the SBO event. Beyond 7 days, only a few simple actions are needed to cope with the SBO for an indefinite amount of time. The operation of the ICS as the primary success path for mitigation of an SBO, allows for near immediate plant restart once power is restored. (authors)

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W. Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  16. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  17. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-02-14

    A system is provided for controlling two AC machines. The system comprises a DC input voltage source that provides a DC input voltage, a voltage boost command control module (VBCCM), a five-phase PWM inverter module coupled to the two AC machines, and a boost converter coupled to the inverter module and the DC input voltage source. The boost converter is designed to supply a new DC input voltage to the inverter module having a value that is greater than or equal to a value of the DC input voltage. The VBCCM generates a boost command signal (BCS) based on modulation indexes from the two AC machines. The BCS controls the boost converter such that the boost converter generates the new DC input voltage in response to the BCS. When the two AC machines require additional voltage that exceeds the DC input voltage required to meet a combined target mechanical power required by the two AC machines, the BCS controls the boost converter to drive the new DC input voltage generated by the boost converter to a value greater than the DC input voltage.

  18. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  19. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  20. Effect of AC target power on AlN film quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knisely, Katherine Grosh, Karl

    2014-09-01

    The influence of alternating current (AC) target power on film stress, roughness, and x-ray diffraction rocking curve full width half maximum (FWHM) was examined for AlN films deposited using S-gun magnetron sputtering on insulative substrates consisting of Si wafers with 575 nm thermal oxide. As the AC target power was increased from 5 to 8 kW, the deposition rate increased from 9.3 to 15.9 A/s, film stress decreased from 81 to −170 MPa, and the rocking curve FWHM increased from 0.98 to 1.03°. AlN film behavior is observed to change with target life; films deposited at 200 kWh target life were approximately 40 MPa more compressive and had 0.02° degree higher rocking curve FWHM values than films deposited at 130 kWh. AlN films deposited in two depositions were compared with films deposited in a single deposition, in order to better characterize the growth behavior and properties of AlN films deposited on an existing AlN film, which is not well understood. Two deposition films, when compared with single deposition films, showed no variation in residual stress trends or grain size behavior, but the average film roughness increased from 0.7 to 1.4 nm and rocking curve FWHM values increased by more than 0.25°.

  1. A Multilevel Voltage-Source Inverter with Separate DC Sources

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multilevel Voltage-Source Inverter with Separate DC Sources for Static Var Generation Fang Zheng Peng University of Tennessee, Knoxville Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-7258 Phone: 615-576-7261 P.O. BOX 2003, K-l008F, M / S 7258 Abstract - A new multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources is proposed for high-voltage, high-power applications, such as flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) including static var generation (SVG), power line conditioning,

  2. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  3. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  4. Impact of Increasing Distributed Wind Power and Wind Turbine Siting on Rural Distribution Feeder Voltage Profiles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.; Zhang, Y. C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Many favorable wind energy resources in North America are located in remote locations without direct access to the transmission grid. Building transmission lines to connect remotely-located wind power plants to large load centers has become a barrier to increasing wind power penetration in North America. By connecting utility-sized megawatt-scale wind turbines to the distribution system, wind power supplied to consumers could be increased greatly. However, the impact of including megawatt-scale wind turbines on distribution feeders needs to be studied. The work presented here examined the impact that siting and power output of megawatt-scale wind turbines have on distribution feeder voltage. This is the start of work to present a general guide to megawatt-scale wind turbine impact on the distribution feeder and finding the amount of wind power that can be added without adversely impacting the distribution feeder operation, reliability, and power quality.

  5. High power impulse magnetron sputtering: Current-voltage-timecharacteristics indicate the onset of sustained self-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim; Ehiasarian, Arutiun

    2007-08-03

    The commonly used current-voltage characteristics are foundinadequate for describing the pulsed nature of the high power impulsemagnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge, rather, the description needs tobe expanded to current-voltage-time characteristics for each initial gaspressure. Using different target materials (Cu, Ti, Nb, C, W, Al, Cr) anda pulsed constant-voltage supply it is shown that the HIPIMS dischargestypically exhibit an initial pressure dependent current peak followed bya second phase that is power and material dependent. This suggests thatthe initial phase of a HIPIMS discharge pulse is dominated by gas ionswhereas the later phase has a strong contribution from self-sputtering.For some materials the discharge switches into a mode of sustainedself-sputtering. The very large differences between materials cannot beascribed to the different sputter yields but they indicate thatgeneration and trapping ofsecondary electrons plays a major role forcurrent-voltage-time characteristics. In particular, it is argued thatthe sustained self-sputtering phase is associated with thegeneration ofmultiply charged ions because only they can cause potential emission ofsecondary electrons whereas the yield caused by singly charged metal ionsis negligibly small.

  6. ANUEADflM-31 Electric Power High-Voltage Transmission Lines:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... design options to reduce human exposure to EMFs from high-voltage transmission lines. ... assumed for the 345-kV designs: 150-R rights-of-way for overhead lines, 50-ft ...

  7. Reliable, Efficient and Cost-Effective Electric Power Converter for Small Wind Turbines Based on AC-link Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren Hammell; Mark Holveck; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-08-01

    Grid-tied inverter power electronics have been an Achilles heel of the small wind industry, providing opportunity for new technologies to provide lower costs, greater efficiency, and improved reliability. The small wind turbine market is also moving towards the 50-100kW size range. The unique AC-link power conversion technology provides efficiency, reliability, and power quality advantages over existing technologies, and Princeton Power will adapt prototype designs used for industrial asynchronous motor control to a 50kW small wind turbine design.

  8. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  9. Utility-Scale Solar Power Converter: Agile Direct Grid Connect Medium Voltage 4.7-13.8 kV Power Converter for PV Applications Utilizing Wide Band Gap Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-25

    Solar ADEPT Project: Satcon is developing a compact, lightweight power conversion device that is capable of taking utility-scale solar power and outputting it directly into the electric utility grid at distribution voltage levels—eliminating the need for large transformers. Transformers “step up” the voltage of the power that is generated by a solar power system so it can be efficiently transported through transmission lines and eventually “stepped down” to usable voltages before it enters homes and businesses. Power companies step up the voltage because less electricity is lost along transmission lines when the voltage is high and current is low. Satcon’s new power conversion devices will eliminate these heavy transformers and connect a utility-scale solar power system directly to the grid. Satcon’s modular devices are designed to ensure reliability—if one device fails it can be bypassed and the system can continue to run.

  10. Utility-Scale Silicon Carbide Semiconductor: Monolithic Silicon Carbide Anode Switched Thyristor for Medium Voltage Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: GeneSiC is developing an advanced silicon-carbide (SiC)-based semiconductor called an anode-switched thyristor. This low-cost, compact SiC semiconductor conducts higher levels of electrical energy with better precision than traditional silicon semiconductors. This efficiency will enable a dramatic reduction in the size, weight, and volume of the power converters and electronic devices it's used in.GeneSiC is developing its SiC-based semiconductor for utility-scale power converters. Traditional silicon semiconductors can't process the high voltages that utility-scale power distribution requires, and they must be stacked in complicated circuits that require bulky insulation and cooling hardware. GeneSiC's semiconductors are well suited for high-power applications like large-scale renewable wind and solar energy installations.

  11. Control method for peak power delivery with limited DC-bus voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-09-05

    A method for driving a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter supplying a synchronous motor is provided. A DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter. The inverter has first, second, and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. A desired speed of a synchronous motor connected to the inverter by the first second and third nodes is received by the inverter. The synchronous motor has a rotor and the speed of the motor is defined by the rotational rate of the rotor. A position of the rotor is sensed, current flowing to the motor out of at least two of the first, second, and third output nodes is sensed, and predetermined switches are automatically activated by the inverter responsive to the sensed rotor position, the sensed current, and the desired speed.

  12. Verification of voltage/frequency requirement for emergency diesel generator in nuclear power plant using dynamic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Jin-Suk; Roh, Myung- Sub

    2014-02-12

    One major cause of the plant shutdown is the loss of electrical power. The study is to comprehend the coping action against station blackout including emergency diesel generator, sequential loading of safety system and to ensure that the emergency diesel generator should meet requirements, especially voltage and frequency criteria using modeling tool. This paper also considered the change of the sequencing time and load capacity only for finding electrical design margin. However, the revision of load list must be verified with safety analysis. From this study, it is discovered that new load calculation is a key factor in EDG localization and in-house capability increase.

  13. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zito, G.V.

    1959-04-21

    This patent relates to high voltage supply circuits adapted for providing operating voltages for GeigerMueller counter tubes, and is especially directed to an arrangement for maintaining uniform voltage under changing conditions of operation. In the usual power supply arrangement for counter tubes the counter voltage is taken from across the power supply output capacitor. If the count rate exceeds the current delivering capaciiy of the capacitor, the capacitor voltage will drop, decreasing the counter voltage. The present invention provides a multivibrator which has its output voltage controlled by a signal proportional to the counting rate. As the counting rate increases beyond the current delivering capacity of the capacitor, the rectified voltage output from the multivibrator is increased to maintain uniform counter voltage.

  14. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizon, David C; Gioria, Jack G; Dale, Gregory E; Snyder, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  15. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  16. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  17. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  18. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  19. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  20. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Current Versus Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of devices, including: open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Isc), fill factor (FF), maximum power output of the device (Pmax), voltage at maximum power...

  1. Voltage control for a wind power plant based on the available reactive current of a DFIG and its impacts on the point of interconnection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Usman, Yasir; Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Wake effects cause wind turbine generators (WTGs) within a wind power plant (WPP) to produce different levels of active power and subsequent reactive power capabilities. Further, the impedance between a WTG and the point of interconnection (POI)-which depends on the distance between them-impacts the WPP's reactive power injection capability at the POI. This paper proposes a voltage control scheme for a WPP based on the available reactive current of the doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) and its impacts on the POI to improve the reactive power injection capability of the WPP. In this paper, a design strategy for modifying the gainmore » of DFIG controller is suggested and the comprehensive properties of these control gains are investigated. In the proposed scheme, the WPP controller, which operates in a voltage control mode, sends the command signal to the DFIGs based on the voltage difference at the POI. The DFIG controllers, which operate in a voltage control mode, employ a proportional controller with a limiter. The gain of the proportional controller is adjusted depending on the available reactive current of the DFIG and the series impedance between the DFIG and the POI. The performance of the proposed scheme is validated for various disturbances such as a reactive load connection and grid fault using an EMTP-RV simulator. Furthermore, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme promptly recovers the POI voltage by injecting more reactive power after a disturbance than the conventional scheme.« less

  2. Voltage control for a wind power plant based on the available reactive current of a DFIG and its impacts on the point of interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usman, Yasir; Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Wake effects cause wind turbine generators (WTGs) within a wind power plant (WPP) to produce different levels of active power and subsequent reactive power capabilities. Further, the impedance between a WTG and the point of interconnection (POI)-which depends on the distance between them-impacts the WPP's reactive power injection capability at the POI. This paper proposes a voltage control scheme for a WPP based on the available reactive current of the doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) and its impacts on the POI to improve the reactive power injection capability of the WPP. In this paper, a design strategy for modifying the gain of DFIG controller is suggested and the comprehensive properties of these control gains are investigated. In the proposed scheme, the WPP controller, which operates in a voltage control mode, sends the command signal to the DFIGs based on the voltage difference at the POI. The DFIG controllers, which operate in a voltage control mode, employ a proportional controller with a limiter. The gain of the proportional controller is adjusted depending on the available reactive current of the DFIG and the series impedance between the DFIG and the POI. The performance of the proposed scheme is validated for various disturbances such as a reactive load connection and grid fault using an EMTP-RV simulator. Furthermore, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme promptly recovers the POI voltage by injecting more reactive power after a disturbance than the conventional scheme.

  3. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  4. Development of a high-voltage, high-power thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Scharrer, G.L.; Binasiewicz, E.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-04-01

    The power requirements for an inverter application were specified to be 500 V at 360 A, or 180 kW per each of six 1-s pulses delivered over a period of 10 minutes. Conventional high-power sources (e.g., flywheels) could not meet these requirements and the use of a thermal battery was considered. The final design involved four, 125-cell, 50-kW modules connected in series. A module using the LiSi/CoS{sub 2} couple and all-Li (LiCI-LiBr-LiF minimum-melting) electrolyte was successfully developed and tested. A power level of over 40 kW was delivered during a 0.5-s pulse. This translates into a specific power level of over 9 kW/kg or 19.2 kW/L delivered from a module. The module was still able to deliver over 30 kW during a 1-s pulse after 10 minutes.

  5. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitel, Ira J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage.

  6. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitel, I.J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage. 19 figs.

  7. Spectral shape deformation in inverse spin Hall voltage in Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}|Pt bilayers at high microwave power levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustikova, J. Shiomi, Y.; Handa, Y.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-02-21

    We report on the deformation of microwave absorption spectra and of the inverse spin Hall voltage signals in thin film bilayers of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and platinum at high microwave power levels in a 9.45-GHz TE{sub 011} cavity. As the microwave power increases from 0.15 to 200 mW, the resonance field shifts to higher values, and the initially Lorentzian spectra of the microwave absorption intensity as well as the inverse spin Hall voltage signals become asymmetric. The contributions from opening of the magnetization precession cone and heating of YIG cannot well reproduce the data. Control measurements of inverse spin Hall voltages on thin-film YIG|Pt systems with a range of line widths underscore the role of spin-wave excitations in spectral deformation.

  8. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system A voltage ...

  9. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - [2] Nari Hingorani Slides - HVDC Workshop April 2013

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy's Grid Tech Team Workshop Applications for High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission Technologies April 22, 2013 NRECA Conference Center NRECA Conference Center Arlington, VA 22203 Keynote Speaker: Nari Hingorani HVDC Overview Today's HVDC * Power System in general has to be AC, because there is no DC Transformers * Therefore Today's HVDC involves conversion of AC to DC and back to AC * To justify HVDC, there needs to be enough cost or performance benefit to pay for the converters.

  11. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-06-05

    A system is provided for controlling two alternating current (AC) machines via a five-phase PWM inverter module. The system comprises a first control loop, a second control loop, and a current command adjustment module. The current command adjustment module operates in conjunction with the first control loop and the second control loop to continuously adjust current command signals that control the first AC machine and the second AC machine such that they share the input voltage available to them without compromising the target mechanical output power of either machine. This way, even when the phase voltage available to either one of the machines decreases, that machine outputs its target mechanical output power.

  12. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system You are ...

  13. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  14. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  15. Power Right. Power Smart. Efficient Computer Power Supplies and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    They reduce power consumption, helping your electric utility meet peak power demands. And they improve overall power quality. Also, by converting more AC power into DC power, less ...

  16. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  17. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC ...

  18. Development of a low-cost integrated 20-kW-AC solar tracking subarray for grid-connected PV power system applications. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, M.; Duran, G.; Fourer, G.; Mackamul, K.; Whalen, W.; Loo, M. van; West, R.

    1998-06-01

    This report chronicles Utility Power Group's (UPG) successful two-year Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Phase 4A1 work effort which began in July, 1995. During this period, UPG completed design, fabrication, testing and demonstration of a modular and fully integrated 15-kW-ac, solar tracking PV power system sub-array. The two key and innovative components which were developed are a Modular Panel which optimizes factory assembly of PV modules into a large area, field-deployable, structurally-integrated PV panel, and an Integrated Power Processing Unit which combines all dc and ac power collection, conversion and control functions within a single, field-deployable structurally-integrated electrical enclosure. These two key sub-array elements, when combined with a number of other electrical, mechanical, and structural components, create a low-cost and high-performance PV power system. This system, or sub-array, can be deployed in individual units, or paralleled with any number of other sub-arrays, to construct multi-megawatt P fields. 21 figs.

  19. Distribution System Voltage Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, E.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report examines the performance of commonly used distribution voltage regulation methods under reverse power flow.

  20. Improving the homogeneity of alternating current-drive atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges in helium with an additional low-amplitude radio frequency power source: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Qi [Dalian Institute of Semiconductor Technology, School of Electronics Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun Jizhong; Zhang Jianhong; Wang Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Liu Liying [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)

    2013-04-15

    It was proposed in this paper that the homogeneity of the atmospheric pressure discharge driven by an ac power source could be improved by applying an auxiliary low-amplitude rf power source. To verify the idea, a two-dimensional fluid model then was applied to study the atmospheric discharges in helium driven by ac power, low-amplitude rf power, and combined ac and low-amplitude rf power, respectively. Simulation results confirmed that an auxiliary rf power could improve the homogeneity of a discharge driven by an ac power source. It was further found that there existed a threshold voltage of the rf power source leading to the transition from inhomogeneous to homogeneous discharge. As the frequency of the rf power source increased from 2 to 22 MHz, the magnitude of the threshold voltage dropped first rapidly and then to a constant value. When the frequency was over 13.56 MHz, the magnitude of the threshold voltage was smaller than one-sixth of the ac voltage amplitude under the simulated discharge parameters.

  1. Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-02-01

    Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on (1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and (2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District{close_quote}s Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  3. Two-phase uninterruptible power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinsky, A.J.; Rajagopalan, S.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a two-phase AC power supply. It comprises AC systems; connectors; electric currents; and phase shift.

  4. Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fault-induced delayed voltage ...

  5. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-05-05

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

  6. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  7. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  8. Voltage modulation of propagating spin waves in Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nawaoka, Kohei; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamura, Eiiti; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Shinjo, Teruya; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2015-05-07

    The effect of a voltage application on propagating spin waves in single-crystalline 5?nm-Fe layer was investigated. Two micro-sized antennas were employed to excite and detect the propagating spin waves. The voltage effect was characterized using AC lock-in technique. As a result, the resonant field of the magnetostatic surface wave in the Fe was clearly modulated by the voltage application. The modulation is attributed to the voltage induced magnetic anisotropy change in ferromagnetic metals.

  9. Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors These Model Repair Specifications are intended to cover routine repair and rewind of low-voltage random-wound three-phase AC squirrel cage induction motors. PDF icon Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors (November 1999) More Documents & Publications DOE Navigant Master Presentation Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A

  10. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  11. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  12. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  13. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  14. MEDIUM VOLTAGE INTEGRATED DRIVE AND MOTOR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Calnetix Technologies – Cerritos, CA This project will focus on integrating a high voltage SiC device with advanced high-speed machine technology, medium voltage stators, high efficiency magnetic bearings and sensor high frequency drive technology that can work directly with high voltages, switch at high frequencies for low machine losses, and do so very efficiently. The new medium voltage motors are expected to achieve up to eight times the power density of similar traditional systems. Fact sheet coming soon.

  15. Impute DC link (IDCL) cell based power converters and control thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish; Hernendez, Jorge; Moghe, Rohit; Iyer, Amrit; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad

    2016-04-26

    Power flow controllers based on Imputed DC Link (IDCL) cells are provided. The IDCL cell is a self-contained power electronic building block (PEBB). The IDCL cell may be stacked in series and parallel to achieve power flow control at higher voltage and current levels. Each IDCL cell may comprise a gate drive, a voltage sharing module, and a thermal management component in order to facilitate easy integration of the cell into a variety of applications. By providing direct AC conversion, the IDCL cell based AC/AC converters reduce device count, eliminate the use of electrolytic capacitors that have life and reliability issues, and improve system efficiency compared with similarly rated back-to-back inverter system.

  16. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  17. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Li, Fangxing; Tufon, Christopher; Isemonger, Alan

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

  18. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Jason; Bernstein, Robert; White, II, Gregory Von; Glover, Steven F.; Neely, Jason C.; Pena, Gary; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Zutavern, Fred J.; Gelbard, Fred

    2015-03-01

    In a submerged environment, power cables may experience accelerated insulation degradation due to water - related aging mechanisms . Direct contact with water or moisture intrusion in the cable insulation s ystem has been identified in the literature as a significant aging stressor that can affect performance and lifetime of electric cables . Progressive reduction of the dielectric strength is commonly a result of water treeing which involves the development of permanent hydrophilic structures in the insulation coinciding with the absorption of water into the cable . Water treeing is a phenomenon in which dendritic microvoids are formed in electric cable insulation due to electrochemic al reactions , electromechanical forces , and diffusion of contaminants over time . These reactions are caused by the combined effect s of water presence and high electrical stress es in the material . Water tree growth follow s a tree - like branching pattern , i ncreasing in volume and length over time . Although these cables can be "dried out," water tree degradation , specifically the growth of hydrophilic regions, is believed to be permanent and typically worsens over time. Based on established research , water treeing or water induced damage can occur in a variety of electric cables including XLPE, TR - XLPE and other insulating materials, such as EPR and butyl rubber . Once water trees or water induced damage form, the dielectric strength of an insulation materia l will decrease gradually with time as the water trees grow in length, which could eventually result in failure of the insulating material . Under wet conditions or i n submerged environments , several environmental and operational parameters can influence w ater tree initiation and affect water tree growth . These parameters include voltage cycling, field frequency, temperature, ion concentration and chemistry, type of insula tion material , and the characteristics of its defects. In this effort, a review of academic and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics, nuclear systems, and statistics. An objective of this research program is to perform a l iterature r eview to gather a body of knowledge on prior research projects, technical papers, and literature related to cable degradation in a submerged environment. In addition, the information gathered from the literature review will be employed to gain insights for developing an aging coefficient, and to determine which condition monitoring techniques are capable of tracking cable degradation in a submerged environment. Moreover, the information gathered from the l iterature r eview will also be used to determine which approach or approaches are best suited to develop test methods for accelerated aging and condition m onitoring of medium voltage cables. In summary of this initial effort, s ignificant work has been performed on submerged cable insulation degradation; however, there is a lack of uniform theories and acceptance of chemical and physical pathways. This lack of fundamental understanding is coupled with the inability to make predictive statements about material performance in wet or submerged environments. S elect condition monitoring methods known to the industry are discussed in this report and a dditional co ndition monitoring methods were added in this effort based on recommendations from the Nuclear Energy Standards Coordinating Collaborative and available literature. This NUREG review provides additional clarity on the use of condition monitoring methods t o detect water - related damage to medium voltage cable and new methods and approaches proposed in academia and industry. In order t o ensure continued improvement in the efficacy of a cable condition monitoring program, continued research and development (R&D) efforts are necessary. R&D efforts should complement operations, iteratively improving condition monitoring policies, procedures and outcomes. Ideally, field and laboratory data enable improved understanding of material science which in turn inform s the development of new or improved condition monitoring methods and lifetime models. Finally, these improved methods and models aid in the refinement of condition monitoring policies and procedures.

  19. Variable-Speed Wind Power System with Improved Energy Capture via

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multilevel Conversion - Energy Innovation Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Variable-Speed Wind Power System with Improved Energy Capture via Multilevel Conversion National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Power converters are used to convert alternating current (AC) electric power from a fixed-frequency and fixed-voltage to different

  20. Ac traction gets on track

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, L.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes inverter-based ac traction systems which give freight locomotives greater adhesion, pulling power, and braking capacity. In the 1940s, dc traction replaced the steam engine as a source of train propulsion, and it has ruled the freight transportation industry ever since. But now, high-performance ac-traction systems, with their unprecedented levels of pulling power and adhesion, are becoming increasingly common on America`s freight railroads. In thousands of miles of demonstration tests, today`s ac-traction systems have outperformed traditional dc-motor driven systems. Major railroad companies are convinced enough of the benefits of ac traction to have integrated it into their freight locomotives.

  1. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  2. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor using motor drives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G; Zhang, Pinjia

    2013-02-26

    A system and method for determining the stator winding resistance of AC motors is provided. The system includes an AC motor drive having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor, a pulse width modulation (PWM) converter having switches therein to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor, and a control system connected to the PWM converter. The control system generates a command signal to cause the PWM converter to control an output of the AC motor drive corresponding to an input to the AC motor, selectively generates a modified command signal to cause the PWM converter to inject a DC signal into the output of the AC motor drive, and determines a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the DC signal of at least one of the voltage and current.

  3. Strategies for Voltage Control and Transient Stability Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    2013-09-25

    As wind generation grows, its influence on power system performance will becoming increasingly noticeable. Wind generation di#11;ffers from traditional forms of generation in numerous ways though, motivating the need to reconsider the usual approaches to power system assessment and performance enhancement. The project has investigated the impact of wind generation on transient stability and voltage control, identifying and addressing issues at three distinct levels of the power system: 1) at the device level, the physical characteristics of wind turbine generators (WTGs) are quite unlike those of synchronous machines, 2) at the wind-farm level, the provision of reactive support is achieved through coordination of numerous dissimilar devices, rather than straightforward generator control, and 3) from a systems perspective, the location of wind-farms on the sub-transmission network, coupled with the variability inherent in their power output, can cause complex voltage control issues. The project has sought to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic behaviour of type-3 WTGs, and in particular the WECC generic model. The behaviour of such models is governed by interactions between the continuous dynamics of state variables and discrete events associated with limits. It was shown that these interactions can be quite complex, and may lead to switching deadlock that prevents continuation of the trajectory. Switching hysteresis was proposed for eliminating deadlock situations. Various type-3 WTG models include control blocks that duplicate integrators. It was shown that this leads to non-uniqueness in the conditions governing steady-state, and may result in pre- and post-disturbance equilibria not coinciding. It also gives rise to a zero eigenvalue in the linearized WTG model. In order to eliminate the anomalous behaviour revealed through this investigation, WECC has now released a new generic model for type-3 WTGs. Wind-farms typically incorporate a variety of voltage control equipment including tapchanging transformers, switched capacitors, SVCs, STATCOMs and the WTGs themselves. The project has considered the coordinated control of this equipment, and has addressed a range of issues that arise in wind-farm operation. The #12;first concerns the ability of WTGs to meet reactive power requirements when voltage saturation in the collector network restricts the reactive power availability of individual generators. Secondly, dynamic interactions between voltage regulating devices have been investigated. It was found that under certain realistic conditions, tap-changing transformers may exhibit instability. In order to meet cost, maintenance, fault tolerance and other requirements, it is desirable for voltage control equipment to be treated as an integrated system rather than as independent devices. The resulting high-level scheduling of wind-farm reactive support has been investigated. In addressing this control problem, several forms of future information were considered, including exact future knowledge and stochastic predictions. Deterministic and Stochastic Dynamic Programming techniques were used in the development of control algorithms. The results demonstrated that while exact future knowledge is very useful, simple prediction methods yield little bene#12;fit. The integration of inherently variable wind generation into weak grids, particularly subtransmission networks that are characterized by low X=R ratios, aff#11;ects bus voltages, regulating devices and line flows. The meshed structure of these networks adds to the complexity, especially when wind generation is distributed across multiple nodes. A range of techniques have been considered for analyzing the impact of wind variability on weak grids. Sensitivity analysis, based on the power-flow Jacobian, was used to highlight sections of a system that are most severely a#11;ffected by wind-power variations. A continuation power flow was used to determine parameter changes that reduce the impact of wind-power variability. It was also used to explore interactions between multiple wind-farms. Furthermore, these tools have been used to examine the impact of wind injection on transformer tap operation in subtransmission networks. The results of a tap operation simulation study show that voltage regulation at wind injection nodes increases tap change operations. The tradeo#11;ff between local voltage regulation and tap change frequency is fundamentally important in optimizing the size of reactive compensation used for voltage regulation at wind injection nodes. Line congestion arising as a consequence of variable patterns of wind-power production has also been investigated. Two optimization problems have been formulated, based respectively on the DC and AC power flow models, for identifying vulnerable line segments. The DC optimization is computationally more e#14;fficient, whereas the AC sensitivity-based optimization provides greater accuracy.

  4. Development of a New Class of Low Cost, High Frequency Link Direct DC to AC Converters for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad Enjeti; J.W. Howze

    2003-12-01

    This project proposes to design and develop a new class of power converters (direct DC to AC) to drastically improve performance and optimize the cost, size, weight and volume of the DC to AC converter in SOFC systems. The proposed topologies employ a high frequency link; direct DC to AC conversion approach. The direct DC to AC conversion approach is more efficient and operates without an intermediate dc-link stage. The absence of the dc-link, results in the elimination of bulky, aluminum electrolytic capacitors, which in turn leads to a reduction in the cost, volume, size and weight of the power electronic converter. The feasibility of two direct DC to AC converter topologies and their suitability to meet SECA objectives will be investigated. Laboratory proto-type converters (3-5kW) will be designed and tested in Phase-1. A detailed design trade-off study along with the test results will be available in the form of a report for the evaluation of SECA Industrial partners. This project proposes to develop a new and innovative power converter technology suitable for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power systems in accordance with SECA objectives. The proposed fuel cell inverter (FCI) employs state of the art power electronic devices configured in two unique topologies to achieve direct conversion of DC power (24-48V) available from a SOFC to AC power (120/240V, 60Hz) suitable for utility interface and powering stand alone loads. The primary objective is to realize cost effective fuel cell converter, which operates under a wide input voltage range, and output load swings with high efficiency and improved reliability.

  5. ACS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ACS Jump to: navigation, search Name: ACS Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28036 Sector: Solar Product: Madrid based construction company involved in the development of solar thermal...

  6. Preventing Delayed Voltage Recovery with Voltage-Regulating Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Sarina; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2009-01-01

    With the large use of residential air conditioner (A/C) motors during the summer peaks, the potential of motor stalling events have increased in the recent years. The stalled motor loads have been found to be the most important cause of delayed voltage recovery following severe system disturbances, such as a subtransmission fault. The proper modeling of the stalled motors is a very important factor in identifying the effect of these motors in voltage recovery after the fault. This paper presents a methodology for modeling the stalled low inertia induction motors based on a sample utility system and a small primary distribution circuit. The prevention of the stalling of motors plays an important role in maintaining the voltage profile of the system after system disturbances. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) is used to prevent the motor stalling events so that the delayed voltage recovery of the system may be avoided.

  7. Consumption of the electric power inside silent discharge reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yehia, Ashraf

    2015-01-15

    An experimental study was made in this paper to investigate the relation between the places of the dielectric barriers, which cover the surfaces of the electrodes in the coaxial cylindrical reactors, and the rate of change of the electric power that is consumed in forming silent discharges. Therefore, silent discharges have been formed inside three coaxial cylindrical reactors. The dielectric barriers in these reactors were pasted on both the internal surface of the outer electrode in the first reactor and the external surface of the inner electrode in the second reactor as well as the surfaces of the two electrodes in the third reactor. The reactor under study has been fed by atmospheric air that flowed inside it with a constant rate at normal temperature and pressure, in parallel with the application of a sinusoidal ac voltage between the electrodes of the reactor. The electric power consumed in forming the silent discharges inside the three reactors was measured as a function of the ac peak voltage. The validity of the experimental results was investigated by applying Manley's equation on the same discharge conditions. The results have shown that the rate of consumption of the electric power relative to the ac peak voltage per unit width of the discharge gap improves by a ratio of either 26.8% or 80% or 128% depending on the places of the dielectric barriers that cover the surfaces of the electrodes inside the three reactors.

  8. A new feedback controlled current stabilized power supply for gas laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    A feedback controlled current stabilized power supply for CO/sub 2/, wave guide lasers is reported. This current negative feedback control method involved connecting the control transistor to the DC output and of an AC bridge rectifier. Current is stabilized in the range of 2 to approximately 4 mW, the unstability of the current is less than 1% with respect to 20% fluctuation of network voltage. The principal circuit and the voltage-current wave forms of the power supply are shown.

  9. Northwest, the Bonneville Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    voltage power lines that move large amounts of power from hydroelectric projects and power plants to urban centers hundreds of miles away. To keep the electricity flowing safely...

  10. Booster main magnet power supply, present operation and potential future upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2011-03-28

    The Brookhaven Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a 24 pulse thyristor control supply, rated at 5500 Amps, +/-2000 Volts, or 3000 Amps, +/-6000 Volts. The power supply is fed directly from the power utility and the peak magnet power is 18 MWatts. This peak power is seen directly at the incoming ac line. This power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years. This paper will describe the present topology and operation of the power supply, the feedback control system and the different modes of operation of the power supply. Since the power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years, upgrading this power supply is essential. A new power supply topology has been studied where energy is stored in capacitor banks. DC to DC converters are used to convert the dc voltage stored in the capacitor banks to pulsed DC voltage into the magnet load. This enables the average incoming power from the ac line to be constant while the peak magnet power is pulsed to +/- 18 MWatts. Simulations and waveforms of this power supply will be presented.

  11. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    including static var generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. ...

  12. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  13. Autonomous uninterruptible power-supply apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masson, J.H.

    1984-12-20

    This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptible power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady-stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptible power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems that cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptible power-supply apparatus utilizing a digital-processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

  14. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  15. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-08-15

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  16. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore »crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  17. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore » crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  18. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  19. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  20. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  1. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage unbalance degrades the performance and shortens the life of a three-phase motor. ... in lower effciency, and motor overheating, which reduces winding insulation life. ...

  2. Voltage Control Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-08-Voltage-Control-Technical-Conference Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  3. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-01-01

    This two-page abstract provides tips for plant managers on checking and monitoring motor voltage unbalance to improve performance and life-span of industrial motors.

  4. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  5. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  6. Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunity | Department of Energy Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding Opportunity Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding Opportunity Through the Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) program, DOE is funding solar projects that are targeting ways to develop power electronics and build smarter, more interactive systems and components so that solar energy can be integrated into the electric power

  7. Automated setup for magnetic hysteresis characterization based on a voltage controlled current source with 500 kHz full power bandwidth and 10 A peak-to-peak current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calabrese, G.; Capineri, L.; Granato, M.; Frattini, G.

    2015-04-15

    This paper describes the design of a system for the characterization of magnetic hysteresis behavior in soft ferrite magnetic cores. The proposed setup can test magnetic materials exciting them with controlled arbitrary magnetic field waveforms, including the capability of providing a DC bias, in a frequency bandwidth up to 500 kHz, with voltages up to 32 V peak-to-peak, and currents up to 10 A peak-to-peak. In order to have an accurate control of the magnetic field waveform, the system is based on a voltage controlled current source. The electronic design is described focusing on closed loop feedback stabilization and passive components choice. The system has real-time hysteretic loop acquisition and visualization. The comparisons between measured hysteresis loops of sample magnetic materials and datasheet available ones are shown. Results showing frequency and thermal behavior of the hysteresis of a test sample prove the system capabilities. Moreover, the B-H loops obtained with a multiple waveforms excitation signal, including DC bias, are reported. The proposal is a low-cost and replicable solution for hysteresis characterization of magnetic materials used in power electronics.

  8. Power Systems Engineer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Knowledge of AC Power, power conversion, DC circuits, motors, power technology, and industrial control systems. * Uses independent judgment in applying standard engineering...

  9. System and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Zhang, Pinjia; Theisen, Peter J.

    2011-05-31

    A system and method for determining stator winding resistance in an AC motor is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of an AC motor. The circuit includes at least one contactor and at least one switch to control current flow and terminal voltages in the AC motor. The system also includes a controller connected to the circuit and configured to modify a switching time of the at least one switch to create a DC component in an output of the system corresponding to an input to the AC motor and determine a stator winding resistance of the AC motor based on the injected DC component of the voltage and current.

  10. the Bonneville Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bonneville Power Administration deposited 12, 535,000 to the reclamation fund in the United States Treasury for the ac- count of Columbia Basin Project, Yakima Project...

  11. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Huckaby, E. David; Fincham, William

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  12. High voltage pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  13. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  14. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  15. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  16. Voltage controlled current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  17. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  18. ACS Symposium Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    224th ACS National Meeting Division of Analytical Chemistry Symposium on Chemical Science Using Synchrotron Radiation Wednesday, August 21, 2002 Sheraton, Boston, MA This symposium...

  19. High-voltage miniature igniter development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willkens, C.A.; Axelson, S.R.; Bateman, L.S.; Croucher, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    In 1988, Norton introduced its line of low-voltage 12- and 24-V miniature igniters made from a patented ceramic/intermetallic material. These igniters demonstrated superior strength and speed in a compact low-wattage assembly for gas-fired ignition. High-voltage igniters are being developed to complete the family of igniters for gas-fired ignition. These igniters have extremely low power requirements in the range of 50--100 W, are designed to operate at line voltages of 120 V, and are leading to designs for operation up to 230 V. These were developed using compositional and dimensional changes to the low voltage igniters. The 120 V igniter has exceeded 200,000 cycles in life testing and has been submitted for agency approval. These igniters are also undergoing field testing in various demanding gas-fired appliances. The evolution of the low-voltage igniter into the high-voltage model, as well as performance and material development issues are discussed.

  20. Dynamic voltage compensation on distribution feeders using flywheel energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissbach, R.S.; Karady, G.G.; Farmer, R.G.

    1999-04-01

    Advancements in power electronics bearings and materials have made flywheel energy storage systems a viable alternative to electrochemical batteries. A future application of such a device is as an uninterruptible power supply for critical loads on a distribution feeder. However, the same power electronics and flywheel system could also be used for dynamic voltage compensation. A comparison is made between series and parallel connection of such dynamic compensation techniques used to maintain rated load voltage on distribution feeders when there are momentary dips in the supply voltage. For each case a mathematical model is presented and analyzed. The two cases are compared and the series compensation technique is more effective.

  1. AC Transit | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Validation » AC Transit AC Transit AC Transit logo AC Transit (or the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is based in Oakland, California, and provides transportation services to the East Bay of San Francisco. The 360-square-mile service area includes 13 cities and adjacent unincorporated areas in Alameda and Contra Costa counties. AC Transit's approximately 638 vehicles serve more than 65 million annual passengers. Photo of zero emission hydrogen fuel cell bus at AC Transit.

  2. High-output microwave detector using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Yoichi Suzuki, Yoshishige; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2014-11-10

    We investigated the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with various DC bias voltage and input RF power in magnetic tunnel junctions. We found that the DC bias monotonically increases the homodyne detection voltage due to the nonlinear FMR originating in an asymmetric magnetization-potential in the free layer. In addition, the linear increase of an output voltage to the input RF power in the voltage-induced FMR is more robust than that in spin-torque FMR. These characteristics enable us to obtain an output voltage more than ten times than that of microwave detectors using spin-transfer torque.

  3. Power line fault current coupling to nearby natural gas pipelines: Volume 3, Analysis of pipeline coating impedance: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.; Frazier, M. J.

    1988-08-01

    This report is a compilation of results obtained from two research programs. The response of a pipeline and coating at the higher voltage excitation levels encountered under power line fault conditions appears to be dominated by conduction at holiday sites in the coating. A simple analytical model was developed for predicting the resistance of a pipeline coating holiday as a function of the voltage produced across the pipeline coating by a nearby faulted power transmission line. The model was initially validated using coated pipeline samples stressed by a capacitive discharge voltage. Additional validation tests were then performed at the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's High Voltage Engineering Research Facility using high voltage ac waveforms for fault simulation. The principle program objective was to develop, both by laboratory and controlled field testing, an electrical resistance characterization for the pipeline coating as a function of the applied voltage level. The development of this model will allow a more accurate prediction of coupled voltage levels to a pipeline during fault current conditions. 54 figs, 3 tabs.

  4. High Voltage Connector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-06

    The originally designed high voltage connectors were to be made of brass. However, if treated like a Bellevile spring with the initially given dimensions, the stresses of the connector when crimped were calculated to be much higher than the yield stress of brass. Since the flange and outer diameters of the connector are to remain small, it was necessary to alter the other dimensions and choice of material in order to bring down the stresses applied to the connector.

  5. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  6. HIGH VOLTAGE ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-04-19

    A device is described for providing a source of molecular ions having a large output current and with an accelerated energy of the order of 600 kv. Ions are produced in an ion source which is provided with a water-cooled source grid of metal to effect maximum recombination of atomic ions to molecular ions. A very high accelerating voltage is applied to withdraw and accelerate the molecular ions from the source, and means are provided for dumping the excess electrons at the lowest possible potentials. An accelerating grid is placed adjacent to the source grid and a slotted, grounded accelerating electrode is placed adjacent to the accelerating grid. A potential of about 35 kv is maintained between the source grid and accelerating grid, and a potential of about 600 kv is maintained between the accelerating grid and accelerating electrode. In order to keep at a minimum the large number of oscillating electrons which are created when such high voltages are employed in the vicinity of a strong magnetic field, a plurality of high voltage cascaded shields are employed with a conventional electron dumping system being employed between each shield so as to dump the electrons at the lowest possible potential rather than at 600 kv.

  7. APPARATUS FOR REGULATING HIGH VOLTAGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, K.G.

    1951-03-20

    This patent describes a high-voltage regulator of the r-f type wherein the modulation of the r-f voltage is accomplished at a high level, resulting in good stabilization over a large range of load conditions.

  8. Microfabricated AC impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, Peter; Ackler, Harold D.; Becker, Frederick; Boser, Bernhard E.; Eldredge, Adam B.; Fuller, Christopher K.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Wang, Xiao-Bo

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated instrument for detecting and identifying cells and other particles based on alternating current (AC) impedance measurements. The microfabricated AC impedance sensor includes two critical elements: 1) a microfluidic chip, preferably of glass substrates, having at least one microchannel therein and with electrodes patterned on both substrates, and 2) electrical circuits that connect to the electrodes on the microfluidic chip and detect signals associated with particles traveling down the microchannels. These circuits enable multiple AC impedance measurements of individual particles at high throughput rates with sufficient resolution to identify different particle and cell types as appropriate for environmental detection and clinical diagnostic applications.

  9. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  10. A linear MOSFET regulator for improving performance of the booster ramping power supplies at the APS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, G.; Deriy, B.; Wang, J.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    The APS booster ring uses ramping power supplies to power the sextupole, quadrupole, and dipole magnets as the beam energy ramps up linearly to 7 GeV. Due to the circuit topology used, those supplies are unable to follow the linear ramp to the desired accuracy. The best regulation achieved is 0.25% while 0.1% is desired. In addition to the unsatisfying regulation, those supplies are sensitive to AC line perturbation and are not able to reject AC line noises of more than a few tens of hertz. To improve the performance, a linear MOSFET regulation system using paralleled MOSFET devices in series with the power supply is proposed. The system uses a realtime current feedback loop to force the MOSFETs to work in the linear operation mode. By using this linear MOSFET regulator, the voltage drop on MOSFETs, and hence the voltage imposed on magnets, can be regulated very quickly. As a result, the regulation of the magnet current can be improved significantly. So far the simulation results show that with the linear regulator, the current regulation can be improved to better than 0.1%. Because of the high bandwidth of the linear regulator, it can reduce the harmonic content in the output current as well as reject the AC line disturbance. This paper discusses the circuit topology, the regulation method, and the simulation results.

  11. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  12. Failure Mechanisms in High Voltage Mylar Capacitors. (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Failure Mechanisms in High Voltage Mylar Capacitors. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Failure Mechanisms in High Voltage Mylar Capacitors. Abstract not provided. Authors: Herzberger, Jaemi Lee ; Tanner, Danelle Mary Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140285 Report Number(s): SAND2014-0737C 498587 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: (CARTS) Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium held

  13. Neutron burst form a high-voltage discharge between palladium electrodes in D sub 2 gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.E. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-12-01

    In this paper a recent experimental observation of a neutron flux burst at a rate of 2 {times} 10{sup 4} times the background rate during a high ac voltage stimulation between two deuterated palladium electrodes in D{sub 2} gas is explained in terms of the experimentally measured deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion cross sections. Theoretical criteria and experimental conditions for improving D-D fusion rates with the use of pulsed high-dc voltages are described.

  14. Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System This content will become publicly available on January 18, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System Authors: Antipov, Andrey E. ; Dong, Qiaoyuan ; Gull, Emanuel Publication Date: 2016-01-19 OSTI Identifier: 1235600 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007

  15. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook. Electrotek Concepts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    low power factors, increased conductor and transformer losses, and lower voltages. Utilities must supply both active and reactive power and compensate for these losses. Power...

  16. Low-temperature transport in ac-driven quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Rosa; Aguado, Ramon; Platero, Gloria; Tejedor, Carlos

    2001-08-15

    We present a fully nonequilibrium calculation of the low-temperature transport properties of a quantum dot in the Kondo regime when an ac potential is applied to the gate. We solve a time-dependent Anderson model with finite on-site Coulomb interaction. The interaction self-energy is calculated up to second order in perturbation theory in the on-site interaction, in the context of the Keldysh nonequilibrium technique, and the effect of the ac voltage is taken into account exactly for all ranges of ac frequencies and ac intensities. The obtained linear conductance and time-averaged density of states of the quantum dot evolve in a nontrivial way as a function of the ac frequency and ac intensity of the harmonic modulation.

  17. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  18. Use of Static Compensators for Voltage Control at 330- and 500-kV Substations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dement'ev, Yu. A.; Kochkin, V. I.; Idiatullov, R. M.; Papafanasopulo, S. G.; Smirnov, A. A.; Smirnov, S. G.

    2003-05-15

    A scheme for compensating the reactive power and controlling the voltage of high-voltage, intermediate-voltage, and low-voltage buses of 330 - 500-kV substations, which consist of static thyristor compensators (STC) on low-voltage autotransformers and controlled shunting reactors on high-voltage lines, is presented. It is shown that the STC can be created step-by-step beginning with the reactive part on substations with low-loaded lines. Results of installation of reactor groups of STC stepwise-controlled by vacuum switches at 330- and 500-kV substations are presented. Tests of the reactor groups have proved their high efficiency.

  19. Voltage control on a train system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  20. A linear MOSFET regulation system to improve the performance of the booster-ramping power supplies at the APS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, G.; Deriy, B.; Wang, J.; Shang, H.; Xu, S.

    2008-01-01

    The APS booster ring uses ramping power supplies to power the sextupole, quadrupole, and dipole magnets as the beam energy ramps up linearly to 7 GeV. Due to the circuit topology used, those supplies are unable to follow the linear ramp to the desired accuracy. The best regulation achieved is 0.5% while 0.1 % is desired. In addition to the unsatisfying regulation, those supplies are sensitive to AC line perturbations and are not able to reject AC line noises higher than a few tens of Hertz. To improve the performance, a linear MOSFET regulation system using paralleled MOSFET devices in series with the power supply is proposed. The system uses a real-time current feedback loop to force the MOSFETs to work in the linear operation mode. By using this linear MOSFET regulator, the voltage drop on MOSFETs, and hence the voltage imposed on magnets, can be regulated very quickly. As a result, the regulation of the magnet current can be improved significantly. Experiments and simulation have been performed to verify the proposed method. Results show that, with the linear regulator, the current regulation can be improved to better than 0.1%. Because of the high bandwidth of the linear regulator, it can reduce the harmonic content in the output current as well as reject the AC line disturbance.

  1. Voltage Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    distributor specializing in the full spectrum of electric vehicles (EV) and full-performance alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). References: Voltage Vehicles1 This article is a...

  2. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  3. Control of power to an inductively heated part

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, D.R.; Frost, C.A.; Kahle, P.M.; Kelley, J.B.; Stanton, S.L.

    1997-05-20

    A process for induction hardening a part to a desired depth with an AC signal applied to the part from a closely coupled induction coil includes measuring the voltage of the AC signal at the coil and the current passing through the coil; and controlling the depth of hardening of the part from the measured voltage and current. The control system determines parameters of the part that are functions of applied voltage and current to the induction coil, and uses a neural network to control the application of the AC signal based on the detected functions for each part. 6 figs.

  4. Control of power to an inductively heated part

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Frost, Charles A.; Kahle, Philip M.; Kelley, J. Bruce; Stanton, Suzanne L.

    1997-01-01

    A process for induction hardening a part to a desired depth with an AC signal applied to the part from a closely coupled induction coil includes measuring the voltage of the AC signal at the coil and the current passing through the coil; and controlling the depth of hardening of the part from the measured voltage and current. The control system determines parameters of the part that are functions of applied voltage and current to the induction coil, and uses a neural network to control the application of the AC signal based on the detected functions for each part.

  5. Non-contact current and voltage sensing method using a clamshell housing and a ferrite cylinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of measurement using a detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient technique for to measuring current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  6. Non-contact current and voltage sensor having detachable housing incorporating multiple ferrite cylinder portions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael A.

    2016-04-26

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing formed from two portions that mechanically close around the wire and that contain the current and voltage sensors. The current sensor is a ferrite cylinder formed from at least three portions that form the cylinder when the sensor is closed around the wire with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap between two of the ferrite portions along the circumference to measure current. A capacitive plate or wire is disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  7. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  8. On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Boundary (Conference) | SciTech Connect On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability Boundary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability Boundary Abstract-Stability limits are considered in power system planning and operations to estimate the available stability margins and, if possible, to maximize the utilization of transmission facilities. These important tasks are influenced by

  9. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  10. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  11. AC/RF Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  12. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, David J.; Dallum, Gregory E.

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  13. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorn, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Ingans, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  14. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - AC power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    p>

    For tips on protecting the cathode, GE has been studying PPPL's use of liquid lithium to prevent damage to the divertor that exhausts heat in fusion facilities. The...

  15. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  16. Solving the power flow equations: a monotone operator approach...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The AC power flow equations underlie all operational aspects of power systems. They are solved routinely in operational practice using the Newton-Raphson method and its variants. ...

  17. Voltage Impacts of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Although most utility-scale wind turbines in the United States are added at the transmission level in large wind power plants, distributed wind power offers an alternative that could increase the overall wind power penetration without the need for additional transmission. This report examines the distribution feeder-level voltage issues that can arise when adding utility-scale wind turbines to the distribution system. Four of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory taxonomy feeders were examined in detail to study the voltage issues associated with adding wind turbines at different distances from the sub-station. General rules relating feeder resistance up to the point of turbine interconnection to the expected maximum voltage change levels were developed. Additional analysis examined line and transformer overvoltage conditions.

  18. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  19. HVDC-AC system interaction from AC harmonics. Volume 1. Harmonic impedance calculations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breuer, G D; Chow, J H; Lindh, C B; Miller, N W; Numrich, F H; Price, W W; Turner, A E; Whitney, R R

    1982-09-01

    Improved methods are needed to characterize ac system harmonic behavior for ac filter design for HVDC systems. The purpose of this General Electric Company RP1138 research is to evaluate the present filter design practice and to investigate methods for calculating system harmonic impedances. An overview of ac filter design for HVDC systems and a survey of literature related to filter design have been performed. Two methods for calculating system harmonic impedances have been investigated. In the measurement method, an instrumentation system for measuring system voltage and current has been assembled. Different schemes of using the measurements to calculate system harmonic impedances have been studied. In the analytical method, a procedure to include various operating conditions has been proposed. Computer programs for both methods have been prepared, and the results of the measurement and analytical methods analyzed. A conclusion of the project is that the measurement and analytical methods both provided reasonable results. There are correlations between the measured and analytical results for most harmonics, although there are discrepancies between the assumptions used in the two methods. A sensitivity approach has been proposed to further correlate the results. From the results of the analysis, it is recommended that both methods should be tested further. For the measurement method, more testing should be done to cover different system operating conditions. In the analytical method, more detailed models for representing system components should be studied. In addition, alternative statistical and sensitivity approaches should be attempted.

  20. System and method for monitoring and controlling stator winding temperature in a de-energized AC motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Luebke, Charles John; Habetler, Thomas G.; Zhang, Pinjia; Becker, Scott K.

    2011-12-27

    A system and method for measuring and controlling stator winding temperature in an AC motor while idling is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of a multi-phase AC motor. The circuit further includes a plurality of switching devices to control current flow and terminal voltages in the multi-phase AC motor and a controller connected to the circuit. The controller is configured to activate the plurality of switching devices to create a DC signal in an output of the motor control device corresponding to an input to the multi-phase AC motor, determine or estimate a stator winding resistance of the multi-phase AC motor based on the DC signal, and estimate a stator temperature from the stator winding resistance. Temperature can then be controlled and regulated by DC injection into the stator windings.

  1. PowerPerfector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: PowerPerfector Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W2 7YL Sector: Carbon Product: Voltage Power Optimisation technology that reduces electricity...

  2. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  3. Method and apparatus for line power monitoring for uninterruptible power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, R.V. Jr.; Stich, F.A.

    1993-07-20

    AC line waveform monitoring apparatus is described for detecting AC line power faults and providing a fault signal for control of an uninterruptible power supply comprising: (a) means for sampling an AC line power signal at times synchronized with the cycle of the AC line waveform; (b) means for producing a reference waveform at selected sample times during the period of the AC line signal given previous reference waveform values and a prior cycle wherein a reference waveform value at each sample time comprises a selectively weighted average of value at that sample time in the prior cycle of the AC line signal and the previous reference waveform value at that sample time; (c) an uninterruptible power supply including an auxiliary power supply battery, the uninterruptible power supply receiving the AC line power and normally providing the AC line power to a load and responsive to a fault signal to switch to provide power to the load from the battery; (d) means for comparing the AC line signal waveform with the reference waveform at corresponding times in the reference waveform and the signal waveform and providing the fault signal to the uninterruptible power supply so that it provides power to the load from the battery when a selected difference condition is exceeded.

  4. Low Insertion HVDC Circuit Breaker: Magnetically Pulsed Hybrid Breaker for HVDC Power Distribution Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    GENI Project: General Atomics is developing a direct current (DC) circuit breaker that could protect the grid from faults 100 times faster than its alternating current (AC) counterparts. Circuit breakers are critical elements in any electrical system. At the grid level, their main function is to isolate parts of the grid where a fault has occurred—such as a downed power line or a transformer explosion—from the rest of the system. DC circuit breakers must interrupt the system during a fault much faster than AC circuit breakers to prevent possible damage to cables, converters and other grid-level components. General Atomics’ high-voltage DC circuit breaker would react in less than 1/1,000th of a second to interrupt current during a fault, preventing potential hazards to people and equipment.

  5. Initial tests of an AC dipole for the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, R.; Jansson, A.; Kopp, S.; Syphers, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to diagnose transverse motions of a beam. It can achieve large-amplitude oscillations without two inevitable problems of conventional kicker/pinger magnets: decoherence and emittance growth. While not the first synchrotron to operate with an AC dipole, the Tevatron can now make use of its recently upgraded BPM system, providing unprecedented resolution for use with an AC dipole, to measure both linear and nonlinear properties of the accelerator. Plans are to provide AC dipole systems for both transverse degrees of freedom. Preliminary tests have been done using an audio power amplifier with an existing vertical pinger magnet, producing oscillation amplitudes up to 2{sigma} at 150 GeV. In this paper, we will present the configuration of this system. We also show the analysis of a first few data sets, including the direct measurement of beta functions at BPM locations.

  6. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters andBattery Chargers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-02-28

    External power adapters may lose 10 to 70 percent of theenergy they consume, dissipated as heat rather than converted into usefulenergy. Battery charging systems have more avenues for losses: inaddition to power conversion losses, power is consumed by the chargingcircuitry, and additional power may be needed after the battery is fullcharged to balance self-discharge. In 2005, the Environmental ProtectionAgency launched a new ENERGY STAR(R) label for external power supplies(EPSs) that convert line-voltage AC electricity into low-voltage DCelectricity for certain electronic devices. The specification includedpower supplies for products with battery charging functions (e.g. laptopsand cell phones), but excluded others. In January 2006, a separatespecification was issued for battery charging systems contained primarilyin small household appliances and power tools. In addition to the ENERGYSTAR(R) label, the state of California will implement minimum energyperformance standards for EPSs in 2007, and similar standards for EPSsand battery chargers are in development at the national level.Many of theproducts covered by these policies use relatively little power and havemodest per-unit savings potential compared to conventional energyefficiency targets. But with an estimated 1.5 billion adapters and 230million battery charging systems in use in the United States, theaggregate savings potential is quite high. This paper presents estimatesof the savings potential for external power adapters and battery chargingsystems through 2025.

  7. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  8. Voltage control in pulsed system by predict-ahead control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Anthony N.; Watson, James A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for predict-ahead pulse-to-pulse voltage control in a pulsed power supply system is disclosed. A DC power supply network is coupled to a resonant charging network via a first switch. The resonant charging network is coupled at a node to a storage capacitor. An output load is coupled to the storage capacitor via a second switch. A de-Q-ing network is coupled to the resonant charging network via a third switch. The trigger for the third switch is a derived function of the initial voltage of the power supply network, the initial voltage of the storage capacitor, and the present voltage of the storage capacitor. A first trigger closes the first switch and charges the capacitor. The third trigger is asserted according to the derived function to close the third switch. When the third switch is closed, the first switch opens and voltage on the node is regulated. The second trigger may be thereafter asserted to discharge the capacitor into the output load.

  9. Voltage control in pulsed system by predict-ahead control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, A.N.; Watson, J.A.; Sampayan, S.E.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus for predict-ahead pulse-to-pulse voltage control in a pulsed power supply system is disclosed. A DC power supply network is coupled to a resonant charging network via a first switch. The resonant charging network is coupled at a node to a storage capacitor. An output load is coupled to the storage capacitor via a second switch. A de-Q-ing network is coupled to the resonant charging network via a third switch. The trigger for the third switch is a derived function of the initial voltage of the power supply network, the initial voltage of the storage capacitor, and the present voltage of the storage capacitor. A first trigger closes the first switch and charges the capacitor. The third trigger is asserted according to the derived function to close the third switch. When the third switch is closed, the first switch opens and voltage on the node is regulated. The second trigger may be thereafter asserted to discharge the capacitor into the output load. 4 figs.

  10. Contingency selection theory for steady-state security assessment of power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halpin, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis presents the theory and method for systematically finding the performance index (PI) which is used in Automatic Contingency Selection (ACS) algorithms. The purpose of the ACS algorithm is to determine whether a contingency has an impact on the security of the power system (such as out-of-limit conditions in the post-contigency operation) or not, in a computationally efficient manner. Since this is a binary decision problem, then the choice of the PI is equivalent ot the selection of a decision function which measures the impact of each contingency on the system performance in terms of giving out-of-limit conditions. This thesis shows how to select the PI together with a threshold value J/sub th/ so as to minimize the probability of misclassifying the contingency. The main contribution of this thesis is that it gives the theoretical foundation for designing more effective ACS algorithms. It shows that the selection of the PI is based on a statistical decision criteria such as the Bayes Risk Criterion, since one needs to examine the risk involved in misclassifying the contingency. This approach is used to find the PI for monitoring both the line flow, bus voltage and generator VAR limits. It is shown that when formulating the problem in the space of voltage magnitudes and phase angles then the problem of finding the PI which satisfies a specific contingency selection criteria can be stated as a set imbedding and volume maximization problem. These theoretical results are applied to the problem of tuning the weighting coefficients in the currently used PI's for analyzing either the real power flow or node voltage magnitude problems in order ot guarantee proper classification of the contingencies in terms of minimizing the probabilities of missing critial contingencies and false alarms.

  11. AC Propulsion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc. is a California Corporation founded in 1992 to develop, manufacture, and license system and component technology for electric vehicle drive systems. References: AC...

  12. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  13. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi; /Texas U.

    2008-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f {approx} 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  14. Voltage distortion in distribution feeders with nonlinear loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel, A.E.; Janczak, J. ); Pileggi, D.J.; Gulachenski, E.M.; Root, C.E.; Breen, M. ); Gentile, T.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The voltage of three real-life 13.8kV feeders supplying customers with non-linear loads was analyzed by means of computer simulations. Three classes of non-linear loads were considered. Each class is characteristic for different types of ac to dc converters such as the input dc supply used for adjustable-speed-drives, battery chargers, PC's, TV's and electronically ballasted lights. The analysis is based on the determination of the most harmonic susceptible busses and their response to each harmonic frequency. A new expeditive method that takes into account the background harmonic voltage phasor, and an equivalent bus impedance was developed and used to compute the maximum non-linear loads that yields VTHD = 5%, (Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion). The main conclusion of this work is that when mitigation methods are not used, for a 15kV class feeder with a maximum 10MVA installed load, the total non-linear residential load should not exceed 300kW if the ITHD <30% (Current Total Harmonic Distortion), and 100kW if ITHD >100%.

  15. Systems and methods for process and user driven dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallik, Arindam; Lin, Bin; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter; Dick, Robert

    2011-03-22

    Certain embodiments of the present invention provide a method for power management including determining at least one of an operating frequency and an operating voltage for a processor and configuring the processor based on the determined at least one of the operating frequency and the operating voltage. The operating frequency is determined based at least in part on direct user input. The operating voltage is determined based at least in part on an individual profile for processor.

  16. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Unbalance Eliminate Voltage Unbalance Voltage unbalance degrades the performance and shortens the life of a three-phase motor. Voltage unbalance at the motor terminals can cause current unbalance that is far out of proportion to the voltage unbalance. Unbalanced currents lead to torque pulsations, increased vibrations and mechanical stresses, increased losses resulting in lower efficiency, and motor overheating, which reduces winding insulation life. This tip sheet provides suggested

  17. Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell

    2012-06-15

    The GreenRay Inc. program focused on simplifying solar electricity and making it affordable and accessible to the mainstream population. This was accomplished by integrating a solar module, micro-inverter, mounting and monitoring into a reliable, 'plug and play' AC system for residential rooftops, offering the following advantages: (1) Reduced Cost: Reduction in installation labor with fewer components, faster mounting, faster wiring. (2) Maximized Energy Production: Each AC Module operates at its maximum, reducing overall losses from shading, mismatch, or module downtime. (3) Increased Safety. Electrical and fire safety experts agree that AC Modules have significant benefits, with no energized wiring or live connections during installation, maintenance or emergency conditions. (4) Simplified PV for a Broader Group of Installers. Dramatic simplification of design and installation of a solar power system, enabling faster and more efficient delivery of the product into the market through well-established, mainstream channels. This makes solar more accessible to the public. (5) Broadened the Rooftop Market: AC Modules enable solar for many homes that have shading, split roofs, or obstructions. In addition, due to the smaller building block size of 200W vs. 1000W, homeowners with budget limitations can start small and add to their systems over time. Through this DOE program GreenRay developed the all-in-one AC Module system with an integrated PV Module and microinverter, custom residential mounting and performance monitoring. Development efforts took the product from its initial concept, through prototypes, to a commercial product sold and deployed in the residential market. This pilot deployment has demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the AC Module system in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the residential market. While more expensive than the traditional central inverter systems at the pilot scale, the economics of AC Modules become more and more favorable as the product matures and is made in high volumes. GreenRay's early customers have been highly enthusiastic about the AC Module system benefits.

  18. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  19. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  20. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  1. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  2. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  3. Solar Electric Grid Integration- Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the Solar Electric Grid Integration – Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) program, DOE is funding solar projects that are targeting ways to develop power electronics and build smarter, more...

  4. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  5. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  6. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Low Voltage Power Factor Capacitors. 1985. Turner, W.C. Energy Management Handbook. John Wiley and Sons, pp. 337-345. 1982. U. S. Department of Energy. Motor Challenge Sourcebook. ...

  7. SIC ENABLED HIGH-FREQUENCY MEDIUM VOLTAGE DRIVE FOR HIGH-SPEED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Electric Company - Niskayuna, NY A medium voltage drive system using SiC semiconductors and a high-speed motor to reduce the system footprint and improve power density and ...

  8. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2003-06-10

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  9. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  10. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  11. Low voltage secondary network cable reliability study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to find clues to the causes of manhole fires and explosions, researchers removed several aged low voltage network cables from service on the United Illuminating Company system. Examination of their physical, chemical, and electrical properties indicated that any deterioration of the cables that had occurred during their approximately 35 year service life was minor and did not affect reliability for continued service. Cables were found to have retained excellent properties despite their long age in service. For example, AC breakdown strength, dissipation factor, and percent elongation were all satisfactory. Insulation was coherent, not brittle; and the jackets did not crack or craze on bending. The tested cables compare favorably, physically and electrically, with non-jacketed rubber cables presently in service.

  12. Efficient Switches for Solar Power Conversion: Four Quadrant GaN Switch Enabled Three Phase Grid-Tied Microinverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-13

    Solar ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing power switches for new types of inverters that improve the efficiency and reliability of converting energy from solar panels into useable electricity for the grid. Transistors act as fast switches and control the electrical energy that flows in an electrical circuit. Turning a transistor off opens the circuit and stops the flow of electrical current; turning it on closes the circuit and allows electrical current to flow. In this way a transistor can be used to convert DC from a solar panel into AC for use in a home. Transphorm’s transistors will enable a single semiconductor device to switch electrical currents at high-voltage in both directions—making the inverter more compact and reliable. Transphorm is using Gallium Nitride (GaN) as a semiconductor material in its transistors instead of silicon, which is used in most conventional transistors, because GaN transistors have lower losses at higher voltages and switching frequencies.

  13. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

  14. Multilevel-Dc-Bus Inverter For Providing Sinusoidal And Pwm Electrical Machine Voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2005-11-29

    A circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected to supply current for a corresponding voltage phase to the stator windings, a plurality of diodes, each in parallel connection to a respective one of the commutation switches, a plurality of dc source connections providing a multi-level dc bus for the full bridge network of commutation switches to produce sinusoidal voltages or PWM signals, and a controller connected for control of said dc source connections and said full bridge network of commutation switches to output substantially sinusoidal voltages to the stator windings. With the invention, the number of semiconductor switches is reduced to m+3 for a multi-level dc bus having m levels. A method of machine control is also disclosed.

  15. Superconducting shielded core reactor with reduced AC losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Yung S.; Hull, John R.

    2006-04-04

    A superconducting shielded core reactor (SSCR) operates as a passive device for limiting excessive AC current in a circuit operating at a high power level under a fault condition such as shorting. The SSCR includes a ferromagnetic core which may be either closed or open (with an air gap) and extends into and through a superconducting tube or superconducting rings arranged in a stacked array. First and second series connected copper coils each disposed about a portion of the iron core are connected to the circuit to be protected and are respectively wound inside and outside of the superconducting tube or rings. A large impedance is inserted into the circuit by the core when the shielding capability of the superconducting arrangement is exceeded by the applied magnetic field generated by the two coils under a fault condition to limit the AC current in the circuit. The proposed SSCR also affords reduced AC loss compared to conventional SSCRs under continuous normal operation.

  16. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system’s distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system’s capacity.

  17. Module-Integrated Power Converters Based on Universal Dock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    environmentally protected unit consisting of solar cells, optics, inverter, and other components, exclusive of tracker, designed to generate AC power when exposed to sunlight." ...

  18. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR * BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bonneville Power Administration deposited 12,535,000 to the rechunation fund in the United States Treasury for the ac- count of Columbia Basin Project. Yakima Project...

  19. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grotz, Glenn F. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  20. VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED TRANSISTOR OSCILLATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheele, P.F.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to transistor oscillators and in particular to those transistor oscillators whose frequencies vary according to controlling voltages. A principal feature of the disclosed transistor oscillator circuit resides in the temperature compensation of the frequency modulating stage by the use of a resistorthermistor network. The resistor-thermistor network components are selected to have the network resistance, which is in series with the modulator transistor emitter circuit, vary with temperature to compensate for variation in the parameters of the transistor due to temperature change.

  1. 1997RMxAC...6..151L

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RMxAC...6..151L 1997RMxAC...6..151L 1997RMxAC...6..151L

  2. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: Long-length cable modeling and analysis HTS wire evaluation and testing Cable testing for AC losses Optimized cooling system design Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  3. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation Title: Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from ...

  4. Power Integrations Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Integrations Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Integrations Inc Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95138 Product: Supplier of high-voltage analog integrated circuits used...

  5. Power Analog Mircoelectronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mircoelectronics Place: Santa Clara, California Zip: 95051 Product: Power Analog Microelectronics focuses on delivering and developing "green" advanced analog, and high-voltage...

  6. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  7. Utility Test Results of a 2-Megawatt, 10-Second Reserve-Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BALL,GREG J.; NORRIS,BENJAMIN L.

    1999-10-01

    This report documents the 1996 evaluation by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of an advanced reserve-power system capable of supporting 2 MW of load for 10 seconds. The system, developed under a DOE Cooperative Agreement with AC Battery Corporation of East Troy, Wisconsin, contains battery storage that enables industrial facilities to ''ride through'' momentary outages. The evaluation consisted of tests of system performance using a wide variety of load types and operating conditions. The tests, which included simulated utility outages and voltage sags, demonstrated that the system could provide continuous power during utility outages and other disturbances and that it was compatible with a variety of load types found at industrial customer sites.

  8. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Popov, Vladimir E.

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  9. Power conversion apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  10. High voltage feed through bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, J.P.

    1993-04-06

    A feed through bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  11. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  12. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  13. AC Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Inc Jump to: navigation, search Logo: AC Solar Inc Name: AC Solar Inc Address: P.O. Box 128 Place: Florence, Colorado Zip: 81226 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product:...

  14. Generation of electrical power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  15. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preliminary Evaluation Results | Department of Energy Preliminary Evaluation Results Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses. PDF icon 41041.pdf More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell

  16. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-05-01

    Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  17. Observation of multi-scale oscillation of laminar lifted flames with low-frequency AC electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, S.K.; Kim, Y.K.; Kim, M.K.; Won, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-01-15

    The oscillation behavior of laminar lifted flames under the influence of low-frequency AC has been investigated experimentally in coflow jets. Various oscillation modes were existed depending on jet velocity and the voltage and frequency of AC, especially when the AC frequency was typically smaller than 30 Hz. Three different oscillation modes were observed: (1) large-scale oscillation with the oscillation frequency of about 0.1 Hz, which was independent of the applied AC frequency, (2) small-scale oscillation synchronized to the applied AC frequency, and (3) doubly-periodic oscillation with small-scale oscillation embedded in large-scale oscillation. As the AC frequency decreased from 30 Hz, the oscillation modes were in the order of the large-scale oscillation, doubly-periodic oscillation, and small-scale oscillation. The onset of the oscillation for the AC frequency smaller than 30 Hz was in close agreement with the delay time scale for the ionic wind effect to occur, that is, the collision response time. Frequency-doubling behavior for the small-scale oscillation has also been observed. Possible mechanisms for the large-scale oscillation and the frequency-doubling behavior have been discussed, although the detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be a future study. (author)

  18. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walraven, Jeremy A.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2002-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device with or without on-board integrated circuitry. One embodiment of the TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the MEM device while scanning a focused laser beam over electrically-active members therein to produce localized heating which alters the power demand of the MEM device and thereby changes the voltage of the constant-current source. This changing voltage of the constant-current source can be measured and used in combination with the position of the focused and scanned laser beam to generate an image of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device (e.g. due to stiction or fabrication defects). In another embodiment of the TIVA apparatus, an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the location of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device, without any need for supplying power to the MEM device. The TIVA apparatus can be formed, in part, from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of MEM devices.

  19. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  20. DOE-HDBK-1011/4-92; DOE Fundamentals Handbook Electrical Science...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; ... Key Words: Training Material, Magnetism, DC Theory, DC Circuits, Batteries, DC Generators, ...

  1. DOE-HDBK-1011/2-92; DOE Fundamentals Handbook Electrical Science...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; ... Key Words: Training Material, Magnetism, DC Theory, DC Circuits, Batteries, DC Generators, ...

  2. DOE-HDBK-1011/1-92; DOE Fundamentals Handbook Electrical Science...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; ... Key Words: Training Material, Magnetism, DC Theory, DC Circuits, Batteries, DC Generators, ...

  3. DOE-HDBK-1011/3-92; DOE Fundamentals Handbook Electrical Science...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; ... Key Words: Training Material, Magnetism, DC Theory, DC Circuits, Batteries, DC Generators, ...

  4. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  5. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver Lead Performer: Lumileds, LLC - San Jose, CA DOE Total Funding: $1,499,346 Cost Share: $499,783 Project Term: 9/1/2014 - 2/29/2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will develop a high-voltage light engine integrating low-cost, high-power patterned sapphire substrate flip-chip (PSS-FC) architecture LEDs with

  6. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  7. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  8. Non-iterative Voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Hou, Zhangshuan; Wu, Di; Meng, Da; Wang, Shaobu; Elbert, Stephen T.; Miller, Laurie E.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-09-30

    This report demonstrates promising capabilities and performance characteristics of the proposed method using several power systems models. The new method will help to develop a new generation of highly efficient tools suitable for real-time parallel implementation. The ultimate benefit obtained will be early detection of system instability and prevention of system blackouts in real time.

  9. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  10. Flexible method for monitoring fuel cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2002-01-01

    A method for equalizing the measured voltage of each cluster in a fuel cell stack wherein at least one of the clusters has a different number of cells than the identical number of cells in the remaining clusters by creating a pseudo voltage for the different cell numbered cluster. The average cell voltage of the all of the cells in the fuel cell stack is calculated and multiplied by a constant equal to the difference in the number of cells in the identical cell clusters and the number of cells in the different numbered cell cluster. The resultant product is added to the actual voltage measured across the different numbered cell cluster to create a pseudo voltage which is equivalent in cell number to the number of cells in the other identical numbered cell clusters.

  11. Inverter Load Rejection Over-Voltage Testing: SolarCity CRADA Task 1a Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, A.; Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chebahtah, J.; Wang, T.; Zimmerly, B.

    2015-02-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of electric power systems. One of the urgent areas for additional research - as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers, and utilities - is the potential for transient over-voltage from PV inverters. In one stage of a cooperative tests were repeated a total of seven times. The maximum over-voltage measured in any test did not exceed 200% of nominal, and typical over-voltage levels were significantly lower. The total voltage duration and the maximum continuous time above each threshold are presented here, as well as the time to disconnect for each test. Finally, we present a brief investigation into the effect of DC input voltage as well as a series of no-load tests. This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient over-voltages created by several commercial PV inverters during load-rejection conditions. For this work, a test plan that is currently under development by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, NREL is working with SolarCity to address two specific types of transient overvoltage: load rejection overvoltage (LRO) and ground fault overvoltage (GFO). Additional partners in this effort include the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Northern Plains Power Technologies, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  12. Global DC Power System Market Analysis | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    either positive or negative. It can be powered from an AC or DC source. A basic DC power system consists of a transformer, a rectifier, a filter, and a regulator. All these...

  13. Global DC Power System Market Growth | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    either positive or negative. It can be powered from an AC or DC source. A basic DC power system consists of a transformer, a rectifier, a filter, and a regulator. All these...

  14. Global DC Power System Market Space | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    either positive or negative. It can be powered from an AC or DC source. A basic DC power system consists of a transformer, a rectifier, a filter, and a regulator. All these...

  15. Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy ...

  16. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines David ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test ...

  17. Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High Renewables Scenarios in the ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 The Potential Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Enabling High ...

  18. Interleaved power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-11-13

    A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

  19. Sequential power-up circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A sequential power-up circuit for starting several electrical load elements in series to avoid excessive current surge, comprising a voltage ramp generator and a set of voltage comparators, each comparator having a different reference voltage and interfacing with a switch that is capable of turning on one of the load elements. As the voltage rises, it passes the reference voltages one at a time and causes the switch corresponding to that voltage to turn on its load element. The ramp is turned on and off by a single switch or by a logic-level electrical signal. The ramp rate for turning on the load element is relatively slow and the rate for turning the elements off is relatively fast. Optionally, the duration of each interval of time between the turning on of the load elements is programmable.

  20. Sequential power-up circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-06-02

    A sequential power-up circuit for starting several electrical load elements in series to avoid excessive current surge, comprising a voltage ramp generator and a set of voltage comparators, each comparator having a different reference voltage and interfacing with a switch that is capable of turning on one of the load elements. As the voltage rises, it passes the reference voltages one at a time and causes the switch corresponding to that voltage to turn on its load element. The ramp is turned on and off by a single switch or by a logic-level electrical signal. The ramp rate for turning on the load element is relatively slow and the rate for turning the elements off is relatively fast. Optionally, the duration of each interval of time between the turning on of the load elements is programmable. 2 figs.

  1. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  2. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  3. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  4. Free-piston Stirling engine system considerations for various space power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dochat, G.R.; Dhar, M. )

    1991-01-05

    The U.S. Government is evaluating power requirements for future space applications. As power requirements increase solar or nuclear dynamic systems become increasingly attractive. Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE) have the potential to provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for the dynamic power conversion module of a space-based, power-generating system. FPSE can be coupled with many potential heat sources (radioisotope, solar, or nuclear reactor), various heat input systems (pumped loop, heat pipe), heat rejection (pumped loop or heat pipe), and various power management and distribution systems (AC, DC, high or low voltage, and fixed or variable load). This paper will review potential space missions that can be met using free-piston Stirling engines and discusses options of various system integration approaches. Currently free-piston Stirling engine technology for space power applications is being developed under contract with NASA-Lewis Research Center. This paper will also briefly outline the program and recent progress.

  5. Design concepts for a pulse power test facility to simulate EMP surges. Part II. Slow pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dethlefsen, R.

    1985-10-01

    The work described in this report was sponsored by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) through a subcontract with the Power Systems Technology Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work deals with the effect of high altitude nuclear bursts on electric power systems. In addition to fast voltage transients, slow, quasi-dc currents are also induced into extended power systems with grounded neutral connections. Similar phenomena at lower magnitude are generated by solar induced electromagnetic pulses (EMP). These have caused power outages, related to solar storms, at northern latitudes. The applicable utility experience is reviewed in order to formulate an optimum approach to future testing. From a wide variety of options two pulser designs were selected as most practical, a transformer-rectifier power supply, and a lead acid battery pulser. both can be mounted on a trailer as required for field testing on utility systems. The battery system results in the least cost. Testing on power systems requires that the dc pulser pass high values of alternating current, resulting from neutral imbalance or from potential fault currents. Batteries have a high ability to pass alternating currents. Most other pulser options must be protected by an ac bypass in the form of an expensive capacitor bank. 8D truck batteries can meet the original specification of 1 kA test current. Improved batteries for higher discharge currents are available.

  6. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, G.F.

    1992-04-21

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time. 6 figs.

  7. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, George F.

    1992-01-01

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time.

  8. Joint BioEnergy Institute Oxime-NIMS Work Featured on the Cover of ACS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Biology Oxime-NIMS Work Featured on the Cover of ACS Chemical Biology - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing

  9. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  10. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  11. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  12. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  13. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-10-22

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.

  14. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, Max E.

    1996-01-01

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.

  15. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J.; Roose, Lars D.

    1996-01-01

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed.

  16. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  17. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A; Ransom, Ray M

    2013-12-24

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system includes a load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage from the voltage source through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the load. Wherein, when the controller is in a constant voltage mode, the controller provides a constant voltage to the load, when the controller is in a constant current mode, the controller provides a constant current to the load, and when the controller is in a constant power mode, the controller provides a constant power to the load.

  18. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors ...

  19. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil.

  20. Voltage Regulation Using a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with a Series Compensator: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Ping; Wu, Ziping; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-08-24

    A wind power plant (WPP) is often operated at unity power factor, and the utility host where the WPP connects prefers to regulate the voltage. Although this may not be an issue in a stiff grid, the connection to a weak grid can be a problematic. This paper explores the advantages of having voltage regulation capability via reactive power control. Another issue in wind power generation is that not all turbines are able to control their reactive power due to technical reasons or contractual obligations. A synchronous condenser (SC) using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is proposed to provide necessary reactive power for regulating voltage at a weak grid connection. A PMSG has the advantage of higher efficiency and reliability. Because of its lack of a field winding, a PMSG is typically controlled by a full-power converter, which can be costly. In the proposed system, the reactive power of the SC is controlled by a serially connected compensator operating in a closed-loop configuration. The compensator also damps the PMSG’s tendency to oscillate. The compensator’s VA rating is only a fraction of the rating of the SC and the PMSG. In this initial investigation, the proposed scheme is shown to be effective by computer simulations.

  1. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  2. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over and ...

  3. VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control Jump to: navigation, search Name: VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control Place: Capenhurst, United Kingdom Zip: CH1 6EH...

  4. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources ...

  5. Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of ElectrolyteElectrolyte ... Title: Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of Electrolyte...

  6. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources A ...

  7. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE ...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Voltage Fade,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Presentation ...

  9. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries ...

  10. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric ...

  11. Surface potential distribution and airflow performance of different air-exposed electrode plasma actuators at different alternating current/direct current voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Liang; Yan, Hui-Jie; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Hua, Yue; Ren, Chun-Sheng

    2015-04-15

    Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators have been intensely studied for a number of years due to their potential applications for aerodynamic control. In this paper, four types of actuators with different configurations of exposed electrode are proposed. The SDBD actuators investigated are driven by dual-power supply, referred to as a fixed AC high voltage and an adjustable DC bias. The effects of the electrode structures on the dielectric surface potential distribution, the electric wind velocity, and the mean thrust production are studied, and the dominative factors of airflow acceleration behavior are revealed. The results have shown that the actions of the SDBD actuator are mainly dependent on the geometry of the exposed electrode. Besides, the surface potential distribution can effectively affect the airflow acceleration behavior. With the application of an appropriate additional DC bias, the surface potential will be modified. As a result, the performance of the electric wind produced by a single SDBD can be significantly improved. In addition, the work also illustrates that the actuators with more negative surface potential present better mechanical performance.

  12. WP-07 Reactive Power Supplemental Proposal (wp07/initial)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This modification is necessary in light of recent FERC cases regarding generation input cost for generation supplied reactive power and voltage control. On February 13, BPA...

  13. Property:ElectricPowerAttribute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Type String Description MHK Measurement Categories Used in FormTemplate MHKSensor & MHKInstrument Allows Values Power;Voltage;Electric Current;Frequency Retrieved from...

  14. HEADLINE: BPA RAISES RATES TO BOLSTER FEDERAL POWER AND TRANSMISSION...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-voltage transmission lines that serve Northwest public utilities." For Bonneville's utility power customers, the wholesale rate increase will be an average of 9 percent...

  15. Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding Opportunity Solar Electric Grid Integration - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) Funding Opportunity Through the Solar ...

  16. Review of Site Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    substations at the facilities, which reduce power to various AC voltages providing a dual loop power supply. In Idaho Falls, separate substations provide commercial power at...

  17. Kondo physics in the single-electron transistor with ac driving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordlander, Peter; Wingreen, Ned S.; Meir, Yigal; Langreth, David C.

    2000-01-15

    Using a time-dependent Anderson Hamiltonian, a quantum dot with an ac voltage applied to a nearby gate is investigated. A rich dependence of the linear response conductance on the external frequency and driving amplitude is demonstrated. At low frequencies a sufficiently strong ac potential produces sidebands of the Kondo peak in the spectral density of the dot, and a slow, roughly logarithmic decrease in conductance over several decades of frequency. At intermediate frequencies, the conductance of the dot displays an oscillatory behavior due to the appearance of Kondo resonances of the satellites of the dot level. At high frequencies, the conductance of the dot can vary rapidly due to the interplay between photon-assisted tunneling and the Kondo resonance. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup −} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  19. Reactive power compensating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  20. Principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, C.H.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the basic principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. Three different HV configurations are considered: Long lines, lines with a weak mid-point station, and mutually-coupled lines. Application criteria for EHV circuits are also discussed, and specific setting calculations are included where appropriate.

  1. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  2. Reactive power compensator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  3. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  4. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the problems associated with increasing penetration of renewable resources on the grid and what are the challenges in solving these issues. Section III provides a brief summary of the initial concepts that were explored before the final Fast DVC prototype was developed. Section IV and V present the hardware, controls, communication, and mechanical architecture and features of the Fast DVC. Section VI presents the procedure for assembling the Fast DVC. The test plan and lab setup are expounded in Section VII and VIII. Section IX presents the results from testing the Fast DVC in the lab, several results are presented along with some pictures of the developed unit. Section X details the pilot demonstration activities. Finally, section XI showcases the efforts associated with the simulation and modeling of the Fast DVC in various scenarios with DERs and its impact in all these scenarios.

  5. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  6. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or coulombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  7. A Bidirectional High-Power-Quality Grid Interface With a Novel Bidirectional Noninverted Buck Boost Converter for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C

    2012-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will play a vital role in future sustainable transportation systems due to their potential in terms of energy security, decreased environmental impact, improved fuel economy, and better performance. Moreover, new regulations have been established to improve the collective gas mileage, cut greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. This paper primarily focuses on two major thrust areas of PHEVs. First, it introduces a grid-friendly bidirectional alternating current/direct current ac/dc dc/ac rectifier/inverter for facilitating vehicle-to-grid (V2G) integration of PHEVs. Second, it presents an integrated bidirectional noninverted buck boost converter that interfaces the energy storage device of the PHEV to the dc link in both grid-connected and driving modes. The proposed bidirectional converter has minimal grid-level disruptions in terms of power factor and total harmonic distortion, with less switching noise. The integrated bidirectional dc/dc converter assists the grid interface converter to track the charge/discharge power of the PHEV battery. In addition, while driving, the dc/dc converter provides a regulated dc link voltage to the motor drive and captures the braking energy during regenerative braking.

  8. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  9. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  10. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  11. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  12. Evaluation of station blackout accidents at nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to unresolved safety issue A-44: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    ''Station Blackout,'' which is the complete loss of alternating current (AC) electrical power in a nuclear power plant, has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue A-44. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on AC power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. This report documents the findings of technical studies performed as part of the program to resolve this issue. The important factors analyzed include: the fequency of loss of offsite power; the probability that emergency or onsite AC power supplies would be unavailable; the capability and reliability of decay heat removal systems independent of AC power; and the likelihood that offsite power would be restored before systems that cannot operate for extended periods without AC power fail, thus resulting in core damage. This report also addresses effects of different designs, locations, and operational features on the estimated frequency of core damage resulting from station blackout events.

  13. Connecting Renewables Directly to the Grid: Resilient Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks with High-Voltage High-Frequency Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-23

    GENI Project: GE is developing electricity transmission hardware that could connect distributed renewable energy sources, like wind farms, directly to the grid—eliminating the need to feed the energy generated through intermediate power conversion stations before they enter the grid. GE is using the advanced semiconductor material silicon carbide (SiC) to conduct electricity through its transmission hardware because SiC can operate at higher voltage levels than semiconductors made out of other materials. This high-voltage capability is important because electricity must be converted to high-voltage levels before it can be sent along the grid’s network of transmission lines. Power companies do this because less electricity is lost along the lines when the voltage is high.

  14. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  15. Low loss conductor for ac or dc power transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampson, W.B.; Garber, M.

    1973-03-13

    The patent describes a compact, easy to fabricate, noninductive, low surface magnetic field superconductor transmission line that has minimal stray fields.

  16. Low Loss Conductor for AC or DC Power Transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampson, W. B.; Garber, M.

    1973-03-13

    The patent describes a compact, easy to fabricate, noninductive, low surface magnetic field superconductor transmission line that has minimal stray fields.

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - ACS_Nano-Strelcov_2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    operation of numerous electrochemical devices, such as batteries, fuel cells, gas sensors, memristors, etc., relies on the electronic and ionic transport, which is often controlled...

  18. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  19. 7AC Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7AC Technologies, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 498 likes 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Air conditioning is a very large contributor to U.S. and world energy consumption. Heating and cooling costs for commercial and industrial buildings exceed 25 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption (cooling alone accounts for 4.5 Quads out of 40 Quads) and typically accounts for almost half of a building's operating costs. Air conditioning is also a

  20. Statistics of voltage drop in distribution circuits: a dynamic programming approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a power distribution line with high penetration of distributed generation and strong variations of power consumption and generation levels. In the presence of uncertainty the statistical description of the system is required to assess the risks of power outages. In order to find the probability of exceeding the constraints for voltage levels we introduce the probability distribution of maximal voltage drop and propose an algorithm for finding this distribution. The algorithm is based on the assumption of random but statistically independent distribution of loads on buses. Linear complexity in the number of buses is achieved through the dynamic programming technique. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm by analyzing a simple 4-bus system with high variations of load levels.

  1. High voltage supply for neutron tubes in well logging applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D. Russell

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The "biased pulse" supply of the invention combines DC and "full pulse" techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - [5] Le Tang - ABB Presentation at DOE HVDC Workshop

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVDC Technologies & ABB Experience DOE Workshop - Applications for High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Technologies Le Tang, ABB , April 22, 2013 In cable > 50 km (>30 miles), most of AC current is needed to charge and discharge In overhead lines > 200 km (>120 miles), most of AC voltage is needed to G G load I C = ωCU 0 U L = ωLI 0 I 0 U 0 I = I 0 - I C U=U 0 -U L Cable Overhead Line C load L Why is DC important in the Transmission Grid ? Capacitance and Inductance of

  3. BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of insulators damaged by firearms on its high- voltage power line near Joint Base Lewis-McChord in Tacoma, Wash. Damaged insulators can put people nearby at risk of electric...

  4. Global DC Power System Market Trends, Analysis 2015-2019 | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    either positive or negative. It can be powered from an AC or DC source. A basic DC power system consists of a transformer, a rectifier, a filter, and a regulator. All these...

  5. Global DC Power System Market Key Vendors | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    either positive or negative. It can be powered from an AC or DC source. A basic DC power system consists of a transformer, a rectifier, a filter, and a regulator. All these...

  6. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with ...

  7. LOW VOLTAGE 14 Mev NEUTRON SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, R.N. Jr.; Graves, E.R.

    1959-09-29

    An apparatus yielding high-energy neutrons at the rate of 10/sup 8/ or more per second by the D,T or D,D reactions is described. The deuterium gas filling is ionized by electrons emitted from a filament, and the resulting ions are focused into a beam and accelerated against a fixed target. The apparatus is built in accordance with the relationship V/sub s/ = A--B log pd, where V/sub s/ is the sparking voltage, p the gas pressure, and d the gap length between the high voltage electrodes. Typical parameters to obtain the high neutron yields are 55 to 80 kv, 0.5 to 7.0 ma beam current, 5 to 12 microns D/sub 2/, and a gap length of 1 centimeter.

  8. Low Voltage White Phosphorescent OLED Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its research partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California have succeeded in developing a white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) that achieved a record efficiency of 20 lumens per watt. This achievement is the result of the team's collaborative efforts to increase the efficiency of PHOLED lighting by focusing on two critical factors: lowering the drive voltages and increasing the amount of light extracted.

  9. HIGH VOLTAGE, HIGH CURRENT SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dike, R.S.; Lier, D.W.; Schofield, A.E.; Tuck, J.L.

    1962-04-17

    A high voltage and current spark gap switch comprising two main electrodes insulatingly supported in opposed spaced relationship and a middle electrode supported medially between the main electrodes and symmetrically about the median line of the main electrodes is described. The middle electrode has a perforation aligned with the median line and an irradiation electrode insulatingly supported in the body of the middle electrode normal to the median line and protruding into the perforation. (AEC)

  10. Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.

    2013-09-11

    A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 ? sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.510{sup ?6} from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 2310{sup ?6}. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.

  11. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  12. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.; Woods, Gregory K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

  13. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  14. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose ...

  15. Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About America's Power Grid | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    power plants and transformers connected by more than 450,000 miles of high-voltage transmission lines. The basic process: Electric power is generated at power plants and then...

  16. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  17. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh; Dale, Gregory E.

    2010-12-21

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  18. Capacitively coupled RF voltage probe having optimized flux linkage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1999-02-02

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  19. Low frequency ac waveform generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bilharz, O.W.

    1983-11-22

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stablization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  20. Low frequency AC waveform generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bilharz, Oscar W.

    1986-01-01

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stabilization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform itself. The cosine is synthesized by squaring the triangular waveform, raising the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  1. Power applications of high-temperature superconductivity: Variable speed motors, current switches, and energy storage for end use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawsey, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Banerjee, B.B.; Grant, P.M. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct joint research and development activities related to certain electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS). The new superconductors may allow development of an energy-efficient switch to control current to variable speed motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, and other power conversion equipment. Motor types that were considered include induction, permanent magnet, and superconducting ac motors. Because it is impractical to experimentally alter certain key design elements in radial-gap motors, experiments were conducted on an axial field superconducting motor prototype using 4 NbTi magnets. Superconducting magnetic energy storage technology with 0.25--5 kWh stored energy was studied as a viable solution to short duration voltage sag problems on the customer side of the electric meter. The technical performance characteristics of the device wee assembled, along with competing technologies such as active power line conditioners with storage, battery-based uninterruptible power supplies, and supercapacitors, and the market potential for SMES was defined. Four reports were prepared summarizing the results of the project.

  2. Power systems | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems Subscribe to RSS - Power systems The systems, such as fusion power plants, that would generate electricity from fusion. PPPL engineers design and build state-of-the-art controller for AC to DC converter that manages plasma in upgraded fusion machine The electric current that powers fusion experiments requires superb control. Without it, the magnetic coils the current drives cannot contain and shape the plasma that fuels experiments in doughnut-shaped tokamaks correctly. Read more about

  3. Auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank electrical power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2006-10-24

    An auxiliary quasi-resonant dc tank (AQRDCT) power converter with fast current charging, voltage balancing (or charging), and voltage clamping circuits is provided for achieving soft-switched power conversion. The present invention is an improvement of the invention taught in U.S. Pat. No. 6,111,770, herein incorporated by reference. The present invention provides faster current charging to the resonant inductor, thus minimizing delay time of the pulse width modulation (PWM) due to the soft-switching process. The new AQRDCT converter includes three tank capacitors or power supplies to achieve the faster current charging and minimize the soft-switching time delay. The new AQRDCT converter further includes a voltage balancing circuit to charge and discharge the three tank capacitors so that additional isolated power supplies from the utility line are not needed. A voltage clamping circuit is also included for clamping voltage surge due to the reverse recovery of diodes.

  4. Sacramento Area Voltage Support Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... ES.5 ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT Western identified five broad alternative categories (new power generation, demand-side management (DSM), distributed generation, new transmission, and ...

  5. Allianz Climate Solutions ACS GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Allianz Climate Solutions ACS GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Allianz Climate Solutions (ACS) GmbH Place: Munich, Germany Zip: 80802 Product: Munich-based subsidiary of...

  6. SIC ENABLED HIGH-FREQUENCY MEDIUM VOLTAGE DRIVE FOR HIGH-SPEED MOTORS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    General Electric Company – Niskayuna, NY A medium voltage drive system using SiC semiconductors and a high-speed motor to reduce the system footprint and improve power density and efficiency will be developed and demonstrated. To achieve these targets, the program will focus on three technology areas: (i) SiC-based MV high frequency drive, (ii) a high-speed motor, and (iii) advanced insulation systems. Fact sheet coming soon.

  7. Medium-Voltage Cables in Nuclear Plant Applications - State of Industry and Conditioning Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Braun

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 This report reviews the types of medium-voltage (MV) cables in use in nuclear power plants and the techniques that are currently available to assess the condition of MV cable systems. The project identified the types of cable systems in nuclear plants and their operating conditions and then assessed the aging and failure mechanisms of these cables and suitable diagnostic test techniques. In addition, ways to alleviate conditions that cause the most severe aging were identified.

  8. Power sources manufactures association : power technology roadmap workshop - 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, John S.

    2006-03-01

    The Power Sources Manufacturers Association (PSMA) is pleased to announce the release of the latest Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report. This Fifth Edition Workshop Report includes presentations and discussions from the workshop as seen by the participants that included many of the industry's most influential members representing end-users, power supply manufacturers, component suppliers, consultants and academia. This report provides detailed projections for the next three to four years of various technologies in a quantitative form. There was special emphasis on how the increasing use of digital technologies will affect the industry in the next four years. The technology trend analysis and the roadmap is provided for the following specific product families expected to be the areas of largest market growth: (1) Ac-dc front end power supplies--1 kW from a single phase ac source; (2) External ac-dc power supplies; (3) Dc-dc bus converters; and (4) Non-isolated dc-dc converters. Bruce Miller, Chairman of PSMA, stated that 'the Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is an extensive document that analyzes and provides projections for most major technical parameters for a specific power supply. It is a unique document as it contains technology/parametric trends in a roadmap fashion from a variety of diverse sources, giving significant depth to its content. No such information is available from any other source'. The Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is available at no cost as to PSMA Regular and Associate members and at a reduced price to Affiliate members as a benefit of membership. The report will be offered to non-members at a price of $2490. For further information or to buy a copy of the report, please visit the publications page or the PSMA website or contact the Association Office.

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - ANL Process Monitoring NEET Webinar.pptx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Example Flowsheet for Treatment of Used Fuel 3 Types of ... and control - Temperature monitoring and control - ... parameters - High current, low voltage power system - ...

  10. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Third Evaluation Report | Department of Energy Report Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. PDF icon 43545-1.pdf More Documents & Publications SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit

  11. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson; Singh, Anup K.

    2012-04-24

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.

  12. Non-Federal Participation in AC Intertie : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Environmental Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering action in two areas: (1) non-Federal access to the AC Intertie, and, (2) BPA Intertie marketing. BPA`s preferred alternative for non-Federal access is the Capacity Ownership alternative combined with the Increased Assured Delivery -- Access for Non-Scheduling Utilities alternative; the preferred alternative for BPA Intertie marketing is the Federal Marketing and Joint Ventures alternative. BPA considered these two areas previously in its Intertie Development and Use EIS of April 1988. The EIS resulted in BPA decisions to participate in the construction of the Third AC Intertie, to allow non-Federal access to BPA`s share of the Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest (PNW-PSW) Intertie (AC and DC lines) pursuant to a Long-Term Intertie Access Policy (LTIAP), and to pursue BPA`s export marketing alternative. The decision on allowing direct financial non-Federal participation in the Third AC line was deferred to a later, separate process, examined here. Also, BPA`s export marketing objectives must now be examined in view of changed operations of Columbia River hydro facilities for improved fish survival.

  13. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  14. PMU Uncertainty Quantification in Voltage Stability Analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Year of Publication 2015 Authors Chen, C, Wang, J, Li, Z, Sun, H, Wang, Z Journal IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Volume 30 Start Page 2196 Issue 4 Pagination 2 Date...

  15. Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Project ID: ES161 Anthony Burrell Voltage Fade Team Annual Merit Review Washington DC, June 16-20, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 Overview Timeline * Start: October 1, 2012 * End: Sept. 30, 2014 * Percent complete: 75% Budget * Voltage Fade project * $3,900K Barriers * Calendar/cycle life of lithium-ion cells being developed for PHEV and EV batteries that

  16. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  17. Current-voltage characteristics of organic heterostructure devices with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    insulating spacer layers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Current-voltage characteristics of organic heterostructure devices with insulating spacer layers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Current-voltage characteristics of organic heterostructure devices with insulating spacer layers The dark current density in donor/acceptor organic planar heterostructure devices at a given forward voltage bias can either increase or decrease when an insulating spacer layer is added between the

  18. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)2...

  19. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Studies on Lithium Manganese Rich MNC Composite Cathodes ... Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials

  20. Multi-winding Homopolar Electric Machine Offers Variable Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Multi-winding Homopolar Electric Machine Offers Variable Voltage at Low Rotational Speed Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact...

  1. DARK CURRENT-VOLTAGE MEASUREMENTS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES AS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DARK CURRENT-VOLTAGE MEASUREMENTS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES AS A DIAGNOSTIC OR MANUFACTURING ... saturation currents) that dictate the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. ...

  2. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC ... must understand the evolution of chemical composition and morphology of battery ...

  3. Current-voltage characteristics of organic heterostructure devices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Current-voltage characteristics of organic heterostructure devices with insulating spacer ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  4. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  5. Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    drop between electrode and electrolyte in lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte ...

  6. Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    atmospheric plasma jet Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics in a helium atmospheric plasma jet We ...

  7. Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrodeelectrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. ...

  8. Serially-Connected Compensator for Eliminating the Unbalanced Three-Phase Voltage Impact on Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Z.; Hsu, P.; Muljadi, E.; Gao, W.

    2015-04-06

    Untransposed transmission lines, unbalanced tap changer operations, and unbalanced loading in weak distribution lines can cause unbalanced-voltage conditions. The resulting unbalanced voltage at the point of interconnection affects proper gird integration and reduces the lifetime of wind turbines due to power oscillations, torque pulsations, mechanical stresses, energy losses, and uneven and overheating of the generator stator winding. This work investigates the dynamic impact of unbalanced voltage on the mechanical and electrical components of integrated Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST) wind turbine generation systems (WTGs) of Type 1 (squirrel-cage induction generator) and Type 3 (doubly-fed induction generator). To alleviate this impact, a serially-connected compensator for a three-phase power line is proposed to balance the wind turbine-side voltage. Dynamic simulation studies are conducted in MATLAB/Simulink to compare the responses of these two types of wind turbine models under normal and unbalanced-voltage operation conditions and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed compensator.

  9. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-03-26

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor and system capable of accurate operation at high voltages has a sensor body disposed in an E-field. The body receives a source beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the source light beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. A wave plate rotates the linear polarization to rotated polarization. A transducer utilizes Pockels electro-optic effect and induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the rotated polarization in response to the E-field. A prism redirects the beam back through the transducer, wave plate, and polarization beam displacer. The prism also converts the rotated polarization to circular or elliptical polarization. The wave plate rotates the major and minor axes of the circular or elliptical polarization to linear polarization. The polarization beam displacer separates the beam into two beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may have a transmitter for producing the beam of electro-magnetic radiation; a detector for converting the two beams into electrical signals; and a signal processor for determining the voltage.

  10. ,"Table 6. Proposed High-voltage Transmission Line Additions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,100,"Planned","Reliability"," " ,"US","SERC","VACAR","AC","200-299",230,800,11,2010,"Hamilton","Pleasant View",12,"OH","single pole","steel",636,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"-","PJM ...

  11. ,"Table 6. Proposed High-voltage Transmission Line Additions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...er","Hamilton Rd.",17.21,"OH",,,...3278,"AEPETT",,100,"10TPIT0088","Under Construction","Reliability" ,2010,"US","ERCOT","-","AC","121-150",,,2,2012,"Illinois 4"," Hamilton ...

  12. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D.; Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R.; Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  13. In situ current voltage measurements for optimization of a novel fullerene acceptor in bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuttle, Christopher G.; Treat, Neil D.; Fan, Jian; Varotto, Alessandro; Hawker, Craig J.; Wudl, Fred; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2011-10-31

    The evaluation of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of new materials for organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics is difficult due to the large number of processing parameters possible. An efficient procedure to determine the optimum conditions for thermal treatment of polymer-based bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices using in situ current-voltage measurements is presented. The performance of a new fullerene derivative, 1,9-dihydro-64,65-dihexyloxy-1,9-(methano[1,2] benzomethano)fullerene[60], in BHJ photovolatics with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was evaluated using this methodology. The device characteristics of BHJs obtained from the in situ method were found to be in good agreement with those from BHJs annealed using a conventional process. This fullerene has similar performance to 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-methano fullerene in BHJs with P3HT after thermal annealing. For devices with thickness of 70 nm, the short circuit current was 6.24 mA/cm with a fill factor of 0.53 and open circuit voltage of 0.65 V. The changes in the current-voltage measurements during thermal annealing suggest that the ordering process in P3HT dominates the improvement in power conversion efficiency.

  14. HIGH POWER PULSED OSCILLATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singer, S.; Neher, L.K.

    1957-09-24

    A high powered, radio frequency pulse oscillator is described for generating trains of oscillations at the instant an input direct voltage is impressed, or immediately upon application of a light pulse. In one embodiment, the pulse oscillator comprises a photo-multiplier tube with the cathode connected to the first dynode by means of a resistor, and adjacent dynodes are connected to each other through adjustable resistors. The ohmage of the resistors progressively increases from a very low value for resistors adjacent the cathode to a high value adjacent the plate, the last dynode. Oscillation occurs with this circuit when a high negative voltage pulse is applied to the cathode and the photo cathode is bombarded. Another embodiment adds capacitors at the resistor connection points of the above circuit to increase the duration of the oscillator train.

  15. Power inverter with optical isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  16. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

  17. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half. 2 figs.

  18. Low-voltage gas-discharge device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kovarik, V.J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1982-06-08

    An electronic device of the type wherein current flow is conducted by an ionized gas comprising a cathode of the type heated by ionic bombardment, an anode, means for maintaining a predetermined pressure in the region between the anode and the cathode and means for maintaining a field in the region is described. The field, which is preferably a combined magnetic and electric field, is oriented so that the mean distance traveled by electrons before reaching the anode is increased. Because of this increased distance traveled electrons moving to the anode will ionize a large number of gas atoms, thus reducing the voltage necessary to initiate gas breakdown. In a preferred embodiment the anode is a main hollow cathode and the cathode is a smaller igniter hollow cathode located within and coaxial with the main hollow cathode. An axial magnetic field is provided in the region between the hollow cathodes in order to facilitate gas breakdown in that region and initiate plasma discharge from the main hollow cathode.

  19. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L.

    1989-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  20. Accumulated destructive effect of nanosecond repetitive voltage pulses on the insulated coatings of Fe-based nanocrystalline ribbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-03-11

    Fe-based nanocrystalline ribbon is widely employed in pulsed power devices and accelerators. A temperature accumulation model is put forward to explain the accumulated destructive effect of discharge plasma bombardment on the TiO{sub 2} coatings of nanocrystalline ribbon under 50 Hz/100 ns voltage pulses. Experimental results revealed that the plasma channel expansion caused by air breakdown in the coating crack heated the coating repetitively, and the coating temperature was increased and accumulated around the crack. The fact that repetitive voltage pulses were more destructive than a single pulse with the same amplitude was caused by the intensified coating ablation under the temperature accumulation effect.

  1. Optimizing the CEBAF Injector for Beam Operation with a Higher Voltage Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.E. Hannon, A.S. Hofler, R. Kazimi

    2011-03-01

    Recent developments in the DC gun technology used at CEBAF have allowed an increase in operational voltage from 100kV to 130kV. In the near future this will be extended further to 200kV with the purchase of a new power supply. The injector components and layout at this time have been designed specifically for 100kV operation. It is anticipated that with an increase in gun voltage and optimization of the layout and components for 200kV operation, that the electron bunch length and beam brightness can be improved upon. This paper explores some upgrade possibilities for a 200kV gun CEBAF injector through beam dynamic simulations.

  2. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, W. ); O'Sullivan, G. )

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  3. Feasibility Study of a Nuclear-Stirling Power Plant for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2005-02-06

    NASA is undertaking the design of a new spacecraft to explore the planet Jupiter and its three moons Calisto, Ganymede and Europa. This proposed mission, known as Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) would use a nuclear reactor and an associated electrical generation system (Reactor Power Plant - RPP) to provide power to the spacecraft. The JIMO spacecraft is envisioned to use this power for science and communications as well as Electric Propulsion (EP). Among other potential power-generating concepts, previous studies have considered Thermoelectric and Brayton power conversion systems, coupled to a liquid metal reactor for the JIMO mission. This paper will explore trades in system mass and radiator area for a nuclear reactor power conversion system, however this study will focus on Stirling power conversion. Stirling convertors have a long heritage operating in both power generation and the cooler industry, and are currently in use in a wide variety of applications. The Stirling convertor modeled in this study is based upon the Component Test Power Convertor design that was designed and operated successfully under the Civil Space Technology Initiative for use with the SP-100 nuclear reactor in the 1980's and early 1990's. The baseline RPP considered in this study consists of four dual-opposed Stirling convertors connected to the reactor by a liquid lithium loop. The study design is such that two of the four convertors would operate at any time to generate the 100 kWe while the others are held in reserve. For this study the Stirling convertors hot-side temperature is 1050 K, would operate at a temperature ratio of 2.4 for a minimum mass system and would have a system efficiency of 29%. The Stirling convertor would generate high voltage (400 volt), 100 Hz single phase AC that is supplied to the Power Management and Distribution system. The waste heat is removed from the Stirling convertors by a flowing liquid sodium-potassium eutectic and then rejected by a shared radiator. The radiator consists of two coplanar wings, which would be deployed after the reactor is in space. For this study design, the radiators would be located behind the conical radiation shield of the reactor and fan out as the radiator's distance from the reactor increases. System trades were performed to vary cycle state point temperatures and convertor design as well as power output. Other redundancy combinations were considered to understand the affects of convertor size and number of spares to the system mass.

  4. Ultrafast Power Processor for Smart Grid Power Module Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAITRA, ARINDAM; LITWIN, RAY; lai, Jason; Syracuse, David

    2012-12-30

    This project’s goal was to increase the switching speed and decrease the losses of the power semiconductor devices and power switch modules necessary to enable Smart Grid energy flow and control equipment such as the Ultra-Fast Power Processor. The primary focus of this project involves exploiting the new silicon-based Super-GTO (SGTO) technology and build on prototype modules already being developed. The prototype super gate-turn-off thyristor (SGTO) has been tested fully under continuously conducting and double-pulse hard-switching conditions for conduction and switching characteristics evaluation. The conduction voltage drop measurement results indicate that SGTO has excellent conduction characteristics despite inconsistency among some prototype devices. Tests were conducted with two conditions: (1) fixed gate voltage and varying anode current condition, and (2) fixed anode current and varying gate voltage condition. The conduction voltage drop is relatively a constant under different gate voltage condition. In terms of voltage drop as a function of the load current, there is a fixed voltage drop about 0.5V under zero current condition, and then the voltage drop is linearly increased with the current. For a 5-kV voltage blocking device that may operate under 2.5-kV condition, the projected voltage drop is less than 2.5 V under 50-A condition, or 0.1%. If the device is adopted in a converter operating under soft-switching condition, then the converter can achieve an ultrahigh efficiency, typically above 99%. The two-pulse switching test results indicate that SGTO switching speed is very fast. The switching loss is relatively low as compared to that of the insulated-gate-bipolar-transistors (IGBTs). A special phenomenon needs to be noted is such a fast switching speed for the high-voltage switching tends to create an unexpected Cdv/dt current, which reduces the turn-on loss because the dv/dt is negative and increases the turn-off loss because the dv/dt is positive. As a result, the turn-on loss at low current is quite low, and the turn-off loss at low current is relatively high. The phenomenon was verified with junction capacitance measurement along with the dv/dt calculation. Under 2-kV test condition, the turn-on and turn-off losses at 25-A is about 3 and 9 mJ, respectively. As compared to a 4.5-kV, 60-A rated IGBT, which has turn-on and turn-off losses about 25 and 20 mJ under similar test condition, the SGTO shows significant switching loss reduction. The switching loss depends on the switching frequency, but under hard-switching condition, the SGTO is favored to the IGBT device. The only concern is during low current turn-on condition, there is a voltage bump that can translate to significant power loss and associated heat. The reason for such a current bump is not known from this study. It is necessary that the device manufacturer perform though test and provide the answer so the user can properly apply SGTO in pulse-width-modulated (PWM) converter and inverter applications.

  5. Distributed Control of Inverter-Based Lossy Microgrids for Power Sharing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Frequency Regulation Under Voltage Constraints (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Distributed Control of Inverter-Based Lossy Microgrids for Power Sharing and Frequency Regulation Under Voltage Constraints Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distributed Control of Inverter-Based Lossy Microgrids for Power Sharing and Frequency Regulation Under Voltage Constraints This paper presents a new distributed control framework to coordinate inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources

  6. Power system design | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system design Subscribe to RSS - Power system design The design of the systems that would convert fusion energy into heat to create steam that would generate electricity. PPPL engineers design and build state-of-the-art controller for AC to DC converter that manages plasma in upgraded fusion machine The electric current that powers fusion experiments requires superb control. Without it, the magnetic coils the current drives cannot contain and shape the plasma that fuels experiments in

  7. Active control of the resistive wall mode with power saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li; Liu Yue [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu Yueqiang [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    An analytic model of non-linear feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode is presented. The non-linearity comes from either the current or the voltage saturation of the control coil power supply. For the so-called flux-to-current control, the current saturation of active coils always results in the loss of control. On the contrary, the flux-to-voltage control scheme tolerates certain degree of the voltage saturation. The minimal voltage limit is calculated, below which the control will be lost.

  8. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe includes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4), each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two. 2 figs.

  9. Bonneville Power Administration Overview As of December 1, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bonneville Power Administration Overview As of August 11, 2015 Grand Coulee Dam High Voltage Transmission Columbia Generating Station Moody's: Aa1Stable S&P: AA-Stable Fitch: AA...

  10. AVTA: Blink AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Blink AC Level 2 charging system for plug-in electric vehicles. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory. PDF icon Blink AC Level 2 - February 2012 More Documents & Publications AVTA: Aerovironment AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Clipper Creek AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Eaton AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results

  11. Scalable Heuristics for Planning, Placement and Sizing of Flexible AC

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transmission System Devices (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Scalable Heuristics for Planning, Placement and Sizing of Flexible AC Transmission System Devices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scalable Heuristics for Planning, Placement and Sizing of Flexible AC Transmission System Devices Aiming to relieve transmission grid congestion and improve or extend feasibility domain of the operations, we build optimization heuristics, generalizing standard AC Optimal

  12. Cooperative Control of Active Power Filters in Power Systems without Mutual Communication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tlust, Josef; kramlk, Ji?; vec, Jan; Valouch, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    The procedure for calculating controller parameters of the APFs implemented into a multibus industrial power system for harmonic voltage mitigation is presented. The node-voltage-detection control strategy is applied and the basic controller parameters are found under the condition that the demanded THD factors at the buses where the APFs are placed will be obtained. A cooperative control of several APFs without mutual communication is proposed, simulated, and experimentally verified. By tuning the controller gains without considering the power circuit parameters, all APFs used tend to share harmonic load currents approximately equally regardless of the operation modes of the nonlinear loadsmorein different parts of the power system.less

  13. Electro-optic voltage sensor with Multiple Beam Splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  14. Electro-optic voltage sensor with beam splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.; Davidson, James R.; Crawford, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware typically found in the prior art. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  15. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report - Appendices Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report - Appendices This report describes operations at ...

  16. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district ...

  17. DE-AC05-06OR23100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (NOV 2004) ...... 8 B.5 DETERMINATION OF AWARD FEE EARNED (NOV 2004) ...... 9 DE-AC05-06OR23100 Section B ...

  18. Light Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors' Choice For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights...

  19. Non-vanishing ponderomotive AC electrophoretic effect for particle trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Weihau; Park, Jae Hyun nmn; Krstic, Predrag S; Reed, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We present here a study on overlooked aspects of alternating current (AC) electrokinetics AC electrophoretic (ACEP) phenomena. The dynamics of a particle with both polarizability and net charges in a non-uniform AC electric trapping field is investigated. It is found that either electrophoretic (EP) or dielectrophoretic (DEP) effects can dominate the trapping dynamics, depending on experimental conditions. A dimensionless parameter gamma is developed to predict the relative strength of EP and DEP effects in a quadrupole AC field. An ACEP trap is feasible for charged particles in salt-free or low salt concentration solutions. In contrast to DEP traps, an ACEP trap favors the downscaling of the particle size.

  20. A Transformer-less Partial Power Boost Converter for PV Applications Using a Three-Level Switching Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed Agamy; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Ahmed Elasser; Somasundaram Essakiappan

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic architectures with distributed power electronics provide many advantages in terms of energy yield as well as system level optimization. As the power level of the solar farm increases it becomes more beneficial to increase the dc collection network voltage, which requires the use of power devices with higher voltage ratings, and thus making the design of efficient, low cost, distributed power converters more challenging. In this paper a simple partial power converter topology is proposed. The topology is implemented using a three-level switching cell, which allows the use of semiconductor devices with lower voltage rating; thus improving design and performance and reducing converter cost. This makes the converters suitable for use for medium to high power applications where dc-link voltages of 600V~1kV may be needed without the need for high voltage devices. Converter operation and experimental results are presented for two partial power circuit variants using three-level switching cells.

  1. Wireless power charging using point of load controlled high frequency power converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, John M.; Campbell, Steven L.; Chambon, Paul H.; Seiber, Larry E.; White, Clifford P.

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus for wirelessly charging a battery of an electric vehicle is provided with a point of load control. The apparatus includes a base unit for generating a direct current (DC) voltage. The base unit is regulated by a power level controller. One or more point of load converters can be connected to the base unit by a conductor, with each point of load converter comprising a control signal generator that transmits a signal to the power level controller. The output power level of the DC voltage provided by the base unit is controlled by power level controller such that the power level is sufficient to power all active load converters when commanded to do so by any of the active controllers, without generating excessive power that may be otherwise wasted.

  2. Controller for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply, and a method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantin, Luc; Deschenes, Mario; D'Amours, Mario

    1995-08-15

    A controller is provided for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply having a typical frequency, the AC supply being provided via power transformers by an electrical power distribution grid. The controller is associated with the load and comprises an input interface for coupling the controller to the grid, a frequency detector for detecting the frequency of the AC supply and producing a signal indicative of the frequency, memory modules for storing preprogrammed commands, a frequency monitor for reading the signal indicative of the frequency and producing frequency data derived thereof, a selector for selecting at least one of the preprogrammed commands with respect to the frequency data, a control unit for producing at least one command signal representative of the selected preprogrammed commands, and an output interface including a device responsive to the command signal for controlling the load. Therefore, the load can be controlled by means of the controller depending on the frequency of the AC supply.

  3. Price Incentivised Electric Vehicle Charge Control for Community Voltage Regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Damian; Baroncelli, Fabio; Fowler, Christopher; Boundy, David; Pratt, Annabelle

    2014-11-03

    With the growing availability of Electric Vehicles, there is a significant opportunity to use battery 'smart-charging' for voltage regulation. This work designs and experimentally evaluates a system for price-incentivised electric vehicle charging. The system is designed to eliminate negative impacts to the user while minimising the cost of charging and achieving a more favourable voltage behaviour throughout the local grid over time. The practical issues associated with a real-life deployment are identified and resolved. The efficacy of the system is evaluated in the challenging scenario in which EVs are deployed in six closely distributed homes, serviced by the same low voltage residential distribution feeder.

  4. High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

  5. Switching power pulse system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  6. Power Conditioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    same fraction of a second. Pulses are delivered to the flashlamps via more than 150 kilometers (100 miles) of high-voltage cable. The system comprises 192 modules, one for each...

  7. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, S. R.; Daniel, A.

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  8. A design for a high voltage magnet coil ringer test set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koska, W. ); Sims, R.E. )

    1992-04-01

    By discharging a bank of charged capacitors through a high power SCR switch into an SSC dipole magnet assembly, it is possible to ring'' the coil and develop a voltage stress of greater than 50 volts turn-to-turn, thereby verifying the insulation integrity. We will present an overview of the test set design for a 2 kV isolated SCR firing circuit, including safety features, selectable capacitor banks, and digital waveform storage system. Results from testing typical coils and magnets will be included. Possible upgrades are also discussed.

  9. A design for a high voltage magnet coil ringer test set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koska, W.; Sims, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    By discharging a bank of charged capacitors through a high power SCR switch into an SSC dipole magnet assembly, it is possible to ``ring`` the coil and develop a voltage stress of greater than 50 volts turn-to-turn, thereby verifying the insulation integrity. We will present an overview of the test set design for a 2 kV isolated SCR firing circuit, including safety features, selectable capacitor banks, and digital waveform storage system. Results from testing typical coils and magnets will be included. Possible upgrades are also discussed.

  10. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanmode, Yashwant D.; Mulchandani, J.; Acharya, M.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-07-01

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  11. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  12. Voltage-matched configurations for multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods for interconnecting the subcells of a multijunction solar cell are investigated. The subcells are connected in parallel in these new methods. The bandgaps of the subcells must be selected for matched voltages when operated in parallel. We refer to multijunction solar cells with the subcells connected in parallel as having a voltage-matched configuration. Computer analyses of multijunction solar cells with a voltage-matched configuration and with series-connected subcells were performed. Roughly, the same performance with either approach for a multijunction cell with optimized bandgaps was found. Several advantages for the voltage-matched configuration relative to multijunction solar cells with series-connected subcells were identified, including wider selection of bandgaps for optimal performance, less sensitivity to radiation damage, and less sensitivity to spectral variations.

  13. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Causes of poor connections include: * Loose or corroded cable terminals and bus bar ... For a typical motor circuit, measure the voltage drop from the bus bar to the load side of ...

  14. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This two-page tip sheet recommends conducting a voltage drop survey and explains why that will help. Motor Systems Tip Sheet 8 PDF icon Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution ...

  15. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  16. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes Authors: Leenheer, Andrew J. ; Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2015-05-14 OSTI Identifier: 1210545 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160

  17. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1991-04-05

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl{sub 2} and Li/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} batteries.

  18. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  19. Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes Authors: Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1210241 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160 Resource Type: Journal

  20. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.

    1993-01-01

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl.sub.2 and Li/SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 batteries.

  1. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-04-13

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl[sub 2] and SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl[sub 2] and Li/SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] batteries.

  2. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transmission lines (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating

  3. Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte interfacial

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    processesnin lithium ion batteries. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Abstract not provided. Authors: Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2014-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1141521 Report Number(s): SAND2014-2520C 506312 DOE Contract Number:

  4. Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spatially separated quantum-dot molecules (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer between spatially separated quantum-dot molecules Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer between spatially separated quantum-dot molecules We propose two schemes for generating entanglement and quantum-state transfer (QST) between two spatially separated semiconductor quantum dot

  5. Standard terminal panel and UPS (uninterruptible power supply) design for exterior intrusion detectors and data collection applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfenbarger, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    Need for standardization has been discussed for years by many government agencies. In the past, every perimeter site upgrade resulted in the design, specification, procurement, and fabrication of a unique power and signal junction box. To save design and specification cost, a standard terminal panel and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) design for an exterior intrusion sensor detection system was developed for a security system within the Sandia National Laboratories complex at Albuquerque, New Mexico. In facilitating this requirement a design was sought that could easily be modified for other government or commercial applications and one that could easily be fabricated in the shop. Also of primary importance was the need for lightning protection for both the communications and voltage sources. A 12V dc UPS with a current capacity of up to 4 amperes complements the standard terminal design and allows uninterrupted sensor operation for a number of hours should the primary ac source be interrupted. This report encompasses the features of the designs. The designs are also being used and continuously evaluated in Sandia's Area III exterior test field. 7 figs.

  6. ac response of thin superconductors in the flux-creep regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurevich, A. [Applied Superconductivity Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Applied Superconductivity Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Brandt, E.H. [Max Planck Institute fuer Metallforschung, D-70506 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute fuer Metallforschung, D-70506 Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    We calculate both analytically and numerically the ac susceptibility {chi}({omega}) and the nonlinear electromagnetic response of thin superconductor strips and disks of constant thickness in a perpendicular time-dependent magnetic field B{sub a}(t)=B{sub 0}cos{omega}t, taking account of the strong nonlinearity of the voltage-current characteristics below the irreversibility line. We consider integral equations of nonlinear nonlocal flux diffusion for a wide class of thermally activated creep models. It is shown that thin superconductors, despite being fully in the critical state, exhibit a universal Meissner-like electromagnetic response in the dissipative flux-creep regime. The expression for the linear ac susceptibility during flux creep appears to be similar to the susceptibility of Ohmic conductors, but with the relaxation time constant replaced by the time t elapsed after flux creep has started. This result is independent of any material parameter or temperature or dc field. For {omega}t{gt}1, we obtain {chi}({omega}){approx}{minus}1+pln(qi{omega}t)/(i{omega}t), where p and q are constants. Above a critical ac amplitude B{sub 0}=B{sub l}, the local response of the electric field becomes nonlinear, and there are two distinctive nonlinear regimes at B{sub 0}{gt}B{sub l}, where B{sub l}{approximately}s(d/a){sup 1/2}B{sub p}, B{sub p} is a characteristic field of full flux penetration, s(T,B)={vert_bar}dlnj/dlnt{vert_bar} is the dimensionless flux-creep rate and d and a are the sample thickness and width, respectively. For B{sub l}{lt}B{sub 0}{lt}B{sub h}({omega}) the response of the electric field is strongly nonlinear but nonhysteretic, since the ac field B{sub a}(t) does not cause a periodic inversion of the critical state. As a result, the magnetic moment exhibits a Meissner-like {ital nondissipative} response, in stark contrast to the Bean model. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Power Electronics Reliability Kick Off Meeting … Silicon Power Corp. & Sandia Labs

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Funded by the Power Electronics Program of the U.S. Department Of Energy (DOE/PE) through Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Power Electronics Reliability Analysis Annual DOE Peer Review Meeting October 8, 2009 Mark A. Smith - Systems Readiness & Sustainment Technologies Department

  8. Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovarongkura, A. David; Henry, Jr., Joseph D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

  9. Spin-on-doping for output power improvement of silicon nanowire array based thermoelectric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, B. Fobelets, K.

    2014-06-07

    The output power of a silicon nanowire array (NWA)-bulk thermoelectric power generator (TEG) with Cu contacts is improved by spin-on-doping (SOD). The Si NWAs used in this work are fabricated via metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) of 0.010.02 ? cm resistivity n- and p-type bulk, converting ~4% of the bulk thickness into NWs. The MACE process is adapted to ensure crystalline NWs. Current-voltage and Seebeck voltage-temperature measurements show that while SOD mainly influences the contact resistance in bulk, it influences both contact resistance and power factor in NWA-bulk based TEGs. According to our experiments, using Si NWAs in combination with SOD increases the output power by an order of 3 under the same heating power due to an increased power factor, decreased thermal conductivity of the NWA and reduced Si-Cu contact resistance.

  10. Electric Power Annual 2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 US TRE ERCOT AC 121-150 3 2018 Hamilton Road Picacho 8.67 OH 3278 AEPTCC 100 ... 2011 US TRE ERCOT AC 121-150 4 2018 Hamilton Road Del Rio 3 OH 3278 AEPTCC 100 ...

  11. Power Systems Integration Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Power Systems Integration Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. At NREL's Power Systems Integration Laboratory in the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), research focuses on developing and testing large-scale distributed energy systems for grid-connected, stand-alone, and microgrid applications. The laboratory can accommodate large power system components such as inverters for photovoltaic (PV) and wind systems, diesel and natural gas generators, battery packs, microgrid interconnection switchgear, and vehicles. Closely coupled with the research electrical distribution bus at the ESIF, the Power Systems Integration Laboratory will offer power testing capability of megawatt-scale DC and AC power systems, as well as advanced hardware-in-the-loop and model-in-the-loop simulation capabilities. Thermal heating and cooling loops and fuel also allow testing of combined heating/cooling and power systems (CHP).

  12. Switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  13. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1998-05-05

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load. 20 figs.

  14. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard; Taylor, Roger W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load.

  15. Applications of exact linearization techniques for steady-state stability enhancement in a weak ac/dc system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaprielian, S.; Clements, K. ); Turi, J. )

    1992-05-01

    A nonlinear control strategy to improve the steady-state stability of a weak AC/DC power system is presented. The approach described in this paper is based on the extension of feedback linearization techniques to nonlinear descriptor system models. This method produces a nonlinear control strategy which is capable of enhancing system performance for various system operating conditions. This claim is supported with simulation results.

  16. Electrodic voltages accompanying stimulated bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Druhan, J.; Long, P.E.; Hubbard, S.S.; Lovley, D.R.; Banfield, J.F.

    2009-11-15

    The inability to track the products of subsurface microbial activity during stimulated bioremediation has limited its implementation. We used spatiotemporal changes in electrodic potentials (EP) to track the onset and persistence of stimulated sulfate-reducing bacteria in a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing acetate amendment. Following acetate injection, anomalous voltages approaching -900 mV were measured between copper electrodes within the aquifer sediments and a single reference electrode at the ground surface. Onset of EP anomalies correlated in time with both the accumulation of dissolved sulfide and the removal of uranium from groundwater. The anomalies persisted for 45 days after halting acetate injection. Current-voltage and current-power relationships between measurement and reference electrodes exhibited a galvanic response, with a maximum power density of 10 mW/m{sup 2} during sulfate reduction. We infer that the EP anomalies resulted from electrochemical differences between geochemically reduced regions and areas having higher oxidation potential. Following the period of sulfate reduction, EP values ranged from -500 to -600 mV and were associated with elevated concentrations of ferrous iron. Within 10 days of the voltage decrease, uranium concentrations rebounded from 0.2 to 0.8 {mu}M, a level still below the background value of 1.5 {mu}M. These findings demonstrate that EP measurements provide an inexpensive and minimally invasive means for monitoring the products of stimulated microbial activity within aquifer sediments and are capable of verifying maintenance of redox conditions favorable for the stability of bioreduced contaminants, such as uranium.

  17. Automating power supply checkout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, J.; Bruno, D.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drozd, J.; Marr, G.; Mi, C.

    2011-03-28

    Power Supply checkout is a necessary, pre-beam, time-critical function. At odds are the desire to decrease the amount of time to perform the checkout while at the same time maximizing the number and types of checks that can be performed and analyzing the results quickly (in case any problems exist that must be addressed). Controls and Power Supply Group personnel have worked together to develop tools to accomplish these goals. Power Supply checkouts are now accomplished in a time-frame of hours rather than days, reducing the number of person-hours needed to accomplish the checkout and making the system available more quickly for beam development. The goal of the Collider-Accelerator Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to provide experimenters with collisions of heavy-ions and polarized protons. The Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) magnets are controlled by 100's of varying types of power supplies. There is a concentrated effort to perform routine maintenance on the supplies during shutdown periods. There is an effort at RHIC to streamline the time needed for system checkout in order to quickly arrive at a period of beam operations for RHIC. This time-critical period is when the checkout of the power supplies is performed as the RHIC ring becomes cold and the supplies are connected to their physical magnets. The checkout process is used to identify problems in voltage and current regulation by examining data signals related to each for problems in settling and regulation (ripple).

  18. FMC high power density electric drive technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    FMC has developed a unique capability in energy-efficient, high-performance AC induction electric drive systems for electric and hybrid vehicles. These drives will not only be important to future military ground combat vehicles, but will also provide significant competitive advantages to industrial and commercial machinery and vehicles. The product line under development includes drive motors and associated power converters directed at three power/vehicle weight classes. These drive systems cover a broad spectrum of potential vehicle applications, ranging from light pickup trucks to full-size transit buses. The drive motors and power converters are described.

  19. Feasibility of gate-turnoff thyristors in a high-voltage direct-current transmission system: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, W.

    1987-08-01

    This study to identify potentially attractive applications for gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO) converters in utility systems includes both high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) valves and static volt-ampere reactive (VAR) controllers. The work includes a broad review of basic principles and the power circuit arrangements that are judged to be most attractive. The major differences between ordinary thyristors and GTO converters are discussed, including alternative HVDC transmission systems and static VAR controllers that are possible with GTOs. Whereas a current-source type of converter is the obvious choice with ordinary thyristors, the use of GTOs allows either current-source or voltage-source converters to be considered. A computer-aided analysis of the basic 6-pulse GTO current-source converter system is presented, including general equations for steady-state operation and plotting calculated waveforms. An analysis of a GTO voltage-source converter is given in less detail. Due to incomplete performance data, unresolved critical problems such as protection, and the disadvantages of higher cost, complexity and losses, it is difficult to recommend a specific GTO converter system at this time. The major advantage that GTO converters can offer is rapid and smoothly continuous control of reactive power. Further development of GTO converters should be aimed towards an application where reactive power control is very important and not readily achievable by conventional methods. 12 refs., 47 figs.

  20. Selecting a static uninterruptible power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palko, E.

    1996-10-01

    In the not-so-distant past, quality electric power received from the utility company could be properly defined as a power supply with reasonably good voltage regulation accompanied by relatively few and brief outages. This simple but adequate definition lost all validity with the launching of the solid-state electronic revolution--and most notably, with the proliferation of digital electronics. There are numerous types of power conditioners that eliminate or minimize power quality problems on an individual basis. Such equipment includes surge suppressors that effectively arrest transient spikes, voltage regulators that cope with problems of voltage deviation, and shielded isolation transformers that effectively screen out electrical noise. There are also hybrid conditioners that combine two or more of these individual functions. But when problems are severe, and supplied systems and equipment have a low tolerance level for even occasional and minor power quality aberrations--and where operations must be maintained on total loss of power--only a uninterruptible power supply (UPS) suffices. Static UPSs are offered in three basic versions--online, line interactive, and offline. Each is described.

  1. Method of inhibiting voltage suppression lithium/fluorinated carbon batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shia, G.A.; Friedland, D.J.

    1987-08-11

    An improved lithium/fluorinated carbon battery is described wherein the cathode comprises a blend of at least two different CF/sub x/ compositions which are derived from petroleum-based coke products which have been prepared by heat treatment at a temperature between about 800/sup 0/C and 2,0006/sup 0/C: (a) a bulk CF/sub x/ and (b) an additive CF/sub x/ and wherein from about 0.5 percent to about 50 percent of (b) is characterized as having a closed circuit voltage of at least 150 mV above the plateau voltage of the bulk CF/sub x/ and a specific capacity above 600 mAH/g. A method is also described for the elimination of suppression of the closed circuit voltage of a Li/CF/sub x/ battery during the initial part of its discharge.

  2. Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWhsq meter power production potential As the ...

  3. Lamp for generating high power ultraviolet radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gary L.; Potter, James M.

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus is a gas filled ultraviolet generating lamp for use as a liquid purifier. The lamp is powred by high voltage AC, but has no metallic electrodes within or in contact with the gas enclosure which is constructed as two concentric quartz cylinders sealed together at their ends with the gas fill between the cylinders. Cooling liquid is pumped through the volume inside the inner quartz cylinder where an electrically conductive pipe spaced from the inner cylinder is used to supply the cooling liquid and act as the high voltage electrode. The gas enclosure is enclosed within but spaced from a metal housing which is connected to operate as the ground electrode of the circuit and through which the treated fluid flows. Thus, the electrical circuit is from the central pipe, and through the cooling liquid, the gas enclosure, the treated liquid on the outside of the outer quartz cylinder, and to the housing. The high voltage electrode is electrically isolated from the source of cooling liquid by a length of insulated hose which also supplies the cooling liquid.

  4. Bonneville Power Ampere Annex Z-995 Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Vancouver, WA The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), a federal agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon, provides about half of the electricity used in the Pacific Northwest and operates more than three-fourths of the region's high-voltage transmission. Because BPA markets power at cost from 31 federal dams, its rates are among the least expensive electricity in the country. The Ampere Annex project is a renovation of an exisiting 60-year-old standard warehouse building located within the Ross Complex.

  5. NREL: Water Power Research - Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid Integration High-voltage transmission lines and towers silouetted against a blue sky with the first glow of the rising sun on the horizon behind them. The national need for transmission improvements will have a direct impact on the effective use of renewable energy sources. For marine and hydrokinetic technologies to play a larger role in supplying the nation's energy needs, integration into the U.S. power grid is an important challenge to address. Efficient integration of variable power

  6. Requirements for a Standard Test to Rate the Durability of PV Modules at System Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-02-01

    Degradation modes in photovoltaic modules under system bias voltage stress are described and classified.

  7. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Righter, Alan W.

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  8. Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Righter, A.W.

    1996-05-21

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

  9. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LBNL-1470E Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Ranjit Bharvirkar, Grayson Heffner and Charles Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division January 2009 The work described in this report was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was

  10. Stationary Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  11. Perovskite Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite Power 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Perovskite Power A breakthrough in the production of...

  12. Contract No. DE-AC27-10RV15051

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No. DE-AC27-10RV15051 Modification No. 118 SF-30 Continuation Page 2 of 3 14. Description of AmendmentModification Continued: 1. Section B.1, Type of Contract - Items Being...

  13. Contract Number DE-AC27-10RV15051

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pages i and H-32 Section J, Attachment 7, Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan, Page J-127 222-S LAS&T Contract No. DE-AC27-10RV15051 Conformed thru Contract...

  14. Compact AC susceptometer for fast sample characterization down...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compact AC susceptometer for fast sample characterization down to 0.1 K Citation Details ... down to 0.1 K is demonstrated using several superconducting and magnetic materials. ...

  15. Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DE-AC04-94AL85000 Modification M508 Attachment 1 SECTION J APPENDIX C Special Bank Account Agreement (Updated Mod M271, M461, M497, M508) Intentionally left blank for Internet...

  16. Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DE-AC04-94AL85000 Modification M508 Attachment 1 SECTION J APPENDIX C Special Bank Account Agreement (Updated Mod M271, M461, M497, M508) Intentionally left blank for Internet posting purposes

  17. Switching power pulse system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, Kristian

    1983-01-01

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  18. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William E.

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  19. An integrated flyback converter for DC uninterruptible power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, K.W.; Lee, Y.S.

    1996-03-01

    An integrated flyback converter performing the combined functions of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and switch-mode power supply (SMPS) is presented. This converter has a high voltage main power input and a low voltage backup battery input. DC output is obtained form the main input via a flyback converter during normal operation and from the backup battery via another flyback converter when input power fails. High conversion efficiency is achieved in normal, backup, and charging modes as there is only a single dc-dc conversion in each mode. The converter circuit is very simple, with two switching transistors, a relay for mode switching, and a single magnetic structure only. This new design offers substantial improvement in efficiency, size, and cost over the conventional cascade of UPS and SMPS due to single voltage conversion, high frequency switching, and removal of design redundancy. The operation, design, analysis, and experimental results of the converter are presented.

  20. AVTA Voltec AC Level 1 and Level 2 Charging Systems Testing Results |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy testing done on the Voltec Level 1 and Level 2 charging systems for plug-in electric vehicles. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory. PDF icon Voltec AC Level 1 - November 2012 PDF icon Voltec AC Level 2 - October 2012 More Documents & Publications AVTA: Eaton AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Aerovironment AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results