National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for abstract switchgrass panicum

  1. Review and model-based analysis of factors influencing soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A simple, multi-compartment model was developed to predict soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) plantations in the southeastern United States. Soil carbon sequestration is an important component of sustainable switchgrass production for bioenergy because soil organic matter promotes water retention, nutrient supply, and soil properties that minimize erosion. A literature review was included for the purpose of model parameterization and five model-based experiments were conducted to predict how changes in environment (temperature) or crop management (cultivar, fertilization, and harvest efficiency) might affect soil carbon storage and nitrogen losses. Predictions of soil carbon sequestration were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass production, and temperature. Predictions of ecosystem nitrogen loss were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the soil C/N ratio, and nitrogen remobilization efficiency (i.e., nitrogen cycling within the plant). Model-based experiments indicated that 1) soil carbon sequestration can be highly site specific depending on initial soil carbon stocks, temperature, and the amount of annual nitrogen fertilization, 2) response curves describing switchgrass yield as a function of annual nitrogen fertilization were important to model predictions, 3) plant improvements leading to greater belowground partitioning of biomass could increase soil carbon sequestration, 4) improvements in harvest efficiency have no indicated effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, but improve cumulative biomass yield, and 5) plant improvements that reduce organic matter decomposition rates could also increase soil carbon sequestration, even though the latter may not be consistent with desired improvements in plant tissue chemistry to maximize yields of cellulosic ethanol.

  2. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seepaul, Ramdeo; Macoon, Bisoondat; Reddy, K. Raja; Baldwin, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of genotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and phenological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across genotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although in-tra-specific variation exists among genotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass genotypes and to classify genotypes for temperature tolerance. Stratified seeds of each genotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10 °C to 45 °C under a constant light intensity of 35 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hd-1. Germination wasmore » recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among genotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1 °C for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0 °C for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among genotypes. Genotypes were classified as sensitive (Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Expresso, Forestburg˜, Kanlow, ˜Sunburst, Trailblazer, and ˜Tusca™), intermediate (˜Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, ˜Shawnee™, and Shelter™) and tolerant (˜Summer) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, genotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Tusca), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and tolerant (Expresso) to low temperatures. The cardinal

  3. Identification and overexpression of a knotted1-like transcription factor in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for lignocellulosic feedstock improvement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wuddineh, Wegi A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhang, Ji -Yi; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Sykes, Robert W.; Decker, Stephen R.; Davis, Mark F.; Udvardi, Michael K.; C. Neal Stewart, Jr.

    2016-04-28

    High biomass production and wide adaptation has made switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) an important candidate lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. One major limitation of this and other lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of complex carbohydrates to hydrolysis for conversion to biofuels. Lignin is the major contributor to recalcitrance as it limits the accessibility of cell wall carbohydrates to enzymatic breakdown into fermentable sugars. Therefore, genetic manipulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway is one strategy to reduce recalcitrance. Here, we identified a switchgrass Knotted1 transcription factor, PvKN1, with the aim of genetically engineering switchgrass for reduced biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. Gene expressionmore » of the endogenous PvKN1 gene was observed to be highest in young inflorescences and stems. Ectopic overexpression of PvKN1 in switchgrass altered growth, especially in early developmental stages. Transgenic lines had reduced expression of most lignin biosynthetic genes accompanied by a reduction in lignin content suggesting the involvement of PvKN1 in the broad regulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, the reduced expression of the Gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA20ox) gene in tandem with the increased expression of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) genes in transgenic PvKN1 lines suggest that PvKN1 may exert regulatory effects via modulation of GA signaling. Furthermore, overexpression of PvKN1 altered the expression of cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthetic genes and increased sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines. Our findings demonstrated that switchgrass PvKN1 is a putative ortholog of maize KN1 that is linked to plant lignification and cell wall and development traits as a major regulatory gene. Therefore, targeted overexpression of PvKN1 in bioenergy feedstocks may provide one feasible strategy for reducing biomass recalcitrance and simultaneously improving plant growth characteristics.« less

  4. Large-scale production, harvest and logistics of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) - current technology and envisioning a mature technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Turhollow, Jr., Anthony; Mani, Sudhagar; Kumar, Amit; Bransby, David; Lynd, L.; Laser, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a promising cellulosic biomass feedstock for biorefineries and biofuel production. This paper reviews current and future potential technologies for production, harvest, storage, and transportation of switchgrass. Our analysis indicates that for a yield of 10 Mg ha 1, the current cost of producing switchgrass (after establishment) is about $41.50 Mg 1. The costs may be reduced to about half this if the yield is increased to 30 Mg ha 1 through genetic improvement, intensive crop management, and/or optimized inputs. At a yield of 10 Mg ha 1, we estimate that harvesting costs range from $23.72 Mg 1 for current baling technology to less than $16 Mg 1 when using a loafing collection system. At yields of 20 and 30 Mg ha 1 with an improved loafing system, harvesting costs are even lower at $12.75 Mg 1 and $9.59 Mg 1, respectively. Transport costs vary depending upon yield and fraction of land under switchgrass, bulk density of biomass, and total annual demand of a biorefinery. For a 2000 Mg d 1 plant and an annual yield of 10 Mg ha 1, the transport cost is an estimated $15.42 Mg 1, assuming 25% of the land is under switchgrass production. Total delivered cost of switchgrass using current baling technology is $80.64 Mg 1, requiring an energy input of 8.5% of the feedstock higher heating value (HHV). With mature technology, for example, a large, loaf collection system, the total delivered cost is reduced to about $71.16 Mg 1 with 7.8% of the feedstock HHV required as input. Further cost reduction can be achieved by combining mature technology with increased crop productivity. Delivered cost and energy input do not vary significantly as biorefinery capacity increases from 2000 Mg d 1 to 5000 Mg d 1 because the cost of increased distance to access a larger volume feedstock offsets the gains in increased biorefinery capacity. This paper outlines possible scenarios for the expansion of switchgrass handling to 30 Tg (million Mg) in 2015 and

  5. Accuracy of genomic prediction in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) improved by accounting for linkage disequilibrium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramstein, Guillaume P.; Evans, Joseph; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Buell, C. Robin; Casler, Michael D.

    2016-02-11

    Switchgrass is a relatively high-yielding and environmentally sustainable biomass crop, but further genetic gains in biomass yield must be achieved to make it an economically viable bioenergy feedstock. Genomic selection (GS) is an attractive technology to generate rapid genetic gains in switchgrass, and meet the goals of a substantial displacement of petroleum use with biofuels in the near future. In this study, we empirically assessed prediction procedures for genomic selection in two different populations, consisting of 137 and 110 half-sib families of switchgrass, tested in two locations in the United States for three agronomic traits: dry matter yield, plant height,more » and heading date. Marker data were produced for the families’ parents by exome capture sequencing, generating up to 141,030 polymorphic markers with available genomic-location and annotation information. We evaluated prediction procedures that varied not only by learning schemes and prediction models, but also by the way the data were preprocessed to account for redundancy in marker information. More complex genomic prediction procedures were generally not significantly more accurate than the simplest procedure, likely due to limited population sizes. Nevertheless, a highly significant gain in prediction accuracy was achieved by transforming the marker data through a marker correlation matrix. Our results suggest that marker-data transformations and, more generally, the account of linkage disequilibrium among markers, offer valuable opportunities for improving prediction procedures in GS. Furthermore, some of the achieved prediction accuracies should motivate implementation of GS in switchgrass breeding programs.« less

  6. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in switchgrass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somleva, Mariya N.; Snell, Kristi D.; Beaulieu, Julie; Peoples, Oliver P.; Garrison, Bradley; Patterson, Nii

    2013-07-16

    Transgenic plants, plant material, and plant cells for synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates, preferably poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (also referred to a as PHB) are provided. Preferred plants that can be genetically engineered to produce PHB include plants that do not normally produce storage products such as oils and carbohydrates, and plants that have a C.sub.4 NAD-malic enzyme photosynthetic pathway. Such plants also advantageously produce lignocellulosic biomass that can be converted into biofuels. An exemplary plant that can be genetically engineered to produce PHB and produce lignocellulosic biomass is switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L. A preferred cultivar of switchgrass is Alamo. Other suitable cultivars of switchgrass include but are not limited to Blackwell, Kanlow, Nebraska 28, Pathfinder, Cave-in-Rock, Shelter and Trailblazer.

  7. Switchgrass cultivar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Yanqi; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2012-10-02

    A new cultivar of switchgrass `Cimarron` (SL93 2001-1) having increased biomass yield is provided. The switchgrass comprises all the morphological and physiological properties of the cultivar grown from a seed deposited under American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) No. PTA-10116. The invention also provides seeds, progeny, parts and methods of use of Cimarron, such as for the production of biofuels.

  8. Switchgrass cultivar EG1101

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-27

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1101 is disclosed. Also disclosed are seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1101, plants of switchgrass EG1101, plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1101 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. Methods are also described for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. Switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1101, methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods are described herein. Hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1101 with another switchgrass cultivar are also described.

  9. Switchgrass cultivar EG1102

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-20

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1102 is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1102, to the plants of switchgrass EG1102, to plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1102 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. The invention also relates to methods for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1102, to methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1102 with another switchgrass cultivar.

  10. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  11. Switchgrass ubiquitin promoter (PVUBI2) and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, C. Neal; Mann, David George James

    2013-12-10

    The subject application provides polynucleotides, compositions thereof and methods for regulating gene expression in a plant. Polynucleotides disclosed herein comprise novel sequences for a promoter isolated from Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) that initiates transcription of an operably linked nucleotide sequence. Thus, various embodiments of the invention comprise the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 or fragments thereof comprising nucleotides 1 to 692 of SEQ ID NO: 2 that are capable of driving the expression of an operably linked nucleic acid sequence.

  12. Iowa Switchgrass Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    This fact sheet provides information about developing markets for switchgrass as an alternative energy crop in southern Iowa.

  13. Abstract:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: We present a unique approach to the design and synthesis of "giant molecules" ... Herein, "nano-atoms" refer to shape-persistent molecular nanoparticles (MNPs) with ...

  14. evaluation of the bioconversion of genetically modified switchgrass using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation ans a consolidated bioprocessing approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Kelsey L; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Martin, Madhavi Z; Fu, Chunxiang; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the major economic hurdles for the production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. Additionally, lignin is recognized as having a negative impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, and as a result much interest has been placed on modifying the lignin pathway to improve bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Results: Previous results showed down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene in the lignin pathway yielded switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) that was more susceptible to bioconversion after dilute acid pretreatment. Here we examined the response of these plant lines to milder pretreatment conditions with yeast-based SSF, CBP with Clostridium thermocellum, and fermentations with the cellulolytic extreme thermophiles, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis. Unlike the S. cerevisiae SSF conversions, fermentations of pretreated down-regulated COMT transgenic switchgrass with C. thermocellum showed an apparent inhibition of fermentation not observed in the wild-type switchgrass. This inhibition can be eliminated by hot water extraction of the pretreated biomass which resulted in superior conversion yield with transgenic versus wild-type switchgrass for C. thermocellum, also exceeding the yeast-based SSF yield. Further fermentation evaluation of the transgenic switchgrass indicated differential inhibition for the Caldicellulosiruptor strains, which could not be rectified by additional processing conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolite profiling was used to examine the fermentation broth to elucidate the relative abundance of lignin derived aromatic compounds. The types and abundance of fermentation-derived lignin constituents varied between C. thermocellum and each of the Caldicellulosiruptor strains. Conclusions: The down-regulation of the COMT gene improves the bioconversion of switchgrass relative to the

  15. Switchgrass Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel; English, Burton C.

    2012-04-05

    Develop a pilot study that establishes up to 120 acres of cropland in switchgrass and 20 acres on a TN Experiment Station Farm. This subtask would assess production of switchgrass within the state of Tennessee under a variety of conditions and topography through on-farm production totaling 120 acres. Farms would be selected to participate through a bid process. Costs of establishment and maintenance of the switchgrass would be covered. In addition, allowances would be made for covering land rent and providing a yield incentive. An information and education program would be provided to producers prior to the bid process to assist producers in their bid decision. Agronomic, logistic, energy conversion and farming system issues associated with commercialization of a biomass energy industry are evaluated. Information on the opportunities for producing switchgrass as an energy feedstock are extended

  16. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  17. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 C followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 C) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 C as compared to 500 C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.

  18. Effects of switchgrass cultivars and intraspecific differences in root structure on soil carbon inputs and accumulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Jaron; Jastrow, Julie D.; Morris, Geoffrey P.; Six, Johan; de Graaff, Marie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), a cellulosic biofuel feedstock, may promote soil C 21 accumulation compared to annual cropping systems by increasing the amount and retention of 22 root-derived soil C inputs. The aim of this study was to assess how different switchgrass 23 cultivars impact soil C inputs and retention, whether these impacts vary with depth, and whether 24 specific root length (SRL) explains these impacts. We collected soil to a depth of 30 cm from six 25 switchgrass cultivars with root systems ranging from high to low SRL. The cultivars (C4 species) 26 were grown for 27 months on soils previously dominated by C3 plants, allowing us to use the 27 natural difference in 13C isotopic signatures between C3 soils and C4 plants to quantify 28 switchgrass-derived C accumulation. The soil was fractionated into coarse particulate organic 29 matter (CPOM), fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. We 30 measured total C and plant-derived C in all soil fractions across all depths. The study led to two main results: (1) bulk soil C concentrations beneath switchgrass cultivars varied by 40% in the 0-32 10 cm soil depth and by 70% in the 10-20 cm soil depth, and cultivars with high bulk soil C 33 concentrations tended to have relatively high C concentrations in the mineral soil fractions and 34 relatively low C concentrations in the POM fractions; (2) there were significant differences in 35 switchgrass-derived soil C between cultivars at the 0-10 cm depth, where soil C inputs ranged 36 from 1.2 to 3.2 mg C g-1 dry soil. There was also evidence of a positive correlation between SRL 37 and switchgrass-derived C inputs when one outlier data point was removed. These results 38 indicate that switchgrass cultivars differentially impact mechanisms contributing to soil C accumulation.

  19. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D'haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  20. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  1. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the

  2. Effects of torrefaction and densification on switchgrass pyrolysis products

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Zixu; Sarkar, Madhura; Kumar, Ajay; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Huhnke, Raymond L.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and torrefaction at 270 ºC followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700 ºC) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270 °C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis productsmore » increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700 °C as compared to 500 °C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.« less

  3. Switchgrass Cultivar/Ecotype Selection and Management for Biofuels in the Upper Southeast USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lemus, Rocky; Parrish, David J.; Wolf, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer andmore » November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended.« less

  4. Developing a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Developing a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system utilizing beneficial bacterial endophytes Developing a low input and sustainable switchgrass ...

  5. Down-regulation of the Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase Gene in Switchgrass Reveals a Novel Monolignol Analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Standaert, Robert F; Engle, Nancy L; Martin, Madhavi Z; Sangha, Amandeep K; Parks, Jerry M; Smith, Jeremy C; Samuel, Reichel; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, A J; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Fu, Chunxiang; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Davison, Brian H; Dixon, Richard A; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) resulted in cell walls of transgenic plants releasing more constituent sugars after pretreatment by dilute acid and treatment with glycosyl hydrolases from an added enzyme preparation and from Clostridium thermocellum. Fermentation of both wild-type and transgenic switchgrass after milder hot water pretreatment with no water washing showed that only the transgenic switchgrass inhibited C. thermocellum. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics were undertaken on cell wall aqueous extracts to determine the nature of the microbial inhibitors, confirming the increased concentration of a number of phenolic acids and aldehydes that are known inhibitors of fermentation. Metabolomic analyses of the transgenic biomass additionally revealed the presence of a novel monolignol-like metabolite, identified as trans-3, 4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (iso-sinapyl alcohol) in both non-pretreated, as well as hot water pretreated samples. Although there was no indication that iso-sinapyl alcohol was integrated into the cell wall, diversion of substrates from sinapyl alcohol to free iso-sinapyl alcohol, its glucoside, and associated upstream lignin pathway changes, including increased phenolic aldehydes and acids, are associated with more facile cell wall deconstruction, and to the observed inhibitory effect on microbial growth.

  6. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, S. Surendran; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences}; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Wullschleger, Stan D; Kline, Keith L; Wei, Yaxing; Singh, Nagendra; Kang, Shujiang

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  7. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clean energy can come from the sun. The energy in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use ...

  8. Switchgrass as a High-Potential Energy Crop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a “Model” High-Potential Energy Crop

  9. Sandia Energy - JBEI Researchers Splice Corn Gene into Switchgrass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Cell Wall Starch by 250% Switchgrass is a promising prospect for advanced biofuels because it grows rapidly on marginal agricultural land without fertilizers or other...

  10. Developmental Control of Lignification in Stems of Lowland Switchgrass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Developmental Control of Lignification in Stems of Lowland Switchgrass Variety Alamo and ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) ...

  11. Abstract Submission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract Template Please use this abstract template (docx) Abstract Submission Do not submit classified information to the form. First Name* Middle Name (optional) Last Name* ...

  12. Developing a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    system utilizing beneficial bacterial endophytes | Department of Energy Developing a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system utilizing beneficial bacterial endophytes Developing a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system utilizing beneficial bacterial endophytes Dr. Chuansheng Mei gave this presentation at the Symbiosis Conference. symbiosis_conference_mei.pdf (2.47 MB) More Documents & Publications Symbiosis Biofeedstock Conference:

  13. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of switchgrass-derived extractives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labbe, Nicole; Ownley, Bonnie H.; Gwinn, Kimberly D.; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima; D'Souza, Doris H.

    2016-03-15

    Switchgrass is an increasingly important biofuel crop, but knowledge of switchgrass fungal pathogens is not extensive. The purpose of this research was to identify the fungal pathogens that decrease crop yield of switchgrass grown in Tennessee and to investigate a potential sustainable disease management strategy from a value-added by-product of the switchgrass biofuel conversion process. The specific objectives were 1) to identify and characterize prevalent fungal pathogens of switchgrass in Tennessee, 2) assess switchgrass seed produced in the United States for seedborne fungal pathogens, and 3) evaluate switchgrass extractives for antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens.

  14. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, Barbara R.; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S.; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-04-21

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grownmore » with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. Lastly, this capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.« less

  15. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Barbara R.; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S.; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-04-21

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. Lastly, this capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  16. Production of Deuterated Switchgrass by Hydroponic Cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Barbara R; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B; Ragauskas, Arthur J; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T; Rempe, Caroline S; Davison, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  17. Making Biofuel From Corncobs and Switchgrass in Rural America | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Biofuel From Corncobs and Switchgrass in Rural America Making Biofuel From Corncobs and Switchgrass in Rural America June 11, 2010 - 4:48pm Addthis DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol (DDCE) opened a new biorefinery in Vonore, Tenn., last year. | Photo courtesy of DDCE DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol (DDCE) opened a new biorefinery in Vonore, Tenn., last year. | Photo courtesy of DDCE Lindsay Gsell Energy crops and agricultural residue, like corncobs and stover, are becoming part

  18. Do yield and quality of big bluestem and switchgrass feedstock decline over winter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane M.F. Johnson; Garold L. Gresham

    2014-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential perennial bioenergy feedstocks. Feedstock storage limitations, labor constraints for harvest, and environmental benefits provided by perennials are rationales for developing localized perennial feedstock as an alternative or in conjunction with annual feedstocks (i.e., crop residues). Little information is available on yield, mineral, and thermochemical properties of native species as related to harvest time. The study’s objectives were to compare the feedstock quantity and quality between grasses harvested in the fall or the following spring. It was hypothesized that biomass yield may decline, but translocation and/or leaching of minerals from the feedstock would improve feedstock quality. Feedstock yield did not differ by crop, harvest time, or their interactions. Both grasses averaged 6.0 Mg ha-1 (fall) and 5.4 Mg ha-1 (spring) with similar high heating value (17.7 MJ kg-1). The K/(Ca + Mg) ratio, used as a quality indicator declined to below a 0.5 threshold, but energy yield (Megajoule per kilogram) decreased 13% by delaying harvest until spring. Only once during the four study-years were conditions ideal for early spring harvest, in contrast during another spring, very muddy conditions resulted in excessive soil contamination. Early spring harvest may be hampered by late snow, lodging, and muddy conditions that may delay or prevent harvest, and result in soil contamination of the feedstock. However, reducing slagging/fouling potential and the mass of mineral nutrients removed from the field without a dramatic loss in biomass or caloric content are reasons to delay harvest until spring.

  19. Error abstractions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Error and fault abstractions Mattan Erez UT Austin *Who should care about faults and errors? *Ideally, only system cares about masked faults? - Assuming application bugs are not...

  20. THE HUNT FOR GREEN EVERY APRIL: FACTORS AFFECTING FITNESS IN SWITCHGRASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarath, Gautam

    2014-12-10

    This grant funded work was undertaken to develop fundamental biological knowledge of the factors affecting the complex plant trait “fitness” in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a plant being developed as a biomass crop. Using a diverse range of latitudinally-adapted switchgrass plants, genomic, molecular and physiological studies were performed to track a number of different aspects of plant genetics and physiology over the course of the growing season. Work was performed on both genetically unrelated and genetically related plants. Plants were established in the field from seedlings raised in a greenhouse, or from clones present in other field nurseries. Field grown plants were used as the source of all tissues. The three objectives of this proposal were:(1) Transcript Profiling, Metabolomics, and C and N Partitioning and Recycling in Crowns and Rhizomes of Switchgrass over two growing seasons; (2) Gene Profiling During Regreening and Dormancy of Bulked Segregants; (3) Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Populations for Adaptation and Fitness Traits Being Developed for Central and Northern USA, that Show Significant Heterosis. Objective 1 results: Plants were labeled using 13CO2 (a stable isotope) using an acrylic chamber constructed specifically for this purpose. Plants became labeled with 13C and label decayed in aerial tissues over the course of the growing season. Varying amounts of 13C were recovered in the rhizomes. These data are being analyzed. Plants were also labeled with 15N-urea. Plants absorbed significant amounts of label that was remobilized to the growing shoots. N-dynamics would suggest that a portion of the 15N absorbed into the crowns and rhizomes is sequestered below ground. Variable amounts of 15N were translocated from the shoots to the roots over the course of the growing season. Polar metabolites extracted from a diverse array of rhizomes were analyzed using GCMS. Data indicated that there was a significant shift in metabolite pools

  1. Abstract2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19, 2007 for poster submission only). Abstract should be text only and written in good English. No figures, images, equations and special characters are allowed. The limit on the...

  2. PROGRAM ABSTRACTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & DEVELOPMENT: PROGRAM ABSTRACTS Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies Catalyst Layer Bipolar Plate Electrode Backing Layers INTEGRATED SYSTEMS Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Stack PEM STACK & STACK COMPONENTS Fuel Cell Stack System Air Management System Fuel Processor System For Transportation June 1999 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY OFFICE OF TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE

  3. Network Abstractions:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstractions: The first step towards a programmable WAN Inder Monga TIP 2013 January 15 th , 2013 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy | Office of Science Ongoing Science Revolution Data-intensive Science * Era of Big-Data' Exascale, HPC and Future Data Centers * Optics to the end 12/18/12 2 Inder Monga, OTS Demo Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy | Office of Science Data Integration Bringing together big-data' from various sources Dataset

  4. Translational Genomics for the Improvement of Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpita, Nicholas; McCann, Maureen

    2014-05-07

    Our objectives were to apply bioinformatics and high throughput sequencing technologies to identify and classify the genes involved in cell wall formation in maize and switchgrass. Targets for genetic modification were to be identified and cell wall materials isolated and assayed for enhanced performance in bioprocessing. We annotated and assembled over 750 maize genes into gene families predicted to function in cell wall biogenesis. Comparative genomics of maize, rice, and Arabidopsis sequences revealed differences in gene family structure. In addition, differences in expression between gene family members of Arabidopsis, maize and rice underscored the need for a grass-specific genetic model for functional analyses. A forward screen of mature leaves of field-grown maize lines by near-infrared spectroscopy yielded several dozen lines with heritable spectroscopic phenotypes, several of which near-infrared (nir) mutants had altered carbohydrate-lignin compositions. Our contributions to the maize genome sequencing effort built on knowledge of copy number variation showing that uneven gene losses between duplicated regions were involved in returning an ancient allotetraploid to a genetically diploid state. For example, although about 25% of all duplicated genes remain genome-wide, all of the cellulose synthase (CesA) homologs were retained. We showed that guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in lignocellulosic cell-wall materials from stems demonstrate a two-fold natural variation in content across a population of maize Intermated B73 x Mo7 (IBM) recombinant inbred lines, a maize Association Panel of 282 inbreds and landraces, and three populations of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) recombinant inbred lines grown in three years. We then defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stem lignin content measured using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry, and glucose and xylose yield measured using an enzymatic hydrolysis assay. Among five multi-year QTL for lignin

  5. Research and Technology Development for Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review Research and Technology Development for Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass Albert Kausch and Richard Rhodes, University of Rhode Island Award # DE-FG-36-08GO88070 Date: March 24, 2015 Technology Area Review: Feedstock Supply & Logistics Principal Investigator: Albert Kausch Organization: University of Rhode Island This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Long

  6. Silicon cantilever functionalization for cellulose-specific chemical force imaging of switchgrass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Ida; Evans, Barbara R.; Foston, Marcus B.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-05-08

    A method for direct functionalization of silicon and silicon nitride cantilevers with bifunctional silanes was tested with model surfaces to determine adhesive forces for different hydrogen-bonding chemistries. Application for biomass surface characterization was tested by mapping switchgrass and isolated switchgrass cellulose in topographic and force-volume mode using a cellulose-specific cantilever.

  7. Silicon cantilever functionalization for cellulose-specific chemical force imaging of switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ida; Evans, Barbara R; Foston, Marcus B; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2015-01-01

    A method for direct functionalization of silicon and silicon nitride cantilevers with bifunctional silanes was tested with model surfaces to determine adhesive forces for different hydrogen-bonding chemistries. Application for biomass surface characterization was tested by mapping switchgrass and isolated switchgrass cellulose in topographic and force-volume mode using a cellulose-specific cantilever.

  8. AmeriFlux US-AR1 ARM USDA UNL OSU Woodward Switchgrass 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Billesbach, Dave [University of Nebraska; Bradford, James [U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-AR1 ARM USDA UNL OSU Woodward Switchgrass 1. Site Description - The ARM USDA UNL OSU Woodward Switchgrass 1 tower is located on public land owned by the USDA-ARS Southern Plains Range Research Station in Woodward, Oklahoma. The site is on a former native prairie that is in the process of changing to switchgrass. A second companion site (ARM USDA UNL OSU Woodward Switchgrass 2) is on a former wheat field. In Spring 2009, the former native prairie site was burned, cattle were put on the pasture to graze down emergent grass, and broadleaf herbicide was sprayed. In Summer 2009, the cattle were removed from the pasture, and the site was sprayed with herbicide to kill all grass. In Spring 2010, prior to the planting of switchgrass, final herbicide was sprayed to kill cheat grass and to control broadleaf plants.

  9. Consolidated bioprocessing of transgenic switchgrass by an engineered and evolved Clostridium thermocellum strain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Kelsey L; Rodriguez Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; Fu, Chunxiang; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Davison, Brian H; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Switchgrass is an abundant and dedicated bioenergy feedstock however its inherent recalcitrance is one of the economic hurdles for producing biofuels. The down-regulation of the caffeic acid O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene in the lignin pathway of switchgrass reduced lignin content and S/G ratio, and the transgenic lines showed improved fermentation yield with S. cerevisiae and C. thermocellum (ATCC 27405) in comparison to the wild-type switchgrass. Results: Here we examine the fermentation potential of the COMT transgenic switchgrass and its wild-type line, with an engineered and evolved Clostridium thermocellum (M1570) strain. The fermentation of the transgenic switchgrass had superior conversion relative to the control line with an increase of 20% and ethanol was the primary metabolite accounting for 90% of the total metabolites measured by HPLC. Conclusions: The down-regulation of the COMT gene in switchgrass reduced recalcitrance and improved microbial bioconversion yield. Moreover, these results showed ethanol as the main fermentation metabolite produced by an engineered and evolved C. thermocellum strain grown on a transgenic switchgrass.

  10. Separation of switchgrass bio-oil by water/organic solvent addition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    waterorganic solvent addition and pH adjustment This content will become publicly available on January 29, 2017 Prev Next Title: Separation of switchgrass bio-oil by water...

  11. Genetic manipulation of lignin reduces recalcitrance and improves biomass ethanol production from switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Fu, Chunxiang; Xiao, Xirong; Ge, Yaxin; Chen, Fang; Bouton, Joseph; Foston, Marcus; Dixon, Richard A; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Switchgrass is a leading dedicated bioenergy feedstock because it is a native, high yielding, perennial prairie grass with broad cultivation range and low agronomic input requirements. Biomass conversion research has developed pilot scale processes for production of ethanol and other alcohols but they remain costly primarily due to the intrinsic recalcitrance of biomass. We show here that switchgrass genetic modification can produce normal plants that have reduced thermochemical and enzymatic recalcitrance. Downregulation of the switchgrass caffeic O-methyltransferase gene decreases lignin content modestly, reduces the syringyl to guaiacyl lignin monomer ratio and increases the ethanol yield by up to a third using conventional biomass fermentation processes. The downregulated lines have wild-type biomass yields but require reduced pretreatment severity and 300-400% lower cellulase dosages for equivalent product yields significantly lowering processing costs. Alternately, our modified transgenic switchgrass lines should yield significantly more fermentation chemicals per hectare under identical process conditions.

  12. Computational inference of the structure and regulation of the lignin pathway in Panicum virgatum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faraji, Mojdeh; Fonseca, Luis L.; Escamilla-Treviño, Luis; Dixon, Richard A.; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2015-09-17

    Switchgrass is a prime target for biofuel production from inedible plant parts and has been the subject of numerous investigations in recent years. Yet, one of the main obstacles to effective biofuel production remains to be the major problem of recalcitrance. Recalcitrance emerges in part from the 3-D structure of lignin as a polymer in the secondary cell wall. Lignin limits accessibility of the sugars in the cellulose and hemicellulose polymers to enzymes and ultimately decreases ethanol yield. Monolignols, the building blocks of lignin polymers, are synthesized in the cytosol and translocated to the plant cell wall, where they undergomore » polymerization. The biosynthetic pathway leading to monolignols in switchgrass is not completely known, and difficulties associated with in vivo measurements of these intermediates pose a challenge for a true understanding of the functioning of the pathway. In this study, a systems biological modeling approach is used to address this challenge and to elucidate the structure and regulation of the lignin pathway through a computational characterization of alternate candidate topologies. The analysis is based on experimental data characterizing stem and tiller tissue of four transgenic lines (knock-downs of genes coding for key enzymes in the pathway) as well as wild-type switchgrass plants. These data consist of the observed content and composition of monolignols. The possibility of a G-lignin specific metabolic channel associated with the production and degradation of coniferaldehyde is examined, and the results support previous findings from another plant species. The computational analysis suggests regulatory mechanisms of product inhibition and enzyme competition, which are well known in biochemistry, but so far had not been reported in switchgrass. By including these mechanisms, the pathway model is able to represent all observations. In conclusion, the results show that the presence of the coniferaldehyde channel is

  13. SSRL30 Abstracts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    abstracts highlighting research activities conducted over the past year at SSRL for oral and poster presentations at the Users' Meeting. Please use the abstract submission form...

  14. Amber Waves of...Switchgrass? How about Sorghum? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Amber Waves of...Switchgrass? How about Sorghum? Amber Waves of...Switchgrass? How about Sorghum? October 28, 2011 - 5:09pm Addthis Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless Data Integration Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? For many counties, the expanding market for energy products made from biomass is a potential source of economic growth. Is your county one of them? As the fall harvest comes to an end in Marshall County, Kansas, farmers are already planning what crops

  15. Abstract Submission Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract Submission Process Focusing on methods and computational tools used to help sequence, assemble, and finish genomes, including new sequencing technologies. Contact Shannon...

  16. BEMS: Abstract book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    This volume provides abstracts of presentations made at the Sixteenth Meeting of The Bioelectromagnetics Society held June 12-17, 1994 in Copenhagen, Denmark.

  17. SSRL29 Abstract Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    abstracts highlighting research activities conducted over the past year at SSRL for oral or poster presentation at the meeting. Posters will be displayed throughout the meeting...

  18. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Seleced as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn

    2007-07-01

    Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratorys Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a model or prototype species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  19. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  20. Biological & Environmental Research Abstracts Database

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Submit Ober Abstracts All project abstracts should be submitted via email to: Please include the project title and principal investigator's name along with the abstract submission. ...

  1. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  2. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  3. abstract-hope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Parallelization of the TRANSIMS Microsimulator - design, development, and performance Michael Hope Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Argonne National Laboratory List of Authors ================ Michael Hope Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Argonne National Laboratory 277 International Drive West Chicago, IL 60185 Abstract ========= The original TRANSIMS Microsimulator was designed as a purely parallel program. As desktop machine performance grew by leaps

  4. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  5. Development of a Low Input and sustainable Switchgrass Feedstock Production System Utilizing Beneficial Bacterial Endophytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Chuansheng; Nowak, Jerzy; Seiler, John

    2014-10-24

    Switchgrass represents a promising feedstock crop for US energy sustainability. However, its broad utilization for bioenergy requires improvements of biomass yields and stress tolerance. In this DOE funded project, we have been working on harnessing beneficial bacterial endophytes to enhance switchgrass performance and to develop a low input feedstock production system for marginal lands that do not compete with the production of food crops. We have demonstrated that one of most promising plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize roots and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, greenhouse, as well as field conditions. Furthermore, PsJN bacterization improved growth and development of switchgrass seedlings, significantly stimulated plant root and shoot growth, and tiller number in the field, and enhanced biomass accumulation on both poor (p<0.001) and rich (p<0.05) soils, with more effective stimulation of plant growth in low fertility soil. Plant physiology measurements showed that PsJN inoculated Alamo had consistently lower transpiration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher water use efficiency in greenhouse conditions. These physiological changes may significantly contribute to the recorded growth enhancement. PsJN inoculation rapidly results in an increase in photosynthetic rates which contributes to the advanced growth and development. Some evidence suggests that this initial growth advantage decreases with time when resources are not limited such as in greenhouse studies. Additionally, better drought resistance and drought hardening were observed in PsJN inoculated switchgrass. Using the DOE-funded switchgrass EST microarray, in a collaboration with the Genomics Core Facility at the Noble Foundation, we have determined gene expression profile changes in both responsive switchgrass cv. Alamo and non-responsive cv. Cave-in-Rock (CR) following Ps

  6. abstract-hope2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    visualizations - TransVis capabilities and usage Michael Hope Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Argonne National Laboratory List of Authors ================ Michael Hope Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Argonne National Laboratory 277 International Drive West Chicago, IL 60185 Abstract ========= TRANSIMS is an extremely powerful software package in terms of both the breadth and depth of its analysis. However, there has been relatively little development

  7. abstract-moraga

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulation of building evacuation exit rates for TRANSIMS Reinaldo Moraga Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering Northern Illinois University 590 Garden Road DeKalb, IL 60115-2854 (815) 753-1442 List of Authors ================ Reinaldo Moraga Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering Northern Illinois University Abstract ========= This presentation deals with the topic of building evacuation modeling for TRANSIMS large scale simulation models in major metropolitan cities. The

  8. abstract-oh

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of TRANSIMS for Highway Work Zones: Travel Pattern and Mobility Impacts Jun-Seok Oh List of Authors ================ Jun-Seok Oh Associate Professor Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5316 Phone: (269) 276-3216 FAX: (269) 276-3211 Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract ========= This project applies TRANSIMS to highway work zones analysis with emphasis on travel pattern changes and work-zone mobility

  9. bolgac_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Induced fission in real-time Professor Aurel Bolgac Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Abstract: Nuclear fission appears to be one of the most difficult problems in quantum many-body physics and is approaching shortly the venerable age of 80 years and it still defies efforts to arrive at a microscopic description. A quantum theory of superconductivity was developed in contrast in less than 50 years. Major progress in developing an extension of the Density

  10. mosby_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capture by any means necessary Dr. Shea Mosby Nuclear Astrophysics and Structure, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM Abstract: Knowledge of nuclear reactions in general, and neutron capture cross sections in particular, are necessary to understand both heavy element nucleosynthesis and applications in nuclear energy and defense. While many nuclei of interest lie on or near the valley of stability and can be studied directly, many more are beyond the reach of any direct measurement.

  11. penionzhkevich_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exotic Nuclei and Astrophysics" Professor Yuri Penionzhkevich Flerov, Lab. of Nucl. Reactions. JINR, Dubna, Russian Federation Abstract: This talk is an attempt to present some problems on the evolution of the Universe: the nucleosynthesis and cosmochronology from the standpoint of physics of particles and nuclei, in particular with the use of the latest results, obtained by means of radioactive nuclear beams. The comparison is made between the processes taking place in the Universe and the

  12. schroeder_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fission Chips" - Unusual Flavors (Dynamic nuclear instabilities in fission-like reactions) Professor W. Udo Schroeder Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA Abstract Fission of cold nuclei is essentially a binary, adiabatic process, with only a mi- nute probability for the emission of associated light charged clusters. In contrast, nuclear systems in fast heavy-ion reactions respond to significant mechanical and thermal stresses by exhibiting

  13. ABSTRACTS FOR PAPERS PUBLISHED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ABSTRACTS FOR PAPERS PUBLISHED April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001 Isoscalar Giant Resonances and Nuclear Matter Compressibility D. H. Youngblood Nucl. Phys. A687, 1 (2001) Compression mode giant resonances have been measured in many nuclei from 12 C to 208 Pb with inelastic scattering of 240 MeV ∀ particles at small angles. Isoscalar monopole (GMR) distributions have been extracted for 17 nuclei and isoscalar dipole (ISDGR) distributions extracted for 11 nuclei. The isoscalar E1 strength

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. SENSE-Project-Abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    response to ASCR Program Announcement LAB 15-1295 SENSE: SDN for End-to-end Networked Science at the Exascale Lead PI: Inder Monga, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, imonga@es.net, 510-499-8065 Team: ANL - Linda Winkler, Kate Keahey, Caltech - Harvey Newman, Ramiro Voicu, FNAL - Phil DeMar, LBNL/ESnet - Chin Guok, John MacAuley, LBNL/NERSC - Jason Hick, UMD/MAX - Tom Lehman, Xi Yang, Alberto Jimenez Abstract: Traditionally, WAN and campus networks and services have evolved independently from each

  16. abstract-kerenyi

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Use of TRANSIMS to Analyze Large-Scale Land-Use Changes: Status Update John Kerenyi City of Moreno Valley 14177 Frederick St P.O. Box 88005 Moreno Valley, CA 92553 (951) 413-3199 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. List of Authors ================ John Kerenyi Abstract ========= In 2008 the City of Moreno Valley was awarded a contract to develop a TRANSIMS traffic model of the Southern California region based on the current (2004) MPO's

  17. prakash_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cyclotron Colloquium on Friday, April 18, 2014, at 11:00 am in Room 300 Refreshments will be served at 10:45 am Title: The neutron star in Cassiopeia A and what it is telling us? Professor Madappa Prakash Ohio University Athens, Ohio, USA Abstract: The neutron star in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is now 333 years old and is the youngest known star from which thermal emission for over a decade has been observed. Initial reports from the analysis of archival data indicated Cas A's surface temperature to

  18. mabiala_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cyclotron Colloquium on Friday, August 17th, 2016, at 3:45 pm in Room 228 Refreshments will be served at 3:30 pm Dr. Justin Mabiala Cyclotron Institute Abstract: Pre-equilibrium emission and its possible relation to alpha-clustering in nuclei Cluster structure effects in nuclei have been investigated looking to the preequilibrium particles emitted in the 16O+65Cu and 19F+62Ni reactions at the same beam velocity of 16 AMeV which lead to the same 81Rb* compound nucleus. Despite the slight

  19. How to Prepare Your Abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepare Your Abstract The abstract should provide a brief overview of your entire research. The abstract briefly states the research problem or purpose of the research (Introduction), how the problem was studied (Methods), what was discovered (Results), and how the results might be interpreted (Discussions and Conclusions). Acronyms may be used in an abstract, however they should be spelled out the first time they are used. Abstracts should be concise and descriptive. Symposium Abstract Format

  20. Energy Research Abstracts; (USA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutkowski, R.W.; Henline, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of all scientific and technical reports and patent applications originated by the US Department of Energy, its laboratories, energy centers, and contractors, as well as theses and conference papers and proceedings issued by these organizations in report form. Audiovisual materials, computer media (magnetic tapes, diskettes, etc.), and engineering drawings are included in this definition. ERA also covers other energy information prepared in report form by federal and state government organizations, foreign governments, and domestic and foreign universities and research organizations, provided that the full text of the document has been received by OSTI. Foreign report information is obtained through the International Energy Agency's fourteen nation Energy Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System, or nation-to-nation agreements. The purpose of this publication is to announce documents produced or obtained by DOE that are not so readily available as journal articles, books, or patents. ERA does not cover nonreport literature. The scope of ERA encompasses DOE's research, development, demonstration, and technology programs resulting from its broad charter for energy sources, supplies, safety, environmental impacts, and regulation.

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  2. Biological & Environmental Research Abstracts Database

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Welcome to the Biological and Environmental Research Abstracts Database The U.S. ... This database contains abstracts of research projects supported by the program. Work was ...

  3. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn L

    2007-11-01

    A review of several publications of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, and final reports from the herbaceous crop screening trials suggests that there were several technical and non-technical factors that influenced the decision to focus on one herbaceous "model" crop species. The screening trials funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1980's to early 1990's assessed a wide range of about 34 species with trials being conducted on a wide range of soil types in 31 different sites spread over seven states in crop producing regions of the U.S. While several species, including sorghums, reed canarygrass and other crops, were identified as having merit for further development, the majority of institutions involved in the herbaceous species screening studies identified switchgrass as having high priority for further development. Six of the seven institutions included switchgrass among the species recommended for further development in their region and all institutions recommended that perennial grasses be given high research priority. Reasons for the selection of switchgrass included the demonstration of relatively high, reliable productivity across a wide geographical range, suitability for marginal quality land, low water and nutrient requirements, and positive environmental attributes. Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a "model" or "prototype" species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  4. A National Assessment of Promising Areas for Switchgrass, Hybrid Poplar, or Willow Energy Crop Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically assess the cropland acreage that could support energy crops and the expected farm gate and delivered prices of energy crops. The assessment is based on output from two modeling approaches: (1) the Oak Ridge County-Level Energy Crop (ORECCL) database (1996 version) and (2) the Oak Ridge Integrated Bioenergy Analysis System (ORIBAS). The former provides county-level estimates of suitable acres, yields, and farmgate prices of energy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, willow) for all fifty states. The latter estimates delivered feedstock prices and quantities within a state at a fine resolution (1 km2) and considers the interplay between transportation costs, farmgate prices, cropland density, and facility demand. It can be used to look at any type of feedstock given the appropriate input parameters. For the purposes of this assessment, ORIBAS has been used to estimate farmgate and delivered switchgrass prices in 11 states (AL, FL, GA, IA, M N, MO, ND, NE, SC, SD, and TN). Because the potential for energy crop production can be considered from several perspectives, and is evolving as policies, economics and our basic understanding of energy crop yields and production costs change, this assessment should be viewed as a snapshot in time.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  6. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  7. Microsoft Word - mosel_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics is needed" Professor Ulrich Mosel Univ Giessen, Inst Theoret Phys, Giessen, Germany Abstract: Long baseline experiments with neutrinos require a precise knowledge of the ...

  8. Microsoft Word - roepke_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cluster formation in nuclear systems Professor Gerd Roepke Institute of Physics, Rostock University, Germany Abstract To describe cluster formation in nuclear matter at ...

  9. Microsoft Word - strickland_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quark gluon plasma Dr. Michael Strickland Gettysburg College Abstract: In this talk I will review our theoretical understanding of the dynamics of a non- equilibrium quark ...

  10. Microsoft Word - mcnabb_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dennis McNabb Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Abstract: LLNL is an applied science laboratory that innovates technology to enable new ideas and concepts for government ...

  11. ABSTRACT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... passed through Nafion tubing coiled inside a container containing silica gel desiccant. ... and the reductions in outdoor ozone production with cooler temperatures, the study was ...

  12. Abstract

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... to ensure successful operation of the test unit, had sufficient funds been available. ... principles for soot content detection, 3) test operation scheme, and 4) specifics ...

  13. ABSTRACT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Atlanta, GA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Beko, G., G. Clausen and C. J. Weschler (2008). "Sensory pollution from bag filters, ...

  14. Abstract:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will discuss recent experiments on the structural, chemical, and electronic properties of graphene and hBN, including high resolution electron microscopy where real-time dynamics...

  15. Abstract

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Acknowledgements xv 1 Introduction ...... 1 1.1 Physics motivation ... Introduction 1.1 Physics motivation High momentum transfer phenomena are known to be a ...

  16. ABSTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water was integral to the Site's Cold War nuclear production mission as it was used ... The study provides historic contexts for the site's Cold War history and a context for ...

  17. Abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulations showed actinide inventories stabilizing to steady levels while fresh actinide fuel from feedstocks of Spent Nuclear Fuel or uranium-238 or thorium-232 continued to be ...

  18. Abstract

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ridge, TN 37831-6131-6210 3Imaging & Nanoscale Characterization Group, Center for ... Microscopy and Fluorescence Techniques. Nanoscale 2009, 1, 40-49. 13 Petibois, C. Imaging ...

  19. Abstract:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A prototypical disease example is the brain cancer glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). At the molecular level, it is rare for any two GBM patients to appear as if they have the same ...

  20. Abstract

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SAND2007-2331 Unlimited Release Printed April 2007 Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas Reference: KBR Paper 2031 Steven F. Rice and David P. Mann Prepared by ...

  1. ABSTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... standards barriers to progressive "value added" support for the utility grid or for economic benefits of intelligent distributed PV grid-tied systems. The IEEE Std1547 does ...

  2. ABSTRACT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Witterseh T. 2001. Environmental perception, SBS symptoms and performance of office work under combined exposure to temperature, noise and air pollution. PhD Thesis. International ...

  3. Abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Fabrication Problems 5.4 Staggered Overlap Joint Design 6. D-spar Static & Modal Testing 79 6.1 Static Test Set-up 6.2 Static Test Results 6.3 Comparison Between Estimated...

  4. ABSTRACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BROWNE, MICHAEL CHARLES. Preparation for Deployment of the Neutral Current Detectors (NCDs) for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). (Under the direction of John F. Wilkerson and Christopher R. Gould.) The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the latest generation of solar neutrino experiments designed to investigate the Solar Neutrino Problem (SNP). Through detection of all flavors of neutrinos, SNO will be capable of testing the neutrino oscillation hypothesis as a solution to the SNP.

  5. Abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... at all currently operational coal and natural gas fired power plants in the U.S. ... Water Treatment and Use for Power Plant Cooling Peter H. Kobos, Sandia ...

  6. Hydrogen production from switchgrass via a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Alex J.; Ren, Shoujie; Ye, Philip; Kim, Pyoungchung; Labbe, Niki; Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-06-30

    A new approach to hydrogen production using a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process is described. The aqueous stream generated during pyrolysis of switchgrass was used as a substrate for hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell, achieving a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4.3 L H2/L-day at a loading of 10 g COD/L-anode-day. Hydrogen yields ranged from 50 3.2% to76 0.5% while anode coulombic efficiency ranged from 54 6.5% to 96 0.21%, respectively. Significant conversion of furfural, organic acids and phenolic molecules was observed under both batch and continuous conditions. The electrical and overall energy efficiency ranged from 149-175% and 48-63%, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process as a sustainable and efficient route for production of renewable hydrogen with significant implications for hydrocarbon production from biomass.

  7. Hydrogen production from switchgrass via a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Alex J; Ren, Shoujie; Ye, Philip; Kim, Pyoungchung; Labbe, Niki; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to hydrogen production using a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process is described. The aqueous stream generated during pyrolysis of switchgrass was used as a substrate for hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell, achieving a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4.3 L H2/L-day at a loading of 10 g COD/L-anode-day. Hydrogen yields ranged from 50 3.2% to76 0.5% while anode coulombic efficiency ranged from 54 6.5% to 96 0.21%, respectively. Significant conversion of furfural, organic acids and phenolic molecules was observed under both batch and continuous conditions. The electrical and overall energy efficiency ranged from 149-175% and 48-63%, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process as a sustainable and efficient route for production of renewable hydrogen with significant implications for hydrocarbon production from biomass.

  8. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  9. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

    2012-06-29

    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  10. Microsoft Word - linnyk_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monday, May 22nd, at 1:30 pm "Dilepton production at SPS and RHIC energies" Dr. Olena Linnyk Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Study (FIAS), Frankfurt, Germany Abstract: Analysis of ...

  11. Microsoft Word - sakai_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will be served at 3:30 pm New Result from RIKEN RIBF Dr. H. Sakai RIKEN, Wako. Japan Abstract: Very recent experimental results from RI Beam Factory(RIBF) of RIKEN will be...

  12. Microsoft Word - djawotho_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pibero Djawotho Texas A&M University Abstract: For polarized protons colliding at RHIC energies, the production of jets and hadrons is dominated by gg and qg scattering, making the ...

  13. Impact of Pretreated Switchgrass and Biomass Carbohydrates on Clostridium thermocellum 27405 Cellulosome Composition- a Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, Babu; Pan, Chongle; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; McKeown, Catherine K; Lankford, Patricia K; Samatova, Nagiza F; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    The anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulolytic organism capable of hydrolyzing cellulose and fermenting the hydrolysis products to ethanol and other metabolic products. C. thermocellum achieves efficient cellulose hydrolysis using multiprotein extracellular enzymatic complexes, termed the cellulosomes. In this study, we used quantitative proteomics (multidimensional LC-MS/MS and 15N-metabolic labeling) to measure relative changes in levels of cellulosomal subunit proteins (per CipA scaffoldin basis) when C. thermocellum was grown on a variety of carbon sources [dilute-acid pretreated switchgrass, cellobiose, amorphous cellulose, crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and combinations of crystalline cellulose with pectin or xylan or both]. Cellulosome samples isolated from cultures grown on these carbon sources were compared to 15N labeled cellulosome samples isolated from crystalline cellulose grown cultures. In total from all samples, proteomic analysis identified 59 dockerin- and 8 cohesin-module containing components, including 15 previously undetected cellulosomal subunits. Many cellulosomal components showed differential protein abundance in the presence of non-cellulose substrates in the growth medium. Cellulosome samples from amorphous cellulose, cellobiose and pretreated switchgrass grown cultures displayed the most distinct differences in composition as compared to cellulosome samples from crystalline cellulose grown cultures. While Glycoside Hydrolase Family 9 enzymes showed increased levels in the presence of crystalline cellulose, and pretreated switchgrass in particular, GH5 enzymes showed increased levels in response to the presence of cellulose in general, amorphous or crystalline. Overall, the results suggest a coordinated substrate-specific regulation of cellulosomal composition in C. thermocellum.

  14. Poster Abstract of Eighteenth ARM STM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Science Team MeetingPoster Abstract 2008

  15. Poster Abstract of Seventeenth ARM STM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Science Team MeetingPoster Abstract 2007

  16. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  17. Structural Transformation of Isolated Poplar and Switchgrass Lignins from Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-27

    A key step in conversion of cellulosic biomass into sustainable fuels and chemicals is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance. Obtaining an improved understanding of the fundamental chemistry of lignin, the most recalcitrant component of biomass, during pretreatment is critical to the continued development of renewable biofuel production. To examine the intrinsic chemistry of lignin during dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), lignin was isolated from poplar and switchgrass using a cellulolytic enzyme system and then treated under DAP conditions. These results highlight that lignin is subjected to depolymerization reactions within the first 2 min of dilute acid pretreatment and these changes are accompanied by increased generation of aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin. This is followed by a competing set of depolymerization and repolymerization reactions that lead to a decrease in the content of guaiacyl lignin units and an increase in condensed lignin units as the reaction residence time is extended beyond 5 min. Finally, we showed that a detailed comparison of changes in functional groups and molecular weights of cellulolytic enzyme lignins with different structural parameters, related to the recalcitrant properties of lignin, could be successfully altered during DAP conditions.

  18. Hydrogen production from switchgrass via a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewis, Alex J.; Ren, Shoujie; Ye, Philip; Kim, Pyoungchung; Labbe, Niki; Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-06-30

    A new approach to hydrogen production using a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process is described. The aqueous stream generated during pyrolysis of switchgrass was used as a substrate for hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell, achieving a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4.3 L H2/L-day at a loading of 10 g COD/L-anode-day. Hydrogen yields ranged from 50 3.2% to76 0.5% while anode coulombic efficiency ranged from 54 6.5% to 96 0.21%, respectively. Significant conversion of furfural, organic acids and phenolic molecules was observed under both batch and continuous conditions. The electrical and overall energy efficiency ranged from 149-175% and 48-63%,more » respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process as a sustainable and efficient route for production of renewable hydrogen with significant implications for hydrocarbon production from biomass.« less

  19. Structural Transformation of Isolated Poplar and Switchgrass Lignins from Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-27

    A key step in conversion of cellulosic biomass into sustainable fuels and chemicals is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance. Obtaining an improved understanding of the fundamental chemistry of lignin, the most recalcitrant component of biomass, during pretreatment is critical to the continued development of renewable biofuel production. To examine the intrinsic chemistry of lignin during dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), lignin was isolated from poplar and switchgrass using a cellulolytic enzyme system and then treated under DAP conditions. These results highlight that lignin is subjected to depolymerization reactions within the first 2 min of dilute acid pretreatment andmore » these changes are accompanied by increased generation of aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin. This is followed by a competing set of depolymerization and repolymerization reactions that lead to a decrease in the content of guaiacyl lignin units and an increase in condensed lignin units as the reaction residence time is extended beyond 5 min. Finally, we showed that a detailed comparison of changes in functional groups and molecular weights of cellulolytic enzyme lignins with different structural parameters, related to the recalcitrant properties of lignin, could be successfully altered during DAP conditions.« less

  20. Microsoft Word - bardayan_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 15, 2012, at 3:45 pm Room MIST 102 at the Mitchell Institute Refreshment will be served at 3:30 pm New instruments and recent results in the study of transfer reactions at the HRIBF Dr. Dan Bardayan Oak Ridge National Laboratory Abstract: Single-nucleon transfer reactions on heavy neutron-rich nuclei are critical to providing an empirical foundation for the determination of the incredibly large neutron fluxes in extreme environments such as exploding stars, internal confinement fusion

  1. Microsoft Word - moody_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NSI Colloquium on Monday, August 27 at 3:45 pm in Hawking Auditorium--Mitchel Institute Refreshments will be served at 3:30 pm FORENSIC RADIOCHEMISTRY Dr. Ken Moody Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Abstract: Signatures inherent in a sample containing radionuclides give clues about the origin of the material. This information can be quite important when dealing with smuggled nuclear materials interdicted by law enforcement personnel, or potential debris samples

  2. Microsoft Word - nica2_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 1st at 3:30 PM " Experimental evidence of repeatability in high-spin data and phenomenological interpretation Part one: Differential distributions" Dr. Ninel Nica Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University Abstract: We present the experimental evidence of a general correlation property of high-spin physics that we named Repeatability, consisting in highly hierarchized ordering relationships in two-dimensional gamma-ray coincidence data. However despite its generality

  3. Microsoft Word - pang_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12, 2010 at 3:45 pm "RF Carpet Development at the NSCL" Gregory K. Pang** Departments of Astronomy and Physics Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI ABSTRACT: The slowing down and thermalizing of nuclear reaction products from projectile fragmentation processes is essential for allowing the study of rare isotopes in low-energy precision experiments. Current methods of stopping fast beams rely on gas filled linear chambers equipped with electrodes

  4. Microsoft Word - sherrill_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 6 at 3:45 PM Designer Nuclei: New possibilities with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams Professor Brad Sherrill Abstract: A quest of experimental nuclear science is to synthesize atoms made of all possible combinations of neutrons, protons and electrons. In part, based on our current capabilities for creating new isotopes, our understanding of atomic nuclei has changed dramatically. Many of the so called basic properties of atomic nuclei turn out to not be as universal as we thought.

  5. Microsoft Word - wieloch_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Critical-like behavior in a lattice gas model" Professor Andrzej Wieloch M. Smoluchowski Inst. of Physics, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow, Poland Abstract: The ALADIN multifragmentation data for reaction Au+Au at several hundreds A.MEV show features characteristic of critical behavior, which are very well reproduced by a bond percolation model. This suggests, in the context of the lattice gas model, that fragments are formed at nearly normal nuclear densities and temperatures

  6. Microsoft Word - xu_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theory Seminar Friday, January 21st, at 4:00 pm Triangular flow and dihadron azimuthal correlations in heavy ion collisions Dr. Jun Xu Abstract The dihadron azimuthal correlations triggered by energetic particles in heavy ion collisions at RHIC are studied in a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. A double- peak structure at the away side of triggered particles is obtained after subtracting background correlations due to the elliptic flow as observed in experiments. Both the near-side peak and the

  7. Microsoft Word - davinson_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 at 10:30 AM "Decay Spectroscopy at FAIR Using the Advanced Implantation Detector Array (AIDA)" Dr. Thomas Davinson The University of Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The objective of the Advanced Implantation Detector Array (AIDA) project is to develop, commission and exploit a state of the art silicon detector array for decay spectroscopy experiments at the SuperFRS, FAIR. Multi-GeV exotic ions will be implanted into the silicon detector array and AIDA will perform spectroscopy quality

  8. Microsoft Word - hohler_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    29th, 4:00 PM Bulk spectral function sum rule in QCD-like theories with a holographic dual Dr. Paul M. Hohler University of Illinois at Chicago Abstract: In this talk, the sum rule for the spectral function of the stress-energy tensor in the bulk (uniform dilatation) channel is derived for a general class of strongly coupled field theories. This class includes theories holographically dual to a theory of gravity coupled to a single scalar field, representing the operator of the scale anomaly. In

  9. Microsoft Word - saastamoinen_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 24, 2012, at 2:00 pm Refreshment will be served at 1:45 pm Beta-decay Studies for Nova Nucleosynthesis Dr. Antti Saastamoinen University of Jyväskylä / TAMU Abstract Classical novae occur in interacting binary systems, where hydrogen-rich material accretes on a white dwarf from its low-mass main-sequence companion. Eventually, the accretion of the hydrogen-rich matter leads to a thermonuclear runaway (TNR). Understanding the dynamics of the nova outbursts and the nucleosynthesis fueling

  10. Microsoft Word - sobotka_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 9th, at 3:45 pm 2p-2p decay in 8 C and other 2p decay cases in light nuclei Professor L. G. Sobotka Departments of Chemistry and Physics Washington University, St. Louis Abstract Recent technical advances have allowed for high-order correlation experiments to be done. We have primarily focused on experiments in which the final channel is composed of only alphas and protons. Three cases we have studied are: 6 Be, 10 C and 8 C via 3, 4, and 5-particle correlation experiments respectively.

  11. Microsoft Word - weber_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 9, at 3:45 pm "Neutron Stars as Astrophysical Laboratories for Nuclear and Particle Physics" Professor Fridolin Weber Department of Physics, San Diego State University Abstract: Neutron stars are among the most enigmatic objects that exist in the Universe. They are as massive as our Sun but are trillions of times smaller in volume. The matter in the cores of neutron stars is therefore compressed to densities that are several times greater than the densities of atomic nuclei. This

  12. Microsoft Word - yongseok_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Friday July 27, 2012, at 2:00 pm Room MIST 102 at the Mitchell Institute Refreshment will be served at 1:45 pm High spin resonances in hadron reactions Dr. Yongseok Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Korea Abstract: (I) To understand the reaction mechanisms of the baryon/meson production processes, it is necessary to consider high spin baryon fields since many resonances in the mass of 2 GeV carry spin higher than 3/2. In this talk, we will discuss how to introduce high spin

  13. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J.; Steinfeld, G.

    1998-09-30

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  14. Poster Abstract Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Poster Abstract Guidelines Poster Abstract Guidelines Poster Abstract Guidelines.pdf (343.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Call For Abstracts (Student Research Forum) 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Race to Zero Student Design Competition Guide Microsoft Word - rDE-FOA-0000080.rtf

  15. Call for Abstracts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Environmental Justice » Call for Abstracts Call for Abstracts 2013 National Environmental Justice Conference and Training Program Call for Abstracts Please join us for the 2013 National Environmental Justice Conference and Training Program, April 3 - 5, 2013, co-located at the Howard University School of Law and the Marriott at Metro Center. Call for Abstracts (137.64 KB) More Documents & Publications CALL FOR ABSTRACTS for the 2014 National Environmental Justice Conference and

  16. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  17. Environmental pollutant studies: FY 1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 16 papers presented in this annual report of the Energy and Environment Division. (KRM)

  18. Identification and molecular characterization of the switchgrass AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily, and overexpression of PvERF001 for improvement of biomass characteristics for biofuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuddineh, Wegi A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Turner, Geoffry B.; Sykes, Robert W.; Decker, Stephen R.; Davis, Mark F.; C. Neal Stewart, Jr.

    2015-07-20

    The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily of transcription factors (TFs) plays essential roles in the regulation of various growth and developmental programs including stress responses. Members of these TFs in other plant species have been implicated to play a role in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we identified a total of 207 AP2/ERF TF genes in the switchgrass genome and grouped into four gene families comprised of 25 AP2-, 121 ERF-, 55 DREB (dehydration responsive element binding)-, and 5 RAV (related to API3/VP) genes, as well as a singleton gene not fitting any of the above families. The ERF and DREB subfamilies comprised seven and four distinct groups, respectively. Analysis of exon/intron structures of switchgrass AP2/ERF genes showed high diversity in the distribution of introns in AP2 genes versus a single or no intron in most genes in the ERF and RAV families. The majority of the subfamilies or groups within it were characterized by the presence of one or more specific conserved protein motifs. In silico functional analysis revealed that many genes in these families might be associated with the regulation of responses to environmental stimuli via transcriptional regulation of the response genes. Moreover, these genes had diverse endogenous expression patterns in switchgrass during seed germination, vegetative growth, flower development, and seed formation. Interestingly, several members of the ERF and DREB families were found to be highly expressed in plant tissues where active lignification occurs. These results provide vital resources to select candidate genes to potentially impart tolerance to environmental stress as well as reduced recalcitrance. Furthermore, overexpression of one of the ERF genes (PvERF001) in switchgrass was associated with increased biomass yield and sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines, exemplifying the potential of these TFs in the development of lignocellulosic feedstocks with

  19. Identification and molecular characterization of the switchgrass AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily, and overexpression of PvERF001 for improvement of biomass characteristics for biofuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wuddineh, Wegi A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Turner, Geoffry B.; Sykes, Robert W.; Decker, Stephen R.; Davis, Mark F.; C. Neal Stewart, Jr.

    2015-07-20

    The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily of transcription factors (TFs) plays essential roles in the regulation of various growth and developmental programs including stress responses. Members of these TFs in other plant species have been implicated to play a role in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we identified a total of 207 AP2/ERF TF genes in the switchgrass genome and grouped into four gene families comprised of 25 AP2-, 121 ERF-, 55 DREB (dehydration responsive element binding)-, and 5 RAV (related to API3/VP) genes, as well as a singleton gene not fitting any of the above families. Themore » ERF and DREB subfamilies comprised seven and four distinct groups, respectively. Analysis of exon/intron structures of switchgrass AP2/ERF genes showed high diversity in the distribution of introns in AP2 genes versus a single or no intron in most genes in the ERF and RAV families. The majority of the subfamilies or groups within it were characterized by the presence of one or more specific conserved protein motifs. In silico functional analysis revealed that many genes in these families might be associated with the regulation of responses to environmental stimuli via transcriptional regulation of the response genes. Moreover, these genes had diverse endogenous expression patterns in switchgrass during seed germination, vegetative growth, flower development, and seed formation. Interestingly, several members of the ERF and DREB families were found to be highly expressed in plant tissues where active lignification occurs. These results provide vital resources to select candidate genes to potentially impart tolerance to environmental stress as well as reduced recalcitrance. Furthermore, overexpression of one of the ERF genes (PvERF001) in switchgrass was associated with increased biomass yield and sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines, exemplifying the potential of these TFs in the development of lignocellulosic feedstocks with

  20. Poster Abstract of Nineteenth ARM STM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Science Team MeetingPoster Abstract 2009 Proceedings Proceedings Sorted by Title Proceedings Sorted by Author Proceedings Sorted by Category

  1. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  2. Microsoft Word - roepke_abstract2.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Professor Gerd Roepke University of Rostock, Germany Abstract: Correlations are significant for the properties of nuclear systems at low densities and moderate temperatures. ...

  3. Global transcriptome analysis of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 during growth on dilute acid pretreated Populus and switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Charlotte M; Rodriguez Jr, Miguel; Johnson, Courtney M; Martin, S L.; Chu, Tzu Ming; Wolfinger, Russ; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Brown, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    Background The thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production. The aim of this study was to investigate C. thermocellum genes required to ferment biomass substrates and to conduct a robust comparison of DNA microarray and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analytical platforms. Results C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 fermentations were conducted with a 5 g/L solid substrate loading of either pretreated switchgrass or Populus. Quantitative saccharification and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) for elemental analysis revealed composition differences between biomass substrates, which may have influenced growth and transcriptomic profiles. High quality RNA was prepared for C. thermocellum grown on solid substrates and transcriptome profiles were obtained for two time points during active growth (12 hours and 37 hours postinoculation). A comparison of two transcriptomic analytical techniques, microarray and RNA-seq, was performed and the data analyzed for statistical significance. Large expression differences for cellulosomal genes were not observed. We updated gene predictions for the strain and a small novel gene, Cthe_3383, with a putative AgrD peptide quorum sensing function was among the most highly expressed genes. RNAseq data also supported different small regulatory RNA predictions over others. The DNA microarray gave a greater number (2,351) of significant genes relative to RNA-seq (280 genes when normalized by the kernel density mean of M component (KDMM) method) in an analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing method with a 5 % false discovery rate (FDR). When a 2-fold difference in expression threshold was applied, 73 genes were significantly differentially expressed in common between the two techniques. Sulfate and phosphate uptake/utilization genes, along with genes for a putative efflux pump system were some of the most differentially regulated transcripts

  4. ARM - Instructions for Submitting Extended Abstracts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphics should be sent as individual graphic files in their original software and NOT placed within the abstract. Createsize graphics to fit the image area. Make sure that any...

  5. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  6. Microsoft Word - abstract-lacognata-tx_2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ASTROPHYSICAL ENERGIES Dr. M. La Cognata INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy ABSTRACT The 19 F(p,) 16 O reaction is an important fluorine destruction channel in ...

  7. Separation of switchgrass bio-oil by water/organic solvent addition and pH adjustment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, Lydia Kyoung-Eun; Ren, Shoujie; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Ye, X. Philip; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-01-29

    Applications of bio-oil are limited by its challenging properties including high moisture content, low pH, high viscosity, high oxygen content, and low heating value. Separation of switchgrass bio-oil components by adding water, organic solvents (hexadecane and octane), and sodium hydroxide may help to overcome these issues. Acetic acid and phenolic compounds were extracted in aqueous and organic phases, respectively. Polar chemicals, such as acetic acid, did not partition in the organic solvent phase. Acetic acid in the aqueous phase after extraction is beneficial for a microbial-electrolysis-cell application to produce hydrogen as an energy source for further hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil. Organicmore » solvents extracted more chemicals from bio-oil in combined than in sequential extraction; however, organic solvents partitioned into the aqueous phase in combined extraction. When sodium hydroxide was added to adjust the pH of aqueous bio-oil, organic-phase precipitation occurred. As the pH was increased, a biphasic aqueous/organic dispersion was formed, and phase separation was optimized at approximately pH 6. The neutralized organic bio-oil had approximately 37% less oxygen and 100% increased heating value than the initial centrifuged bio-oil. In conclusion, the less oxygen content and increased heating value indicated a significant improvement of the bio-oil quality through neutralization.« less

  8. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  9. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  10. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Liao, James C; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Guss, Adam M; Yang, Yunfeng; Graham, David E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to

  11. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors, proceedings of conferences and workshops, grants, and international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.

  12. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  13. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  14. FFCAct Clearinghouse, Directory of abstracts. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwood, T.

    1994-05-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) Clearinghouse is a card catalog of information about the FFCAct and its requirements for developing Site Treatment Plans (STP). The information available in the clearinghouse includes abstracts describing computer applications, technical reports, and a list of technical experts. Information can be accessed for use in responding to FFCAct requirements, and the clearinghouse provides search capabilities on particular topics and issues related to STP development. Appendix A includes: contacts from each site, for which contact has been made, who are developing STPs; the FFCAct Clearinghouse Fact Sheet and; additional hard copy forms to be used to populate the database. This report contains 50 abstracts related to the Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program.

  15. Microsoft Word - harrison_abstract.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ABSTRACT A Monte Carlo simulation can be used to model freeze-out from high energy collisions. Existing Monte Carlo freeze-out algorithms usually do not account consistently for all conservation laws, such as the conservation of momentum or the conservation of energy. This poster will document the author's work during his REU program, to develop a Monte Carlo simulation modeling the freeze-out from high energy nuclear collisions imposing momentum conservation. We briefly explain the sampling

  16. Microsoft Word - McIntosh_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 at 2:00 PM Binary and Ternary Break-up of Excited Projectile-like Fragments Produced in 124 Xe + 112,124 Sn Reactions at E/A = 50MeV. Alan McIntosh Indiana University Abstract: Peripheral reactions of 124 Xe ions with 112,124 Sn target nuclei were examined by measuring charged particles in a highly segmented silicon/CsI(Tl) array at forward angles together with the measurement of coincident neutrons. Charged particles were identified for Z≤54 and isotopically resolved for Z≤14. Of

  17. Microsoft Word - mcintosh_abstract_2013.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuesday April 2nd, 2013, at 3:45 pm Room MIST 102 at the Mitchell Institute Refreshment will be served at 3:30 pm The Asymmetry Dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve Dr. Alan McIntosh Cyclotron Institute, TAMU Abstract: The nuclear caloric curve is a fundamental facet of the nuclear equation of state. By studying isotopically reconstructed sources produced in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions, we report for the first time a clear dependence of the caloric curve on the neutron-proton

  18. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  19. Poster Abstract of Eighteenth ARM STM: Sort by Title

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Clouds ABSTRACT, POSTER Kollias, P., Albrecht, B., and Ghate, V. A Simulation of ... Clouds ABSTRACT, POSTER Ghate, V. and Albrecht, B. TWP Cloud Behavior Analyses - ...

  20. Poster Abstract of Nineteenth ARM STM: Sort by Title

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Multi-Scale Simulations of Stratocumulus Clouds at the SGP Site ABSTRACT Zhu, P., Albrecht... Present, and Future ABSTRACT, POSTER Albrecht, B., Kollias, P., and Ghate, V. Spatial ...

  1. Development of a Bulk-Format System to Harvest, Handle, Store, and Deliver High-Tonnage Low-Moisture Switchgrass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womac, Alvin; Groothuis, Mitch; Westover, Tyler; Phanphanich, Manunya; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Turhollow, Anthony

    2013-09-24

    This project evaluates and compares comprehensive feedstock logistics systems (FLS), where a FLS is defined to comprehensively span from biomass material standing in a field to conveyance of a uniform, industrial-milled product into the throat of a biomass conversion facility (BCF). Elements of the bulk-format FLS evaluated in this project include: field-standing switchgrass dry chopped into bulk format on the farm, hauled (either loose or bulk compacted) to storage, stored with confining overburden in a protective facility, reclaimed and conveyed to bulk-format discharge, bulk compacted into an ejector trailer, and conveyed as bulk flow into the BCF. In this FLS evaluation, bulk storage bins served as a controlled and sensored proxy for large commercial stacks protected from moisture with a membrane cover.

  2. Call For Abstracts (Student Research Forum) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Call For Abstracts (Student Research Forum) Call For Abstracts (Student Research Forum) Call For Abstracts (Student Research Forum).pdf (439.22 KB) More Documents & Publications Poster Abstract Guidelines 2015 National Environmental Justice Conference and Training Program Concludes in Washington, DC Program Update: 4th Quarter 2011

  3. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Densified Large Square Bale Format | Department of Energy abstract

  4. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Densified Large Square Bale Format | Department of Energy abstract_1

  5. Controlling microbial contamination during hydrolysis of AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass: Effects on hydrolysate composition, microbial response and fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Pohlmann, Edward; Donald, Jr., Charles; Shabani, Mahboubeh; Hinchman, Li; Higbee, Alan; Mcgee, Mick; La Reau, Alex; Klinger, Grace E.; Li, Sheena; Myers, Chad L.; Boone, Charles; Bates, Donna M.; Cavalier, Dave; Eilert, Dustin; Oates, Lawrence G.; Sanford, Gregg; Sato, Trey K.; Dale, Bruce; Landick, Robert; Piotrowski, Jeff; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Zhang, Yaoping

    2015-11-14

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into biofuels remains an attractive means to produce sustainable energy. It is essential to produce lignocellulosic hydrolysates in a consistent manner in order to study microbial performance in different feedstock hydrolysates. Because of the potential to introduce microbial contamination from the untreated biomass or at various points during the process, it can be difficult to control sterility during hydrolysate production. In this study, we compared hydrolysates produced from AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass using two different methods to control contamination: either by autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or by introducing antibiotics during the hydrolysis of non-autoclaved feedstocks. We then performed extensive chemical analysis, chemical genomics, and comparative fermentations to evaluate any differences between these two different methods used for producing corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates. Autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks could eliminate the contamination for a variety of feedstocks, whereas the antibiotic gentamicin was unable to control contamination consistently during hydrolysis. Compared to the addition of gentamicin, autoclaving of biomass before hydrolysis had a minimal effect on mineral concentrations, and showed no significant effect on the two major sugars (glucose and xylose) found in these hydrolysates. However, autoclaving elevated the concentration of some furanic and phenolic compounds. Chemical genomics analyses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains indicated a high correlation between the AFEX-pretreated hydrolysates produced using these two methods within the same feedstock, indicating minimal differences between the autoclaving and antibiotic methods. Comparative fermentations with S. cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis also showed that autoclaving the AFEX-pretreated feedstocks had no significant effects on microbial performance in

  6. Controlling microbial contamination during hydrolysis of AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass: Effects on hydrolysate composition, microbial response and fermentation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Pohlmann, Edward; Donald, Jr., Charles; Shabani, Mahboubeh; Hinchman, Li; Higbee, Alan; Mcgee, Mick; La Reau, Alex; Klinger, Grace E.; et al

    2015-11-14

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into biofuels remains an attractive means to produce sustainable energy. It is essential to produce lignocellulosic hydrolysates in a consistent manner in order to study microbial performance in different feedstock hydrolysates. Because of the potential to introduce microbial contamination from the untreated biomass or at various points during the process, it can be difficult to control sterility during hydrolysate production. In this study, we compared hydrolysates produced from AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass using two different methods to control contamination: either by autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or by introducing antibiotics duringmore » the hydrolysis of non-autoclaved feedstocks. We then performed extensive chemical analysis, chemical genomics, and comparative fermentations to evaluate any differences between these two different methods used for producing corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates. Autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks could eliminate the contamination for a variety of feedstocks, whereas the antibiotic gentamicin was unable to control contamination consistently during hydrolysis. Compared to the addition of gentamicin, autoclaving of biomass before hydrolysis had a minimal effect on mineral concentrations, and showed no significant effect on the two major sugars (glucose and xylose) found in these hydrolysates. However, autoclaving elevated the concentration of some furanic and phenolic compounds. Chemical genomics analyses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains indicated a high correlation between the AFEX-pretreated hydrolysates produced using these two methods within the same feedstock, indicating minimal differences between the autoclaving and antibiotic methods. Comparative fermentations with S. cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis also showed that autoclaving the AFEX-pretreated feedstocks had no significant effects on microbial

  7. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkes , Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  8. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  9. DSNF AND OTHER WASTE FORM DEGRADATION ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. CUNNANE

    2004-11-19

    Several hundred distinct types of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) may potentially be disposed in the Yucca Mountain repository. These fuel types represent many more types than can be viably individually examined for their effect on the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Additionally, for most of these fuel types, there is no known direct experimental test data for the degradation and dissolution of the waste form in repository groundwaters. The approach used in the TSPA-LA model is, therefore, to assess available information on each of 11 groups of DSNF, and to identify a model that can be used in the TSPA-LA model without differentiating between individual codisposal waste packages containing different DSNF types. The purpose of this report is to examine the available data and information concerning the dissolution kinetics of DSNF matrices for the purpose of abstracting a degradation model suitable for use in describing degradation of the DSNF inventory in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application. The data and information and associated degradation models were examined for the following types of DSNF: Group 1--Naval spent nuclear fuel; Group 2--Plutonium/uranium alloy (Fermi 1 SNF); Group 3--Plutonium/uranium carbide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 4--Mixed oxide and plutonium oxide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Demonstration Fuel Assembly/Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Demonstration Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 5--Thorium/uranium carbide (Fort St. Vrain SNF); Group 6--Thorium/uranium oxide (Shippingport light water breeder reactor SNF); Group 7--Uranium metal (N Reactor SNF); Group 8--Uranium oxide (Three Mile Island-2 core debris); Group 9--Aluminum-based SNF (Foreign Research Reactor SNF); Group 10--Miscellaneous Fuel; and Group 11--Uranium-zirconium hydride (Training Research Isotopes-General Atomics SNF). The analyses contained in this document provide an ''upper-limit'' (i

  10. Division of Environmental Control Technology Program, 1979. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 10 sections in this progress report dealing with environmental engineering. (KRM)

  11. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production | Department of Energy Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production This abstract from FDC Enterprises discusses the impact and objectives for project that designs equipment improvements to streamline the harvest, staging, and

  12. Analysis of switchgrass-derived bio-oil and associated aqueous phase generated in a semi-pilot scale auger pyrolyzer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Shoujie; Ye, X. Philip; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Kim, Pyoungchung; Labbé, Ncole

    2016-03-30

    To efficiently utilize water-soluble compounds in bio-oil and evaluate the potential effects of these compounds on processes such as microbial electrolysis, our study investigated the physico-chemical properties of bio-oil and the associated aqueous phase generated from switchgrass using a semi-pilot scale auger pyrolyzer. Combining separation and detection strategies with organic solvent extraction, an array of analytical instruments and methods were used to identify and quantify the chemical constituents. Separation of an aqueous phase from crude bio-oil was achieved by adding water (water: crude bio-oil at 4:1 in weight), which resulted in a partition of 61 wt.% of the organic compoundsmore » into a bio-oil aqueous phase (BOAP). GC/MS analysis for BOAP identified over 40 compounds of which 16 were quantified. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and levoglucosan are the major components in BOAP. In addition, a significant portion of chemicals that have the potential to be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels were extracted to BOAP (77 wt.% of the alcohols, 61 wt.% of the furans, and 52 wt.% of the phenolic compounds in crude bio-oil). Valorization of the BOAP may require conversion methods capable of accommodating a very broad substrate specificity. Ultimately, a better separation strategy is needed to selectively remove the acidic and polar components from crude bio-oil to improve economic feasibility of biorefinery operations.« less

  13. Abstracts | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Abstracts Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences (CSGB) Division CSGB Home About Research Areas Reports and Activities Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Third DOE BES Separations Research Workshop Abstracts Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Third DOE/BES Separations Research Workshop Presentation Abstracts Last Modified May 18, 1999 High Pressure and High Temperature Spectroscopic Studies of Supercritical Fluid Solutions Clement R. Yonker

  14. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  15. Poster Abstract of Seventeenth ARM STM: Sort by Title

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... ABSTRACT, POSTER Ghate, V., Albrecht, B., and Kollias, P. Annual Variation of ... POSTER Zhu, P., Kollias, P., and Albrecht, B. ARM Mobile Facility Deployment in ...

  16. Abstract: Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header Abstract: Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting ...

  17. 7th international symposium on photosynthetic prokaryotes. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, R.C.

    1991-12-31

    This book contains the abstracts of all the presentations made either in oral or poster form, at the VII International Symposium on Photosynthetic Prokaryotes.

  18. Kinetics of the Hydrogen Atom Abstraction Reactions from 1-Butanol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory Matches Experiment and More Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Kinetics of the Hydrogen Atom Abstraction Reactions from 1-Butanol by Hydroxyl Radical: Theory ...

  19. Alamos National Laboratory] Materials Science(36) Abstract Not...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II Sarrao, John L. Los Alamos National Laboratory Materials Science(36) Abstract Not Provided Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  20. Microsoft Word - SoS abstract-bio_template.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the Social Brain Dr. Michael Graziano Professor of Psychology, Princeton University Princeton New Jersey ABSTRACT: What is consciousness and how can a brain, a mere ...

  1. Microsoft Word - Call for Abstracts Student Research Forum.docx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Environmental Sciences Preferred abstract submissions will address environmental exposures and triggers, e.g., air pollution and respiratory health, proximity to hazardous waste, ...

  2. Molecular biology of signal transduction in plants. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This volume contains abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions of the 1991 Cold Springs Harbor Meeting entitled Molecular Biology of Signal Transduction in Plants.

  3. Deep Borehole Disposal of Spent Fuel. Brady, Patrick V. Abstract...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spent Fuel. Brady, Patrick V. Abstract not provided. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States) USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)...

  4. 24th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference. Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report contains abstracts on topics in the following areas: parametric instabilities; hohlraum physics; laser plasma physics with short pulses; and rayleigh-taylor instability and hydrodynamics.

  5. Chemical Hieroglyphs: Abstract Depiction of Complex Void Space...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Hieroglyphs: Abstract Depiction of Complex Void Space Topology of Nanoporous Materials Previous Next List Kevin Theisen, Berend Smit and Maciej Haranczyk, J. Chem. Inf. ...

  6. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    advanced logistical systems and focused bioenergy harvesting technologies that supply crop ... More Documents & Publications ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop ...

  7. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural ...

  8. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production | Department of Energy Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production This abstract from FDC Enterprises discusses the impact and objectives for project that designs equipment improvements to streamline the harvest, staging, and hauling costs

  9. The Bioelectromagnetic Society Thirteenth Annual Meeting 1991: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains author abstracts representing oral and poster presentations made at the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of The Bioelectromagnetic Society held in Salt Lake City, Utah June 23--27, 1991.

  10. Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase I awards, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-12-01

    This booklet presents technical abstracts of Phase I awards made in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 under the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. SBIR research explores innovative concepts in important technological and scientific areas that can lead to valuable new technology and products. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications, as described by the awardee, are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations, including venture capital and larger industrial firms, with an interest in the research described in any of the abstracts are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  11. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1981. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 59 papers of the 1981 annual report of the Earth Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The general topics covered included nuclear waste isolation, geophysics and reservoir engineering, and geosciences. (KRM)

  12. SERS internship Fall 1992--Spring 1993: Abstract and research papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-05

    This report contains the abstracts and research papers by students on a variety of topics in engineering, genetics, solid state physics, thermonuclear energy, astrophysics, and other science related topics.

  13. GRC 2009 Annual Meeting Announced, Call for Abstracts Issued

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) issued a call for abstracts today with the announcement of the world’s largest geothermal event taking place October 4-7, 2009, in Reno, Nevada, at the Peppermill Resort Spa Casino.

  14. Abstracts and research accomplishments of university coal research projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their projects in time for distribution at a grantees conference. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to the request. Abstracts discuss the following area: coal science, coal surface science, reaction chemistry, advanced process concepts, engineering fundamentals and thermodynamics, environmental science.

  15. Abstracts | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reports » Abstracts Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Program Summaries Brochures Reports Abstracts Accomplishments Presentations BES and Congress Science for Energy Flow Seeing Matter Nano for Energy Scale of Things Chart Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  16. Conference Abstracts & Book Chapters | Photosynthetic Antenna Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Conference Abstracts & Book Chapters Conference Abstracts & Book Chapters Collins AM, Wen J and Blankenship RE (2011) Photosynthetic Light Harvesting Complexes. In Molecular Solar Fuels, T. Wydrzynski and W. Hillier, Eds., Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. Frank HA, Magdaong N, Niedzwiedzki DM, LaFountain AM, Gardiner AT, Carey A-M, Gibson GN, and Cogdell RJ (2014) Investigation of the excited state spectra and dynamics of rhodopinal glucoside from Rhodoblastus

  17. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories ( UC'' categories) established by the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  18. SRS scientific and technical abstracts, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This document focuses on the scientific and technical information (STT) reports, articles, and presentations generated at the site by various authors and organizations of Westinghouse Savannah River Company and its subcontractors. Abstracts of these STI products are contained within this document. The abstracts have been compiled as they originally appeared in the source reports. No changes to the content have been made except as necessary to correct errors of spelling, to reduce abstract length, or to ensure that the information is unclassified. The abstracts are organized according to information categories (``UC`` categories) established by the Department of Energy`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). When reports fall into more than one category, their abstract is included as an entry in the most applicable section of this document. UC-700 General, Miscellaneous, and Progress Reports, UC-701 Chemistry, UC-702 Environmental Sciences, UC-703 Geosciences, UC-704 Materials, UC-705 Mathematics and Computer Sciences, UC-706 Engineering, Equipment, and Instruments, UC-707 Health and Safety, UC-708 Biological Sciences, UC-711 Chemical Separation Processes for Plutonium and Uranium, UC-712 Inertial Confinement Fusion, UC-713 Radioisotope and Radiation Applications, UC-714 Criticality Studies, UC-715 Technology - Feed Materials, UC-721 Defense Waste Management, UC-722 Transportation of Nuclear Materials, UC-731 Nuclear Materials Production, UC-732 Special Isotope Separation (Plutonium), UC-733 Nuclear Raw Materials, UC-741 Chemical High Explosives, UC-742 Applications of Explosions, UC-743 Nuclear Propulsion Systems, UC-744 Aerospace Nuclear Safety, and Index 91.

  19. Vulnerability analysis for complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin L.

    2010-06-01

    Large, complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society, and there is great interest in developing rigorous, scalable methods for identifying and characterizing their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler, but mathematically equivalent, representation, the required analysis is performed on the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit vulnerability-preserving, finite state abstractions, and develop efficient algorithms for computing these abstractions. We then propose a vulnerability analysis methodology which combines these finite state abstractions with formal analytics from theoretical computer science to yield a comprehensive vulnerability analysis process for networks of realworld scale and complexity. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with a case study involving a realistic electric power grid model and also with brief discussions of biological and social network examples.

  20. Nineteenth annual actinide separations conference: Conference program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This report contains the abstracts from the conference presentations. Sessions were divided into the following topics: Waste treatment; Spent fuel treatment; Issues and responses to Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board 94-1; Pyrochemical technologies; Disposition technologies; and Aqueous separation technologies.

  1. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. (KRM)

  2. National conference on environmental remediation science and technology: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    This conference was held September 8--10, 1998 in Greensboro, North Carolina. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. This report contains the abstracts of sixty-one papers presented at the conference.

  3. Human genome program report. Part 2, 1996 research abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains Part 2 of a two-part report to reflect research and progress in the US Department of Energy Human Genome Program from 1994 through 1996, with specified updates made just before publication. Part 2 consists of 1996 research abstracts. Attention is focused on the following: sequencing; mapping; informatics; ethical, legal, and social issues; infrastructure; and small business innovation research.

  4. Abstract and research accomplishments of University Coal Research Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their respective projects in time for distribution at a conference on June 13--14, 1995 at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to that request. For convenience, the 70 grants reported in this book are stored into eight technical areas, Coal Science, Coal Surface Science, Reaction Chemistry, Advanced Process Concepts, Engineering Fundamentals and Thermodynamics, Environmental Science, high Temperature Phenomena, and Special topics. Indexes are provided for locating projects by subject, principal investigators, and contracting organizations. Each extended abstract describes project objectives, work accomplished, significance to the Fossil Energy Program, and plans for the next year.

  5. ABSTRACTS: Seventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications (coal processing, coal liquefaction, gasification, heat engines and recovery, combustion systems, fuel cells). Research is aimed at better understanding of materials in fossil energy environments and development of new materials for improvement of plant operations and reliability. Abstracts are given of 37 papers on ceramics/composites, intermetallics (iron aluminides, etc.), and advanced austenitics. (DLC)

  6. ABSTRACTS: Seventh annual conference on fossil energy materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Objective of the Advanced Research and Technology Development materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications (coal processing, coal liquefaction, gasification, heat engines and recovery, combustion systems, fuel cells). Research is aimed at better understanding of materials in fossil energy environments and development of new materials for improvement of plant operations and reliability. Abstracts are given of 37 papers on ceramics/composites, intermetallics (iron aluminides, etc.), and advanced austenitics. (DLC)

  7. Small Business Innovation Research: Abstracts of Phase 1 awards, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program enables DOE to obtain effective, innovative solutions to important problems through the private sector, which has a commercial incentive to pursue the resulting technology and bring it to the marketplace. The growing number of awardees, many of them started in business in response to SBIR solicitations, is becoming a significant resource for the solution of high risk, high technology problems for the Department. As detailed here, this publication describes the technical efforts for SBIR Phase 1 awards in 1994. It is intended for the educated layman, and may be of particular interest to potential investors who wish to get in on the ground floor of exciting opportunities. Contained in this booklet are abstracts of the Phase 1 awards made in FY 1994 under the DOE SBIR program. The 212 Phase 1 projects described here were selected in a highly competitive process from a total of 2,276 grant applications received in response to the 1994 DOE annual SBIR Solicitation. The selections for awards were made on scientific and technical merit, as judged against the specific criteria listed in the Solicitation. Conclusions were reached on the basis of detailed reports returned by reviewers drawn from DOE laboratories, universities, private industry, and government. (Any discrepancies noted in prior DOE releases naming the firms selected for awards are due either to the firm changing its name after the award selection or to the firm not proceeding to a signed grant.) It is expected that between one-third and one-half of the Phase 1 projects will be continued into Phase 2. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations with an interest in the research described are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.

  8. Abstracted publications related to the Hanford environment, 1980 to 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, C.D.; Gray, R.H.

    1989-05-01

    This abstracted bibliography provides a reference to the diverse environmental activities conducted on the Hanford Site from 1980 through 1988. It includes 500 reports and articles that were prepared largely by onsite contractors and the Department of Energy. Documents contained here were separated into eight subject areas: air and atmosphere, aquatic ecology, effluents and wastes, geology and hydrology, Hanford Site, radioactivity, terrestrial ecology, and socioeconomics. These areas form the basis of a key word index, which is intended to help the reader locate subjects of interest. An author index is also included.

  9. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  10. Second SIAM conference on sparse matrices: Abstracts. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This report contains abstracts on the following topics: invited and long presentations (IP1 & LP1); sparse matrix reordering & graph theory I; sparse matrix tools & environments I; eigenvalue computations I; iterative methods & acceleration techniques I; applications I; parallel algorithms I; sparse matrix reordering & graphy theory II; sparse matrix tool & environments II; least squares & optimization I; iterative methods & acceleration techniques II; applications II; eigenvalue computations II; least squares & optimization II; parallel algorithms II; sparse direct methods; iterative methods & acceleration techniques III; eigenvalue computations III; and sparse matrix reordering & graph theory III.

  11. ASC 84: applied superconductivity conference. Final program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations covering: superconducting device fabrication; applications of rf superconductivity; conductor stability and losses; detectors and signal processing; fusion magnets; A15 and Nb-Ti conductors; stability, losses, and various conductors; SQUID applications; new applications of superconductivity; advanced conductor materials; high energy physics applications of superconductivity; electronic materials and characterization; general superconducting electronics; ac machinery and new applications; digital devices; fusion and other large scale applications; in-situ and powder process conductors; ac applications; synthesis, properties, and characterization of conductors; superconducting microelectronics. (LEW)

  12. Microsoft Word - CYCLOTRON_2011_ABSTRACT_REPET_nica

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Draw a Level Scheme? Dr. N. Nica Cyclotron Institute TAMU Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA Abstract Drawing a level scheme is a procedure of figuring the levels and decaying transitions of an excited nucleus, which nowadays is a well- known, rather technical procedure. In a previous talk we showed that some extra correlations exist in the gamma-ray coincidence spectra which we were able to sample in the decay of high-spin states of several nuclei

  13. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review Research and Technology Development for Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Reviewert Kausch and Richard Rhodes, University of Rhode Island Award # DE-FG-36-08GO88070

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Peer Review Research and Technology Development for Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass Albert Kausch and Richard Rhodes, University of Rhode Island Award # DE-FG-36-08GO88070 Date: Thursday May 23nd 10:30-11 am Technology Area Review: Feedstock Supply & Logistics Principal Investigator: Albert Kausch Organization: University of Rhode Island This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Long Term Goals and

  14. 15. international conference on plant growth substances: Program -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    Since the 14th Conference in Amsterdam in 1991, progress in plant hormone research and developmental plant biology has been truly astonishing. The five ``classical`` plant hormones, auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, and abscisic acid, have been joined by a number of new signal molecules, e.g., systemin, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, whose biosynthesis and functions are being understood in ever greater detail. Molecular genetics has opened new vistas in an understanding of transduction pathways that regulate developmental processes in response to hormonal and environmental signals. The program of the 15th Conference includes accounts of this progress and brings together scientists whose work focuses on physiological, biochemical, and chemical aspects of plant growth regulation. This volume contains the abstracts of papers presented at this conference.

  15. Laboratory technology research: Abstracts of FY 1998 projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The Laboratory Technology Research (LTR) program supports high-risk, multidisciplinary research partnerships to investigate challenging scientific problems whose solutions have promising commercial potential. These partnerships capitalize on two great strengths of the country: the world-class basic research capability of the DOE Office of Science (SC) national laboratories and the unparalleled entrepreneurial spirit of American industry. Projects supported by the LTR program in FY 1998 explore the applications of basic research advances relevant to DOE`s mission over a full range of scientific disciplines. The program presently emphasizes three critical areas of mission-related research: advanced materials, intelligent processing and manufacturing research, and environmental and biomedical research. Abstracts for 85 projects are contained in this report.

  16. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  17. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: I, Surface energy budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  18. 11th Topical conference high-temperature plasma diagnostics. Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This report contains abstracts from the 11th topical conference on high-temperature plasma diagnostics.

  19. Selected Translated Abstracts of Russian-Language Climate-Change Publications, I. Surface Energy Budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravina, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  20. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  1. Selected Translated Abstracts of Russian-Language Climate-Change Publications, II. Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravina, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  2. Abstracts of Phase 1 awards, (fiscal year) 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Contained in this booklet are abstracts of the Phase I awards made in Fiscal Year 1987 under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). The program is designed for implementation in a three-phase process, with Phase I determining the scientific or technical merit and feasibility of ideas proposed for investigation. The period of performance in this initial phase is relatively brief, typically about 6 months, and the awards are limited to $50,000. Phase II is the principal research or research and development effort, and the awards are as high as $500,000 for work to be performed in periods of up to 2 years. Phase III is the commercial application. The 111 Phase I projects described were selected in a highly competitive process from a total of 942 proposals received in response to the 1987 Solicitation. They cover the fields of chemistry, materials, control systems, plant natural products, instrumentation, nuclear medicine, health and environmental effects, high energy physics, particle accelerators, nuclear physics, plasma diagnostics and confinement, fusion energy systems, robotics and remote systems, nuclear reactors, space nuclear power, fuel cycle, decontamination/decommissioning, commputers in nuclear plants, coal, enhanced oil recovery/tar sands, fossil energy, photovoltaics, solar thermal, ceramics for heat engines, and industrial separation, conversion and recovery processes. (DLC)

  3. 4th Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-03-01

    This contains abstracts from the 2009 Annual Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Principal Investigators (PI) Meeting. The ERSP seeks to advance fundamental science to understand, predict, and mitigate the impacts of environmental contamination from past nuclear weapons production and provide a scientific basis for the long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal. These ambitious goals cannot be achieved by any one project alone. Therefore, ERSP funds a combination of research programs at the DOE national laboratories, individual projects at universities and federal agencies, and large long(er)-term field site research. Integration of these activities to advance the ERSP goals is a constant challenge, but made significantly simpler by bringing together all funded ERSP researchers once a year to discuss the very latest research results. It is at these meetings where new ideas and/or scientific advancements in support of ERSP goals can be discussed and openly debated among all PIs in the program. The ERSP thrives, in part, on the new ideas, concepts, scientific connections, and collaborations generated as a result of these meetings. The annual PI Meeting is very much a working meeting with three major goals: (1) to provide opportunities for scientific interaction among the ERSP scientists, a critical element for the program; (2) to provide the ERSP program staff with an opportunity to evaluate the progress of each program and project; and (3) to showcase the ERSP to interested parties within DOE and within other federal agencies In addition to program managers from within OBER, there will be representatives from other offices within DOE and other federal agencies in attandance at the meeting.

  4. 2nd Annual DOE-ERSP PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2007-03-14

    and allows ample time for informal group discussions and poster presentations. The intent of this format is to foster informal discussion of research among PIs and ERSD program managers-discussion that is a hallmark of previous ERSD-sponsored meetings. Morning sessions will be dominated by oral presentations from PIs chosen by ERSD program managers to communicate key topics of research within the program. There is ample time during lunch and in the early afternoon for small group discussions/meetings prior to convening again in the later afternoon for oral presentations on field research conducted at the Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge sites (IFCs). Formal poster sessions begin after dinner. Abstracts for all poster presentations are listed within this meeting booklet. On behalf of the ERSD program managers and staff, we thank you for attending this year's PI meeting. We look forward to discussing the results of your research with you and your ideas for the future, and we hope that this meeting will continue as an important tradition for PIs in the program and serve as a valuable resource for your investigations.

  5. Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

    2009-10-06

    General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will

  6. Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear physics, August 24-30, 1980, Berkeley, California. Volume 1. Abstracts. [Berkeley, California, August 24-30, 1980 (abstracts only)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains all abstracts (931) received by the conference organizers before June 20, 1980. The abstracts are grouped according to the following topics: nucleon-nucleon interactions, free and in nuclei; distribution of matter, charge, and magnetism; exotic nuclei and exotic probes; giant resonances and other high-lying excitations; applications of nuclear science; nuclei with large angular momentum and deformation; heavy-ion reactions and relaxation phenomena; new techniques and instruments; pion absorption and scattering by nuclei; and miscellaneous. Some of these one-page abstracts contain data. A complete author index is provided. (RWR)

  7. Program and abstracts: IS-MPMI sixth International Symposium on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This volume provides abstracts of oral and poster presentations made for the Sixth International Symposium on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions.

  8. 2015 National Environmental Justice Conference and Training Program Call for Abstracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2015 National Environmental Justice Conference and Training Program planners are inviting individuals to submit abstracts, not to exceed two pages, related to environmental justice. Each...

  9. CALL FOR ABSTRACTS for the 2014 National Environmental Justice Conference and Training Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2014 National Environmental Justice Conference and Training Program planners are inviting individuals to submit abstracts, not to exceed two pages, related to environmental justice.

  10. Advanced light source: Compendium of user abstracts and technical reports,1993-1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    1997-04-01

    This compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress from 1993-1996, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998. Two tables of contents organize the user abstracts by beamline and by area of research, and an author index makes abstracts accessible by author and by principal investigator. Technical details for each beamline including whom to contact for additional information can be found in the beamline information section. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this compendium.

  11. Abstract As

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The aerodynamic performance of various HAWT configurations was established using PROP for personal computers (Tangler,1987). The PROP family of codes is somewhat of an...

  12. Abstract Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... L K contains the kinetic terms, L Higgs contains the ... flavor eigenstates that enter these currents are not ... The MiniBooNE experiment was designed to search for to ...

  13. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal). Compilation for third quarter 1997, July--September

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. This report contains the third quarter 1997 abstracts.

  14. Competition between abstraction and exchange channels in H + HCN reaction: Full-dimensional quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2013-12-14

    Dynamics of the title reaction is investigated on an ab initio based potential energy surface using a full-dimensional quantum wave packet method within the centrifugal sudden approximation. It is shown that the reaction between H and HCN leads to both the hydrogen exchange and hydrogen abstraction channels. The exchange channel has a lower threshold and larger cross section than the abstraction channel. It also has more oscillations due apparently to quantum resonances. Both channels are affected by long-lived resonances supported by potential wells. Comparison with experimental cross sections indicates underestimation of the abstraction barrier height.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 1. Biomedical sciences. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 101 individual papers presented in this annual report. (ERB)

  16. Biology Division progress report, October 1, 1978-May 31, 1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the four sections into which this progress report has been divided. The report also contains sections related to interdivision activities and educational activities. (ERB)

  17. Eighteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Eighteenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals held May 5-9, 1996 in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The proceedings contains abstracts for oral and poster presentations.

  18. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1996, Volume 21, No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    This compilation is the annual cumulation of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors.

  19. Heat flow in the northwest Atlantic (abstract) (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Heat flow in the northwest Atlantic (abstract) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heat flow in the northwest Atlantic (abstract) Authors: Hobart, M.A. [1] ; Herman, B.M. ; Langseth, M.G. ; Sclater, J.G. ; Crowe, J. + Show Author Affiliations (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY) Publication Date: 1977-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 5202016 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Journal Name: EOS, Trans., Am. Geophys. Union; (United States); Journal Volume:

  20. Nuclear science abstracts (NSA) database 1948--1974 (on the Internet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) is a comprehensive abstract and index collection of the International Nuclear Science and Technology literature for the period 1948 through 1976. Included are scientific and technical reports of the US Atomic Energy Commission, US Energy Research and Development Administration and its contractors, other agencies, universities, and industrial and research organizations. Coverage of the literature since 1976 is provided by Energy Science and Technology Database. Approximately 25% of the records in the file contain abstracts. These are from the following volumes of the print Nuclear Science Abstracts: Volumes 12--18, Volume 29, and Volume 33. The database contains over 900,000 bibliographic records. All aspects of nuclear science and technology are covered, including: Biomedical Sciences; Metals, Ceramics, and Other Materials; Chemistry; Nuclear Materials and Waste Management; Environmental and Earth Sciences; Particle Accelerators; Engineering; Physics; Fusion Energy; Radiation Effects; Instrumentation; Reactor Technology; Isotope and Radiation Source Technology. The database includes all records contained in Volume 1 (1948) through Volume 33 (1976) of the printed version of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). This worldwide coverage includes books, conference proceedings, papers, patents, dissertations, engineering drawings, and journal literature. This database is now available for searching through the GOV. Research Center (GRC) service. GRC is a single online web-based search service to well known Government databases. Featuring powerful search and retrieval software, GRC is an important research tool. The GRC web site is at http://grc.ntis.gov.

  1. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1994. Volume 19, Number 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index, personal author index, subject index, NRC originating organization index (staff reports), NRC originating organization index (international agreements), NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports), contractor index, international organization index, and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  2. Microbe Produces Ethanol from Switchgrass Without Pretreatment...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Refining another strategy known as consolidated bioprocessing (CPB) could reduce costs. In second-generation CPB, a microorganism splits of water and ferments the products to ...

  3. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal). Annual compilation for 1992: Volume 17, No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors, proceedings of conferences and workshops, grants, and international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.

  4. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1997. Volume 22, Number 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.

  5. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  6. Symposium on intermediate-range atmospheric-transport processes and technology assessment. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 47 papers in this proceedings. The purpose of this meeting was to assess the state of the art of modeling atmospheric transport processes 10 to 100 km downwind of point and area sources of pollution. (KRM)

  7. Role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device processing. Book of abstracts, fourth workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The 41 abstracts are arranged into 6 sessions: impurities and defects in commercial substrates: their sources, effects on material yield, and material quality; impurity gettering in silicon: limits and manufacturability of impurity gettering and in silicon solar cells; impurity/defect passivation; new concepts in silicon growth: improved initial quality and thin films; and silicon solar cell design opportunities.

  8. Thirty-seventh ORNL/DOE conference on analytical chemistry in energy technology: Abstracts of papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts only are given for papers presented during the following topical sessions: Opportunities for collaboration: Industry, academic, national laboratories; Developments in sensor technology; Analysis in containment facilities; Improving the quality of environmental data; Process analysis; Field analysis; Radiological separations; Interactive analytical seminars; Measurements and chemical industry initiatives; and Isotopic measurements and mass spectroscopy.

  9. Programming Challenges Abstracts | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Abstracts and Biographies Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Applied Mathematics Computer Science Exascale Tools Workshop Programming Challenges Workshop Architectures I Workshop External link Architectures II Workshop External link Next Generation Networking Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) ASCR SBIR-STTR Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC)

  10. Seventeenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.