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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

GAX absorption cycle design process  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an absorption system design process that relies on computer simulations that are validated by experimental findings. An ammonia-water absorption heat pump cycle at 3 refrigeration tons (RT) and chillers at 3.3 RT and 5 RT (10.5 kW, 11.6 kW, and 17.6 kW) were initially modeled and then built and tested. The experimental results were used to calibrate both the cycle simulation and the component simulations, yielding computer design routines that could accurately predict component and cycle performance. Each system was a generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle, and all were sized for residential and light commercial use, where very little absorption equipment is currently used. The specific findings of the 5 RT (17.6 kW) chiller are presented. Modeling incorporated a heat loss from the gas-fired generator and pressure drops in both the evaporator and absorber. Simulation results and experimental findings agreed closely and validated the modeling method and simulation software.

Priedeman, D.K.; Christensen, R.N.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Osmosis is a phenomenon which regulates many biological ... in explaining the biological functions which depend on osmosis, but also in creating conditions for reversing it known as ‘reverse osmosis’. Reverse osmosis

Sudhakar M Rao

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Osmosis is a phenomenon which regulates many biological ... in explaining the biological functions which depend on osmosis, but also in creating conditions for reversing it known as ‘reverse osmosis’. Reverse osmosis

Sudhakar M. Rao

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

A Remote Absorption Process for Disposal of Evaporate and Reverse Osmosis Concentrates  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial nuclear plants and DOE facilities generate secondary waste streams consisting of evaporator bottoms and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Since liquids are not permitted in disposal facilities, these waste streams must be converted to dry solids, either by evaporation to dried solids or by solidification to liquid-free solids. Evaporation of the liquid wastes reduces their volume, but requires costly energy and capital equipment. In some cases, concentration of the contaminants during drying can cause the waste to exceed Class A waste for nuclear utilities or exceed DOE transuranic limits. This means that disposal costs will be increased, or that, when the Barnwell, SC disposal site closes to waste outside of the Atlantic Compact in July 2008, the waste will be precluded from disposal for the foreseeable future). Solidification with cement agents requires less energy and equipment than drying, but results in a volume increase of 50-100%. The doubling or tripling of waste weight, along with the increased volume, sharply increases shipping and disposal costs. Confronted with these unattractive alternatives, Diversified Technologies Services (DTS), in conjunction with selected nuclear utilities and D and D operations at Rocky Flats, undertook an exploratory effort to convert this liquid wastewater to a solid without using cement. This would avoid the bulking effect of cement, and permit the waste to be disposed of the Energy Solutions facility in Utah as well as some DOE facilities. To address the need for an attractive alternative to drying and cement solidification, a test program was developed using a polymer absorbent media to convert the concentrate streams to a liquid-free waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of the pertinent burial sites. Two approaches for mixing the polymer with the liquid were tested: mechanical mixing and in-situ incorporation. As part of this test program, a process control program (PCP) was developed that is 100% scalable from a concentrate test sample as small as 50 grams to full-scale processing of 100 cubic foot containers or larger. In summary: The absorption process offers utilities a viable and less costly alternative to on-site drying or solidification of concentrates. The absorption process can be completed by site personnel or by a vendor as a turnkey service. The process is suitable for multiple types of waste, including RO and evaporator concentrates, sludges, and other difficult to process waters and wet solids. (author)

Brunsell, D.A. [Diversified Technologies Services, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

REVERSE OSMOSIS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

REVERSE OSMOSIS ... Concentration of Apple Juice by Reverse Osmosis at Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Scales ... Concentration of Apple Juice by Reverse Osmosis at Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Scales ...

S. Sourirajan; J. P. Agrawal

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter provides a survey of reverse osmosis science and technology. It begins with a ... concludes with an account of the principal current reverse osmosis applications.

H. K. Lonsdale

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Triple-effect absorption chiller cycle: A step beyond double-effect cycles  

SciTech Connect

Many advanced'' absorption cycles have been proposed during the current century. Of the hundreds of absorption cycles which have been patented throughout the world, all commercially manufactured products for air conditioning buildings have been variations of just two basic absorption cycles: single-effect and condenser-coupled double-effect cycles. The relatively low cooling coefficients of performance (COPs) inherent in single-effect and double-effect cycles limits the economic applicability of absorption air conditioners (chillers) in the United States. A triple-effect absorption chiller cycle is discussed. This cycle uses two condensers and two absorbers to achieve the triple effect.'' Depending on the absorption fluids selected, this triple-effect cycle is predicted to improve cooling COPs by 18% to 60% compared with the equivalent double-effect cycle. This performance improvement is obtained without increasing the total amount of heat-transfer surface area needed for the heat exchangers. A comparison between the calculated performances of a double-effect cycle and a triple-effect cycle (both using ammonia-water (NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O) as the absorption fluid pair) is presented. The triple-effect cycle is predicted to have an 18% higher cooling COP (1.41 compared with 1.2 for a double-effect), lower pressure (47.70 atm (701 psi) instead of 68.05 atm (1000 psi)), significantly reduced pumping power (less than one-half that of the double-effect cycle), and potentially lower construction cost (33% less total heat exchange needed). Practical implications for this triple-effect cycle are discussed. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

DeVault, R.C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Flow Relationships in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flow Relationships in Reverse Osmosis ... Effects of Hydrolysis on Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Transport Coefficients ... Effects of Hydrolysis on Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Transport Coefficients ...

Ulrich Merten

1963-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Temperature–entropy diagram for an irreversible absorption refrigeration cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article develops the theoretical foundation for the temperature–entropy (T–s) diagram for irreversible absorption chillers that employ either a volatile or nonvolatile working pair. The representation of a real absorption refrigeration cycle on a T–s diagram can directly depict the energetic superiority of one design over another. For practical usage this diagrammatic approach only requires as inputs the inlet and outlet state points that can be computed based on the corresponding temperatures pressures and component concentrations of each of the heat-and-mass exchanger modules within a chiller system and can therefore also be employed as a useful tool for system analysis and diagnosis. The same method is also applicable to any continuously operating thermodynamic system that is wholly or partially driven by thermal power.

H. T. Chua; H. K. Toh; K. C. Ng

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economic comparisons indicate reverse osmosis to be more cost effective than distillation ... membranes, leading to a wider scope of reverse osmosis applications, including the purification of used water ... tran...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Molecular dynamics simulations of osmosis and reverse osmosis in solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computer simulation studies using the method of molecular dynamics have been carried out to investigate osmosis and reverse osmosis in solutions separated by semi-permeable membranes....

S. Murad

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the rate of fouling of reverse osmosis membranes treating32, 127-135. fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." Buros,Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." J. Colloid

Elimelech, Menachem

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Reverse Osmosis Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An empirical modeling method has been suggested for the reverse osmosis process. Least-square fitting of data to a third-order’ polynomial has resulted in the accurate modeling of Du Pont’s hollow fiber B-10 m...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bibliography of citations from the U.S. National Technical Information Service data base with 183 abstracts on membranes for reverse osmosis desalination, electro-dialysis desalination and other osmotic desa...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Cycle simulation of the low-temperature triple-effect absorption chiller with vapor compression unit  

SciTech Connect

The construction of a triple-effect absorption chiller machine using the lithium bromide-water solution as a working fluid is strongly limited by corrosion problems caused by the high generator temperature. In this work, three new cycles having the additional vapor compression units were suggested in order to lower the generator temperature of a triple-effect absorption chiller. Each new cycle has one compressor located at the different position which was used to elevate the pressure of the refrigerant vapor. Computer simulations were carried out in order to examine both the basic triple-effect cycle and three new cycles. All types of triple-effect absorption chiller cycles were found to be able to lower the temperature of high-temperature generator to the more favorable operation range. The COPs of three cycles calculated by considering the additional compressor works showed a small level of decrease or increase compared with that of the basic triple-effect cycle. Consequently, a low-temperature triple-effect absorption chiller can be possibly constructed by adapting one of three new cycles. A great advantage of these new cycles over the basic one is that the conventionally used lithium bromide-water solution can be successfully used as a working fluid without the danger of corrosion.

Kim, J.S.; Lee, H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Analysis of a commercial absorption-refrigeration water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle using Aspen Plus simulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Robur absorption-refrigeration-water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle is analyzed using Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator. The results are compared with experimental and some manufacturer data reported in the open literature. Among performance parameters analyzed ... Keywords: Aspen, COP, absorption, ammonia, refrigeration, simulation, water

N. A. Darwish; S. H. Al-Hashimi; A. S. Al-Mansoori

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

Cassano, A.A.

1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

20

A New Absorption Cycle: The Single-Effect Regenerative Absoprtion Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I r;,.foO REGENERATIVE ABSORPTION Y- Wz Z .lW U t- o 0:I:I I I /f I I I ~~-/5f=- - - - ABSORPTION .c:::. ." ." ,,,"l e lR (regene r ative absorption) using NH3/H20 mixture s .

Dao, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Performance analysis of an absorption power cycle for ocean thermal energy conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An absorption power cycle with two ejectors is proposed for ocean thermal energy conversion. The ammonia–water is used as the working fluid. The ejectors are driven by vapor and solution from the sub-generator. Based on the first and second law, the mathematical model for this cycle is developed and theoretical analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of thermodynamic parameters on the performance of this cycle. Results show that the absorption temperature is increased by 2.0–6.5 °C by employing the two-stage ejector sub-cycle, which indicates that this proposed cycle can be driven with a lower temperature difference. Further, the thermal efficiency, net thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of this cycle can reach to 4.17%, 3.10% and 39.92% respectively. Besides, the generation pressure, the heating source temperature, the solution concentration, and the expansion ratio, as well as the entrainment ratio of the first stage ejector have significant effects on the absorption temperature, the thermal efficiency, the exergy efficiency and the exergy loss of this cycle. In addition, 49.80% of exergy loss in this proposed cycle occurs in the generators and reheater, followed by the ejectors of 36.12%.

Han Yuan; Ning Mei; Peilin Zhou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Thomas W. Lion; Rosalind J. Allen

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

23

Osmosis with active solutes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution - i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.

Lion, Thomas W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Report assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. It provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption.

25

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was used to calculate the PWC of the system for annual operating hours of 8760 and the same is compared with the electric based vapour compression chiller (VCRS) of same capacity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of waste heat operated absorption chiller...

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Observations on Buoyant Convection in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations on Buoyant Convection in Reverse Osmosis ... Buoyancy Effects in Dead-End Reverse Osmosis:? Visualization by Holographic Interferometry ... Buoyancy Effects in Dead-End Reverse Osmosis:? Visualization by Holographic Interferometry ...

Terry J. Hendricks; Jean F. Macquin; Forman A. Williams

1972-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Hollow-Fiber Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hollow-fiber membranes for reverse osmosis desalination are typically of the dense wall ... compact modules and further improve the economics of reverse osmosis desalination.

Mark E. Cohen; Michael A. Grable; Billy M. Riggleman

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Sandia National Laboratories: reverse osmosis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reverse osmosis ECIS-UNM: Biomimetic Membranes for Water Purification On February 20, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Energy Efficiency, Facilities, Global Climate &...

29

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Dynamic Model: H2S Absorption/Stripping, Water?Gas Shift Reactors, and CO2 Absorption/Stripping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Dynamic Model: H2S Absorption/Stripping, Water?Gas Shift Reactors, and CO2 Absorption/Stripping ... Future chemical plants may be required to have much higher flexibility and agility than existing process facilities in order to be able to handle new hybrid combinations of power and chemical units. ...

Patrick J. Robinson; William L. Luyben

2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

30

Multi-pressure absorption cycles in solar refrigeration:: A technical and economical study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technical and economical study of regenerative absorption chillers with multi-pressure cycle has been undertaken as solar operated refrigeration systems. Referred to as advanced absorption chillers they represent one of the new technology options that are under development. Advanced absorption cooling technology offers the possibility of chillers with thermal \\{COPs\\} of 1.5 or greater at driving temperatures of 140°C, which reduces the collector area and the heat rejection requirements compared to current absorption cooling technology. Two different absorption systems have been considered. The first is an advanced, double-effect regenerative absorption cooling system, driven at 140°C, whose efficiency is about 55% of the Carnot efficiency. The second is an ideal, single-effect regenerative absorption system that achieves 70% of the Carnot efficiency driven at 140°C or 200°C. To evaluate the solar performance of a thermally driven chiller requires a separate analysis of the solar availability for a given location compared to the required monthly average solar input. In this analysis different systems, including the vapour compression chillers, have been compared in terms of the thermal and electrical energy input. An effective electrical COP may be computed assuming that the ratio of electrical energy cost to thermal energy cost is four, which is typical of today’s fossil fuel costs. The effective electrical \\{COPs\\} of different technical options can then be compared. Those systems with higher electrical \\{COPs\\} will have lower energy costs. If solar is to be competitive, then the cost of delivered solar thermal energy should be less than the cost of delivered fossil thermal energy.

Shahab Alizadeh

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

An Analysis of the Economic and Financial Life-Cycle Costs of Reverse-Osmosis Desalination in South Texas: A Case Study of the Southmost Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desalination provides a supply alternative for potable water for many communities, along with possible defenses against security threats potentially affecting clean water supplies. The economic and financial life-cycle costs associated with building...

Sturdivant, A.; Rister, M.; Rogers, C.; Lacewell, R.; Norris, J.; Leal, J.; Garza, J.; Adams, J.

32

Osmosis Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Osmosis Capital Osmosis Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name Osmosis Capital Place London, United Kingdom Zip EC4M 9DN Sector Carbon Product An investment firm seeking low carbon economy opportunity investments through its Osmosis Capital Fund. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

33

Microporous glasses for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The preparation, heat-treatment and leaching of phase separable borosilicate glasses which are of interest as possible semipermeable membranes for reverse osmosis applications are described. It is shown that ... ...

P. W. McMillan; C. E. Matthews

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

SciTech Connect

This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

35

Properly apply reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technique used to reduce the loading of dissolved solids in solution. The popularity of RO for treating boiler feedwater is growing because of the rising cost of ion-exchange-based demineralization as well as safety concerns associated with handling acid and caustic. A properly designed and operated RO-based boiler-feedwater-treatment system can reduce the load to, and costs associated with, ion exchange demineralization. This article discusses RO feedwater quality recommendations, pretreatment techniques, and system monitoring necessary to achieve optimum RO system performance in the most cost-effective manner. Regardless of the application--whether it is the treatment of boiler feedwater, industrial wastewater, or process water--the approach to pretreatment and the other design and operating guidance offered here remains the same.

Kucera, J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Optimization of a solar powered absorption cycle under Abu Dhabi's weather conditions  

SciTech Connect

In order for the solar absorption air conditioners to become a real alternative to the conventional vapour compression systems, their performance has to be improved and their total cost has to be reduced. A solar powered absorption cycle is modeled using the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) program and Typical Meteorological Year 2 data of Abu Dhabi. It uses evacuated tube collectors to drive a 10 kW ammonia-water absorption chiller. Firstly, the system performance and its total cost are optimized separately using single objective optimization algorithms. The design variables considered are: the collector slope, the collector mass flow rate, the collector area and the storage tank volume. The single objective optimization results show that MATLAB global optimization methods agree with the TRNSYS optimizer. Secondly, MATLAB is used to solve a multi-objective optimization problem to improve the system's performance and cost, simultaneously. The optimum designs are presented using Pareto curve and show the potential improvements of the baseline system. (author)

Al-Alili, A.; Hwang, Y.; Radermacher, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Kubo, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

On the potential of forward osmosis to energetically outperform reverse osmosis desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We provide a comparison of the theoretical and actual energy requirements of forward osmosis and reverse osmosis seawater desalination. We argue that reverse osmosis is significantly more energy efficient and that forward osmosis research efforts would best be fully oriented towards alternate applications. The underlying reason for the inefficiency of forward osmosis is the draw-dilution step, which increases the theoretical and actual energy requirements for draw regeneration. As a consequence, for a forward osmosis technology to compete with reverse osmosis, the regeneration process must be significantly more efficient than reverse osmosis. However, even considering the optimisation of the draw solution and the benefits of reduced fouling during regeneration, the efficiency of an optimal draw regeneration process and of reverse osmosis are unlikely to differ significantly, meaning the energy efficiency of direct desalination with reverse osmosis is likely to be superior.

Ronan K. McGovern; John H. Lienhard V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Concentrating Fruit Juices by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The difference between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration lies principally in the retention ... able to retain protein-sized molecules, whereas reverse osmosis membranes retain lower molecular weight solutes suc...

R. L. Merson; G. Paredes; D. B. Hosaka

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Modelling Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After a brief presentation of the principal kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the theory of reverse osmosis, the present review examines various physicochemical mechanisms of the selectivity of membranes with respect to electrolyte solutions: the electrochemical mechanism, related to the charge of the pore surface; the dielectric exclusion of ions, due to image forces; and the structural mechanism, due to the change in the properties of water in fine hydrophilic pores. Methods for calculating the changes in the standard chemical potentials of ions on entering the membrane phase, and the effects of the Donnan exclusion of ions with allowance for the different charge of the membrane have been described. It has been concluded that it is appropriate to use charged membranes to separate electrolyte solutions at low concentrations. The problem of the transport of solutions through the fine pores of membranes has been formulated, taking account of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the ions, their mobility, the charge of the membrane, and the phenomenon of concentration polarisation. Routes to the further development of the theory as applied to membranes of different types, different compositions, and solution concentrations have been discussed. The bibliography contains 84 references.

S S Dukhin; Nikolai V Churaev; V N Shilov; Viktor M Starov

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Reverse Osmosis for the Separation of Organics from Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reverse osmosis (RO) has proved reliable and economically ... such effluents often contain organics as solvents. Reverse osmosis is very suitable for the treatment of... Its mod...

R. Rautenbach; I. Janisch

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Boundary-Layer Effects in Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Boundary-Layer Effects in Reverse Osmosis ... In FO, water is extracted from a feed solution using the high osmotic pressure of a hypertonic solution that flows on ... ...

Ulrich Merten; H. K. Lonsdale; R. L. Riley

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Forward osmosis dialysate production using spiral-wound reverse-osmosis membrane elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Presented here is an analysis of a method by which a spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) membrane element may be used in forward osmosis (FO) mode to produce dialysate fluid for medical treatment. In this method, dialysate is produced from the draw-side of an FO process by carefully controlling the output concentration, managing the accumulation of salt in the closed, feed-side membrane envelope and using osmotic backwashing to recover the membrane. The analysis shows that a high-quality, spiral-wound, polyamide 4040 RO membrane element may be used to produce un-buffered dialysate when supplied with brackish groundwater and dialysate concentrate. Production is possible for a short period before the membrane needs to be osmotically backwashed to remove accumulated salt. By alternating between production and backwashing cycles, a pair of high-quality 4040 elements may produce dialysate at a rate high enough to enable continuous haemodialysis treatment. The low-cost, compact nature of standard RO elements makes them suitable for water and energy-efficient FO applications. The method proposed here exploits the features of standard RO elements to enable their application in Australian desert regions, where water supplies are slightly brackish and where rates of kidney failure and dialysis treatment are relatively high.

M.C. Smith; K.J. Reynolds

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Thermodynamic analysis of a stand-alone reverse osmosis desalination system powered by pressure retarded osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a methodology is developed to assess the feasibility of a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system powered by a stand-alone salinity driven pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) technology. First, the proposed hybrid RO–PRO system is analysed as a thermodynamic cycle and its feasibility is mathematically interpreted using a feasible condition (FC) number, several dimensionless operational variables and a number of constraints to represent the objective of zero brine discharge. Then, a study of the stand-alone feasibility of a hybrid seawater RO–PRO system is carried out. The results show that lower RO water recovery and higher dimensionless flow rate improve the stand-alone feasibility of the system. A subsystem, a look inside the PRO, is developed to study the applied pressure and the required membrane area to achieve the operations with optimum FC numbers. It is found that the optimum applied hydraulic pressure is inversely proportional to the dimensionless flow rate in the feasible range of stand-alone operations and more area of membrane is required by a larger FC number. Finally, a case study of a selected operation is presented based on its energy performance, and two influencing factors, the inefficiency of the components and the salinity concentration of the feed water.

Wei He; Yang Wang; Adel Sharif; Mohammad Hasan Shaheed

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deposit Control for Reverse Osmosis Systems , Technicalon Colloidal Fouling in Reverse Osmosis and NanofiltrationSiO 2 ) Scaling for Reverse Osmosis , ASTM Designation D

Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Thermodynamic modelling of a double-effect LiBr-H2O absorption refrigeration cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The goal of this paper is to estimate the conductance of components required to achieve the approach temperatures, and gain insights into a double-effect absorption chiller using LiBr-H2O solution as the working ...

A. Iranmanesh; M. A. Mehrabian

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Reverse osmosis desalination: Modeling and experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytic model for the performance of reverse osmosis desalination systems is derived. Predictions are shown to agree well with extensive measurements conducted on a commercial multistage reverse osmosis desalination unit over a broad range of operating conditions. The model allows a transparent understanding of the dependence of system performance on key design and operating variables. Identifying the characteristic flow rate and length scale of reverse osmosis systems allows a universal description of the variation of the permeate flow rate and recovery factor with the salinity flow rate and pressure of the feedwater.

Naum Fraidenraich; Olga C. Vilela; Gilmário A. Lima; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Landfill Leachate Treatment by Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leachate from landfill sites represents a highly polluted waste water. It containes biodegradable compounds but also inorganic salts and trace recalcitrant pollutants. The reverse osmosis process with or without ...

B. Weber; F. Holz

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Journal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 7087 Forward osmosis: Principles, applications, and recent developments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reverse osmosis applications, the interests in engineered applications of osmosis has been spurred; Direct osmosis; Desalination; Reverse osmosis; Pressure-retarded osmosis Contents 1. IntroductionJournal of Membrane Science 281 (2006) 70­87 Review Forward osmosis: Principles, applications

49

Concentration of ultrafiltered benzylpenicillin broths by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Concentration of benzylpenicillin filtered broths purified by ultrafiltration and fermented broths clarified by ultrafiltration was carried out by reverse osmosis. This study was done using a reverse osmosis l...

A. M. A. Nabais; J. P. Cardoso

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Integration of reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization for sodium sulphate recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization are evaluated in this work as stand-alone and integrated technologies for the recovery of Na2SO4 from aqueous solutions. When SO2 is removed from flue gases by absorption in an aqueous solution and reacts with NaOH, a reusable product (i.e., Na2SO4) of industrial interest can be obtained. For stand-alone reverse osmosis, the effect of the concentration of the feed solution and pressure is studied. For membrane crystallization, the influence of the concentration and flow rate of the feed and osmotic solutions on the process performance has been determined. The characterization of the obtained crystals shows that Na2SO4·10H2O is obtained. From the experimental results, the potential for integration of reverse osmosis and membrane crystallization is simulated. It was concluded that using a reverse osmosis unit prior to the membrane crystallization unit minimizes the total membrane area in comparison with the stand-alone processes.

Wenqi Li; Bart Van der Bruggen; Patricia Luis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks  

SciTech Connect

The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Purication of reghting water containing a uorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purication of reghting water containing a uorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled. Reverse osmosis of pretreated pilot reghting water and concentrated model solutions of pretreated reghting. The concentrate from reverse osmosis could be recycled in electrocoagulation-ltration. Experimental results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Ethanol separation from molasses based fermentation broth by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Irradiated styrene-grafted cellulose acetate membrane was used for the separation of ethanol by reverse osmosis. Ethanol separation from molasses based fermentation broth...

J. P. Choudhury; P. Ghosh; B. K. Guha

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Structures of cellulose acetate membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies under the scanning electron microscope have shown that the cellulose acetate membranes used for reverse osmosis are high-molecular-weight condensation structures of...

I. N. Vlodavets; G. Z. Nefedova…

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993  

SciTech Connect

This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Reverse osmosis desalination with osmotic polyelectrolyte intermediate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

degree of, '8'~STER O"' SCIENCE '!ay ISS7 Nejo? Subje". t: IiI EQICAE ENO& NEERINC REVERSE OSMOSIS DESALINATION WITH OSMOTIC POLYELECTROLYTE INTERMEDIATE A Thesis By THOMAS THEODORE McCONNELL Approved as to style and content by: airman o... , . . . . . . . . . . 91 Calculated Permeability Coefficients of Mem- branes Using Equation (42) Calculated Desalination Ratio from Equation (34) and Weight Per Cent Rejection from Equa- tion (45) for a 3. 5 Weight Per Cent Sodium Chloride Bulk Solution 92 94 Table...

McConnell, Thomas Theodore

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment.

Polidoroff, C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Energy-efficient reverse osmosis desalination process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel energy-efficient reverse osmosis (EERO) process is proposed for which the retentate from single-stage reverse osmosis (SSRO) serves as the feed to a countercurrent membrane cascade with recycle (CMCR). The 3-stage EERO process employs two, whereas the 4-stage EERO process employs three stages in the CMCR. The EERO process is advantageous because of four features: (i) coupling SSRO with a CMCR; (ii) countercurrent retentate and permeate flow; (iii) permeate recycling; and (iv) retentate self-recycling owing to the use of one or more nanofiltration stages. The EERO process was compared to conventional SSRO for both processes operating at the thermodynamic limit and employing an energy-recovery device. For the same overall recovery the osmotic pressure differential is reduced by 33% and 50% relative to SSRO for the 3- and 4-stage ERRO processes, respectively. There is a critical recovery above which the EERO process also can reduce the specific energy consumption (SEC) relative to SSRO for the same recovery. For a typical seawater feed of 35 g/L the 3-stage EERO process can achieve a 75% recovery at a net SEC of 2.746 kWh/m3, an 11.0% reduction in the SEC relative to SSRO for the same recovery. The 4-stage EERO process can achieve a 75% recovery at the same net SEC as SSRO (3.086 kWh/m3). Accounting for the additional membrane area required for the EERO process increases its cost relative to that for SSRO by at most 8%. An additional benefit of the EERO process relative to SSRO is the highly concentrated retentate that reduces the brine disposal volume or can be used to greatly increase the draw potential to harvest its osmotic potential energy via the pressure-retarded osmosis process.

Tzyy Haur Chong; Siew-Leng Loo; William B. Krantz

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Changes in Root Surface Area, Nutrient Absorption Activity, and Root Carbohydrate Concentration during Crop Cycles of Rosa hybrida  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA 2 Protected Horticulture Experiment Station National Horticulture over such crop cycles under conditions of high or low light. A sequential harvest experiment. Plant RSA did not change significantly during the high light crop cycle and averaged 14400 cm2 plant-1

Lieth, J. Heinrich

60

Reverse osmosis reverses conventional wisdom with Superfund cleanup success  

SciTech Connect

Although widely recognized as the most efficient means of water purification, reverse osmosis has not been considered effective for remediating hazardous wastewater. Scaling and fouling, which can cause overruns and downtime, and require membrane replacement, have inhibited success in high-volume wastewater applications. Despite this background, a reverse osmosis technology developed in Europe recently was used successfully to treat large volumes of contaminated water at a major Superfund site in Texas. The technology's success there may increase the chances for reverse osmosis to find wider use in future cleanups and other waste treatment applications.

Collins, M. (French Ltd. Task Group, Crosby, TX (United States)); Miller, K. (Rochem Environmental Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Biphase turbine for reverse osmosis desalination. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new hydraulic reaction turbine was designed to recover the power available in the high-pressure waste-brine stream of reverse osmosis desalination systems. A reaction turbine sized for reverse-osmosis systems producing 600 gph was built and tested. The turbine performed well driving either a variable-speed pump or an electrical generator. Measured turbine efficiency (shaft power divided by available power) was 63%, compared with a prediction of 67%. The turbine can be built with larger capacity to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of reverse osmosis desalination systems. Efficiency of larger units is predicted to lie in the range of 65 to 70%.

Limburg, P.L.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Forward with Osmosis: Emerging Applications for Greater Sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Forward with Osmosis: Emerging Applications for Greater Sustainability ... Menachem Elimelech is the Roberto Goizueta Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at Yale University and a World Class University Professor at Korea University in Seoul, Korea. ...

Laura A. Hoover; William A. Phillip; Alberto Tiraferri; Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

63

Experimental investigation of induced-charge electro-osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the general phenomenon of induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO), nonlinear electro-osmotic slip generated when an electric field acts on its own induced charge around a polarizable surface, in the context of ...

Levitan, Jeremy Asher, 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Development of Robust Organosilica Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of Robust Organosilica Membranes for Reverse Osmosis ... polyamide was also reversible, in other words, the N-chlorinated intermediate could be regenerated to initial amide with the alk. ...

Rong Xu; Jinhui Wang; Masakoto Kanezashi; Tomohisa Yoshioka; Toshinori Tsuru

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The benefits of hybridising electrodialysis with reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A cost analysis reveals that hybridisation of electrodialysis with reverse osmosis is only justified if the cost of water from the reverse osmosis unit is less than 40% of that from a stand-alone electrodialysis system. In such cases the additional reverse osmosis costs justify the electrodialysis cost savings brought about by shifting salt removal to higher salinity, where current densities are higher and equipment costs lower. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that a simple hybrid configuration is more cost effective than a recirculated hybrid, a simple hybrid being one where the reverse osmosis concentrate is fed to the electrodialysis stack and the products from both units are blended, and a recirculated being one hybrid involving recirculation of the electrodialysis product back to the reverse osmosis unit. The underlying rationale is that simple hybridisation shifts salt removal away from the lowest salinity zone of operation, where salt removal is most expensive. Further shifts in the salinity at which salt is removed, brought about by recirculation, do not justify the associated increased costs of reverse osmosis.

Ronan K. McGovern; Syed M. Zubair; John H. Lienhard V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Reverse osmosis concentrate treatment by a PAC countercurrent four-stage adsorption/MF hybrid process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, in order to reduce the impact of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) on the receiving body of water and/or improve the recovery rate of reverse osmosis (RO) system by reusing the treated ROC as a feeding, a powdered activated carbon (PAC) countercurrent four-stage adsorption/MF hybrid process was developed for organic removal from ROC. The process could achieve good organic removal at lower PAC consumption. For dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal efficiency of 70.0%, the PAC dose was 21.6% less than that in countercurrent two-stage adsorption and 50.9% less than that in single-stage adsorption. The calculation method for correlating removal efficiency and PAC dose was deduced and validated. The validation result showed that the relative error between the average experimental DOC removal efficiency and the calculated one was less than 5% throughout the experiment, exhibiting good accuracy for the calculation method. Compared with countercurrent two-stage adsorption, the membrane fouling in the new process could be mitigated to a certain extent. The total number of sub-cycles in a cycle (n) influenced the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the total volume of the reactors. Results showed that the HRT increased as n increased.

Xiaozhu Wei; Ping Gu; Guanghui Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants contained in firefighting water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants osmosis efficiently treated the water from fire extinguishment. In this work we focused on the reverse surfactants [1]. Experimental results indicated that electrocoagulation and filtration followed by reverse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

The Use of Reverse Osmosis for the Purification of Coal Gasification Liquors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory trials have been conducted at the Westfield Development Centre to assess the potential of reverse osmosis as a stage in the treatment of ... effluent suitable for sewer or estuary discharge. Reverse osmosis

A. R. Williams

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules  

SciTech Connect

Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube[reg sign] reverse osmosis (RO) module's performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

A comparison of ROChem reverse osmosis and spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules  

SciTech Connect

Testing of the ROChem Disc Tube{reg_sign} reverse osmosis (RO) module`s performance on biologically active feed waters has been completed. Both the ROChem module (using Filmtec standard-rejection seawater membranes) and the Filmtec spiral-wound membrane module (using Filmtec high-rejection seawater membranes) were tested with stimulant solutions containing typical bacteria and metal hydroxide levels found in the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) influent. Results indicate that the ROChem module gave superior performance over the spiral-wound module. Water flux losses were reduced by over 30% for water recoveries above 40%.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

The use of reverse osmosis water for the production of parenterals in the hospital pharmacy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Only theUnited States Pharmacopeia has included reverse osmosis as an approved process for producing ‘Water...

Drs. Ph. Jacobs

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients ... Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to produce renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. ... Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) are emerging membrane-based technologies that can convert chemical energy in salinity gradients to useful work. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Alberto Tiraferri; William A. Phillip; Jessica D. Schiffman; Laura A. Hoover; Yu Chang Kim; Menachem Elimelech

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

74

Removal of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Removal of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes Yu and brackish water reverse osmosis BWRO membranes was evaluated using a bench-scale cross-flow filtration; Osmosis. Introduction The occurrence of nitrosamines in drinking water and their sources Fleming et al

Huang, Ching-Hua

75

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Unexpected new phase detected in FT30 type reverse osmosis membranes using Available online 13 July 2011 Keywords: Reverse osmosis membranes X-ray microscopy Poly phenylene diamine a b s t r a c t FT30 type thin film composite membranes used for reverse osmosis water purification

Hitchcock, Adam P.

76

How solute size and charge influence osmosis James Cannon,, Daejoong Kim, Shigeo Maruyama, and Junichiro Shiomi,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This is particularly the case for applications such as desalination, where membrane-based reverse-osmosis methods haveHow solute size and charge influence osmosis James Cannon,, Daejoong Kim, Shigeo Maruyama@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract Osmosis is fundamental to many processes, such as in the function

Maruyama, Shigeo

77

Characterization of the fouling phenomenon in reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation explores the application of a bench scale reverse osmosis test cell apparatus as a research tool. This versatile system was used to explore the response of a reverse osmosis membrane to various types of feedwaters. As a result of this research, an easy, accurate experimental method for predicting the rejection in any reverse osmosis system has been developed and demonstrated. The dissertation illustrates a simple procedure to identify if a precipitating feedwater solution will foul a reverse osmosis membrane. The research also presents evidence that suggests that the common practice of increasing feed flow rates to clean a membrane may not always be an acceptable method to revive a system. In addition to this information about the RO systems, the dissertation provides insight into the environment around the membrane surface. Statistically significant information about the nature and behavior of the membrane permeation coefficient is presented. Evidence is provided to demonstrate the negative effects on membrane performance of small amounts of grease contamination from the process equipment. Insight into the resistive nature of membranes, boundary layers, and fouling deposits is also presented. Throughout the course of this research, the relationship between concentration polarization and the permeate flux is illustrated. This is done first in the traditional terms of wall concentration, and later in terms of flow resistance. This dissertation also provides an experimental demonstration of both the detachment of a boundary layer from a membrane and the resistive nature of a precipitated fouling layer in a reverse osmosis system.

Barger, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. (Texaco Inc., Bellaire, TX (United States)); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)); Pilger, P.F. (Texaco E and P Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

79

Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Percent yield of reverse osmosis (RO) treatment Percent ROfacilities, such as reverse osmosis reject water from UPWsystems may employ reverse osmosis or reverse osmosis and

Zhang, Teresa Weirui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Integrating solar Organic Rankine Cycle into a coal-fired power plant with amine-based chemical absorption for CO2 capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel system integrating solar Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) into a power plant with amine-based chemical absorption for CO2 capture is proposed. The condensation heat of ORC provides the required heat for solvent regeneration, which avoids the energy penalty caused by the steam extraction traditionally. The cascade utilization of solar energy is realized through a combined supply of power generation and condensation heat. From the aspects of technology and economics, a performance analysis is presented to compare the proposed system and three other systems based on a 300 MWe power plant. The proposed system shows better performance than that of reference systems in the power generation and emission reductions. Economic evaluation was conducted in terms of levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) and cost of CO2 removed (COR). In order to achieve lower LCOE and COR compared to the power plant integrated with solar assisted post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC), the price of ORC has to be lower than 1284.46 USD/kW under the conditions that the price of the solar field is 120 USD/m2. It is believed that the proposed system has a satisfied potential to meet the thermal demand for the solvent regeneration in the power plant with PCC.

Li Zhao; Ruikai Zhao; Shuai Deng; Yuting Tan; Yinan Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics ... Through the use of a salinity gradient, a suction force is created to induce a hydrodynamic flow in the FO submodule based on the principle of FO. ... Kiviat, F. E.Energy Recovery from Saline Water by Means of Electrochemical Cells Science 1976, 194, 719– 720 ...

Yanmei Jiao; Chun Yang; Yuejun Kang

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

82

Concentration of synfuel process condensates by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors will discuss the use of a novel, fouling-resistant, inside-skinned hollow-fiber membrane configuration as an energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative to conventional treatment of synfuel process condensate waters. Reverse osmosis has been used in the past only to polish condensate waters that were first treated by conventional means. In the work described in this paper, a reverse-osmosis system actually replaces traditional biotreatment of condensate waters or replaces the solvent-extraction process in the treatment train. The membranes used in this reverse-osmosis system are capable of rejecting at least 90% of the phenols as well as high percentages of other organics contained in actual process condensate waters. Furthermore, these membranes have operated for several months on synfuel condensate waters and showed no significant decrease in performance. Energy and cost estimates of a reverse-osmosis system based on such membranes will be discussed in detail, including a comparison of operating costs of this system with the operating costs of conventional treatment systems.

McCray, S.B.; Ray, R.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

84

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Natural Convection in a Horizontal Non-Flow-Through Reverse-Osmosis Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Features of the mass transfer in a horizontal non-flow-through reverse-osmosis cell are considered. It is concluded that...

N. B. Kirichenko

86

Removal of Emerging Contaminants in Water Treatment by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The general rules established in abundant studies on removal of conventional pollutants from waters by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration were reconsidered in this contribution...

Branko Kunst; Krešimir Košuti?

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Studies on the reverse osmosis treatment of uranyl nitrate solution  

SciTech Connect

The aqueous effluent generated in uranium processing, particularly in the nuclear fuel fabrication step, contains mainly uranium nitrate. This requires treatment before discharge into the environment to meet stringent standards. This paper presents the performance of cellulose acetate membranes with regard to rejection of uranium under reverse osmotic conditions for feed concentrations up to 200 mg/l of uranium, which corresponds to the levels normally prevalent in the effluents. The use of additives like the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium sulfate for the improvement of reverse osmosis performance of the above membranes was also investigated. In the light of the experimental results, the suitability of reverse osmosis for the decontamination of uranium effluents is discussed.

Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, P.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Treatment of produced waters by electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Two oil field produced waters and one coal bed methane produced water from Wyoming were treated with electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis. All three produced waters would require treatment to meet the new Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality requirements for effluent discharge into a class III or IV stream. The removal of radium 226 and oil and grease was the primary focus of the study. Radium 226 and oil and grease were removed from the produced waters with electrocoagulation. The best removal of radium 226 (>84%) was achieved with use of a non-sacrificial anode (titanium). The best removal of oil and grease (>93%) was achieved using a sacrificial anode (aluminum). By comparison, reverse osmosis removed up to 87% of the total dissolved solids and up to 95% of the radium 226.

Tuggle, K.; Humenick, M.; Barker, F.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Osmosis, colligative properties, entropy, free energy and the chemical potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A diffusive model of osmosis is presented that explains currently available experimental data. It makes predictions that distinguish it from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis, some of which have already been confirmed experimentally and others have yet to be tested. It also provides a simple kinetic explanation of Raoult's law and the colligative properties of dilute aqueous solutions. The diffusive model explains that when a water molecule jumps from low to high osmolarity at equilibrium, the free energy change is zero because the work done pressurizing the water molecule is balanced by the entropy of mixing. It also explains that equal chemical potentials are required for particle exchange equilibrium in analogy with the familiar requirement of equal temperatures at thermal equilibrium.

Peter Hugo Nelson

2014-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

90

High solute rejecting membranes for reverse osmosis: Polyetheramide hydrazide  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of benzhydrazide polymers and determination of reverse osmosis properties of their membranes were reported earlier. Their performance was not adequate for seawater desalination or for high radioactive decontamination factors (DF). The same hydrazide polymers modified by incorporation of additional monomers with ether linkages were synthesized by low temperature polycondensation of freshly prepared m-amino benzhydrazide, p-amino benzhydrazide, and 4,4{prime}-diamino diphenyl ether, with isophthaloyl chloride and terephthaloyl chloride in dimethyl acetamide solvent. A series of film-forming polymers prepared by altering the molar ratios of the reacting monomers were characterized in terms of percent moisture regain, inherent viscosity, solubility parameters, and interfacial sorption characteristics. Asymmetric membranes prepared from these polymer samples were characterized in terms of the pure water permeability constant and the solute transport parameter, and were tested for their reverse osmosis performance. An optimum mole ratio of reaching monomers has been identified for the synthesis of polymer and the resulting membrane offered the best performance for reverse osmosis (salt rejection as high as 99.4% for 3.5% sodium chloride solution). The incorporation of aromatic ether linkages in the polyamide benzhydrazide polymeric chains appears to alter the polar and nonpolar character of the bulk polymer, and also the membrane solution interface characteristics, resulting in enhanced solute separation. These membranes appear to be potential candidates for single-stage seawater desalination and also for a variety of industrial effluent treatment applications for significantly high DF radioactive effluent treatment.

Bindal, R.C.; Ramachandhran, V.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

The design of a controllable energy recovery device for solar powered reverse osmosis desalination with experimental validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to design and validate a controllable energy recovery device with application to photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis (PVRO). The energy consumption of a reverse osmosis plant depends significantly ...

Reed, Elizabeth Anne, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Adsorption of small organic solutes from beet distillery condensates on reverse-osmosis membranes: consequences on the process performances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Adsorption of small organic solutes from beet distillery condensates on reverse-osmosis membranes 93 50 95. Fax: +33 (0)1 69 93 50 44. E-mail: claire.fargues@agroparistech.fr Abstract Reverse osmosis of Membrane Science 446 (2013) 132-144" DOI : 10.1016/j.memsci.2013.05.051 #12;2 Keywords: reverse osmosis

Boyer, Edmond

93

A Comprehensive Bench-and Pilot-Scale Investigation of Trace Or-ganic Compound Rejection by Forward Osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sea- water desalination, multi-barrier protection of drinking water, reduction in reverse osmosis seawater on the way to a seawater reverse osmosis pro- cess. The rejection of wastewater constituents by Forward Osmosis SUPPORTING INFORMATION Nathan T. Hancock1 , Pei Xu1 , Dean M. Heil1 , Christopher Bellona2

94

Some Results Bearing on the Value of Improvements of Membranes for Reverse Osmosis  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates the potential economic benefits that could result from the improvements in the permeability of membranes for reverse osmosis. The discussion provides a simple model of the operation of a reverse osmosis plant. It examines the change in the operation that might result from improvements in the membrane and computes the cost of water as a function of the membrane permeability.

Lamont, A

2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

95

Design, economic analysis and environmental considerations of mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas  

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This paper discusses the design process of a mini-grid hybrid power system with reverse osmosis desalination plant for remote areas, together with an economic analysis and environmental considerations for the project life cycle. It presents a design scenario for supplying electricity and fulfilling demand for clean water in remote areas by utilising renewable energy sources and a diesel generator with a reverse osmosis desalination plant as a deferrable load. The economic issues analysed are the initial capital cost needed, the fuel consumption and annual cost, the total net present cost (NPC), the cost of electricity (COE) generated by the system per kWh and the simple payback time (SPBT) for the project. The environmental considerations discussed are the amount of gas emissions, such as CO2 and NOx, as well as particulate matter released into the atmosphere. Simulations based on an actual set of conditions in a remote area in the Maldives were performed using HOMER for two conditions: before and after the Tsunami of 26th December 2004. Experimental results on the prototype 5 kVA mini-grid inverter and reverse osmosis desalination plant, rated at 5.5 kWh/day, are also presented here to verify the idea of providing power and water supplies to remote areas.

Ahmad Agus Setiawan; Yu Zhao; Chem. V. Nayar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Reverse osmosis for removing synthetic organics from drinking water: a cost and performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis for removing organic compounds from drinking water has considerable promise. Bench and pilot plant studies on actual waters have shown that several organics proposed for regulation can be removed by reverse osmosis. As membrane technology improves, rejection of more difficult to remove compounds is expected to improve. Also, smaller volumes of concentrate are expected to be produced that can be handled more cost-effectively. One major concern with the use of reverse osmosis is concentrate disposal, which may increase the overall cost of treatment and disposal. The cost of reverse osmosis is very sensitive to such factors as recovery, economies of scale, systems configuration, membrane type, and electric power cost. In certain situations, reverse osmosis is a viable treatment option that is not cost-prohibitive.

Lykins, B.W.; Clark, R.M.; Fronk, C.A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Fast reverse osmosis using boron nitride and carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate reverse osmosis through commonly used polymeric and advanced inorganic nanotube based semipermeable membranes by performing nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations indicate that there is a significantly higher water flux through boron-nitride nanotube (BNNT) and carbon nanotube(CNT) compared to a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) pore and a slightly higher water flux through BNNT as compared to CNT. The calculated permeation coefficient is in reasonable agreement with the theoretical single-file “hopping” model. Potential of mean force analysis indicates that the irregular nature of PMMA pore surface can cause significant localized energy barriers inside the pore thereby reducing the water flux.

M. E. Suk; A. V. Raghunathan; N. R. Aluru

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A comparison of reverse osmosis membrane cleaning methods  

SciTech Connect

Testing was conducted at TNX to evaluate the reverse osmosis (RO) cleaning methods in use at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The present ETF membrane cleaning protocol involves a low-pressure-no-permeation method using NAOH. This work has examined the effectiveness of the present ETF method, due to the lack of improvement following the cleanings sometimes observed. This study has evaluated both low pressure (15--20 psi with no permeation) and high pressure (200 psi with permeation) cleaning methods with sequential cleanings using NAOH and Filmtec Alkaline Cleaner. The importance of the cleaning sequence with these two chemicals was also examined.

Siler, J.L.

1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

99

Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Combined Electrodialysis/Reverse Osmosis. Aquaticby combined electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, most of

Richter, Daniel J.

100

SWITCHABLE POLARITY SOLVENTS AS DRAW SOLUTES FOR FORWARD OSMOSIS  

SciTech Connect

Switchable polarity solvents (SPS), mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and tertiary amines, are presented as viable forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes allowing a novel SPS FO process. In this study substantial osmotic strengths of SPS are measured with freezing point osmometry and were demonstrated to induce competitive ?uxes at high salt concentrations on a laboratory-scale FO unit utilizing a ?at sheet cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane. Under the experimental conditions the SPS degrades the CTA membrane; however experiments with polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes display stability towards SPS. Once the draw is diluted the major fraction of the switchable polarity solvent can be mechanically separated from the puri?ed water after polar to nonpolar phase shift induced by introduction of 1 atm carbon dioxide to 1 atm of air or nitrogen with mild heating. Trace amounts of SPS can be removed from the separated water with RO in a process that avoids solution concentration polarization. The separated nonpolar phase can be regenerated to a full strength draw and recycled with the re-addition of 1 atm of carbon dioxide.

Frederick F. Stewart; Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Cathy Rae

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Exergy analysis of a novel air-cooled non-adiabatic absorption refrigeration cycle with NH3–NaSCN and NH3–LiNO3 refrigerant solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a methodology of exergy analysis for ammonia-lithium nitrate and ammonia-sodium thiocyanate absorption refrigeration cycle which applies a novel air-cooled type non-adiabatic absorber to improve both the coefficient of performance and exegetic efficiency of the system under air cooling condition. A modified entropy calculation method for NH3/NaSCN and NH3/LiNO3 solutions is presented in this literature and different results are obtained comparing to previous research. In addition to the variation of solution temperature and pressure from specific working state to the reference state, the variation of solution concentration, which was always neglected by previous researchers in ammonia/salt solution exergy calculation, has been taken into account while analyzing the least potential of ammonia/salt solution for doing useful work, and a corresponding approach for specific exergy calculation is presented. The effects of generator temperature, absorber outlet temperature, absorber efficiency and other system parameters on system exergetic efficiency have been discussed in this study. Analysis results indicate that relatively high system performance can be obtained by air-cooled type ammonia/salt absorption refrigeration cycles when non-adiabatic absorbers are applied in these systems.

Dehua Cai; Guogeng He; Qiqi Tian; Weier Tang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A reverse osmosis treatment process for produced water: optimization, process control, and renewable energy application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resources (wind and solar) are analyzed as potential power sources for the process, and an overview of reverse osmosis membrane fouling is presented. A computer model of the process was created using a dynamic simulator, Aspen Dynamics, to determine energy...

Mareth, Brett

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

103

Performance Limiting Effects in Power Generation from Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

104

Thermodynamic and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Power Generation from Natural Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

105

Water purification of nitrates by low-pressure reverse osmosis method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper has investigated possibilities and basic regularities of water purification of nitrates by low pressure reverse osmosis. The negative influence of chlorides and sulfates ... made on expediency of using ...

V. V. Goncharuk; V. O. Osipenko…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

A Case Study of Reverse Osmosis Applied to the Concentration of Yeast Effluent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1986 PCI Membrane Systems installed a reverse osmosis plant to concentrate an effluent arising from...2 of membrane area. The membrane was a thin film composite membrane designated AFC99.

Alan Merry

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A reverse osmosis laboratory plant for experimenting with fault-tolerant control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A test bed for research and teaching in fault-tolerant control (FTC) systems is presented. The laboratory plant is based on an industrial reverse osmosis desalination plant equipped with standardized components, which introduces more realism and robustness ...

A. Gambier; T. Miksch; E. Badreddin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Removal of organic and inorganic compounds from landfill leachate using reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this work was to evaluate an effectiveness of removing organic and inorganic pollutants from landfill leachate in a long-term reverse osmosis (RO) study. Investigations were carried out...4 ...

I. A. Talalaj

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

The heat resistance of bacterial spores due to their partial dehydration by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability of bacterial spores to withstand heat is known to be associated with a lowering of their water content. This partial dehydration is considered to be produced by reverse osmosis, with the pressure bein...

John E. Algie

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Reverse-Osmosis Filtration Based Water Treatment and Special Water Purification for Nuclear Power Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the development and operation of specialized water treatment and water purification systems, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis filtration of water, for the operation of ... P. Ale...

V. N. Epimakhov; M. S. Oleinik; L. N. Moskvin

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Nanofiltration/reverse osmosis for treatment of coproduced waters  

SciTech Connect

Current high oil and gas prices have lead to renewed interest in exploration of nonconventional energy sources such as coal bed methane, tar sand, and oil shale. However oil and gas production from these nonconventional sources has lead to the coproduction of large quantities of produced water. While produced water is a waste product from oil and gas exploration it is a very valuable natural resource in the arid Western United States. Thus treated produced water could be a valuable new source of water. Commercially available nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis membranes have been used to treat three produced waters. The results obtained here indicate that the permeate could be put to beneficial uses such as crop and livestock watering. However minimizing membrane fouling will be essential for the development of a practical process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging may be used to observe membrane fouling.

Mondal, S.; Hsiao, C.L.; Wickramasinghe, S.R. [Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Reverse osmosis separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents  

SciTech Connect

A reverse osmosis process has been found to be effective for the separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents in a uranium metal plant. Pilot-plant-scale experiments were conducted using cellulosic membranes in a plate module system and actual plant effluents containing more than about 40,000 ppm of ammonium and nitrate species and having radiocontaminants corresponding to specific activities of about 10[sup [minus]3] Ci/m[sup 3] beta/gamma emitters. The results indicated that more than 95% by volume of the treated effluents were within disposal limits, while the remaining contained the concentrate, which can be treated for possible containment. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Roy, S.B.; Meghal, A.M.; Mukherjee, T.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Molecular dynamics study of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane.  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the properties of an atomic model of an aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membrane. The monomers forming the polymeric membrane are cross-linked progressively on the basis of a heuristic distance criterion during MD simulations until the system interconnectivity reaches completion. Equilibrium MD simulations of the hydrated membrane are then used to determine the density and diffusivity of water within the membrane. Given a 3 MPa pressure differential and a 0.125 {micro}m width membrane, the simulated water flux is calculated to be 1.4 x 10{sup -6} m/s, which is in fair agreement with an experimental flux measurement of 7.7 x 10{sup -6} m/s.

Harder, E.; Walters, D. E.; Bodnar, Y. D.; Faibish, R. S.; Roux, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Univ. of Chicago); (Rosalind Franklin Univ. of Medicine and Science)

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems.

R. Valladares Linares; Z. Li; S. Sarp; Sz.S. Bucs; G. Amy; J.S. Vrouwenvelder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Distillation and by Reverse Osmosis - Trends Towards theReliabilityFirst Corporation Reverse Osmosis Steam Assistedwater through reverse osmosis (30). While saline water can

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Influence of Natural Organic Matter Fouling and Osmotic Backwash on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Influence of Natural Organic Matter Fouling and Osmotic Backwash on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Energy Production from Natural Salinity Gradients ... Therefore, SRNOM fouling of porous support in PRO detrimentally constrains the ability of the membrane to convert salinity gradient energy into useful work. ... Other unique areas of forward osmosis research include pressure-retarded osmosis for generation of electricity from saline and fresh water and implantable osmotic pumps for controlled drug release. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

117

Molecular Characterization of the Bacterial Communities in the Different Compartments of a Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Full-Scale Reverse-Osmosis Water Purification Plant Published ahead of print...reverse-osmosis (RO) membrane water purification plant were analyzed by molecular...full-scale membrane-based water purification processes was examined using...

L. A. Bereschenko; G. H. J. Heilig; M. M. Nederlof; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht; A. J. M. Stams; G. J. W. Euverink

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

118

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Forward osmosis :a new approach to water purification and desalination.  

SciTech Connect

Fresh, potable water is an essential human need and thus looming water shortages threaten the world's peace and prosperity. Waste water, brackish water, and seawater have great potential to fill the coming requirements. Unfortunately, the ability to exploit these resources is currently limited in many parts of the world by both the cost of the energy and the investment in equipment required for purification/desalination. Forward (or direct) osmosis is an emerging process for dewatering aqueous streams that might one day help resolve this problem. In FO, water from one solution selectively passes through a membrane to a second solution based solely on the difference in the chemical potential (concentration) of the two solutions. The process is spontaneous, and can be accomplished with very little energy expenditure. Thus, FO can be used, in effect, to exchange one solute for a different solute, specifically chosen for its chemical or physical properties. For desalination applications, the salts in the feed stream could be exchanged for an osmotic agent specifically chosen for its ease of removal, e.g. by precipitation. This report summarizes work performed at Sandia National Laboratories in the area of FO and reviews the status of the technology for desalination applications. At its current state of development, FO will not replace reverse osmosis (RO) as the most favored desalination technology, particularly for routine waters. However, a future role for FO is not out of the question. The ability to treat waters with high solids content or fouling potential is particularly attractive. Although our analysis indicates that FO is not cost effective as a pretreatment for conventional BWRO, water scarcity will likely drive societies to recover potable water from increasingly marginal resources, for example gray water and then sewage. In this context, FO may be an attractive pretreatment alternative. To move the technology forward, continued improvement and optimization of membranes is recommended. The identification of optimal osmotic agents for different applications is also suggested as it is clear that the space of potential agents and recovery processes has not been fully explored.

Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Treatment of low-level radioactive waste liquid by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

The processing of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) liquids that result from operation of nuclear power plants with reverse osmosis systems is not common practice. A demonstration facility is operating at Chalk River Laboratories (of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), processing much of the LLRW liquids generated at the site from a multitude of radioactive facilities, ranging from isotope production through decontamination operations and including chemical laboratory drains. The reverse osmosis system comprises two treatment steps--spiral wound reverse osmosis followed by tubular reverse osmosis--to achieve an average volume reduction factor of 30:1 and a removal efficiency in excess of 99% for most radioactive and chemical species. The separation allows the clean effluent to be discharged without further treatment. The concentrated waste stream of 3 wt% total solids is further processed to generate a solid product. The typical lifetimes of the membranes have been nearly 4000 hours, and replacement was required based on increased pressure drops and irreversible loss of permeate flux. Four years of operating experience with the reverse osmosis system, to demonstrate its practicality and to observe and record its efficiency, maintenance requirements and effectiveness, have proven it to be viable for volume reduction and concentration of LLRW liquids generated from nuclear-power-plant operations.

Buckley, L.P.; Sen Gupta, S.K.; Slade, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Labs.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fouling effects of tri-n-butylphosphate on reverse osmosis performance and techniques for performance recovery  

SciTech Connect

The F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) must be on-line by November 1988 to treat the low level activity wastes presently being discharged to the F- and H- areas' seepage basins. The three main processes of the F/H ETF are filtration, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange. Any dissolved organics present in the F/H ETF's feed have the potential to affect operation of the reverse osmosis system. Earlier studies with F/H ETF feed simulant and 70 volume percent kerosene and 30 volume percent tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) additions showed that the kerosene/TBP mixture results in partial fouling of reverse osmosis membranes. A more detailed analysis of the seepage basin feed has shown that TBP is the major dissolved organic compound. Since it is dissolved (soluble to about 400 ppM at 25{degree}C), TBP will be present in the reverse osmosis feed unless removed by a means other than filtration. Thus the fouling effect of TBP (without kerosene) on reverse osmosis performance was investigated. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Poy, F.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

122

Performance of a 5 kWe Solar-only Organic Rankine Unit Coupled to a Reverse Osmosis Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems are one of the most promising energy conversion technologies available for remote areas and low temperature energy sources. An ORC system works like a conventional Rankine cycle but it uses an organic compound as working fluid, instead of water. A small ORC unit coupled with a solar thermal energy system could be used to convert solar thermal energy into electricity in remote areas, offering an alternative to Photovoltaic (PV) systems to provide the energy required by desalination applications like reverse osmosis (RO). In this work an analysis of the performance of a specific solar desalination ORC system at part load operation is presented, in order to understand its behavior from a thermodynamic perspective and be able to predict the total water production with changing operation conditions. The results showed that water production is around 1.2 m3/h, and it is stable during day and night thanks to the thermal storage and only under bad irradiance circumstances the production would stop.

M. Ibarra; A. Rovira; D.C. Alarcón-Padilla; G. Zaragoza; J. Blanco

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Assessment of an ultrafiltration pre-treatment system for a seawater reverse osmosis plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The seawater reverse osmosis system requires extensive pre-treatment in order to ensure reliable performance. The conventional pre-treatment system involves dosing of chemicals, which requires frequent monitoring of raw water quality, and also involves adjusting the dosage. Besides being cumbersome, there is a lot of time lag involved in carrying out these measures. This calls for pre-treatment systems based on physicochemical mechanisms. During the last few years, Ultrafiltration (UF) has emerged as a leading unit operation in order to render raw seawater compatible with reverse osmosis operations. In this context, the Desalination Division of BARC has already installed an operational UF pre-treatment system. In this paper, we examine the role of UF in the overall operations of the seawater reverse osmosis system.

S.A. Tiwari; D. Goswami; S. Prabhakar; P.K. Tewari

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. These are also called gas-fired coolers. How Absorption Heat Pumps Work Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

125

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

126

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

127

Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part II: system performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work evaluates the seawater feed Reverse Osmosis (RO) preheating system process. In this respect, the basic transport equations, which describe the system elements, are used for determining the performance of the process operating parameters and for assessing the feed preheating process. A seawater membrane, FTSW30HR-380, was used to perform this study. In Part I of the work, the leading element, which governs the whole system, was studied. Also, the limitations of the leading element operating parameters were determined. In the recent work, a computer program is developed using the RO-governing process equations to obtain the system design and projection for the seawater feed preheating assessment, which enabled the determination of the whole system by solving the system elements, one by one. Also, an evaluation of the power needed for freshwater production. The RO system feed preheating is studied for feed temperatures ranging from 15°C to 45°C. The study shows that the permeate salt concentration increases as the feed temperature increases and the system salt rejection decreases. The present study concluded that the permeate productivity decreases with the increase in the feed temperature. Results also show that the product's specific power consumption is dependent on the number of elements used, and energy recovery. In the case of the maximum available number of elements, it is found that the feed temperature increases as the specific power consumption increases, with or without brine pressure energy recovery. However, in the case of a constant number of elements, seven elements, the specific power consumption decreases as the feed temperature increases.

Aly Karameldin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 7, Performance evaluation of the 600-gph reverse osmosis water purification unit (ROWPU): Reverse osmosis (RO) components  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this work is to ascertain whether the performance of the current 600-gph reverse osmosis water-purification unit (ROWPU) is adequate to meet the water-quality standards recommended in Volume 4 of this study. A secondary objective is to review the design of the treatment units used in the ROWPU, as well as the prescribed mode of operation, and to make constructive recommendations. Reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) is a complicated water-treatment process that is not described easily with a few process parameters. Furthermore, published literature on the type of membrane currently used in the ROWPU was scarce. Therefore, we required a mathematical model that could be used to extrapolate existing information to different operating conditions. It was successful for seawater and single-salt solutions, but it proved to be unsuccessful for just any mix of salts that might be encountered in nature. 99 refs., 69 figs., 60 tabs.

Marinas, B.J.; Ungun, Z.; Selleck, R.E.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Characterization of Rio Blanco retort 1 water following treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory research was initiated to evaluate the chemical, physical, and toxicological characteristics of treated and untreated Rio Blanco oil shale retort water. Wet chemical analyses, metals analyses, MICROTOX assays and particle-size analysis were performed on the wastewater before and after treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The reverse osmosis system successfully removed dissolved solids and organics from the wastewater. Based on MICROTOX tests, the water was much less toxic after treatment by reverse osmosis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Kocornik, D.J.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

131

Extension of the evaluation of reverse osmosis for SRC-I wastewater. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis (R.O.) is an integral part of the zero discharge option for the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant. The original laboratory treatability testing program for reverse osmosis failed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this process, due to problems with membrane fouling and deterioration. In that study (1), a high pressure (800 psi) polyether urea membrane for sea water and a low pressure (400 psi) cellulose diacetate membrane for brackish water failed to maintain reasonable TDS rejection rates during flat cell tests. The problem was particularly severe for the high pressure membrane. At the end of the original study, testing was continued on two additional low pressure membranes. One of these was a cellulose diacetate triacetate blend. The other was a new polyaramid membrane, which had only recently become commercially available. This report documents the results of all of the reverse osmosis laboratory tests. The wastewaters used in this study were effluents from bench scale, two-stage bioreactors, followed by tertiary treatment consisting of coagulation, softening, filtration, and granular activated carbon. The investigative program consisted of both immersion and flat cell tests. The results show tht the SRC-I wastewaters are difficult to treat by reverse osmosis with polyether urea or cellulose acetate membranes, and membrane failure was common. However, the new polyaramid membrane was found to be satisfactory when tested with a dephenolated feed stream. After over 1500 hours of continuous flat cell testing, it exhibited a TDS rejection rate of 95%. Based on these preliminary results, reverse osmosis does appear to be a technically feasible approach to achieve zero discharge, assuming the feed stream is dephenolated.

Not Available

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrodialysis/Reverse Osmosis. Aquatic Geochemistry, 16(electrodialysis and reverse osmosis, most of which is in the

Richter, Daniel J.

133

Toward Resource Recovery from Wastewater: Extraction of Phosphorus from Digested Sludge Using a Hybrid Forward Osmosis–Membrane Distillation Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toward Resource Recovery from Wastewater: Extraction of Phosphorus from Digested Sludge Using a Hybrid Forward Osmosis–Membrane Distillation Process ... † Strategic Water Infrastructure Laboratory, School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia ...

Ming Xie; Long D. Nghiem; William E. Price; Menachem Elimelech

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

134

Root Absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Root Absorption Root Absorption Name: Carolyn Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: MY Neice is doing a science fair project on plants. More specifically she needs to know if you water your flowering plants with colored water, does the flower change colors and if so, why? Replies: Dear Carolyn, Dyeing flowers works best on cut stems in water: http://youth.net/nsrc/sci/sci032.html#anchor598182 Title: The Effect Of Color On The Speed Of Dyeing Flowers Some rooted plants can change flower color by altering the soil pH: http://www.cahe.nmsu.edu/pubs/yard/1996/120996.html Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach This sounds like a good question for a science project. I think she should do the project first and get some data and then try to answer the question herself. If she can't figure it out, then she should look for some help.

135

Recycling nickel electroplating rinse waters by low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperature evaporation system was best suited to processing solutions with relatively high (greater than 4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentrations. The reverse osmosis system was best adapted to conditions where the feed solution had a relatively low (less than4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentration. In electroplating operations where relatively dilute rinse water solutions must be concentrated to levels acceptable for replacement in the plating bath, a combination of the two technologies might provide the best process alternative.

Lindsey, T.C.; Randall, P.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the U. S. Patent data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 135 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Reverse osmosis performance with solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect

Tests were conducted to determine whether the reverse osmosis (RO) units at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River could be made to process solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It was desired to test whether operation at a feed pH other than neutral would improve performance. Test results are discussed in this report and indicate that little improvement in the water flux can be expected at other pH values.

Siler, J.L.

1991-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

138

Development of mobile, on-site engine coolant recycling utilizing reverse-osmosis technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the history of the development of self-contained, mobile, high-volume, engine coolant recycling by reverse osmosis (R/O). It explains the motivations, created by government regulatory agencies, to minimize the liability of waste generators who produce waste engine coolant by providing an engine coolant recycling service at the customer`s location. Recycling the used engine coolant at the point of origin minimizes the generators` exposure to documentation requirements, liability, and financial burdens by greatly reducing the volume of used coolant that must be hauled from the generator`s property. It describes the inherent difficulties of recycling such a highly contaminated, inconsistent input stream, such as used engine coolant, by reverse osmosis. The paper reports how the difficulties were addressed, and documents the state of the art in mobile R/O technology. Reverse osmosis provides a purified intermediate fluid that is reinhibited for use in automotive cooling systems. The paper offers a review of experiences in various automotive applications, including light-duty, medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles operating on many types of fuel. The authors conclude that mobile embodiments of R/O coolant recycling technology provide finished coolants that perform equivalently to new coolants as demonstrated by their ability to protect vehicles from freezing, corrosion damage, and other cooling system related problems.

Kughn, W. [Toxguard Fluid Technologies, Irvine, CA (United States). CEO; Eaton, E.R. [Penray Companies, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Cross flow filtration for radwaste applications reverse osmosis demonstration case studies  

SciTech Connect

Today`s radwaste economic and regulatory scenarios signify the importance in the improvement of operational practices to reduce generator liabilities. This action is largely due to the rising cost dealing with burial sites and the imposed waste volume restriction. To control the economical burdens associated with waste burial and to comply with stricter environmental regulations, NPP`s are attempting to modify their radwaste system(s) design and operating philosophy by placing a major emphasis on waste volume reduction and processing techniques. The utilization of reverse osmosis technology as a means for treatment of process and wastewater streams in the nuclear power industry has been investigated for many years. This paper will outline reverse osmosis theory and highlight performance data for process and waste stream purification applications. Case studies performed at 5 nuclear plants have been outlined. The demonstrations were performed on a widely variety of process stream for both a PWR and BWR application. The data provided by the pilot systems, the equipment design, and the economical impact a reverse osmosis unit will have on producing treated (high purity) are as follows.

Malkmus, D. [VECTRA Technologies, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Testing of a benchscale Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport system for treating contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The Reverse Osmosis/Coupled Transport process is a innovative means of removing radionuclides from contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site. Specifically, groundwater in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site has been contaminated with uranium, technetium, and nitrate. Investigations are proceeding to determine the most cost effective method to remove these contaminants. The process described in this paper combines three different membrane technologies (reverse osmosis, coupled transport, and nanofiltration to purify the groundwater while extracting and concentrating uranium, technetium, and nitrate into separate solutions. This separation allows for the future use of the radionuclides, if needed, and reduces the amount of waste that will need to be disposed of. This process has the potential to concentrate the contaminants into solutions with volumes in a ratio of 1/10,000 of the feed volume. This compares to traditional volume reductions of 10 to 100 for ion exchange and stand-alone reverse osmosis. The successful demonstration of this technology could result in significant savings in the overall cost of decontaminating the groundwater.

Hodgson, K.M.; Lunsford, T.R.; Panjabi, G.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Iron Absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Absorption Iron Absorption Name: Mary Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I wrote before to Steve and got a answer back. I would like more information. The cirmcustances were that I first had anaemia and then I went for a gastroscopy. The results of which were I had insufficient acid been produced in the stomach. I was told that acid was nessary for the absorbion of iron and it was because of this that I became anaemic. I was told to eat plently of red meat not too many vegetables. Is there any other information you can give me? Replies: It is very difficult to say for sure without seeing you chart and I am not your doctor. But it sounds to me like you are deficient in the vitamin B12. In your stomach you have 3 basic types of cells. One is called chief cells which secrete the precursor of the enzyme pepsin which begins the breakdown of protein. Another is called the parietal cells which secrete your stomach acid and a substance called intrinsic factor. Now-switch to your bone marrow which is where your red blood cells are made. In order for your red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow, vitamin B12 is necessary. B12 can only be obtained from animal food sources such as meat, milk and eggs. Unfortunately, B12 cannot be absorbed in the stomach without intrinsic factor. If there is sufficient B12 present in the diet, it can be stored in the liver. If you aren't eating enough animal sources your B12 will be taken from your liver until you run out. You could also be deficient in intrinsic factor. So while the outcome is anemia (not enough red blood cells) the problem could be from a few different things. Follow your doctor's recommendations and eat more sources of B12

142

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

144

Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atoms in the presence of a delayed, few-cycle near infrared (NIR) laser pulse, which uncovers absorption of a material is its absorption of light. Spectrally-resolved absorption has long been used to study atomic of and demonstrating control over the electron dynamics in the atom on ultrafast timescales. Laser-dressed absorption

Van Stryland, Eric

145

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

146

NETL: Pressure Swing Absorption Device  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO2 from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage Project No.: DE-FE0001323 New Jersey Institute of Technology is developing an advanced pressure swing absorption-based (PSAB) device via laboratory-based experiments. The device will be used to accomplish a cyclic process to process low temperature post-shift-reactor synthesis gas resulting from the gasification process into purified hydrogen at high pressure for use by the combustion turbine of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. The overall goal of the proposed work is to develop an advanced PSAB device and cyclic process for use in a coal-fired IGCC plant to produce purified hydrogen at high pressure and a highly purified CO2 stream suitable for use or sequestration.

147

Moments of Absorption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Moments of Absorption explores the conceptual and visual themes that are presented in my MFA thesis exhibition. The research looks into the absorption of the… (more)

Kaufman, Sarah K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Watts nickel and rinse water recovery via an advanced reverse osmosis system  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the results of an eight month test program conducted at the Hewlett Packard Printed Circuit Board Production Plant, Sunnyvale, CA (H.P.) to assess the effectiveness of an advanced reverse osmosis system (AROS). The AROS unit, manufactured by Water Technologies, Inc. (WTI) of Minneapolis, MN, incorporates membrane materials and system components designed to treat metal plating rinse water and produce two product streams; (1) a concentrated metal solution suitable for the plating bath, and (2) rinse water suitable for reuse as final rinse. Waste water discharge can be virtually eliminated and significant reductions realized in the need for new plating bath solution and rinse water.

Schmidt, C.; White, I.E.; Ludwig, R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Reclamation of Cleaning Water Using Ultrafiltration and Double Pass Reverse Osmosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Because of the commitment to minimize process generated wastes, an integrated ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) system was installed to reclaim the cleaning water at the PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) Cleveland, Ohio plant. The recovered water... 590 590 590 600 595 600 590 INLET TORO PSIG 550 590 590 590 600 595 600 590 PSIG 540 580 580 580 595 590 590 585 INTO RO-CIP INTO UF-CIP Temperature Conductivity GPM GPM 2.0 8.5 2.0 6.0 2.0 6.0 1.0 6.0 1.8 5.5 1.9 5...

Neuman, T.; Long, G.; Tinter, M.

150

Purge needs in absorption chillers  

SciTech Connect

Absorption chillers are regaining a significant share of large tonnage chiller sales, such as they had 20 years ago. Gas-fired chillers are now available that have a base energy (ultimate fuel usage) consumption rate per ton comparable to that in electric units. Effective purging in an absorption chiller is an absolute necessity to achieve the low chilled water temperature needed for dehumidification and to fully benefit from the energy savings offered by double-effect cycles. Although the purge system is usually not shown on the typical cycle schematic, its proper functioning is a key requirement for satisfactory machine operation. This article discusses the effect of noncondensible (N/C) gases on the absorption cooling process and the basics of purge systems. In addition, the article discusses the rationale for the important design step of selecting the location of the N/C probe, and discusses purge systems applicable to the direct-fired, double-effect machines now entering the marketplace.

Murray, J.G. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Oral Drug Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties ? membrane permeability ? metabolic stability ? enzyme inhibition or induction ? protein binding ? transporter affinity ?. Chemical Optimization DDS technology 4 Strategy of Drug Delivery Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Improve of drug... absorption absorption enhancement controlled releasecontrolled release new administration route Drug targeting to the tissue to the cell to the organelle Dr. Shinji Yamashita (Setsunan University) Issue: Oral Drug Absorption Dr. Valentino J. Stella...

Yamashita, Shinji

2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

152

Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity has always been a challenge due to the complexity of the solute-solvent-membrane interactions and the resultant effect on membrane performance. Most transport models, including all models treating membranes as nonporous and those based on irreversible thermodynamics, are unable to describe or to predict all of the phenomena associated with this case. Recently, the modified surface force-pore flow model has been derived and used to describe the performance of reverse osmosis membranes for solutes which are rejected from the membrane. In the present work, this model is extended to a more general form which can describe the solute-membrane affinity case. For illustration, the extended model, with five adjustable parameters, is used to describe the performance for cellulose acetate membranes and dilute aqueous solutions of toluene, cumene, and p-chlorophenol (data from literature). The model is reasonably consistent with the data. Simulation results of the extended model are also shown.

Mehdizadeh, H.; Dickson, J.M. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Treatment of effluents arising from a material characterization laboratory, using chemical precipitation and reverse osmosis processes  

SciTech Connect

Owing to the restrictions imposed by the Regulations, mainly in the field of effluent release into a water body, it`s necessary to use a set of technologies that will help meeting the standards established by these regulations. Taking into account what was exposed above, a process for treating the effluents arising from a Material Characterization Laboratory, that will characterize nuclear materials is proposed in this paper. The process proposed uses chemical precipitation for removing chemicals which can be removed by this means (Chromium, Calcium and Sulfate for instance), and reverse osmosis process to purify the filtrate from precipitation process. The reverse osmosis process is used to remove dissolved chemicals (Nitrates and Chlorides). A synthetic solution with a COD of 8000 mg/l was used to simulate the treatment process. After treatment was finished, a purified stream, which represents 90 % of the intake stream have presented a COD of less then 10 mg/l, showing that this process can be utilized to minimize the impact caused to the environment. The characterization of all streams involved in the treatment process as well as the process description is presented in this paper.

Bello, S.M.G.; Mierzwa, J.C. [Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The pretreatment with enhanced coagulation and a UF membrane for seawater desalination with reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The application of reverse osmosis (RO) for desalination process has increased rapidly with the construction of large RO plants. Although there have been considerable improvements in membrane materials and operation experience, the fouling of membranes is a significant problem up to the present. There have been many instances of fouling of RO membranes caused by the presence of iron and silica. Biomineralization is usually believed to be caused by microorganisms metabolizing at iron and silica present. Its formation process was studied and described first in the present work, then the enhanced coagulation with Fe(VI) and UF membrane treatment process for pretreatment of reverse osmosis for desalination has been investigated in a laboratory for 3–4 months. The main aim is to reduce the feed water pollution, such as turbidity, iron, silica and aglae, microbial contamination in order to control biofouling and mineralization on the membrane surface. The results showed that the biomineralization formation process is the adsorption of organism and the biosorption of inorganics onto the organic matrix. The pretreatment results show that turbidity is less than 0.5 NTU, iron concentration never exceeds 0.2 mg/l, silicon concentration must not exceed 0.1 mg/l; and the removal rate of aglae and microbial is more than 98%.

Wei Ma; Yaqian Zhao; Lu Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains a minimum of 245 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost and Energy Savings Using an Optimal Design of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Pretreatment for Dilute Bioethanol Purification ... All equipment costs and sizing are modeled using the correlations from Seider et al.(52) while the RO membrane cost is from Baker and Lokhandwala. ...

Pakkapol Kanchanalai; Ryan P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

158

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

(Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of...

159

Highly Robust Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) Hollow Fiber Membranes with High Power Densities for Renewable Salinity-Gradient Energy Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Salinity-gradient energy (i.e., osmotic power) generated from the mixing of solutions with different salinities via pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) represents a high potential source of renewable energy. ... Thorsen, T.; Holt, T.The potential for power production from salinity gradients by pressure retarded osmosis J. Membr. ... When using saline water as the feed soln., the efficiency of the osmotic pressure decreases with increasing feed concn. ...

Gang Han; Peng Wang; Tai-Shung Chung

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

160

Isotope and Ion Selectivity in Reverse Osmosis Desalination: Geochemical Tracers for Man-made Freshwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A systematic measurement of ions and 2H/1H, 7Li/6Li, 11B/10B, 18O/16O, and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes in feed-waters, permeates, and brines from commercial reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants in Israel (Ashkelon, Eilat, and Nitzana) and Cyprus (Larnaca) reveals distinctive geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of fresh water generated from desalination of seawater (SWRO) and brackish water (BWRO). ... The specific geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of SWRO provide a unique tool for tracing “man-made” fresh water as an emerging recharge component of natural water resources. ... O and H isotopes were determined by dual inlet and continuous flow mass spectrometry following gas–water equilibration (analytical uncertainties ±0.8‰ for ?2H and ±0.1‰ for ?18O). ...

Wolfram Kloppmann; Avner Vengosh; Catherine Guerrot; Romain Millot; Irena Pankratov

2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant with energy recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the performance of a RO (reverse osmosis) desalination plant at different seawater salinity values. An energy recovery Pelton turbine is integrated with the desalination plant. Thermodynamic analysis, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, as well as a thermo-based economic analysis is performed for the proposed system. The effects of the system components irreversibilities on the economics and cost of product water are parametrically studied through the thermoeconomic analysis. The exergy analysis shows that large irreversibilities occur in the high pressure pump and in the RO module. Both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of the overall system are investigated under different operating parameters. For the base case; the system achieves an exergy efficiency of 5.82%. The product cost is estimated to be 2.451 $/m3 and 54.2 $/MJ when source water with salinity of 35,000 ppm is fed to the system.

Rami Salah El-Emam; Ibrahim Dincer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (?98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10–40%) rejection for BPA.

Suna Yüksel; Nalan Kabay; Mithat Yüksel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Thin film composite polyamide membrane parameters estimation for phenol-water system by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

A commercial thin film composite polyamide reverse osmosis membrane is used to separate an aqueous phenol-water binary system. The separation data are analyzed using a combined film theory-solution-diffusion (CFSD) model and a combined film theory-Spiegler-Kedem (CFSK) model. In the present investigation a new phenomenon is observed: there exists a maximum in the rejection when it is plotted against the product flux through the membrane. This behavior is explained for both models. An equation for J{sub v,min}, which is the value of the product flux J{sub v} at which the rejection reaches a maximum, is derived from both models. Although the parameters for both models are consistent over the range of operating conditions, the CFSK model is more accurate for the phenol-water system.

Murthy, Z.V.P.; Gupta, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

An Ultrasonic Meter to Characterize Degree of Fouling and Cleaning in Reverse Osmosis Filters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of prognostic capabilities that predict the condition and remaining service life for key industrial systems has the potential to significantly impact performance and the economics of operation for both current and next generation plants. This paper describes an on?line real?time ultrasonic meter that can be used to monitor both fouling and cleaning in reverse osmosis filters. It provides a measure for the degree of fouling. A suit of ultrasonic transducers is mounted to operate through the filter?housing wall on a pilot?scale service water system. A “Degree of Fouling” index is given during both fouling and cleaning for the filters during operation for processing of saline solutions (simulated sea and brackish waters) and solids contamination. The fouling index is transmitted to a central computer where it is integrated in a system level prognostic algorithm.

M. Morra; L. J. Bond; G. R. Golcar

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The corrosion performance of nickel-based alloys in a reverse osmosis plant utilizing seawater  

SciTech Connect

Four nickel-based alloys, UNS N06625, UNS N08825, UNS N10276, and UNS N05500, were evaluated in terms of their corrosion performance in a seawater reverse osmosis plant using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements. Slight changes in the EIS spectra were observed for UNS N06625, UNSN10276 and UNS N05500 at low frequencies. However, UNS N08825 EIS spectra exhibited more changes than the other alloys at low frequencies. The OCP of UNS N10276 was more noble than the other alloys under the same conditions. The LPR measurements indicated that UNS N10276 and UNS N05500 exhibited lower corrosion rates than UNS NO6625 and UNS N08825.

Al-Hashem, A.; Carew, J.; Al-Odwani, A. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

Reverse osmosis performance of modified polyvinyl alcohol thin-film composite membranes  

SciTech Connect

Membrane separation characteristics in the nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) regions of the filtration spectrum are governed by a complex combination of both steric hindrance and surface force interactions. NF and RO membranes having surface charges show unusual selectivity behavior not predicted on the basis of physical pore size alone. Hence, practical characterizations should employ techniques to gain insight on membrane function. In this work, the separation characteristics of an anionically charged modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin-film composite membrane under different operating pressures were investigated. A qualitative measurement of the surface force interactions between solutes and membrane polymer was conducted using liquid chromatography technique. An attempt was also made to study the chlorine resistance of the composite membrane.

Lang, K.; Chowdhury, G.; Matsuura, T.; Sourirajan, S. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

HII Absorption Bill Erickson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HII Absorption Bill Erickson November 10, 2006 It would make all of the drift curve simulations.8 dB above the data. One reason for this might be HII absorption which is not modeled in simulations. There are a number of ways that one might try to estimate the absorption. One might use optical maps of HII

Ellingson, Steven W.

168

Technical evaluation of a small-scale reverse osmosis desalination unit for domestic water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tunisian standards for drinking water tolerate a maximum Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) of 1.5 g/L. The domestic water presents usually a salinity greater than 0.5 g/L. In the last few years, several small capacity reverse osmosis desalination prototypes have been marketed. They are used to desalinate brackish water with TDS lower than 1.5 g/L. The performances of such type of RO units with respect to the Tunisia tap waters are needed. A technico-economical evaluation of small-scale (100 L/day) reverse osmosis desalination unit has been studied. Water pre-treatment is composed of three filtration operations. Water is pumped through the RO membrane with maximum pressure of 6 bars. Before use, the desalinated water is treated with UV light. The salinity and the temperature of the tested domestic water are located respectively between 0.5 and 1.3 g/L and between 12 and 29°C. The pre-treatment allows eliminating all the suspension matters, as the turbidity and the Solid Density Index are reduced to zero FTU and surrounding one unit respectively. No chemicals are used in the pre-treatment, so membrane scaling can not be avoided if reject water presents a high scaling power. The supersaturation relative to calcium carbonate and gypsum were estimated for reject water. Their values indicate that the tested waters have no risk to scale the RO membrane. The recovery rate of the RO unit was evaluated vs. different operating conditions such as applied pressure, raw water TDS and water temperature. The small capacity unit was able to deliver a treated water of a 100 mg/L TDS with a conversion rate ranging between 25 and 37%. The water treatment cost was evaluated at 0.01 €/L which is roughly the tenth of that of bottled table water.

H. Elfil; A. Hamed; A. Hannachi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Transient Absorption Spectroscopy with Isolated Attosecond Pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

viii Attosecond transient absorption instrument. . . . . .5.2.2 AbsorptionTransient absorption spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bell, Marie Justine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processing. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of reverse osmosis and membrane processing in sewage and industrial waste treatment. Citations discuss ultrafiltration, industrial water reuse, hazardous waste treatment, municipal wastes, and materials recovery. Waste reduction and recycling in electroplating, metal finishing, and circuit board manufacturing are considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse osmosis technology. Patents include purification systems and devices for seawater, waste water, and drinking water. Topics also include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 146 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis  

SciTech Connect

The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on boron levels. Reverse osmosis (through cellulose acetate)treated by one or more reverse- osmosis cycles. Hmvever, it

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Cycle cover with short cycles Nicole Immorlica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Given a graph and a subset of marked elements (nodes, edges, or some combination thereof), a cycleCycle cover with short cycles Nicole ImmorlicaÂŁ Mohammad MahdianÂŁ Vahab S. MirrokniÂŁ Abstract Cycle for variants of cycle covering problems which bound the size and/or length of the covering cycles

Immorlica, Nicole

177

Removal of radionuclides in drinking water by membrane treatment using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis reversal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A pilot plant had been built to test the behaviour of ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis reversal (EDR) in order to improve the quality of the water supplied to Barcelona metropolitan area from the Llobregat River. This paper presents results from two studies to reduce natural radioactivity. The results from the pilot plant with four different scenarios were used to design the full-scale treatment plant built (SJD WTP). The samples taken at different steps of the treatment were analysed to determine gross alpha, gross beta and uranium activity. The results obtained revealed a significant improvement in the radiological water quality provided by both membrane techniques (RO and EDR showed removal rates higher than 60%). However, UF did not show any significant removal capacity for gross alpha, gross beta or uranium activities. RO was better at reducing the radiological parameters studied and this treatment was selected and applied at the full scale treatment plant. The RO treatment used at the SJD WTP reduced the concentration of both gross alpha and gross beta activities and also produced water of high quality with an average removal of 95% for gross alpha activity and almost 93% for gross beta activity at the treatment plant.

M. Montańa; A. Camacho; I. Serrano; R. Devesa; L. Matia; I. Vallés

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Recycling of oleochemical wastewater for boiler feed water using reverse osmosis membranes — A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, awareness of water conservation has increased worldwide due to water scarcity. Wastewater recycling appears to be attractive for water conservation. This paper addresses a case study of oleochemical wastewater treatment using an advanced process that comprises ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Prior to the membrane process, the oleochemical effluent was first treated using a biological treatment system that was installed by the factory owner. The quantity and quality of the permeate stream of the membrane system were then periodically monitored over 43 days. The results showed that the system functioned effectively in reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD), hardness content and the amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). However, the system started to deteriorate after 15 days of operation. Membrane biofouling was suspected to have occurred in the RO membrane. Nevertheless, the fouling problem could be resolved by chemically cleaning the RO membrane using a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution every 3–5 days. Despite of the fact that data set for a longer period is needed to provide a more comprehensive study on the biofouling mechanism of membrane, this study somehow reflects a real-life problem of the application of RO membrane in the water recycling industry in Malaysia.

Chai Hoon Koo; Abdul Wahab Mohammad; Fatihah Suja'

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis  

SciTech Connect

Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Vacancy profile in reverse osmosis membranes studied by positron annihilation lifetime measurements and molecular dynamics simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The positron annihilation technique using a slow positron beam can be used for the study of the vacancy profiles in typical reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. In this study, the vacancy profile in the polyamide membrane that exhibits a high permselectivity between ions and water was studied using the positron annihilation technique and molecular dynamics simulations. Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetimes in the surface region of the membranes were evaluated by using a slow positron beam. The diffusion behavior of Na+ and water in the polyamides was simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods using the TSUBAME2 supercomputer at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and discussed with the vacancy profile probed by the o-Ps. The results suggested that the large hydration size of Na+ compared to the vacancy size in the polyamides contributes to the increased diffusivity selectivity of water/Na+ that is related to the NaCl desalination performance of the membrane. Both the hydration size of the ions and the vacancy size appeared to be significant parameters to discuss the diffusivity selectivity of water/ions in typical polyamide membranes.

A Shimazu; H Goto; T Shintani; M Hirose; R Suzuki; Y Kobayashi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Effect of silica on the properties of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol membranes for reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, a series of cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol-600 membranes, with varying ratios were prepared by 2-stage phase inversion protocol. The permeation properties were studied by subjecting membranes in indigenously fabricated reverse osmosis plant. After optimization of different CA/PEG ratios, the membrane with highest salt rejection capacity was selected and modified with varying amount of silica. The Modified membranes were characterized for their permeation properties, hydrophilicity, compositional analysis, thermal stability, mechanical strength and morphological studies. Silica significantly influenced the permeation performance of composite membrane. The flux enhanced from 0.35 to 2.46 L/h m2 along with an 11.41% relative increase in salt rejection. The hydrophilicity was significantly enhanced by the addition of silica. In FTIR spectra, the broadening of the peak around 3500 cm? 1 and emergence of peak at 950 cm? 1 specified the incorporation of silica particles. The thermal analysis indicated the relative increase in degradation temperature (Tmax) and glass transition temperature (Tg) for CPS-5 membrane. The mechanical stability of the modified membranes, increased initially, but declined with further addition of silica. The results indicated that the incorporation of SiO2 content in the casting solution improved the fouling resistance of the membranes.

Adnan Ahmad; Sidra Waheed; Shahzad Maqsood Khan; Sabad e-Gul; Muhammad Shafiq; Muhammad Farooq; Khairuddin Sanaullah; Tahir Jamil

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

009-9473-8 REVIEW X-ray absorption spectroscopy Junko Yano Ćand application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, bothX-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

type: Review X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Junko Yano andPhotosystem II; XAS, X-ray absorption spectroscopy; EXAFS,X-ray absorption fine structure; EPR, electron paramagnetic

Yano, Junko

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

185

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

absorption absorption ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol absorption The process in which radiation energy is retained by aerosols. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) PSAP : Particle Soot Absorption Photometer PASS : Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer External Instruments OMI : Ozone Monitoring Instrument

186

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility`s major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

Fouling of ceramic filters and thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes by inorganic and bacteriological constituents  

SciTech Connect

Two significant problems have been identified during the first three years of operating the Savannah River Site Effluent Treatment Facility. These problems encompass two of the facility's major processing areas: the microfiltration and reverse osmosis steps. The microfilters (crossflow ceramic filters {minus}0.2{mu} nominal pore size) have been prone to pluggage problems. The presence of bacteria and bacteria byproducts in the microfilter feed, along with small quantities of colloidal iron, silica, and aluminum, results in a filter foulant that rapidly deteriorates filter performance and is difficult to remove by chemical cleaning. Processing rates through the filters have dropped from the design flow rate of 300 gpm after cleaning to 60 gpm within minutes. The combination of bacteria (from internal sources) and low concentrations of inorganic species resulted in substantial reductions in the reverse osmosis system performance. The salt rejection has been found to decrease from 99+% to 97%, along with a 50% loss in throughput, within a few hours of cleaning. Experimental work has led to implementation of several changes to plant operation and to planned upgrades of existing equipment. It has been shown that biological control in the influent is necessary to achieve design flowrates. Experiments have also shown that the filter performance can be optimized by the use of efficient filter backpulsing and the addition of aluminum nitrate (15 to 30 mg/L Al{sup 3+}) to the filter feed. The aluminum nitrate assists by controlling adsorption of colloidal inorganic precipitates and biological contaminants. In addition, improved cleaning procedures have been identified for the reverse osmosis units. This paper provides a summary of the plant problems and the experimental work that has been completed to understand and correct these problems.

Siler, J.L.; Poirier, M.R.; McCabe, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Solar selective absorption coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

189

Solar selective absorption coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Separation of organic pollutants by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes: Mathematical models and experimental verification  

SciTech Connect

Predictive reverse osmosis (RO) models have been well-developed for many systems. However, the applications to dilute organic-water systems require the modification of transport models and the understanding of solute-polymer interactions. Studies with various substituted, nonionized phenolic compounds showed that these could cause substantial membrane water flux drop, even in dilute solutions with negligible osmotic pressure. Further, the organics could significantly adsorb on the cross-linked aromatic polyamide active layer. In some cases, even concentrations as low as 0.2 mM, 2,4-dinitrophenol (solution in particle-free, double-distilled water) can cause as much as a 70% flux drop with an aromatic polyamide membrane. Two models are presented in this paper: a modified steady-state solution diffusion model and an unsteady-state diffusion adsorption model which are able to predict flux and permeate concentrations from a single RO experiment. Further, the development of these models allows for the understanding of the mechanisms of organic-membrane interactions. For instance, it has been proposed that increased adsorption inherently leads to an increase in flux drop. However, the authors have found, on one hand, that due to specific interactions with membrane water transport groups, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols cause significant flux drops. On the other hand, benzene had a high physical adsorption but caused negligible flux drop. The results were further extended to nanofiltration experiments with an aromatic pollutant containing two types of charge groups. The adsorption and separation results are explained according to an ionization model.

Williams, M.E.; Hestekin, J.A.; Smothers, C.N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part I: leading element performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the seawater reverse osmosis preheating process, and presents a parametric study of the process. The basic transport equations describing the leading element are exhibited and appraised. The leading element, which governs the whole system performance, is studied and analysed. The incorporated and investigated operating parameters are the feed pressure and the temperature for different feed salt concentrations. In addition, different feed flow rates, effects on permeate flux and permeator salt rejection, together with the permeator recovery, are studied. A seawater membrane of a well-known data, for instance FT30SW380HR, is used to perform the study. The membrane water permeability coefficient Kw is determined and correlated. Furthermore, the membrane salt permeability coefficient Ks from the manufacturer system analysis program (ROSA) is given and discussed. The transport governing equations are programmed in a way that facilitates the achievement of a realistic parametric study. The results showed that the permeate flux increases significantly as the feed pressure increases. Also, it increases significantly as the feed salt concentration decreases, and also as the feed temperature and pressure increase. Meanwhile, the permeator salt rejection increases significantly as the feed pressure increases, and decreases significantly as the feed temperature increases. The study of the leading element of the array showed that there are constraints that must be considered, such as maximum membrane flux, maximum applied feed pressure, maximum feed flow rate and maximum feed temperature. Therefore, to attain the maximum membrane flux, the applied feed pressure must be lowered when the feed temperature is increased. In the case where the feed temperature is increased from 18°C to 45°C, a pressure saving of between 7% and 26% is achieved, according to the feed salt concentration and feed flow rate.

Aly Karameldin; Mahmoud S. Saadawy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Operational analysis of an innovative wind powered reverse osmosis system installed in the Canary Islands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an operational analysis of the prototype of an innovative fully autonomous wind powered desalination system. The system consists of a wind farm, made up of two wind turbines and a flywheel, which operates in isolation from the conventional power grids and which supplies the energy needs of a group of eight reverse osmosis (RO) modules throughout the complete desalination process (from the pumping of sea water to the storage of the product water), as well as the energy requirements of the control subsystems. The analysis of the electrical and hydraulic results obtained from this prototype, installed on the island of Gran Canaria in the Canarian Archipelago, shows the technical feasibility of the system design and the automatic operational strategy programmed for it. Amongst other tasks, the automatic operational strategy controls the number of RO plants that have to be connected or disconnected at any given moment in order to match the variable wind energy supply. The results obtained thus far have not revealed any significant variation in the level of quality or average volume of the product water, nor any physical deterioration to the main components of the system as a result of the start-ups and shut-downs required as a result of the variations in the wind energy supply or oscillations of the electrical parameters of voltage and frequency. In conclusion, the system under analysis can be applied to sea water desalination, both on a small and large scale, in coastal regions with a scarcity of water for domestic and/or agricultural use but with wind energy resources.

J.A. Carta; J. González; V. Subiela

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

An ammonia refrigerator with an absorption circuit as economizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental results of a compression refrigerator with an integrated solution circuit, a so-called compression-absorption cycle, are presented. The compression refrigerator operates with ammonia (NH3) as refrigerant. The cycle is improved by two-stage throttling of the condensate and an absorption circuit which replaces the economizer compressor. The absorption circuit operates on the working pair ammonia/water (NH3/H2O). It is driven by superheat of the compressor without additional heat input from an external source. By this means the benefit of two-stage throttling, namely a reduction in compression work or an increase in refrigeration capacity, can be doubled. In the experiments an improvement of up to 9% in the efficiency of the NH3-refrigeration cycle has been attained. Compared to a simple compression refrigerator, the presented compression-absorption cycle has a payback time of only several months. Compared to a conventional economizer refrigeration cycle, the payback can be expected within the range of several months to about four years.

F Ziegler; U Spindler

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis — Part II: Sensitivity to voltage application and membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in voltage application and membranes when treating brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate waste. Synthetic BWRO concentrates from Arizona and Texas of 7890–14,800 mg/L total dissolved solids were prepared with poly-phosphonate antiscalants. Experimentation was performed using a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer with two sets of membranes (AMV-CMV and PCSA-PCSK) with a nominal transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic samples were analyzed for specific anion and cation concentrations. The BWRO concentrates were successfully treated with stack voltage applications of 0.5–1.5 V/cell-pair for salinity removal ratios up to 99% with current density less than 500 A/m2. This paper highlights that (1) the specific energy consumption was proportional to the applied voltage and equivalent concentration separated (i.e., approximately 0.03 kW h/m3 per Volt/cell-pair applied per meq/L separated); (2) lower voltage applications decreased the relative separation rate of sulfate compared to chloride; and (3) water transport by electro-osmosis was independent of voltage application or resulting current densities, while it is affected by the ion exchange membranes.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Combining reverse osmosis and ion-exchange allows beet distillery condensates to be recycled as fermentable dilution water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combinations of physical purification processes, i.e. anion-exchange, adsorption, and reverse osmosis were evaluated and compared with single ones for their ability to remove target inhibitory compounds from distillery condensates with the purpose of reusing condensates as fermentation water. Performances of the treatments were evaluated through analyses of residual target compounds and batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Reverse osmosis on BW30 membrane (Dow Chemical) at 25 bar transmembrane pressure and volume reduction ratio (VRR) = 8 followed by anion-exchange (weak Amberlite FPA 51 resin, Dow) was the most efficient process to decrease all inhibitory target compounds (formic, acetic, propanoic, butanoic acids and 2-phenethyl alcohol) present in a distillery condensate below their detection or quantification limit. Water recovery was 87.5%. Such treated condensate proved convenient for reuse as fermentation water. Fermentation tests run in a multistage device exhibited yeast viability and ethanol production performances (concentration and global productivity) equivalent to the blank for a final ethanol concentration of 80 g L? 1 close to practical value encountered in distilleries.

Marie-Laure Lameloise; Marjorie Gavach; Marielle Bouix; Claire Fargues

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Multiphoton Absorption and Coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the probability for multiphoton absorption processes induced by both laser and thermal light acting on an atomic system. When the thermal radiation, suitably filtered, has the same frequency spectrum and the same total energy as the laser packet, we find that the ratio between the relative probabilities for s-photon absorption can be expressed by (4?)-12(s-1)s!s12(?c?)s-1, where ? is the time during which the atomic system is illuminated by thermal radiation with coherence time ?c. This shows that multiphoton absorption processes depend on the statistical properties of the incident light, and that the probability induced by the laser packet is certainly greater than that induced by the thermal light if s

S. Carusotto; G. Fornaca; E. Polacco

1968-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

200

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes. January 1980-January 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Jan 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes and reverse osmosis to treat wastes. Ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (Contains 63 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Absorption Heat Pump Developments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The implementation of both new thermodynamic cycles and new suitable fluids makes it possible to considerably widen the capacity to recover and upgrade low level heat contained particularly in industrial therm...

G. Cohen; A. Rojey

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reverse osmosis (RO) (46% of global capacity), multi-stage flash (MSF) (36% of global capacity), electrodialysis (

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

204

Reverse osmosis removal of organic compounds II. Opportunity poisons and nerve agent hydrolysates. Technical report, June 1990-December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Reverse osmosis (RO) rejection of acetic acid, fluoro-, chloro- and bromoacetic acids and hydrazine was investigated in a pilot scale (3 gpm) test unit; RO rejection of methylphosphonic acid and ethyl, isopropyl and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acids (nerve agent hydrolysates) was investigated in a bench scale (6 L/hr) test unit. Rejection of acetic acid derivatives was found to be pH and pKa dependent; molecular weight was not a factor for total acids, but rejection was inversely related to molecular weight for free (undissociated) acids. Rejection of all methylphosphonates exceeded 99 percent at pH 3 to 10 and was not pH dependent. Rejection of hydrazine sulfate (a surrogate for UDMH) was no better than 90 percent at pH 7.

Burrows, W.D.; Sincero, A.P.; Schmidt, M.O.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Design of a photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plant in off-grid operation for desalination of brackish water  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plants in off-grid operation constitute a promising system technology for meeting a part of the water requirements in regions without dependable water supply and electric grid system power supply. This paper presents a new procedure for optimum system design configuration. The goal is to provide the cheapest possible water supply while fulfilling all regional and technical boundary conditions. The starting point of the procedure is a rough design based on a load duration curve. Subsequent time sequence simulations which image the system behavior completely, permit checking of various plant variants for compliance with the boundary conditions. Objective mutual comparisons of the plant variants are possible, also taking the system costs into consideration. The possibilities of the developed procedure are demonstrated taking a village supply in Northeast Brazil as example.

Broeker, C.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Menne, K.; Ortjohann, E.; Temme, L.; Voss, J. [Univ. Paderborn (Germany). Elektrische Energieversorgung

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Cycle Track Lessons Learned  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cycle Track Lessons Learned #12;Presentation Overview · Bicycling trends · Cycle track lessons learned · What is a "Cycle track"? · Essential design elements of cycle tracks Separation Width Crossing driveways & low-volume streets Signalized intersections #12;Trend in kilometers cycled per year

Bertini, Robert L.

207

Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metrics of Life-Cycle Performance Energy Payback Times (EPBT) Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) Toxic Gases #12;6 Life Cycle GHG Emissions ­EuropeLife Cycle GHG Emissions ­Europe Insolation: 1700 kwh/m2-yr 0 10 #12;7 Life Cycle GHG Emissions ­Comparison with Conventional Technologies Life Cycle GHG Emissions

208

Characterization and biotoxicity assessment of dissolved organic matter in RO concentrate from a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system containing organic compounds may associate with toxic risk, and its discharge might pose an environmental risk. To identify a basis for the selection of feasible technology in treating RO concentrates, the characteristics and biotoxicity of different fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in RO concentrates from an mWRRO system were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrophilic neutrals (HIN), hydrophobic acids (HOA) and hydrophobic bases (HOB) accounted for 96% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the total DOM in the RO concentrate. According to the SEC chromatograph detected at 254 nm wavelength of UV, the DOM with molecular weight (MW) 1–3 kDa accounted for the majority of the basic and neutral fractions. The fluorescence spectra of the excitation emission matrix (EEM) indicated that most aromatic proteins, humic/fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like substances existed in the fractions HOA and hydrophobic neutrals (HON). The genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 1795.6 ± 57.2 ?g 4-NQO L?1 and 2.19 ± 0.05 mg TAM L?1, respectively. The HIN, HOA, and HOB contributed to the genotoxicity of the RO concentrate, and the HIN was with the highest genotoxic level of 1007.9 ± 94.8 ?g 4-NQO L?1. The HOA, HON, and HIN lead to the total anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate, and HOA occupied approximately 60% of the total, which was 1.3 ± 0.17 mg TAM L?1.

Ying-Xue Sun; Yue Gao; Hong-Ying Hu; Fang Tang; Zhe Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Optical absorption in amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

The role that disorder plays in shaping the form of the optical absorption spectrum of hydrogenated amorphous silicon is investigated. Disorder leads to a redistribution of states, which both reduces the Tauc gap and broadens the absorption tail. The observed relationship between the Tauc gap and the breadth of the absorption tail is thus explained.

O`Leary, S.K.; Zukotynski, S.; Perz, J.M.; Sidhu, L.S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATIONS OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPYthe Zeeman effect to atomic absorption spectroscopy has beenthe Zeeman effect on atomic absorption spectrometry has been

Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Moisture absorption modeling using design of experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moisture Absorption Modeling Using Design of Experimentssurface pro?les of moisture absorption for the two laminatetheir amounts of moisture absorption are different. The

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

213

A New Absorption Cycle: The Single-Effect Regenerative Absoprtion Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECT o V 1,1, II II I BOILER TEMPERATURE,T B (OF) XBLlR operates with a multistage boiler and a multi- stagerather than in the boiler (or the generator). The greatest

Dao, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

A New Absorption Cycle: The Single-Effect Regenerative Absoprtion Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1'il . II HO , 1I6' il l ~CNC . ENT"' AL PV O! ; 1. S0 IOl .i7S11 ,]7b8 .4I! (I] ~CNC, ENTtCNC, MASS I'LOIol . ? 1I}8 ,~

Dao, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Offshore Rankine Cycles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The title of the thesis - "Offshore Rankine Cycles" - is very general and cover a large range of engineering fields, e.g. thermodynamic cycles… (more)

Brandsar, Jo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The Organic Rankine Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chap. 3 is dedicated to Rankine cycles with organic fluids: the so-called organic Rankine cycles (ORC), which in recent years have ... of the use of...

Costante Mario Invernizzi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benchmark – Long Cycle .............................................................................................. 95 5.46 System Pressures and Temperatures – Valve Part Cycle Vs Benchmark – Long Cycle...

Seshadri, Swarooph

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

218

Antiproton Absorption in Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the analysis of experimental data on forward antiproton production on nuclei. The calculations are done in the framework of a folding model which takes properly into account both incoherent direct proton-nucleon and cascade pion-nucleon antiproton production processes as well as internal nucleon momentum distribution. The effective antiproton-nucleon cross section in nuclear matter and the imaginary part of the antiproton nuclear optical potential are estimated to be 25-45 mb and -(38-56) MeV at normal nuclear matter density, respectively. The results of the performed analysis evidence for the decreasing of antiproton absorption in the nuclear medium.

Yu. T. Kiselev; E. Ya. Paryev

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

219

The need for a novel method for achieving zero effluent-discharge status for ethanol distilleries: spentwash colour removal by reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustained industrial scale production of ethanol in India is dependent on the earliest possible implementation of zero effluent discharge. High pollution parameters of effluent made it commercially impossible. An urgent need for developing a method to attain a zero discharge status for distilleries was essential. The presently tried and tested methods had limitations for conclusive disposal of spentwash effluent. Application of Reverse Osmosis was tried. However, only Rochem's DT Reverse Osmosis configuration was effective. It reduced the effluent volume. The reduced volume effluent could be conclusively composted. It also enabled recovery of reuse-quality colorless water to the extent of 50% of original volume of effluent. This technique succeeded in achieving commercially viable means for zero-discharge.

Harshvardhan Madhusudan Modak; Prayas Kamlesh Goel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. November 1976-October 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for November 1976-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 294 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1976-June 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1988 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for January 1976-June 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 246 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Water treatment by reverse osmosis. November 1970-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1970-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning water purification systems and components using reverse-osmosis technology. Patents include systems and devices for sea water, waste water, and drinking water purification. Topics include complete purification systems, valves and distribution components, membranes, supports, storage units, and monitors. Water purification systems using activated charcoal are referenced in a related published bibliography. (Contains 103 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

225

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

226

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

227

Ultrasonic absorption in liquid mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, It is obvious that much moxe experimental dates both absorption snd thermalv is needed before this theory can be substantiated Purpose of the Investigation Ths present research was undertaken to investigate thoroughly ths absorption in mixtuxws of ethanol... Agricultural and lheohaaioal College of %nas ia partial fulfi&went of tbs aequtreaante for the daggse of ~t %53 ~or Sub)eot Pllgedss Table of Contents Ii Beokgxeund snd Theory Absorption in Pure Liqu1ds 8, Absorpt1on in Idquid Bixtures XI Purpose...

Davis, James Madison

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

228

Aqueous absorption fluids. Annual report, July 1987-June 1988  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the first year of study of aqueous-based working fluids that allow for air-cooled absorption chiller operation. The successful development of such fluids will eliminate the need for cooling towers in gas-fired chiller equipment for residential and unitary markets and possibly allow for building heating with absorbed heat. Several candidate fluids were investigated experimentally, and three were found to exhibit significant potential increases in absorber temperature of 13 to 27 F. Two candidates were retained for further investigation next year. A computer model for a single-stage absorption cycle was developed. The model will predict the cycle performance when additional fluid data from a test sorber are available.

Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Multiple Rankine topping cycles  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is primarily determined by the temperatures of heat addition and rejection. However, no working fluid has been identified which will operate in a Rankine cycle over an extremely wide temperature range. Multiple Rankine topping cycles offer a technique for achieving high thermal efficiencies in power plants by allowing the use of several working fluids. This paper gives a history of Rankine topping cycles, presents an analysis for the calculation of the overall efficiency of a three-module multiple Rankine cycle, and presents results from a case study for a sodium-mercury-water cycle.

McWhirter, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Engineering Div.]|[Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Coll. of Engineering

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Eta absorption by mesons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the $[SU(3)_{\\mathrm{L}} \\times SU(3)_{\\mathrm{R}}]_{\\mathrm{global}% }\\times [SU(3)_V]_{\\mathrm{local}}$ chiral Lagrangian with hidden local symmetry, we evaluate the cross sections for the absorption of eta meson ($% \\eta$) by pion ($\\pi$), rho ($\\rho$), omega ($\\omega$), kaon ($K$), and kaon star ($K^*$) in the tree-level approximation. With empirical masses and coupling constants as well as reasonable values for the cutoff parameter in the form factors at interaction vertices, we find that most cross sections are less than 1 mb, except the reactions $\\rho\\eta\\to K\\bar K^*(\\bar KK^*)$, $\\omega\\eta\\to K\\bar K^*(\\bar KK^*)$, $K^*\\eta\\to\\rho K$, and $K^*\\eta\\to\\omega K$, which are a few mb, and the reactions $\\pi\\eta\\to K\\bar K$ and $K\\eta\\to\\pi K$, which are more than 10 mb. Including these reactions in a kinetic model based on a schematic hydrodynamic description of relativistic heavy ion collisions, we find that the abundance of eta mesons likely reaches chemical equilibrium with other hadrons in nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

W. Liu; C. M. Ko; L. W. Chen

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

231

Poly(vinyl alcohol) gel sublayers for reverse osmosis membranes. I. Insolubilization by acid-catalyzed dehydration  

SciTech Connect

Both flat-sheet and tubular composite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were prepared by depositing aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and a dehydration catalyst on asymmetric poly(arylether sulfone) (PES) substrate membranes. The PVA coatings were insolubilized by heat treatment to create stable hydrophilic gel-layer membranes. The influence of variables such as PVA concentration, catalyst concentration, curing time, and curing temperature was investigated. It was shown that a simple manipulation of one or two variables could lead to membranes with widely differing salt retention and water permeability characteristics. The insolubilized PVA coatings were intended to serve as hydrophilic gel sublayers on which ultra thin salt-retention barriers could ultimately be formed by interfacial polycondensation. For this purpose, high-flux gel layers were required, whereas salt-retention capabilities were not regarded as important. However, the promising salt retentions obtained as 2 MPa (up to 85% NaCl retention and 92% MgSO[sub 4] retention) showed that some of these PES-PVA composite membranes could function as medium-retention, medium-flux RO membranes, even in the absence of an interfacially formed salt-retention barrier.

Immelman, E.; Sanderson, R.D.; Jacobs, E.P.; Van Reenan, A.J. (Univ. of Stellenbosch, (South Africa). Inst. of Polymer Science)

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

232

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis — Part III: Sensitivity to composition and hydraulic recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in voltage application and membrane type when treating brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) concentrate waste, which typically exceeds multiple salt solubility limits. Synthetic BWRO concentrates from Arizona, Texas, and Florida of 7890–18,600 mg/L total dissolved solids were prepared with 6–10 mg/L of poly-phosphonate antiscalants. Experimentation was performed using a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer a nominal transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic process samples were analyzed for anion and cation concentrations. The three BWRO concentrates were successfully treated with stack voltage applications of 1.0–1.5 V/cell-pair with initial current densities of 200–600 A/m2 and final salinity removal ratios up to 98%. This paper shows consistent specific energy consumption (approximately 0.03 kWh/m3 per Volt/cell-pair applied per meq/L separated) for electrodialysis treatment for several concentrates across a range of salinity and composition. Successive electrodialysis treatment recovered more than 78% of BWRO concentrate without precipitation, corresponding to calcite and dolomite saturation ratios of 15. These results demonstrate that electrodialysis processes can effectively minimize concentrate waste from BWRO processes, with simulated system recoveries up to 95%.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Treatment of model inland brackish groundwater reverse osmosis concentrate with electrodialysis—Part I: sensitivity to superficial velocity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of electrodialysis performance to variations in hydraulic flow when treating brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) concentrate waste. A synthetic BWRO concentrate from Arizona of 7890 mg/L total dissolved solids was prepared with poly-phosphonate antiscalants, and desalinated with a laboratory-scale electrodialyzer with 10 cell-pairs and a transfer area of 64 cm2 per membrane. Flow, pressure, conductivity, temperature, and pH were measured continuously, and periodic process samples were analyzed by ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for anion and cation concentrations, respectively. The BWRO concentrate was successfully treated with a stack voltage application of 1.0 V/cell-pair and current densities less than 280 A/m2 for salinity removal ratios up to 99% (without precipitation). The superficial velocities were controlled in a range of 1.2 to 4.8 cm/s, which corresponded to Reynolds numbers of 10 to 40. This paper shows the polarization parameter (ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 A/m2 per meq/L) as a function of Reynolds number and removal ratio, and, at maximum sensitivity, the polarization parameter was proportional to Reynolds number raised to the 0.132 power.

W. Shane Walker; Younggy Kim; Desmond F. Lawler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Edgeworth cycles revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend ...

Doyle, Joseph J.

236

The combined cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Any combination of at least two cyclic processes converting thermal energy (‘heat’) to work forms a combined cycle. In principle, the potential number of ... number of options reduces to a variety of cycles consi...

R. U. Pitt

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Water Cycle Pilot Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Water Cycle Pilot Study To learn more about Earth's water cycle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a multi-laboratory science team representing five DOE...

238

Thermal model of solar absorption HVAC systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a thermal model that describes the performance of solar absorption HVAC systems. The model considers the collector array, the building cooling and heating loads, the absorption chiller and the high temperature storage. Heat losses from the storage tank and piping are included in the model. All of the results presented in the paper are for an array of flat plate solar collectors with black chrome (selective surface) absorber plates. The collector efficiency equation is used to calculate the useful heat output from the array. The storage is modeled as a non-stratified tank with polyurethane foam insulation. The system is assumed to operate continuously providing air conditioning during the cooling season, space heating during the winter and hot water throughout the year. The amount of heat required to drive the chiller is determined from the coefficient of performance of the absorption cycle. Results are presented for a typical COP of 0.7. The cooling capacity of the chiller is a function of storage (generator) temperature. The nominal value is 190 F (88 C) and the range of values considered is 180 F (82 C) to 210 F (99 C). Typical building cooling and heating loads are determined as a function of ambient conditions. Performance results are presented for Sacramento, CA and Washington, D.C. The model described in the paper makes use of National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) data and results are presented for these two locations. The uncertainties in the NSRDB are estimated to be in a range of 6% to 9%. This is a significant improvement over previously available data. The model makes it possible to predict the performance of solar HVAC systems and calculate quantities such as solar fraction, storage temperature, heat losses and parasitic power for every hour of the period for which data are available.

Bergquam, J.B.; Brezner, J.M. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; [Bergquam Energy Systems, Sacramento, CA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

mathematics single cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

47 mathematics education single cycle master's study programme #12;48 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education #12;49 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education MATHEMATICS EDUCATION The program is in tune with the principles of the Bologna Declaration. · Academic title

Â?umer, Slobodan

240

Absorption properties of identical atoms  

SciTech Connect

Emission rates and other optical properties of multi-particle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas. -- Highlights: •The absorption rates of a pair of identical atoms in product and (anti)symmetrized states are different. •The modifications of the optical properties are essentially determined by the overlapping between the atoms. •The absorption properties differ, in some cases, for bosons and fermions.

Sancho, Pedro, E-mail: psanchos@aemet.es

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Cycle to Cycle Manufacturing Process Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most manufacturing processes produce parts that can only be correctly measured after the process cycle has been completed. Even if in-process measurement and control is possible, it is often too expensive or complex to ...

Hardt, David E.

242

The rediscovery of absorption chillers  

SciTech Connect

Absorption chillers are back - and for two very good reasons: they are environmentally sound and, in many cases, economically attractive. One factor fueling this resurgence is the outlook for natural gas, the energy source of most absorption systems. Deregulation has spurred exploration, and forecasts indicate an abundant supply and relatively low prices through 2050. Threats of global warming and depletion of the ozone layer also are forces driving the absorption chiller market. Being a good corporate citizen today means minimizing or eliminating the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the basis of many refrigerants used in mechanical chillers. Even as chemical and chiller manufacturers alike work to develop substitute refrigerants, the perfect alternative has yet to be found. Absorption units are free of these problems, a benefit that appeals to many people.

Katzel, J.

1992-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

243

Radiative muon absorption in oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The photon spectrum from radiative absorption of negative muons in O16 has been measured with a high-resolution pair spectrometer. The integrated branching ratio for photons with energies greater than 57 MeV relative to the total muon absorption rate is (3.8±0.4)×10-5. The data are consistent with nuclear model calculations for a value of the induced pseudoscalar coupling in O16 of gP/gA=13.5±1.5.

A. Frischknecht; M. Döbeli; W. Stehling; G. Strassner; P. Truöl; J. C. Alder; C. Joseph; J. F. Loude; J. P. Perroud; D. Ruegger; M. T. Tran; H. Panke

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Modeling of Powder Absorption in Additive Manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated optical absorption by a powder of metal spheres, via ray-trace calculations. The absorptivity significantly exceeds that for normal incidence, because of multiple...

Boley, Charles; Khairallah, Saad; Rubenchik, Alexander M

246

Modeling and optimization of hybrid wind–solar-powered reverse osmosis water desalination system in Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A hybrid wind/solar powered reverse osmosis desalination system has been modeled and simulated. The results of the simulation have been used to optimize the system for the minimum cost per cubic meter of the desalinated water. The performance of the hybrid wind/solar powered RO system has been analyzed under Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, weather data for a typical year. The performance has been evaluated under a constant RO load of 1 kW for 12 h/day and 24 h/day. The simulation results revealed that the optimum system that powers a 1-kW RO system for 12 h/day that yields a minimum levelized cost of energy comprises 2 wind turbines, 40 \\{PVs\\} modules and 6 batteries and the levelized cost of energy of such system is found to be 0.624 $/kW h. On the other hand, for a load of 1-kW for 24 h/day, the optimum system consists of 6 wind turbines, 66 \\{PVs\\} modules and 16 batteries with a minimum levelized cost of energy 0.672 $/kW h. Depending on the salinity of the raw water, the energy consumption for desalination ranges between 8 and 20 kW h/m3. This means that the cost of using the proposed optimum hybrid wind/solar system for water desalination will range between $3.693/m3 and $3. 812/m3 which is less than the range reported in the literature.

Esmail M.A. Mokheimer; Ahmet Z. Sahin; Abdullah Al-Sharafi; Ahmad I. Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Biofouling of reverse-osmosis membranes under different shear rates during tertiary wastewater desalination: Microbial community composition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We investigated the influence of feed-water shear rate during reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination on biofouling with respect to microbial community composition developed on the membrane surface. The RO membrane biofilm's microbial community profile was elucidated during desalination of tertiary wastewater effluent in a flat-sheet lab-scale system operated under high (555.6 s?1), medium (370.4 s?1), or low (185.2 s?1) shear rates, corresponding to average velocities of 27.8, 18.5, and 9.3 cm s?1, respectively. Bacterial diversity was highest when medium shear was applied (Shannon–Weaver diversity index H' = 4.30 ± 0.04) compared to RO-membrane biofilm developed under lower and higher shear rates (H? = 3.80 ± 0.26 and H? = 3.42 ± 0.38, respectively). At the medium shear rate, RO-membrane biofilms were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, whereas under lower and higher shear rates, the biofilms were dominated by Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria, and the latter biofilms also contained Deltaproteobacteria. Bacterial abundance on the RO membrane was higher at low and medium shear rates compared to the high shear rate: 8.97 × 108 ± 1.03 × 103, 4.70 × 108 ± 1.70 × 103 and 5.72 × 106 ± 2.09 × 103 copy number per cm2, respectively. Interestingly, at the high shear rate, the RO-membrane biofilm's bacterial community consisted mainly of populations known to excrete high amounts of extracellular polymeric substances. Our results suggest that the RO-membrane biofilm's community composition, structure and abundance differ in accordance with applied shear rate. These results shed new light on the biofouling phenomenon and are important for further development of antibiofouling strategies for RO membranes.

Ashraf Al Ashhab; Osnat Gillor; Moshe Herzberg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

On-Site Pilot Study - Removal of Uranium, Radium-226 and Arsenic from Impacted Leachate by Reverse Osmosis - 13155  

SciTech Connect

Conestoga-Rovers and Associates (CRA-LTD) performed an on-site pilot study at the Welcome Waste Management Facility in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effectiveness of a unique leachate treatment process for the removal of radioactive contaminants from leachate impacted by low-level radioactive waste. Results from the study also provided the parameters needed for the design of the CRA-LTD full scale leachate treatment process design. The final effluent water quality discharged from the process to meet the local surface water discharge criteria. A statistical software package was utilized to obtain the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the results from design of experiment applied to determine the effect of the evaluated factors on the measured responses. The factors considered in the study were: percent of reverse osmosis permeate water recovery, influent coagulant dosage, and influent total dissolved solids (TDS) dosage. The measured responses evaluated were: operating time, average specific flux, and rejection of radioactive contaminants along with other elements. The ANOVA for the design of experiment results revealed that the operating time is affected by the percent water recovery to be achieved and the flocculant dosage over the range studied. The average specific flux and rejection for the radioactive contaminants were not affected by the factors evaluated over the range studied. The 3 month long on-site pilot testing on the impacted leachate revealed that the CRA-LTD leachate treatment process was robust and produced an effluent water quality that met the surface water discharge criteria mandated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the local municipality. (authors)

McMurray, Allan; Everest, Chris; Rilling, Ken [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada)] [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Dr, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Vandergaast, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON (Canada); LaMonica, David [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)] [RoChem Membrane Systems Inc., 430 30th Street, Hermosa Beach, CA (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Life Cycle Cost Estimate  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

251

Saturable absorption and 'slow light'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantitative evaluation of some recent 'slow light' experiments based on coherent population oscillations (CPO) shows that they can be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. Therefore they do not provide an unambiguous demonstration of 'slow light'. Indeed a limiting condition on the spectral bandwidth is not generally satisfied, such that the requirements for burning a narrow spectral hole in the homogeneously broadened absorption line are not met. Some definitive tests of 'slow light' phenomena are suggested, derived from analysis of phase shift and pulse delay for a saturable absorber

Adrian C Selden

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

252

Parametric analysis of a double-effect steam absorption chiller  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development in the field of refrigeration and cooling systems based on absorption cycles has attained its own internal dynamic in the last decade. A major obstacle for developing model is the lack of available component specifications. These specifications are commonly proprietary of the chiller's manufacturers and normally the available information is not sufficient. This work presented a double-effect parallel-flow-type steam absorption chiller model based on thermodynamic and energy equations. The chiller studied is 1250 RT (Refrigeration Tons) using lithium bromide -water as working pair. The mathematical equations that govern the operation of the steam absorption chiller are developed and from the available design data the values of the overall heat transfer coefficient multiplied by the heat exchanger surface area and the characteristics of each component of the absorption chiller at the design point are calculated. For thermo physical and thermodynamic properties for lithium bromide-water solution set of computationally efficient formulations are used. The model gives the required information about temperature concentration and flow rate at each state point of the system. The model calculates the heat load at each component as well as the performance of the system.

Mojahid Sid Ahmed Mohammed Salih Ahmed; Syed Ihtsham Ul-Haq Gilani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Transient Xray absorption features in GRBs 1 Transient XRay Absorption in GRBs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to photoelectric absorption or other atomic processes.) The transient nature of the absorptionTransient X­ray absorption features in GRBs 1 Transient X­Ray Absorption in GRBs and its Abstract The recent detection of a transient absorption feature in the prompt emission of GRB 990705 has

Boettcher, Markus

254

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS Gary C . V l i e t , Michael B . Lawson, and Rudolf0 A . Lithgow Center f o r Energy Studies The University of Texas a t Austin December 1980 Final Report f o r Contract: DE AC03-79SF10540 (Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

255

Infrared absorption coefficients of gaseous chlorine nitrate at 296 K  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine nitrate (ClONO{sub 2}) is a temporary reservoir species which couples the ClO{sub x} and NO{sub x} catalytic cycles responsible for ozone depletion in the stratosphere. The identification and quantitative estimation of ClONO{sub 2} in the stratosphere has been achieved using its characteristic absorptions around 1,292 cm{sup {minus}1}. Peak and integrated absorption coefficients of the {nu}{sub 1}, {nu}{sub 2}, {nu}{sub 3} and {nu}{sub 4} fundamental bands of chlorine nitrate were measured at resolutions of 0.13 cm{sup {minus}1} for both pure and pressure-broadened samples at 296 K. The results are compared to previous literature data.

Tuazon, E.C. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA)); Wallington, T.J. (Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (USA))

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Lithium bromide absorption chiller passes gas conditioning field test  

SciTech Connect

A lithium bromide absorption chiller has been successfully used to provide refrigeration for field conditioning of natural gas. The intent of the study was to identify a process that could provide a moderate level of refrigeration necessary to meet the quality restrictions required by natural-gas transmission companies, minimize the initial investment risk, and reduce operating expenses. The technology in the test proved comparatively less expensive to operate than a propane refrigeration plant. Volatile product prices and changes in natural-gas transmission requirements have created the need for an alternative to conventional methods of natural-gas processing. The paper describes the problems with the accumulation of condensed liquids in pipelines, gas conditioning, the lithium bromide absorption cycle, economics, performance, and operating and maintenance costs.

Lane, M.J.; Huey, M.A. [Nicol and Associates, Richardson, TX (United States)

1995-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Interferometric tunability of the absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an interferometric setup that permits to tune the quantity of radiation absorbed by an object illuminated by a fixed light source. The method can be used to selectively irradiate portions of an object based on their transmissivities or to accurately estimate the transmissivities from rough absorption measurements.

Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

258

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

259

Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, twenty times more potent than CO2, but atmospheric concentrations of CH4 under future climate change are...

260

IFR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation.

Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Malone cycle refrigerator development  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the progress made in demonstrating a Malone Cycle Refrigerator/Freezer. The Malone cycle is similar to the Stirling cycle but uses a supercritical fluid in place of real gas. In the approach, solid-metal diaphragms are used to seal and sweep the working volumes against the high working fluid pressures required in Malone cycle machines. This feature eliminates the friction and leakage that accounted for nearly half the losses in the best piston-defined Malone cycle machines built to date. The authors successfully built a Malone cycle refrigerator that: (1) used CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, (2) operated at pressures up to 19.3 Mpa (2,800 psi), (3) achieved a cold end metal temperatures of {minus}29 C ({minus}20 F), and (4) produced over 400 Watts of cooling at near ambient temperatures. The critical diaphragm components operated flawlessly throughout characterization and performance testing, supporting the conclusion of high reliability based on analysis of fatigue date and actual strain measurements.

Shimko, M.A.; Crowley, C.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Absorption properties of identical atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emission rates and other optical properties of multiparticle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas.

Pedro Sancho

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Photodetector with enhanced light absorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

Kane, James (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Phosphate Absorption and Utilization by Barley  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SINCE the processes of absorption and translocation are closely ... of absorption and translocation are closely interrelated in the intact plant, the nutrient content of roots is both determined by the ...

1953-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

265

DNA Concentration By UV Spectrophotometry Measure Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DNA Concentration By UV Spectrophotometry Measure Absorption: 1. Dilute DNA to 0.5 to 50 µg 2. Measure absorption at 260 nm (A260). Start by zeroing instrument with TE buffer or dH2O alone

Aris, John P.

266

ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS OF EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY WITH ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ALGEBRAIC ASPECTS OF EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY WITH ABSORPTION L. Hajdu and R. Tijdeman Abstract of emission tomography with absorption, con- sider a ray (such as light or X-ray) transmitting through #1; e #22;x ; where #22; #21; 0 denotes the absorption coeĂ?cient of the material, and x is the length

Tijdeman, Robert

267

Absorption Coefficients and Impedance Daniel A. Russell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Absorption Coefficients and Impedance Daniel A. Russell Science and Mathematics Department will measure the absorption coefficients and acoustic impedance of samples of acoustic absorbing materials material is responsible for almost 50% of sound absorption inside an automobile). The reverberation time

Russell, Daniel A.

268

Discriminant Absorption Feature Learning for Material Classification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Discriminant Absorption Feature Learning for Material Classification Zhouyu Fu, Antonio Robles in spectral imaging by combining the use of invariant spectral absorption features and statistical machine learning techniques. Our method hinges in the relevance of spectral absorption features for material

Robles-Kelly, Antonio

269

Enhanced Absorption Induced by a Metallic Nanoshell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhanced Absorption Induced by a Metallic Nanoshell Roi Baer* Department of Physical Chemistry ABSTRACT Nanoshells have been previously shown to have tunable absorption frequencies that are dependent on the ratio of their inner and outer radii. Inspired by this, we ask: can a nanoshell increase the absorption

Baer, Roi

270

LIMITING ABSORPTION PRINCIPLE FOR SINGULARLY PERTURBED OPERATORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LIMITING ABSORPTION PRINCIPLE FOR SINGULARLY PERTURBED OPERATORS WALTER RENGER Abstract. Given an operator H 1 for which a limiting absorption principle holds, we study operators H 2 which are produced that (except for possibly a discrete set of eigenvalues) a limiting absorption principle holds for H 2 . We

271

Absorption cross section in Lifshitz black hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the absorption cross section of a minimally coupled scalar in the Lifshitz black hole obtained from the new massive gravity. The absorption cross section reduces to the horizon area in the low energy and massless limit of s-wave mode propagation, indicating that the Lifshitz black hole also satisfies the universality of low energy absorption cross section for black holes.

Taeyoon Moon; Yun Soo Myung

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

272

Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Improvement of zinc intestinal absorption and reduction of zinc/iron interaction of caseins, improves its absorption and could prevent inhibition by other nutrients such as iron (Fe). The absorption of Zn (100 Ilmol/L) bound to the 1-25 CN ((3-CN(1-25)) of (3-casein, or as ZnS04 was studied using

Boyer, Edmond

273

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2/9/07 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 9, 07] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

274

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9/6/09 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 6, 09] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

275

Sustainable reverse osmosis desalination.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The need for fresh water is growing rapidly with the growth in population and increase in industrial demands. The natural resources are no longer able… (more)

Moridpour, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Helium process cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

277

Helium process cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

278

Energy absorption behaviors of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigating high-performance energy absorption materials,investigating high-performance energy absorption materials,high energy absorption efficiency of nanoporous materials

Kim, Tae Wan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Salicylate Toxicity from Ingestion and Continued Dermal Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of salicylate dermal absorption and toxicity. REFERENCESand Continued Dermal Absorption Rachel L. Chin, MD*, Kent R.bases in the percutaneous absorption of salicylates II. J

Chin, Rachel L; Olson, Kent R; Dempsey, Delia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

SENSITIVE OPTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE BY RESONANCE ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monoxide by Resonance Absorption Robert Gerlach and Nabil M.MONOXIDE BY RESONANCE ABSORPTION Robert Gerlach and Nabil M.the context of atmospheric absorption. The carbon monoxide

Gerlach, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Absorption of Foliar-Applied Nitrogen by Cotton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wax, and nitrogen-15 absorption. Crop Science 37:807-811.water- deficit stress, and the absorption of foliar-appliedgrowth favorable for N absorption and translocation. Four

Oosterhuis, Derrick M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Energy absorption behaviors of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a nanoporous energy absorption system by using chemicalSurani, and Y. Qiao, "Energy absorption of nanoporous silicaSAN DIEGO Energy Absorption Behaviors of Nanoporous

Kim, Tae Wan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARp?) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution Benjamin Brant Sabine Brueske Donald Erickson Riyaz Papar Planetec Planetec Energy Concepts Company Energy... in Denver, Colorado. The Waste Heat Ammo nia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP?) is based on a patented process and cycle design developed by Energy Concepts Co. (ECC) to cost effectively re cover 73,000 barrels a year of salable LPGs and gasoline...

Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

284

High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption 1 Motivation and the jet. #12;High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 2/114 HST optical image of 3C273 Note: Emission and Absorption 3/114 Set of 3 images of the jet of 3C273. Left: HST Middle: Chandra X-ray Right

Bicknell, Geoff

285

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plant Cycling Costs Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-55433 July 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Prepared under Subcontract No. NFT-1-11325-01

286

Aqueous absorption fluids. Annual report, July 1989-October 1990  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the third year of study of aqueous-based working fluids that will allow air-cooled absorption chiller operation. The successful development of such fluids will eliminate the need for cooling towers in gas-fired chiller equipment for residential and unitary markets and possibly allow for building heating with absorber heat. The thermophysical property measurements were completed and the vapor pressure and specific heat data were used to compute the enthalpy of LB621-H2O solutions. Solution film heat transfer coefficients were measured in the test sorber apparatus and a dramatic increase in film heat transfer was observed in the presence of heat transfer additives. Measured equilibrium and film heat transfer data were used in the single-stage absorption cycle computer model to analyze the potential performance of LB621-H2O; the analysis confirmed the superiority of LB621-H2O as a single-stage working fluid. In addition, thermal stability and corrosion rate tests demonstrated that LB621-H2O is stable and non-corrosive in a single-stage absorption chiller environment.

Langeliers, J.; Chandler, T.; Rockenfeller, U.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Radiative muon absorption in calcium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The photon spectrum from radiative absorption of negative muons in Ca40 has been measured with a high-resolution pair spectrometer. The data are analyzed in order to determine the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant gp in nuclear matter. When compared to models which use a realistic nuclear response function and avoid the closure approximation, a value of gp/gA=4.0±1.5 is obtained, which indicates a quenching of this coupling compared to the nucleonic value by a factor 0.57±0.25.

A. Frischknecht; W. Stehling; G. Strassner; P. Truöl; J. C. Alder; C. Joseph; J. F. Loude; J. P. Perroud; D. Ruegger; T. M. Tran; W. Dahme; H. Panke; R. Kopp

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

mathematical Study program cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TSW ECTS TSW Fundamentals of statistics 2 2 0 5 150 0 0 0 0 0 5 150 Probability 4 3 0 10 300 0 0 0 0 0127 mathematical statistics Master's study programms #12;128 #12;· Study program cycle: Second Statistics. In Slovenian: magister matematicne statistike (masculine), magistrica matematicne statistike

Â?umer, Slobodan

290

CLASS DESCRIPTIONS CYCLING SERIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will utilize concepts from the 50-minute cycling class while going the distance to optimal health. Whether you're an avid cyclist, triathlete, or desire a longer class for a greater challenge, join us for this 75-minute AN URBANATHLETE Are you registered to compete in an adventure race like the Men's Health Urbanathlon, Warrior Dash

Pittendrigh, Barry

291

Formaldehyde Absorption toward W51  

SciTech Connect

We have measured formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) absorption toward the HII region complex W51A (G49.5-0.4) in the 6 cm and 2 cm wavelength rotational transitions with angular resolution of approximately 4 inch. The continuum HII region shows a large, previously undetected shell structure 5.5 pc along the major axis. We observe no H{sub 2}CO emission in regions of low continuum intensity. The absorption, converted to optical depth, shows a higher degree of clumping than previous maps at lower resolution. The good S/N of the maps allows accurate estimation of the complicated line profiles, showing some of the absorbing clouds to be quite patchy. We list the properties of the opacity spectra for a number of positions both in the clumps and in the more diffuse regions of the absorbing clouds, and derive column densities for the 1{sub 11} and 2{sub 12} rotational levels of ortho-formaldehyde.

Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Bennett, C.L.; Petuchowski, S.J.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

D-Cycle - 4-Differential -Stroke Cycle | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

-Stroke Cycle The D-Cycle offers the opportunity to use less fuel and gain more power while being able to be retrofit to an OEM and aftermarket engines deer09conti.pdf...

293

Experimental investigation of an advanced adsorption refrigeration cycle  

SciTech Connect

Experimental measurements are made for a silica gel-water advanced absorption refrigeration chiller (1.2-kW [4,095-Btu/h] cooling capacity) to evaluate its performance under different temperature and adsorption/desorption cycle time conditions. This paper describes the operating principle of the chiller, outlines the experimental hardware, and discusses results obtained by varying the cooling and hot water inlet temperatures and adsorption/desorption cycle times, as well as their agreement with the simulated results given by a lumped parameter model. The chiller performance is analyzed in terms of cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP). Excellent qualitative agreement was obtained between the experimental data and simulated results. The results showed the advanced three-stage cycle to be particularly well suited for operation with low-grade-temperature waste heat as the driving source, since it worked with small regenerating temperature lifts (heat source-heat sink temperature) of 10 to 30 K.

Saha, B.B.; Kashiwagi, Takao [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Mechanical Systems Engineering Dept.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

Silicate absorption in heavily obscured galaxy nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopy at 8-13 microns with T-ReCS on Gemini-S is presented for 3 galaxies with substantial silicate absorption features, NGC 3094, NGC 7172 and NGC 5506. In the galaxies with the deepest absorption bands, the silicate profile towards the nuclei is well represented by the emissivity function derived from the circumstellar emission from the red supergiant, mu Cephei which is also representative of the mid-infrared absorption in the diffuse interstellar medium in the Galaxy. There is spectral structure near 11.2 microns in NGC 3094 which may be due to a component of crystalline silicates. In NGC 5506, the depth of the silicate absorption increases from north to south across the nucleus, suggestive of a dusty structure on scales of 10s of parsecs. We discuss the profile of the silicate absorption band towards galaxy nuclei and the relationship between the 9.7 micron silicate and 3.4 micron hydrocarbon absorption bands.

P. F. Roche; C. Packham; D. K. Aitken; R. E. Mason

2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

295

Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Daniel Alonso; Gerardo Adesso

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

296

Backscatter absorption gas imaging system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

McRae, Jr., Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Olefin recovery via chemical absorption  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of fight olefins in petrochemical plants has generally been accomplished through cryogenic distillation, a process which is very capital and energy intensive. In an effort to simplify the recovery process and reduce its cost, BP Chemicals has developed a chemical absorption technology based on an aqueous silver nitrate solution. Stone & Webster is now marketing, licensing, and engineering the technology. The process is commercially ready for recovering olefins from olefin derivative plant vent gases, such as vents from polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene oxide, and synthetic ethanol units. The process can also be used to debottleneck C{sub 2} or C{sub 3} splinters, or to improve olefin product purity. This paper presents the olefin recovery imp technology, discusses its applications, and presents economics for the recovery of ethylene and propylene.

Barchas, R. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Houston, TX (United States)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

BNL | Carbon Cycle Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding of the impacts of global change on managed and unmanaged ecosystems and improve knowledge of possible global change mitigation approaches. The group has three main focus areas. FACE Climate Change Experimental Facility Design and Management The CCS&T group is an internationally recognized leader in the development of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) research facilities. We are interested in the design and management of manipulative experiments that examine the effects of carbon dioxide, ozone, other atmospheric pollutants, temperature and precipitation on natural and managed ecosystems. FACE Plant Physiology and High Throughput Biochemical Phenotyping At FACE facilities we have studied the mechanisms that underlie the

299

Fuel Cycle Subcommittee  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report to NEAC Report to NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Meeting of April 23, 2013 Washington D.C. June 13, 2013 Burton Richter (Chair), Margaret Chu, Darleane Hoffman, Raymond Juzaitis, Sekazi K Mtingwa, Ronald P Omberg, Joy L Rempe, Dominique Warin 2 I Introduction and Summary The Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC met in Washington on April 23, 2013. The meeting focused on issues relating to the NE advanced reactor program (sections II, III, and IV), and on storage and transportation issues (section V) related to a possible interim storage program that is the first step in moving toward a new permanent repository as recommended by the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) and discussed in the recent response by DOE to Congress on the BRC report 1 . The agenda is given in

300

CANDU fuel cycle flexibility  

SciTech Connect

High neutron economy, on-power refuelling, and a simple bundle design provide a high degree of flexibility that enables CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium; registered trademark) reactors to be fuelled with a wide variety of fuel types. Near-term applications include the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), and recovered uranium (RU) from reprocessed spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Plutonium and other actinides arising from various sources, including spent LWR fuel, can be accommodated, and weapons-origin plutonium could be destroyed by burning in CANDU. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. The thorium cycle remains of strategic interest in CANDU to ensure long-term resource availability, and would be of specific interest to those countries possessing large thorium reserves, but limited uranium resources.

Torgerson, D.F.; Boczar, P.G. [Chalk River Lab., Ontario (Canada); Dastur, A.R. [AECL CANDU, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

USCEA fuel cycle '93  

SciTech Connect

The US Council for Energy Awareness sponsored the Fuel Cycle '93 conference in Dallas, Texas, on March 21-24, 1993. Over 250 participants attended, numerous papers were presented, and several panel discussions were held. The focus of most industry participants remains the formation of USEC and the pending US-Russian HEU agreement. Following are brief summaries of two key papers and the Fuel Market Issues panel discussion.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling Cummins...

303

Direct and quantitative absorptive spectroscopy of nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic nanostructures exhibit unique optical properties that are attractive in many different applications. However, measuring the optical properties of individual nanostructures, in particular the absorptive properties, ...

Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

An Analysis of Cloud Absorption During  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Cloud Absorption During ARESE II (Spring 2000) D. M. Powell, R. T. Marchand, and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction...

305

MEASUREMENT OF VISIBLE LIGHT ABSORPTION BY ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy Commission under contract ... the measurement of light absorption by these particles is .... poorer resolution by the Hubbard unit is largely the result of a

306

Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on the first experiments on saturable absorption in graphene at microwave frequency band. Almost independent of the incident frequency, microwave absorbance of graphene...

Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhao, Chujun; Lu, Shunbin; Chen, Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

American business cycles and innovation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

introduces the concepts of innovation and invention. The second section discusses the business cycles and highlights general causes of business cycles. The final section details the history of the iron, steel, aluminum, and pharmaceutical industries...

Hood, Michael

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

308

Edinburgh Research Explorer Money Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Edinburgh Research Explorer Money Cycles Citation for published version: Clausen, A & Strub, C 2014 'Money Cycles' Edinburgh School of Economics Discussion Paper Series. Link: Link to publication record date: 11. Dec. 2014 #12;Edinburgh School of Economics Discussion Paper Series Number 249 Money Cycles

Millar, Andrew J.

309

HEURISTIC SEARCH FOR HAMILTON CYCLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by combining it with the remaining cycles. The following is the description of the main part of the algorithmHEURISTIC SEARCH FOR HAMILTON CYCLES IN CUBIC GRAPHS Janez ALES, Bojan MOHAR and Tomaz PISANSKI. A successful heuristic algorithm for nding Hamilton cycles in cubic graphs is described. Several graphs from

Mohar, Bojan

310

MULTIPARAMETER OPTIMIZATION STUDIES ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CYCLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Practical Cycles for Geothermal Power Plants." GeneralDesign and Optimize Geothermal Power Cycles." Presented atof Practical Cycles for Geothermal Power Plants." General

Pope, W.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

THE TRANSPOSED CRITICAL TEMPERATURE RANKINE THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Process Program for Geothermal Power Plant Cycles,'*for a Rankine Cycle Geothermal Power Plant," Proceedings,Design and Optimize Geothermal Power Cycles," presented at

Pope, William L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

n-step cycle inequalities - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

also introduced the so-called cycle inequalities (called 1-step cycle inequalities in this ...... combination of the cycle detection strategy of Tarjan [16] and the ...

2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

313

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

life-cycle energy requirements (e total ) and global warmingtotal life-cycle global warming impacts. Chapter 3 Life-cycle Energy and Global

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator  

SciTech Connect

This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

Sullivan, John

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

315

Development of a new feed channel spacer for reverse osmosis elements. Phase 2 final report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

During Phase 1, computer modeling techniques were used as the prime instrument of evaluation of designs for a new feed channel spacer to replace the 30 mil thick standard mesh (Vexar) spacer currently used in ROWPU [Reverse Osmosis Water Processing Unit] spiral-wound elements. A hemispherical peg model, based on a Bed of Nails concept developed in Phase 1, was selected for prototype production of spiral-wound elements for field testing. Evaluation in the See-Thru test cell to observe pressure drops through the spacer, feed mixing patterns and ease of cleaning fouled membrane samples showed considerable benefit over Vexar. This design would be suitable for production by roll embossing (or rotary punching) methods instead of expensive injection molding techniques. A 10{1/2} inch die set was fabricated to prove this concept using a 12 ton press brake. Due to a number of factors, however, the equipment did not work as anticipated and numerous modifications are currently in progress. This work will continue at no cost to the government until completed. A seawater test system has been constructed for field testing of various commercially available feed channel spacers for comparison with the Vexar spacer.

Milstead, C.E.; Riley, R.L.

1998-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

316

Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid therebetween and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data.

Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is described for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid there between and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data. 2 figures.

Prather, W.S.

1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

318

Transient simulation of absorption machines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller and predicts its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shutoff period. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified in this study. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steady-state value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation. The evaluation of the residual capacity in the shut-off period will yield more realistic estimates of chiller COP for a chiller satisfying dynamic space cooling load.

Anand, D.K.; Allen, R.W.; Kumar, B.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Transient simulation of absorption machines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller and predicts its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shutoff period. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified in this study. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steadystate value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation. The evaluation of the residual capacity in the shut-off period will yield more realistic estimates of chiller COP for a chiller satisfying dynamic space cooling load.

Anand, D.K.; Allen, R.W.; Kumar, B.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Coherent Perfect Absorption of Single Photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the question of coherent perfect absorption (CPA) of single photons, and more generally, of the quantum fields. We show the CPA of path entangled single photons in a Fabry-Perot interferometer containing an absorptive medium. The frequency of perfect absorption can be controlled by changing the interferometer parameters like the reflectivity and the complex dielectric constant of the material. We exhibit similar results for path entangled photons in micro-ring resonators. For entangled fields like the ones produced by a down converter the CPA aspect is evident in phase sensitive detection schemes such as in measurements of the squeezing spectrum.

Huang, Sumei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Multiphonon Absorption in NaF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The infrared absorption in NaF at the two CO2 laser wavelengths 10.6 and 9.3 ?m was measured between 4 and 400 K. The results complement the previously measured absorption for higher temperatures, and allow for a detailed comparison with theoretical predictions. The experimental temperature dependence at 10.6 ?m can be excellently fitted by a curve expected for three-phonon processes in the whole temperature range; the absorption at 9.3 ?m fits a mixture of three- and four-phonon processes.

Dieter W. Pohl and Peter F. Meier

1974-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

322

Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling  

SciTech Connect

We consider a mirror-symmetric resonator with two ports. We show that, when excited from a single port, complete absorption can be achieved through critical coupling to degenerate resonances with opposite symmetry. Moreover, any time two resonances with opposite symmetry are degenerate in frequency and absorption is always significantly enhanced. In contrast, when two resonances with the same symmetry are nearly degenerate, there is no absorption enhancement. We numerically demonstrate these effects using a graphene monolayer on top of a photonic crystal slab, illuminated from a single side in the near-infrared.

Piper, Jessica R., E-mail: jrylan@stanford.edu; Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [Ginzton Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

323

Open cycle thermoacoustics  

SciTech Connect

A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

Reid, Robert Stowers

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Absorption and Scattering When we have both variations in both absorption and scattering, the solution to the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 6 Absorption and Scattering When we have both variations in both absorption and scattering of absorption and scatttering. 6.1 Simulation Results For the following simulationsthe forward data were of the simulation. #12;Absorption and Scattering 107 We have reconstructed images of scattering and absorption

325

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption cycle heat Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Laboratory - Building Technologies Research and Integration Center Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 2 Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering...

326

Hyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the frequency of a laser with respect to an atomic spectral feature.[20] As such, saturated absorptionHyperfine Studies of Lithium Vapor using Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.3 Broadening Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.4 Saturated Absorption

Cronin, Alex D.

327

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biologically Relevant Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

308, Messer, B. M. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of AqueousSarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy 5.1 Introductionwith Carboxylate by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Liquid

Uejio, Janel Sunayo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

THE RELATION OF BACKSCATTERING TO SELF-ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of backscattering upon salf-absorption correction data, somemg/cm I Figure 1. Self-absorption Correction Curves forof backsc3ttering upon self-absorption correction curves are

Yankwich, Peter E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Solar absorption by Mie resonances in cloud droplets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the enhancement factor for absorption of light by carbonKlett JD. Black carbon and absorption of solar radiation bySize parameter; Particle absorption; Water clouds; Aerosols

Zender, Charles S; Talamantes, Jorge

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Carbon Cycle 2.0  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Cycle 2.0 Carbon Cycle 2.0 Pioneering science for sustainable energy solutions Artificial Photosynthesis Energy Storage Combustion Carbon Capture & Storage Developing World Efficiency Photovoltaics Biofuels Energy Analysis Climate Modeling Carbon Cycle 2.0 is... 1. A vision for * a global energy system integrated with the Earth's natural carbon cycles * an interactive Berkeley Lab environment with a shared sense of purpose 2. A program development plan that will allow us to deepen our capabilities and provide more opportunities to have impact 3. An attempt to integrate our basic research with applications using models of technology deployment constraints 4. Set of internal activities aimed at priming the effort

331

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program to provide computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings.

332

Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

333

Molecular absorption in transition region spectral lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: We present observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of absorption features from a multitude of cool atomic and molecular lines within the profiles of Si IV transition region lines. Many of these spectral lines have not previously been detected in solar spectra. Methods: We examined spectra taken from deep exposures of plage on 12 October 2013. We observed unique absorption spectra over a magnetic element which is bright in transition region line emission and the ultraviolet continuum. We compared the absorption spectra with emission spectra that is likely related to fluorescence. Results: The absorption features require a population of sub-5000 K plasma to exist above the transition region. This peculiar stratification is an extreme deviation from the canonical structure of the chromosphere-corona boundary . The cool material is not associated with a filament or discernible coronal rain. This suggests that molecules may form in the upper solar atmosphere on small spatial scales...

Schmit, Donald; Ayres, Thomas; Peter, Hardi; Curdt, Werner; Jaeggli, Sarah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Visible spectrometer utilizing organic thin film absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I modeled and developed a spectrometer for the visible wavelength spectrum, based on absorption characteristics of organic thin films. The device uses fundamental principles of linear algebra to reconstruct ...

Tiefenbruck, Laura C. (Laura Christine)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Virtuous Cycle Cycles of activity and software projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inspection #12;Programming Cycle - single bug Selected Bug Shared Code Fix Bug Continuous Integration ~8 cycle cvscheck compilation style checking testing javadocs documentation jumble quality of unit testing #12;NetValue Development cvscheck - Source Code Control and Build Shared Centralized Automatic

Pfahringer, Bernhard

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption model Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stochastic absorption for the modeling of absorption... absorption eliminates the reflection that ... Source: Pradhan, Prabhakar - Department of Electrical and Computer...

337

Two-Photon Absorption and Coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the probabilities for two-photon absorption processes induced by both coherent and thermal light when acting on an atomic system. Calculations are performed with quantum electrodynamics, and we find results similar to those obtained with semiclassical methods; that is, the two-photon absorption probability depends on the statistical properties of the light used. This probability assumes its maximum value for coherent light.

S. Carusotto; G. Fornaca; E. Polacco

1967-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

Coherence and Two-Photon Absorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A kinetic theory of the two-photon absorption from a single mode of the radiation field is presented. It is found that, in general, the rate of two-photon absorption depends on certain correlation functions, and hence on the coherence properties, of the field. The results are applied to the case of a pure coherent state and the case of a chaotic field.

P. Lambropoulos; C. Kikuchi; R. K. Osborn

1966-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

339

Absorption cross section of RN black hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The behavior of a charged scalar field in the RN black hole space time is studied using WKB approximation. In the present work it is assumed that matter waves can get reflected from the event horizon. Using this effect, the Hawking temperature and the absorption cross section for RN black hole placed in a charged scalar field are calculated. The absorption cross section $\\sigma _{abs}$ is found to be inversely proportional to square of the Hawking temperature of the black hole.

Sini R.; V. C. Kuriakose

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

340

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of absorption heat...

342

Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectrometry configurations...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trace Elements in Biological Tissues by Summary: Block Digestion and Spike-Height Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ,.. U. TINGGI AND W. MAHER School... absorption...

344

Self-corrected Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

corrected Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy For Atom Flux Measurements In Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Self-corrected Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy For...

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectrometry analyticalmethod...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trace Elements in Biological Tissues by Summary: Block Digestion and Spike-Height Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ,.. U. TINGGI AND W. MAHER School... absorption...

346

Charge Resonance Effects on Electronic Absorption Line Shapes: Application to the Heterodimer Absorption of Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the formalism of Fano's treatment for atomic absorption line shapes associated with autoionization (Fano, UCharge Resonance Effects on Electronic Absorption Line Shapes: Application to the Heterodimer Absorption of Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers Huilin Zhou and Steven G. Boxer* Department

Boxer, Steven G.

347

Small capacity absorption systems for cooling and power with a scroll expander and ammonia based working fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Up to now, the use of ammonia/water absorption cycles has been mainly limited to the production of refrigeration or air conditioning but due to the relatively high generator pressure some authors have proposed the integration in parallel of an expander to produce cooling and power simultaneously. This feature could provide many benefits in the future such as the use of solar thermal energy to partially cover the heating, cooling and electricity demand of a building. In the other hand the life cycle cost of the absorption system is improved because of the increase in the number of running hours in periods in which there is no demand for cooling but the demand for electrical power is still important. This paper shows a new combined absorption system using a scroll expander and three different working fluids using ammonia as refrigerant: ammonia/water, ammonia/lithium nitrate and ammonia/sodium thiocyanate. The scroll expander performance maps were obtained experimentally and modeled to predict the power production, rotational speed and exhaust temperature of the expander and included in the complete absorption cycle model build using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) Software. This system produces different amounts of cooling and power at the desired power/cooling ratio to cover varying demand profiles.

Luis Carlos Mendoza; Dereje S. Ayou; Joaquín Navarro-Esbrí; Joan Carles Bruno; Alberto Coronas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Life Cycle Asset Management  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

(The following directives are deleted or consolidated into this Order and shall be phased out as noted in Paragraph 2: DOE 1332.1A; DOE 4010.1A; DOE 4300.1C; DOE 4320.1B; DOE 4320.2A; DOE 4330.4B; DOE 4330.5; DOE 4540.1C; DOE 4700.1). This Order supersedes specific project management provisions within DOE O 430.1A, LIFE CYCLE ASSET MANAGEMENT. The specific paragraphs canceled by this Order are 6e(7); 7a(3); 7b(11) and (14); 7c(4),(6),(7),(11), and (16); 7d(4) and (8); 7e(3),(10), and (17); Attachment 1, Definitions (item 30 - Line Item Project, item 42 - Project, item 48 - Strategic System); and Attachment 2, Contractor Requirements Document (paragraph 1d regarding a project management system). The remainder of DOE O 430.1A remains in effect. Cancels DOE O 430.1. Canceled by DOE O 413.3.

1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

349

Natural Gas Combined Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The “Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program ” is being conducted by B&W at Reliant Energy’s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio. The total estimated cost of $1,864,603 is co-funded by DOE contributing 37.5%, OCDO providing 33.3 % and B&W providing 17%. The remaining 12 % is in-kind contributions by Reliant Energy and tubing suppliers. Materials development is important to the power industry, and to the use of coal. Figure 1 compares the cost of electricity for subcritical and supercritical coal-fired plants with a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plant based on an 85 % capacity factor. This shows that at $1.20/MBtu for fuel, coal is competitive with NGCC when gas is at $3.40/MBtu or higher. An 85 % capacity factor is realistic for a coal-fired plant, but NGCC plants are currently only achieving about 60%. This gives coal an advantage if compared on the basis of cost per kW generated per year. When subcritical and supercritical plants are compared,

Dennis K. Mcdonald; Subcritical Coal Plant; Supercritical Coal Plant

350

Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

Judith A. Kieffer

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop  

SciTech Connect

This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Working fluid for Rankine cycle  

SciTech Connect

A Rankine cycle working fluid is disclosed containing a mixture of 2,2,3,3tetrafluoropropanol and water, which is low toxic, incombustible, nonexplosive, noncorrosive and stable, and also has a high critical temperature and forms azeotropic-like composition. It is suited for use in a rankine cycle using heat source of low temperature.

Aomi, H.; Enjo, N.

1980-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

353

Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb, , G. Gauliera , C. Hurlinb aUniversity Maastricht proposes a new approach to date extreme financial cycles. Elabo- rating on recent methods in extreme value theory, it elaborates an extension of the famous calculus rule to detect extreme peaks and troughs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Reading Comprehension - The Water Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Water Cycle The Water Cycle Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation The _________ moon sun water clouds evaporates _________ fish oceans rain water from lakes and oceans. As the air rises, it cools. The water vapor condenses into tiny droplets of _________ evaporation clouds water sunshine . The droplets crowd together and form a _________ cloud lake storm precipitation . Wind blows the _________ rain sun droplet cloud towards the land. The tiny droplets join together and fall as precipitation to the _________ river lake ground cloud . The water soaks into the ground and collects in _________ rivers and lakes oceans and clouds jars and cups plants and animals . The _________ storm cycle river house that never ends has started again! A water cycle diagram. Use the diagram to identify the different parts of the water cycle:

355

CMVRTC: Heavy Truck Duty Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heavy truck duty cycle (HTDC) project heavy truck duty cycle (HTDC) project OVERVIEW The Heavy Truck Duty Cycle (HTDC) Project was initiated in 2004 and is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies Program. ORNL designed the research program to generate real-world-based duty cycle data from trucks operating in long-haul operations and was designed to be conducted in three phases: identification of parameters to be collected, instrumentation and pilot testing, identification of a real-world fleet, design of the data collection suite and fleet instrumentation, and data collection, analysis, and development of a duty cycle generation tool (DCGT). ANL logo dana logo michelin logo Schrader logo This type of data will be useful for supporting energy efficiency

356

Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison  

SciTech Connect

This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC.

Li, J.; McNelis, D. [Institute for the Environment, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Yim, M.S. [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Quantifying the Magnitude of Anomalous Solar Absorption  

SciTech Connect

The data set from ARESE II, sponsored by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, provides a unique opportunity to understand solar absorption in the atmosphere because of the combination of three sets of broadband solar radiometers mounted on the Twin Otter aircraft and the ground based instruments at the ARM Southern Great Plains facility. In this study, we analyze the measurements taken on two clear sky days and three cloudy days and model the solar radiative transfer in each case with two different models. On the two clear days, the calculated and measured column absorptions agree to better than 10 Wm-2, which is about 10% of the total column absorption. Because both the model fluxes and the individual radiometer measurements are accurate to no better than 10 Wm-2, we conclude that the models and measurements are essentially in agreement. For the three cloudy days, the model calculations agree very well with each other and on two of the three days agree with the measurements to 20 Wm-2 or less out of a total column absorption of more than 200 Wm-2, which is again agreement at better than 10%. On the third day, the model and measurements agree to either 8% or 14% depending on which value of surface albedo is used. Differences exceeding 10% represent a significant absorption difference between model and observations. In addition to the uncertainty in absorption due to surface albedo, we show that including aerosol with an optical depth similar to that found on clear days can reduce the difference between model and measurement by 5% or more. Thus, we conclude that the ARESE II results are incompatible with previous studies reporting extreme anomalous absorption and can be modeled with our current understanding of radiative transfer.

Ackerman, Thomas P.; Flynn, Donna M.; Marchand, Roger T.

2003-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

358

Solar absorption aqua-ammonia absorption system simulation base on climate of Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy is one of the most well known green sources of energy. This research presents a feasibility study of evacuated solar thermal collector by aqua-ammonia ejector absorption systems as a small scale air conditioning unit. The modeling has been ... Keywords: ejector, evacuated tubes, solar assisted absorption system

Poorya Ooshaksaraei; Sohif Mat; M. Yahya; Ahmad Mahir Razali; Azami Zaharim; K. Sopian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

X-ray bandwidth: Determination by on-edge absorption and effect on various absorption experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray bandwidth: Determination by on-edge absorption and effect on various absorption experiments of an x-ray source is increasingly important in fundamental experi- ments and critical applications. The bandwidth of an x-ray beam, selected from a synchrotron radiation spectrum for example, ultimately defines

Chantler, Christopher T.

360

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program or Field Office: Advanced Research Projects Agency - Program or Field Office: Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Proiect Title: 0289-1628 Battelle - Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis Cycle Location: Ohio Proposed Action or Project Description: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Funding will support laboratory and bench scale research and development on a novel reverse osmosis process for use in commercial cooling applications. The proposed work is consistent with the goal of BEETIT: the development of energy efficient cooling technologies and air conditioners for buildings, to save energy and reduce GHG emissions. Proposed work consists entirely of RD&D and proof-of-concept work to be completed in Battelle's Thermal Sciences Laboratory in Columbus, Ohio.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

23: Categorical Exclusion Determination 23: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004923: Categorical Exclusion Determination Battelle-Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Reverse Absorption Osmosis Cycle CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/04/2010 Location(s): Columbus, Ohio Office(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy Funding will support laboratory and bench scale research and development on a novel reverse osmosis process for use in commercial cooling applications. The proposed work is consistent with the goal of Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices: the development of energy efficient cooling technologies and air conditioners for buildings, to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Proposed work consists entirely of research, development, and demonstration and proof-of-concept work to be

362

Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Long-Pathlength Infrared Absorption Measurements in the 8- to 14-µm Atmospheric Window: Self-Broadening Coefficient Data T. J. Kulp (a) and J. Shinn Geophysics and Environmental Research Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California Introduction The accurate characterization of the latent infrared (IR) absorption in the atmospheric window regions continues to be an area of research interest for the global climate modeling community. In the window between 8 and 14 µm, this absorption can be attributed primarily to water vapor. It consists of 1) weak lines originating from the edge of the water vapor pure rotational band (at low wavenumbers) and the trailing P-branch of the υ 2 rovibrational band (at the high-wavenumber boundary of the window); and 2) the

363

Atomic and Molecular Absorption at High Redshift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strong constraints on possible variations in fundamental constants can be derived from HI 21-cm and molecular rotational absorption lines observed towards quasars. With the aim of forming a statistical sample of constraints we have begun a program of systematic searches for such absorption systems. Here we describe molecular rotational searches in 25 damped Lyman-alpha systems where, in many cases, we set optical depth limits an order of magnitude better than that required to detect the 4 known redshifted millimeter-wave absorbers. We also discuss the contributory factors in the detectability of HI 21-cm absorption, focusing on possible biases (e.g.low covering factors) in the currently known sample of absorbers and non-detections.

S. J. Curran; J. K. Webb; M. T. Murphy; Y. M. Pihlström

2004-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

364

Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods  

SciTech Connect

Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Absolute absorption spectroscopy based on molecule interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new method to measure the absolute photon absorption cross section of neutral molecules in a molecular beam. It is independent of our knowledge of the particle beam density, nor does it rely on photo-induced fragmentation or ionization. The method is based on resolving the recoil resulting from photon absorption by means of near-field matter-wave interference, and it thus applies even to very dilute beams with low optical densities. Our discussion includes the possibility of internal state conversion as well as fluorescence. We assess the influence of various experimental uncertainties and show that the measurement of absolute absorption cross sections is conceivable with high precision and using existing technologies.

Stefan Nimmrichter; Klaus Hornberger; Hendrik Ulbricht; Markus Arndt

2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

366

Continuous Photoelectric Absorption Cross Section of Helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The continuous photoelectric absorption cross section of helium has been measured in the spectral region extending from 180 to 600 A with greater accuracy and the observations are found to agree with the calculations of Huang and Stewart and Wilkinson. A grazing incidence spectrometer with a photomultiplier was used for a single measurement at 180 A while the remaining measurements were carried out in a normal incidence spectrometer utilizing photographic techniques. Whereas in previous experiments the absorbing gas sample was allowed to fill the entire spectrometer chamber, in the current measurements the gas was confined to a small cell provided with sufficiently transparent windows. The use of an absorption cell reduces contamination and facilitates the measurement of gas pressures. The results indicate that the cross section varies from a value of 0.98±0.04 Mb at 180 A to a value of 7.7±0.3 Mb at the absorption edge located at 504 A.

D. J. Baker; Jr.; D. E. Bedo; D. H. Tomboulian

1961-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12  

SciTech Connect

The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

Bauman, L.E.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Anomalous Light Absorption by Small Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new type of resonant light absorption by a small particle (nanocluster) is reported. The problem cannot be described within the commonly used dipole scattering approximation and should be studied with methods based upon the exact Mie solution. It is shown that the absorption cross-section has giant maxima realized at small values of the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity of the particle. The maxima are situated in the vicinity of the plasmon (polariton) resonances and correspond to the regions where the dissipative damping equals the radiative one. The case is similar to the recently introduced anomalous scattering [PRL vol. 97, 263902 (2006)] and exhibits similar peculiarities.

Michael I. Tribelsky

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

Multi-plasmon absorption in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that graphene possesses a strong nonlinear optical response in the form of multi-plasmon absorption, with exciting implications in classical and quantum nonlinear optics. Specifically, we predict that graphene nano-ribbons can be used as saturable absorbers with low saturation intensity in the far-infrared and terahertz spectrum. Moreover, we predict that two-plasmon absorption and extreme localization of plasmon fields in graphene nano-disks can lead to a plasmon blockade effect, in which a single quantized plasmon strongly suppresses the possibility of exciting a second plasmon.

Marinko Jablan; Darrick E. Chang

2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

Modified discrete random walk with absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We obtain expected number of arrivals, probability of arrival, absorption probabilities and expected time before absorption for a modified discrete random walk on the (sub)set of integers. In a [pqrs] random walk the particle can move one step forward or backward, stay for a moment in the same state or it can be absorbed immediately in the current state. M[pqrs] is a modified version, where probabilities on both sides of a multiple function barrier M are of different [pqrs] type.

Theo van Uem

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

371

CMVRTC: Medium Truck Duty Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

medium truck duty cycle (MTdc) project medium truck duty cycle (MTdc) project OVERVIEW The Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project involves efforts to collect, analyze and archive data related to medium-truck operations in real-world driving environments. Such data and information will be useful to support technology evaluation efforts and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within medium-class truck analyses. The project involves private industry partners from various truck vocations. The MTDC project is unique in that there currently does not exist a national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. This project involves the collection of data from multiple vocations (four vocations) and multiple vehicles within these vocations (three vehicles per

372

Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

THE TRANSPOSED CRITICAL TEMPERATURE RANKINE THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combined Diesel-Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant", in25OoC) closed simple organic Rankine cycle geothermal powerthe simple closed organic Rankine cycle for a given set of

Pope, William L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an ...

Passerini, Stefano

375

Measurement of Broad Absorption Features Using a Tunable External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the use of a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system for measurement of broad absorption features in the mid-infrared spectral region. The thermoelectrically cooled external cavity laser was tuned over a 65 cm-1 range centered at 8.7 microns using stepper motor control. Pulsing the laser at a high duty cycle provided 3-5 mW average output power over the tuning range, and enabled phase-sensitive detection of amplitude-modulated signals. We used the laser system to measure the absorption spectra of Freon-125 using a Herriott cell. In addition, the absorption spectrum of water in the laboratory air was measured. The measurements showed excellent agreement with reference spectra, in both wavelength and amplitude. The measured scan resolution of 0.14 cm-1 is suitable for measurement of the absorption features of complex molecules as well as simple molecules with atmospherically broadened lines. We discuss the limits to the scan resolution due to effects of spectral chirp and mode-hops during pulsed operation.

Phillips, Mark C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

376

Treatment of municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate using UVC-LED/H2O2 with and without coagulation pre-treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The potential of a prototype batch reactor using ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVC-LEDs) which emit at 255 nm in conjunction with H2O2 for the treatment of a highly saline (electrical conductivity ?22 mS/cm; DOC 32–37.5 mg/L) municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate was investigated. Mineralization of organic content (measured as DOC) was low (22%) due to the low fluence rate (0.14 mW/cm2), however, a large reduction in colour (94%) and A254 (75%) occurred after delivering a UV fluence of 48 × 103 mJ/cm2 at the original pH of 8.3. Fairly similar results were obtained at pH 7, but the reduction of DOC increased at lower pH with 38% and 36% achieved at pH 4 and 5, respectively. Similar trends were observed for colour and A254 reduction. These results, in conjunction with excitation–emission matrix spectra, biological dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) assay and apparent molecular size distribution, demonstrated that the prototype system led to the breakdown of the chromophore bonds and thus changes in the molecular structure, and degradation of high molecular weight (MW) compounds to low MW compounds. Coagulation (1.5 and 3 mmol L?1 Al3+ at pH 5) led to a significant reduction of DOC (34–38%), colour (50–66%) and A254 (47–54%), and subsequent UVC/H2O2 treatment led to further reduction in these parameters. For a target DOC reduction of 15 mg/L, the EE/O was 15 kWh/m3 when coagulation was used as pre-treatment to the UVC/H2O2 treatment (UV fluence 36 × 103 mJ/cm2) and it reduced to less than half after biological treatment (as BDOC assay). This study demonstrated the potential of UV-LEDs as an alternative UV source for degrading the organic matter in ROC using advanced oxidation.

M. Umar; F.A. Roddick; L. Fan; O. Autin; B. Jefferson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Exergy Analysis of Stirling Cycle Cryogenerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exergy or the available work energy function is ... various systems. This paper attempts to present exergy analysis for Stirling cycle cryogenerator. The cycle...

K. G. Narayankhedkar

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Harmonic wavelet analysis of modulated tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the direct absorption characteristics of atomic or molecular absorption lines. This is accomplishedHarmonic wavelet analysis of modulated tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy signals Hong analyses of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy signals were performed. The absorption spectroscopy

Cheng, Harry H.

379

Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

SUPPLY-SIDE OPTIMIZATION : MAXIMIZING ABSORPTIVE RATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-benefit optimization of the ingestion process alone . We have continued to develop and modify chemical reactor theoryI l SUPPLY-SIDE OPTIMIZATION : MAXIMIZING ABSORPTIVE RATES W. Brian Dade, Peter A. Jumars engineering aimed at the analysis and design of chemical reactors to analyze the process of digestion

Jumars, Pete

382

Effective design for absorption and stripping  

SciTech Connect

Absorption and stripping transfer one or more constituents from a gas stream to a liquid stream (absorption) or from a liquid stream to a gas stream (strippling). Both are widely used in the process industries, for product manufacture and environmental protection alike. They are most often carried out counter currently in packed towers. The aim here is not to reproduce absorption and stripping theory, adequately given elsewhere. Instead, the authors offer practical, often overlooked guidelines and key equations for effective design of packed absorption or stripping towers. The design task consists mainly of two interrelated parts: the hydraulic design and the mass transfer design. Hydraulic design determines the tower diameter; the mass transfer design sets the packed height within the tower. A third basic consideration is the type and size of packing. If these are not given beforehand, the designer should select a packing for which hydraulic and mass-transfer data are available, and which falls in the 1-to-2-in. nominal size range for random packing (which includes over 90% of all applications) or has nominal 1/2-in. crimp height for structured packing.

McNulty, K.J. (Koch Engineering Co., Wilmington, MA (United States))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Absorption on horizon-wrapped branes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the absorption cross section of space-time scalars on a static D2 rane, in global coordinates, wrapped on the S^2 of an AdS_2 X S^2 X CY_3 geometry. We discuss its relevance for the construction of the dual quantum mechanics of Calabi-Yau black holes.

S. Ansari; G. Panotopoulos; I. Sachs

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

384

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

Microwave Absorption Spectrum of ND3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main J=K sequence of inversion lines of the ND3 absorption spectrum were observed and measured between 1589 and 2540 Mc. Quantum numbers up to J, K=18, 18 were assigned by the use of an approximate empirical formula.

R. G. Nuckolls; L. J. Rueger; Harold Lyons

1953-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic nanostructuring of electrodes Michael M. Adachi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada, 2 Province, 230009, P. R. China. Solution processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have great

387

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Revision 2, March 2012 DOE/NETL-2012/1551 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

388

Dopant induced ignition of helium nanodroplets in intense few-cycle laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate ultrafast resonant energy absorption of rare-gas doped He nanodroplets from intense few-cycle (~10 fs) laser pulses. We find that less than 10 dopant atoms "ignite" the droplet to generate a non-spherical electronic nanoplasma resulting ultimately in complete ionization and disintegration of all atoms, although the pristine He droplet is transparent for the laser intensities applied. Our calculations at those intensities reveal that the minimal pulse length required for ignition is about 9 fs.

Krishnan, S R; Kremer, M; Sharma, V; Fischer, B; Camus, N; Jha, J; Krishnamurthy, M; Pfeifer, T; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J; Stienkemeier, F; Mudrich, M; Mikaberidze, A; Saalmann, U; Rost, J -M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

The behavioral manipulation hypothesis Life cycle of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 The behavioral manipulation hypothesis · No one knows how the parasite causes these Life cycle eat mostly hares · Linked cycles? Predator-Prey Cycles? · Think and then discuss: · Under the hypothesis that predators cause this cycle, what would you expect for the following when hare populations

Mitchell, Randall J.

390

SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Technologies applicable to SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling are disclosed, including SNMR acquisition apparatus and methods, SNMR processing apparatus and methods, and combinations thereof. SNMR acquisition may include transmitting two or more SNMR pulse sequences and applying a phase shift to a pulse in at least one of the pulse sequences, according to any of a variety cycling techniques. SNMR processing may include combining SNMR from a plurality of pulse sequences comprising pulses of different phases, so that desired signals are preserved and indesired signals are canceled.

Walsh, David O; Grunewald, Elliot D

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

391

Simple ocean carbon cycle models  

SciTech Connect

Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

Caldeira, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffert, M.I. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth System Sciences; Siegenthaler, U. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators using a Joule Thomson circuit precooled by commercially available two staged Gifford Mac Mahon cryocoolers. The Joule Thomson counterflow heat exchangers are modular and have been thermo-hydraulically characterized. Fully automatic cool down and operation are achieved by two pneumatically driven by pass and expansion valves. Several apparatus have been built or are under assembly with cooling power ranging from 100 mW up to 5 Watt, for temperature ranging from 2.8 K up to 4.5 K. A trouble free operation with several warm up and cool down cycles has been proven over 7000 hours.

G. Claudet; R. Lagnier; A. Ravex

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Analysis of Cyclotron Absorption in Bismuth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Classical magnetoionic theory is used for calculating the absorption of microwaves in bismuth in the presence of a dc magnetic field. The detailed calculations are based on the models of the energy surfaces in momentum space for holes and electrons obtained from de Haas-van Alphen and galvanomagnetic experiments. Expressions are derived for the conductivities and resonance masses. Numerical computations of absorption vs magnetic field are made using the data from Shoenberg's de Haas-van Alphen experiments for the masses of the electrons. Since some of the experimental data for the holes is incomplete, the analysis takes this into account through the use of several choices of hole masses. The results are compared with those of preliminary microwave experiments. The limitations of the analysis, which neglects the anomalous skin effect and possible anisotropy of scattering, are discussed.

Benjamin Lax, K. J. Button, H. J. Zeiger, and Laura M. Roth

1956-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Solar absorption cooling in South China  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a major energy research project carried out in China and Hong Kong over the last ten years. It covers medium temperature solar collectors, cooling and hot water supply systems and describes the design and manufacture of a novel two-stage absorption Li-Br chiller. One of the primary objectives of this project was to encourage technology transfer to China of the manufacturing processes relating to medium temperature solar collectors.

Ward, H.S.; Chu, C.Y. [Lingnan College/Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang, Z.C.; Xia, W. [Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion (China)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

The absorption of ultrasonic waves in liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vee ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ea ~ ~ ~ eee ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ea ~ ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ?easursasnt of ths Prop-:. ties of:asss and Liquids by Ultrasonicseae ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ dies Borne erscsnt Theories ConcsrrrinS the Oisorsparrcy 3e tween... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 3Q VI, Plot of' Los A /A vs~ Sound Path Length Ital ZthoI' 1Mox' Ppoalul'oe ~ ~ a ~ y ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ e s ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ a ~ ~ 3) xxeasuraaents oa the absorption of high frequency souad. waves ia liquids axe useful ia studying...

Hudson, Paul A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

396

Oral absorption of apramycin in newborn calves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a model is the Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. animals in other species may also have a larger extent of absorption than older animals. Apramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic which is active against some gram... to healthy newborn (less than 24 hours old) veal calves than calves that are 3 weeks old. If the drug is absorbed, it indicates that neonatal calves have a greater capacity to absorb a poorly absorbed drug, thereby potentiating possible problems...

Buck, Joan Marjorie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

397

Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match $50\\,\\Omega$ and its response has been validated from 0-to-50\\,GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20\\,GHz design band is greater than $20\\,$dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

Wollack, E J; Rostem, K; U-Yen, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous

Rochelle, Gary T.

399

Determination of Mercury in Soils by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...chemical analysis exploration flameless geochemical methods mercury...Determination of Mercury in Soils by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry...Determinationof Mercury in Soilsby Flameless Atomic AbsorptionSpectrometry...the mercuryre- RF Induction Heater work coils 1. Carriergas...

B. G. Weissberg

400

Direct Refrigeration from Heat Recovery Using 2-Stage Absorption Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorption chiller which can produce chilled water 44% more efficiently than the conventional single stage absorption chillers. The new 2-stage parallel flow system makes the chiller package more compact, more efficient, and easier to operate. Many types...

Hufford, P. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heat absorption method for an absorption chiller. It comprises: providing a firs absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range, providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range; heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution; thermal communication with an external heat load. This patent describes a heat absorption apparatus for use as an absorption chiller. It includes: a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature relative to the first temperature range; the first circuit having generator means, condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operatively connected together; the second circuit having generator means condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operative connected together; and the first circuit condenser means and the first circuit absorber means being in heat exchange communication with the second circuit generator means.

DeVault, R.C.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

402

Modular simulation and thermodynamic analysis of absorption heat pumps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absorption technique for refrigeration or air conditioning is ... using CFCs as working fluids in the conventional chillers based on the vapor compression technique. The absorption systems use thermal energy ...

Sana El May; Ismail Boukholda; Ahmed Bellagi

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Perkin Elmer 500, Chemistry & Biochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry · Perkin Elmer 500, Chemistry & Biochemistry · Perkin Elmer 560 AA-star stopped flow with absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism detection · KinTek quench flow apparatus

Gruner, Daniel S.

404

Energy Absorption from Ocean Waves: A Free Ride for Cetaceans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cetaceans are capable of absorbing energy from ocean waves for propulsion. The extent of...following seas. Consequences of wave-energy absorption for energetics of...following seas. Consequences of wave-energy absorption for energetics of...

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (TES) Project Team: S. Bare 1,2 , J. Brandes 3 , T. Buonassisi 4 , J. Chen 5,2 , M. Croft 6 , E. DiMasi 7 , A. Frenkel 8,2 , D. Hesterberg 9 , S. Hulbert 7,2 , S. Khalid 7 , S. Myneni 10 , P. Northrup 7,11 , E.T. Rasbury 11 , B. Ravel 12 , R. Reeder 11 , J. Rodriguez 7,2 , D. Sparks 5,13 , V. Stojanoff 7 , G. Waychunas 14 1 UOP LLC, 2 Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium, 3 Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, 4 MIT Laboratory for Photovoltaics Research, 5 Univ. of Delaware, 6 Rutgers Univ., 7 Brookhaven National Lab, 8 Yeshiva Univ., 9 North Carolina State Univ., 10 Princeton Univ., 11 Stony Brook Univ., 12 NIST, 13 Delaware Environmental Inst., 14 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab TECHNIQUES: High performance and in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially-resolved XAS of

406

Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs. 4 figs.

Weimer, R.F.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

407

Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs.

Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Atomic Absorption Method Guide Zn in Copper Alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atomic Absorption Method Guide Zn in Copper Alloys Principle The sample is digested in nitric/hydrochloric acid, and zinc is determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using an air-acetylene flame · Copper Alloys · Zinc · Flame · Atomic Absorption Method Guide: 40158 #12;©2008 Thermo Fisher Scientific

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

409

Laser Locking with Doppler-free Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

there are many ways to stabilize the frequency of a laser, atomic absorption lines are particularly accurate are made, it becomes possible to resolve the saturated absorption lines that correspond to specific atomic absorption spectroscopy. This affects the number of atoms in the ground state and excited state

Novikova, Irina

410

LATTICE DYNAMICS NUCLEAR RESONANCE ABSORPTION OF GAMMA-RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

crystalline domains are taken. Absorption studies of the dynamics of atomic motions in condensed matterLATTICE DYNAMICS NUCLEAR RESONANCE ABSORPTION OF GAMMA-RADIATION AND COHERENT DECAY MODES Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, Grenoble, France R6sumb. -La section efficace pour l'absorption nucleaire

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

Colossal Absorption of Molecules Inside Single Terahertz Nanoantennas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colossal Absorption of Molecules Inside Single Terahertz Nanoantennas Hyeong-Ryeol Park, Kwang Jun: Molecules have extremely small absorption cross sections in the terahertz range even under resonant to be enhanced by >103 accompanied by a colossal absorption coefficient of 170 000 cm-1 . Tens of nanograms

Park, Namkyoo

412

Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013 Tunable mid-infrared laser absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorption spectroscopy F. K. TITTEL and R. LEWICKI, Rice University, USA DOI: 10 absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and recent examples of their use in field deployable optical instruments detection methods that include several types of multipass gas absorption cells with the option to apply

413

On the Absorption and Emission Properties of Interstellar Grains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our current understanding of the absorption and emission properties of interstellar grains are reviewed. The constraints placed by the Kramers-Kronig relation on the wavelength-dependence and the maximum allowable quantity of the dust absorption are discussed. Comparisons of the opacities (mass absorption coefficients) derived from interstellar dust models with those directly estimated from observations are presented.

Aigen Li

2005-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

414

HHFW absorption in Neutral-Beam heated NSTX plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HHFW absorption in Neutral-Beam heated NSTX plasmas B. LeBlanc, M. Podestà, W. Heidbrink XP -1012 ions Need to characterize RF absorption as a function of RF phasing, L vs. H-mode plasmas, outer gap, optimized for FIDA measurements · Similar to 2008 FIDA experiment on RF absorption by fast ions · NB sources

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

415

QSO Metal Absorption Systems at High Redshift Toru Misawa1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

QSO Metal Absorption Systems at High Redshift Toru Misawa1 , Nobunari Kashikawa2 , Youichi Ohyama2 Abstract. Quasar absorption systems give us useful information about very faint objects that we cannot detect directly. For example, metal absorption systems are generally provided by star formation

Iye, Masanori

416

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall loading. The absorption rate did not follow pseudo first-order beha®ior except at ®ery low loading. All

Rochelle, Gary T.

417

Optical absorption spectra and geometric e ects in higher fullerenes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical absorption spectra and geometric e ects in higher fullerenes (Running head: Optical absorption in higher fullerenes) Kikuo Harigaya and Shuji Abe Physical Science Division, Electrotechnical of their amplitudes at the pentagons. The oscillator strengths of projected absorption almost accord with those

Harigaya, Kikuo

418

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption? T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh Department independent of absorption, i.e., D0 v/3 s . After presentation of the general theoretical arguments underlying this assertion, Monte Carlo simulations are performed and explicitly reveal that the absorption- independent

Boas, David

419

SPECTRA OF CRITICAL EXPONENTS IN NONLINEAR HEAT EQUATIONS WITH ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SPECTRA OF CRITICAL EXPONENTS IN NONLINEAR HEAT EQUATIONS WITH ABSORPTION V.A. GALAKTIONOV AND P of the classical porous medium equation with absorption u t = #1;u m u p in R N #2; R+ change their large-time behaviour at the critical absorption exponent p 0 = m+2=N . We show that, actually, there exists an in#12

Bath, University of

420

Assertion Absorption in Object Queries over Knowledge Bases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assertion Absorption in Object Queries over Knowledge Bases Jiewen Wu, Alexander Hudek, David Toman contribute to this development by introducing a novel adaptation of bi- nary absorption for DL knowledge satisfaction problems in which consistency is assumed, and then revisit absorption in this new setting. To date

Waterloo, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Gel deswelling under reverse osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When a swollen gel is pressed into contact with a semipermeable membrane the solvent is squeezed out at the interface and the gel deswells. The rate at which the gel far from the interface advances is found to be proportional to [(P 0?E)/f t]1/2 where P 0 is the applied pressure E the longitudinal elastic modulus of the gel f the friction coefficient between the solvent and polymer and t the elapsed time. Satisfactory agreement is found between the experimental macroscopic values of E obtained in this way for polyacrylamide gels at two concentrations and the microscopic values of E obtained from inelastic light scattering.

A. M. Hecht; E. Geissler

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

SPECIES DETERMINATION OF ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS USING ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY WITH LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compounds Using Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy WithCompounds Using Zeeman ,Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy withcapabilities of Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy (ZAA)

Koizumi, H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

November 11-16 9 1979 X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THEUniversity of California. ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THEand x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy. The first

Jaklevic, J. M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Absorption and scattering by long and randomly oriented linear chains of spheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experimental measurements absorption and scattering cross-C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of LightScattering and absorption of light by nonspherical

Lee, Euntaek; Pilon, Laurent

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON NICKEL FILMS: A LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DETECTION TECHNIQUE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. B. Optical System Absorption Signal C. Small SignalNoise . Sensitivity of Absorption Spectroscopy EXPERIMENTSINFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON

Bailey, Robert Brian

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption line indices Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for: absorption line indices Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Interstellar Absorption Lines and the Halo Summary: Interstellar Absorption Lines and the Halo History Discoveries...

427

Rankine and Brayton Cycle Cogeneration for Glass Melting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rankine cycle, b) an organic Rankine cycle, c) an indirectly heated positive pressure Brayton cycle and d) a directly heated subatmospheric Brayton cycle. For the specified flue gas temperatures considered, the organic Rankine cycle produced the most...

Hnat, J. G.; Patten, J. S.; Sheth, P. R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Definition: Rankine cycle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rankine cycle Rankine cycle Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Rankine cycle Sometimes referred to as the steam cycle. Fuel is used to heat a liquid to produce a high pressure gas that expands and produces work, such as turning a turbine; when the turbine is connected to a generator, it produces electricity. Usually water is the liquid used in the Rankine cycle (to produce steam), but other liquids can also be used. The exhaust vapor expelled from the turbine condenses and the liquid is pumped back to the boiler to repeat the cycle.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The Rankine cycle is a mathematical model that is used to predict the performance of steam engines. The Rankine cycle is an idealised thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical

429

CO2 emission reduction from natural gas power stations using a precipitating solvent absorption process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There has been a rapid increase in the use of natural gas for power generation based on gas turbine technology which elevates the importance of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology to reduce CO2 emissions from gas turbine based power stations. The low content of CO2 in the gas turbine exhaust results in low rates of CO2 absorption and larger absorption equipment when compared to studies done on coal fired power stations. Furthermore the high oxygen (O2) content in the exhaust gas adversely affects the solvent stability, particularly for the traditional amine based solvents. This paper describes how exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) along with CO2CRC's low cost “UNO MK 3” precipitating potassium carbonate (K2CO3) process can overcome the challenges of CO2 capture from gas turbine power stations. To further bring down the energy requirements of the capture process, heat integration of the UNO MK 3 process with power generation process is carried out. An economic analysis of the various retrofit options is performed. The current study shows that in the case of retrofitting the UNO MK 3 process to a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), the use of EGR can reduce the energy penalty of CO2 capture by 15%, whilst a reduction of up to 25% can be achieved with the heat integration strategies described. Significantly the study shows that converting an existing open cycle gas turbine (OCGT) to a combined cycle with steam generation along with retrofitting CO2 capture presents a different steam cycle design for the maximum power output from the combined cycle with CO2 capture. Such a conversion actually produces more power and offers an alternative low emission retrofit pathway for gas fired power. Cost analysis shows that inclusion of the UNO MK 3 CO2 capture process with EGR to an existing NGCC is expected to increase the cost of electricity (COE) by 20%. However, retrofit/repowering of an underutilised or peaking OCGT station with the inclusion of CO2 capture can reduce the COE as well as produce low emission power. This is achieved by increasing the load factor and incorporating a purpose built steam generation cycle.

Jai Kant Pandit; Trent Harkin; Clare Anderson; Minh Ho; Dianne Wiley; Barry Hooper

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Kalina combined cycle performance and operability  

SciTech Connect

Gas turbine combined cycles using Rankine bottoming cycles have gained broad market acceptance. The favorable plant economics derive from their high efficiency, short construction cycles and excellent environmental performance. The responsive operating characteristics of combined cycles is another key advantage for customers. Duty cycles cover the spectrum from daily start stop (DSS) to base load. Performance and economics of combined cycles have progressed with advances in gas turbine technology as well as the introduction of increasingly efficient multi-pressure Rankine bottoming cycles. Further advances in gas turbine technology and Rankine bottoming cycle performance are becoming incrementally more difficult and costly to achieve. The availability of the Kalina cycle presents a clear path toward improved combined-cycle system performance and reduced cost of electricity. This paper presents detailed performance and operating characteristics of a STAG 207FA combined cycle employing the Kalina bottoming cycle. These characteristics are compared to a conventional three-pressure reheat Rankine bottoming cycle. The Kalina cycle is shown to have performance and operability advantages throughout the range of site conditions and operating regimes, such as base load, load following, DSS duty, wet and dry cooling tower applications and unattended operation. These advantages derive from a single-pressure once-through heat recovery system, above atmospheric working fluid pressure throughout the system, above atmospheric working fluid pressure throughout the system, very high thermal efficiency ({approximately}2.0 to 2.5 percentage points better than the best Rankine), and compatibility with sub-freezing ambient conditions.

Smith, R.W.; Ranasinghe, J.; Stats, D.; Dykas, S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

VISION - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s (AFCI) fundamental objective is to provide technology options that - if implemented - would enable long-term growth of nuclear power while improving sustainability and energy security. The AFCI organization structure consists of four areas; Systems Analysis, Fuels, Separations and Transmutations. The Systems Analysis Working Group is tasked with bridging the program technical areas and providing the models, tools, and analyses required to assess the feasibility of design and deployment options and inform key decision makers. An integral part of the Systems Analysis tool set is the development of a system level model that can be used to examine the implications of the different mixes of reactors, implications of fuel reprocessing, impact of deployment technologies, as well as potential "exit" or "off ramp" approaches to phase out technologies, waste management issues and long-term repository needs. The Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) is a computer-based simulation model that allows performing dynamic simulations of fuel cycles to quantify infrastructure requirements and identify key trade-offs between alternatives. It is based on the current AFCI system analysis tool "DYMOND-US" functionalities in addition to economics, isotopic decay, and other new functionalities. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI and Generation IV reactor development studies.

Steven J. Piet; A. M. Yacout; J. J. Jacobson; C. Laws; G. E. Matthern; D. E. Shropshire

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

SciTech Connect

A heat absorption method for an absorption chiller is described comprising: (a) providing a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; (b) providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature than the first temperature range; (c) heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution from the first circuit condenser and absorber with absorption solution from the generator of the second circuit; and (d) the evaporator of the first circuit and the evaporator of the second circuit both being disposed in thermal communication with an external heat load to withdraw heat from the heat load.

De Vault, R.C.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

433

Rankine cycle leak detection via continuous monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Rankine cycle power plants operate on a closed cycle in which heat is transferred from a high temperature reservoir to a low temperature sink while performing useful work. leaks in this cycle cause the loss of working fluid and/or corrosion of the power plant. Both of these constitute a loss of capital assets. A severe leak can reduce the efficiency of the cycle to the extent of creating an operating loss. PNL is undertaking the development of continuous monitoring techniques to protect rankine cycle plants from such losses. The location of these continuous monitors on an organic rankine cycle is described and shown schematically.

Kindle, Cecil H.

1982-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

434

CO2 Offset Options: Comparative Assessment of Terrestial Sinks vs. Natural Gas Combined Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

W. South (south@energyresources.com; 202-785-8833) W. South (south@energyresources.com; 202-785-8833) Energy Resources International, Inc. 1015 18 th Street, N.W., Suite 650 Washington, DC 20036 CO 2 Offset Options: Comparative Assessment of Terrestial Sinks vs. Natural Gas Combined Cycle 1 Abstract This study compares the economic value of two CO 2 mitigation actions: terrestrial reforestation to sequester CO 2 emitted from coal-fired power generation versus natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power generation to avoid (minimize) CO 2 release. The same quantity of carbon offset was assumed for both actions. Tree stock growth, carbon absorption/release cycles, and replanting were considered to maintain the quantity of carbon offset via reforestation. The study identified important parameters with both CO 2 mitigation options that should be considered when examining alternative strategies.

435

Improved self-absorption correction for extended x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements  

SciTech Connect

Extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) data collected in the fluorescence mode are susceptible to an apparent amplitude reduction due to the self-absorption of the fluorescing photon by the sample before it reaches a detector. Previous treatments have made the simplifying assumption that the effect of the EXAFS on the correction term is negligible, and that the samples are in the thick limit. We present a nearly exact treatment that can be applied for any sample thickness or concentration, and retains the EXAFS oscillations in the correction term.

Booth, C.H.; Bridges, F.

2003-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

436

Optical Absorption Spectrum of AgF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The optical absorption of thin films of silver monofluoride has been investigated in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum at room and low temperatures. Exciton peaks have been observed at 4.63 and 6.34 eV for samples at 4.8 °K. The first exciton peak is considerably lower in energy than might be expected on the basis of the trend set by the other silver halides. This unusually low energy has led us to speculate that the band structure of AgF may be quite different from those of the other silver halides.

Alfred P. Marchetti and G. L. Bottger

1971-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Sound Absorption in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absorption of sound in the Pacific Ocean at a nominal frequency of 75 kHz was measured over a horizontal path at depths of 910 and 3350 m. The results are 20.0±1.5 dB/km and 13.5±1.5 dB/km respectively which may be compared to values of 27.3 dB/km and 22.7 dB/km extrapolated from the empirical relation of Schulkin and Marsh. Evidently the useful range of this relation is severely limited. In addition the effect of pressure may be greater than previously suspected.

H. F. Bezdek

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Absorption of the $?$ and $?$ Mesons in Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to their long lifetimes, the $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ mesons are the ideal candidates for the study of possible modifications of the in-medium meson-nucleon interaction through their absorption inside the nucleus. During the E01-112 experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, the mesons were photoproduced from $^{2}$H, C, Ti, Fe, and Pb targets. This paper reports the first measurement of the ratio of nuclear transparencies for the $e^{+}e^{-}$ channel. The ratios indicate larger in-medium widths compared with what have been reported in other reaction channels.

M. H. Wood; R. Nasseripour; M. Paolone; C. Djalali; D. P. Weygand; the CLAS Collaboration

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

439

Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.

Klem, John F. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

440

Far-Infrared Absorptivity of Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple calculation of the far-infrared absorptivity of a strong-coupling metal in the normal state is presented which is valid in the anomalous-skin-effect (ASE) region. The form of the results is compared with that derived by an alternate procedure in a recent letter by the author. A discussion of electron-phonon renormalization effects in the ASE limit is then considered and, in particular, at frequencies below threshold (???D), an effective mass mP** is introduced which incorporates these effects.

H. Scher

1971-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Life Cycle Assessments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessments A life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic, cradle-to-grave process that evaluates the environmental impacts of products, processes, and services. Its...

442

Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Routes Data Acquisition System Setup Routes Data Acquisition System Setup Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Objective This Department of Energy project focuses on the collection and analysis medium truck (Class-6 and -7) duty cycle data from real-world operations. Analysis of this data will provide information pertaining to the fuel efficiencies and performance of medium trucks in several vocations. Outcomes Rich source of data and information that can contribute to the development of new tools Sound basis upon which DOE can make technology investment decisions A national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data that will support medium-duty vehicle energy efficiency research Collected Data Speed & Acceleration Fuel Consumption GPS Location Road Grade

443

The Life Cycle Analysis Toolbox  

SciTech Connect

The life cycle analysis toolbox is a valuable integration of decision-making tools and supporting materials developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to help Department of Energy managers improve environmental quality, reduce costs, and minimize risk. The toolbox provides decision-makers access to a wide variety of proven tools for pollution prevention (P2) and waste minimization (WMin), as well as ORNL expertise to select from this toolbox exactly the right tool to solve any given P2/WMin problem. The central element of the toolbox is a multiple criteria approach to life cycle analysis developed specifically to aid P2/WMin decision-making. ORNL has developed numerous tools that support this life cycle analysis approach. Tools are available to help model P2/WMin processes, estimate human health risks, estimate costs, and represent and manipulate uncertainties. Tools are available to help document P2/WMin decision-making and implement programs. Tools are also available to help track potential future environmental regulations that could impact P2/WMin programs and current regulations that must be followed. An Internet-site will provide broad access to the tools.

Bishop, L.; Tonn, B.E.; Williams, K.A.; Yerace, P.; Yuracko, K.L.

1999-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

444

The Quebec Life Cycle Inventory Database Project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) in Quebec (Canada) is increasingly important. Yet, ... life cycle inventory (LCI) data. The Quebec government invested in the creation of a Quebec LCI database. The approach is to work...

Pascal Lesage; Réjean Samson

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Profit cycle dynamics by Kawika Pierson.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

My thesis consists of three essays investigating the existence, causes, and mitigation of profit cycles at an industry level. The first essay examines profit cycles by proposing that the industry-specific features of how ...

Pierson, Kawika (Kawika Paul)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Rethinking the light water reactor fuel cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The once through nuclear fuel cycle adopted by the majority of countries with operating commercial power reactors imposes a number of concerns. The radioactive waste created in the once through nuclear fuel cycle has to ...

Shwageraus, Evgeni, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Viable combined cycle design for automotive applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A relatively new approach for improving fuel economy and automotive engine performance involves the use of automotive combined cycle generation technologies. The combined cycle generation, a process widely used i...

K. -B. Kim; K. -W. Choi; K. -H. Lee

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Coal-Fuelled Combined Cycle Power Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined cycle power plant, when used as a generic ... which converts heat into mechanical energy in a combined gas and steam turbine process. Combined cycle processes with coal gasification or coal combustion .....

Dr. Hartmut Spliethoff

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Toward single-cycle optical pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-cycle optical pulses, the never-before-achieved regime, have a great potential for attosecond science and phase-sensitive nonlinear optics. To achieve single-cycle optical pulses by active synchronization, three ...

Kim, Jung-Won, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Residential solar-absorption chiller thermal dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Research is reported on the transient performance of a commercial residential 3 ton lithium bromide-water absorption chiller designed for solar firing. Emphasis was placed on separating the chiller response from that of the entire test facility so that its transient response could solely be observed and quantified. It was found that the entire system time response and thermal capacitance has a major impact on performance degradation due to transient operation. Tests run to ascertain computer algorithms which simulate system isolated chiller performance, revealed processes hitherto undocumented. Transient operation is simulated by three distinct algorithms associated with the three phases of chiller operation. The first phase is start up time. It was revealed during testing that the time required to reach steady state performance values, when the chiller was turned on, was a linear function of steady state water supply temperatures. The second phase is quasi steady state performance. Test facility's performance compared favorably with the manufacturer's published data. The third phase is the extra capacity produced during spin down. Spin down occurs when the hot water supply pump is turned off while the other system pumps remain operating for a few minutes, thus allowing extra chiller capacity to be realized. The computer algorithms were used to generate plots which show the operational surface of an isolated absorption chiller subjected to off design and transient operation.

Guertin, J.M.; Wood, B.D.; McNeill, B.W.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Hydroxide absorption heat pumps with spray absorber  

SciTech Connect

The absorber is one of the most expensive components of an absorption heat pump or chiller, respectively. In order to reduce the cost of a heat exchanger, much effort is invested into searching for additives for heat transfer enhancement. Another way to reduce heat exchanger cost, especially for machines with low capacities, is to use an adiabatic spray absorber. The basic principles of the spray absorber is to perform heat and mass transfer separated from each other in two different components. In this way the heat can be rejected effectively in a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, whereas the mass transfer occurs subsequently in a simple vessel. The spray technique can not only save heat exchanger cost in conventional absorption systems working with water and lithium bromide, it also allows the use of quite different working fluids such as hydroxides, which have lower heat transfer coefficients in falling films. Moreover, the separated heat transfer can easily be performed in a liquid-to-air heat exchanger. Hence it is obvious to use hydroxides that allow for a high temperature lift for building an air-cooled chiller with spray absorber. In this presentation theoretical and experimental investigations of the spray absorber as well as the setup will be described. Finally, possible applications will be outlined.

Summerer, F.; Alefeld, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Munich (Germany). Physics Dept.; Zeigler, F.; Riesch, P. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung, Munich (Germany)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Experimental study of neutrino absorption on carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The process of electron emission from ?30 MeV neutrino absorption on carbon, C12(?e,e-)12N, has been observed. The flux-weighted total cross section for the exclusive neutrino-induced nuclear transition C12(?e,e-)12N(g.s.) is [1.05±0.10(stat)±0.10(syst)]×10-41 cm2. The measured cross section and angular distribution d?/d? are in agreement with theoretical estimates. The inclusive ?e C12 reaction rate, which accounted for the majority of all neutrino interactions observed in this experiment, was determined from a detailed fit of energy and angular distributions for the observed electrons. The inclusive C12(?e,e-)X cross section is measured to be [1.41±0.23(tot)]×10-41 cm2. An upper limit for the sum of the C13(?e,e-)X+27Al(?e,e-)X inclusive absorption cross sections is presented.

D. A. Krakauer; R. L. Talaga; R. C. Allen; H. H. Chen; R. Hausammann; W. P. Lee; H. J. Mahler; X. Q. Lu; K. C. Wang; T. J. Bowles; R. L. Burman; R. D. Carlini; D. R. F. Cochran; P. J. Doe; J. S. Frank; E. Piasetzky; M. E. Potter; V. D. Sandberg

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Development Plan for the Fuel Cycle Simulator  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Cycle Simulator (FCS) project was initiated late in FY-10 as the activity to develop a next generation fuel cycle dynamic analysis tool for achieving the Systems Analysis Campaign 'Grand Challenge.' This challenge, as documented in the Campaign Implementation Plan, is to: 'Develop a fuel cycle simulator as part of a suite of tools to support decision-making, communication, and education, that synthesizes and visually explains the multiple attributes of potential fuel cycles.'

Brent Dixon

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Using Cycles and Scaling Parallel Algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

graph by finding a max­ imal set of edge­disjoint cycles. We give a parallel algorithm to find the first efficient parallel algorithm for finding an approximation to a min­ imum cycle cover. Our algorithm finds a cycle cover whose size is within a factor of O(1 + n log n m+n ) of the minimum sized

Yang, Junfeng

455

How Minds Work The IDA Cognitive Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 How Minds Work The IDA Cognitive Cycle Stan Franklin Computer Science Division & Institute for Intelligent Systems The University of Memphis #12;HMW: The IDA Cognitive Cycle 2 Memory Systems #12;HMW: The IDA Cognitive Cycle 3 Global Workspace Theory I · The nervous system is a distributed parallel

Memphis, University of

456

SPACETELESCOPESCIENCEINSTITUTE WFPC2 Cycle 14 Calibration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/chip combinations used for science in Cycle 14 + Close Out ~10% reserve 2 Placeholder for unexpected items. TOTALSPACETELESCOPESCIENCEINSTITUTE WFPC2 Cycle 14 Calibration Director's Review 8 August 2005 John Biretta 1 Cycle 14 WFPC2 Calibration Plan Overall Goals: · Monitor & maintain WFPC2 health & safety

Sirianni, Marco

457

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectroscopy measurements Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A partial sampling of these techniques includes: Absorption spectroscopy Atomic absorption... spectroscopy Auger electron ... Source: Yucca Mountain Project, US...

458

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectrometry etaas Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

With Confirmation of Accuracy by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry... -LEAFS uses absorption; graphite furnace; inductively...

459

Elimination of self-absorption in fluorescence hard-x-ray absorption spectra P. Pfalzer, J.-P. Urbach, M. Klemm, and S. Horn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elimination of self-absorption in fluorescence hard-x-ray absorption spectra P. Pfalzer, J-ray absorption spectra in situations where samples cannot be made in the required configuration. However, self-absorption-ray absorption coefficients. This procedure is used to obtain the vanadium K-edge spectrum of single crystal V2O3

Frenkel, Anatoly

460

Parametric Optimization of Vapor Power and Cooling Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The proposed solar thermal based combined power and cooling cycle can be operated from low grade energy such as heat and well suited for domestic and industrial needs. The hybridization of vapour absorption refrigeration (VAR) and Kalina cycle system (KCS) results power in addition to cooling. The proposed plant has two turbines with super heater and reheater to recover more heat from the solar thermal collectors. The refrigerant vapour from the high pressure turbine is reheated for low pressure turbine which gives 9.3 kW of extra power. The total power and cooling are 14.05 kW and 73.58 kW respectively at 0.42 absorber concentration and 99% of turbine concentration and 150 °C of solar collector temperature. The invention also highlights the flexibility in the operation of system on only power mode or on only cooling mode. Thermodynamic analysis has been carried out with a focus on separator temperature and turbine concentration.

R. Shankar; T. Srinivas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program...

462

Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on Climate Change IR Indian Railways Jatropha Jatropha curcas L. KCl potassium chloride LCA life cycle assessment LCI life cycle inventory LCIA life cycle impact assessment MSRTH...

463

Working fluid design for organic rankine cycle systems (ORC):.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Organic Rankine Cycle is an energy conversion cycle similar to the conventional Rankine cycle which runs on a working fluid other than water. The… (more)

Hattiangadi, A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Working Fluid Design for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Systems:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Organic Rankine Cycle is an energy conversion cycle similar to the conventional Rankine cycle which runs on a working fluid other than water. The… (more)

Hattiangadi, A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

SciTech Connect

This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Working fluids for rankine cycle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy through the utilization of a cycle consisting of: (1) vaporizing, with heating, a mixture selected from the group of (a) 60 to 95% by weight of chlorodifluoromethane and 5 to 40% by weight of difluoroethane; and (b) 3 to 40% by weight of chlorodifluoromethane and 60 to 97% by weight of dichlorotetrafluoroethane; (2) expanding the vapor in an expansion device to produce mechanical energy; and (3) compressing the vapor by a pump and cooling the vapor to condense the vapor.

Enjo, N.; Aomi, H.; Noguchi, M.; Ide, S.

1986-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

468

Rankine cycle system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system uses a receiver with a maximum liquid working fluid level lower than the minimum liquid working fluid level of a sub-cooler of the waste heat recovery system. The receiver may have a position that is physically lower than the sub-cooler's position. A valve controls transfer of fluid between several of the components in the waste heat recovery system, especially from the receiver to the sub-cooler. The system may also have an associated control module.

Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

469

An introduction to the Kalina cycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper is intended as a primer on the Kalina cycle--a novel, efficient power cycle that uses an ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid. The reader needs no more than a basic understanding of conventional water based Rankine cycle power plants to comprehend the basic thermodynamics, principles and arrangements of Kalina cycle power plants presented in this paper. The Kalina cycle is principally a modified Rankine cycle. The transformation starts with an important process change to the Rankine cycle--changing the working fluid in the cycle from a pure component (typically water) to a mixture of ammonia and water. The modifications that complete the transformation of the cycle from Rankine to Kalina consist of proprietary system designs that specifically exploit the virtues of the ammonia-water working fluid. These special designs, either applied individually or integrated together in a number of different combinations, comprise a family of unique Kalina cycle systems. This is somewhat analogous to the Rankine cycle which, in fact, has many design options such as reheat, regenerative heating, supercritical pressure, dual pressure, etc. all of which can be applied in a number of different combinations in a particular plant.

Micak, H.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

470

Superposition model analysis from polarized electronic absorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polarized electronic absorption spectra of Co2+ in trigonally compressed octahedra in brucite-type Co(OH)2 have been measured at 290 and 90 K by microscope-spectrometric techniques and analysed in terms of the superposition model (SM) of crystal fields. The resulting SM and interelectronic repulsion parameters are 4 = 5260, 2 = 4920, Racah B = 825, Racah C = 3550 cm-1 at 290 K and 4 = 5320, 2 = 3900, Racah B = 830, Racah C = 3500 cm-1 at 90 K (R0 = 2.1115 Ĺ; fixed exponential and spin-orbit parameters t4 = 5, t2 = 3, ? = 500 cm-1). Together with a recent SM analysis of Li2Co3(SeO3)4, the k refined for Co(OH)2 further confine the magnitude of the hitherto unknown `correct' SM parameters of Co2+ for future application to structurally and/or chemically less well defined systems.

M Andrut; M Wildner

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

472

J/$?$ absorption in a multicomponent hadron gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model for anomalous $J/\\Psi$ suppression in high energy heavy ion collisions is presented. As the additional suppression mechanism beyond standard nuclear absorption inelastic $J/\\Psi$ scattering with hadronic matter is considered. Hadronic matter is modeled as an evolving multi-component gas of point-like non-interacting particles (MCHG). Estimates for the sound velocity of the MCHG are given and the equation of state is compared with Lattice QCD data in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition. The approximate cooling pattern caused by longitudinal expansion is presented. It is shown that under these conditions the resulting $J/\\Psi$ suppression pattern agrees well with NA38 and NA50 data.

Dariusz Prorok; Ludwik Turko; David Blaschke

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

473

Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CrossCut Group CrossCut Group 1 NERAC Briefing: Assessment of Dose of Closed vs Open Gen-IV Fuel Cycles David Wade NERAC Meeting September 30, 2002 Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group 2 Public Dose and Worker Dose Comparison of Open vs Closed Fuel Cycles * Gen-IV fuel cycle options are meant to address all stated Gen-IV Goals - Dose to workers and to the public is one of the numerous elements to be evaluated by Gen-IV R&D - The Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group was assigned to take an early look at dose implication tradeoffs of open and closed fuel cycles * FCCG Interpretation of Assignment: - Collect already-existing evaluations and prepare a briefing on what is currently known Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group 3 Approach * Look at Actual Historical Doses Based on Operational Experience - Data compiled by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic

474

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Definition: Brayton cycle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Brayton cycle Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Brayton cycle A thermodynamic cycle using constant pressure, heat addition and rejection. Fuel and a compressor are used to heat and increase the pressure of a gas; the gas expands and spins the blades of a turbine, which, when connected to a generator, generates electricity.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the workings of a constant pressure heat engine. Gas turbine engines and airbreathing jet engines use the Brayton Cycle. Although the Brayton cycle

476

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development Program Presentation to Office of Environmental Management Tank Waste Corporate Board James C. Bresee, ScD, JD Advisory Board Member Office of Nuclear Energy July 29, 2009 July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 2 Outline Fuel Cycle R&D Mission Changes from the Former Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative The Science-Based Approach Key Collaborators Budget History Program Elements Summary July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 3 Fuel Cycle R&D Mission The mission of Fuel Cycle Research and Development is to develop options to current fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while reducing proliferation risks by conducting

477

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

478

Electron absorption by complex potentials: One-dimensional case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate the electronic absorption induced by a complex potential in one-dimensional quantum mechanics. By solving the Schrödinger equation for spatially localized and extended complex potentials, we derive the electronic absorption coefficient ?. Neither a single nor a double Dirac-? potential can represent a totally absorbing potential (?=1) for any choice of the complex amplitude of the potential. Maximum absorption coefficients for these potential types are 0.5 and 2(?2-1)?0.828, respectively. On the contrary, wall and well potentials do account for total absorption at a particular limit of the potential parameters. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

Patrici Molinŕs-Mata and Pau Molinŕs-Mata

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

The Future of Absorption Technology in America: A Critical Look...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 Use...

480

Absorption Mode FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Imaging. Absorption Mode FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging. Abstract: Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption osmosis cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

482

Advanced Exergy Analysis for a Solar Double Stage Absorption Chiller.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solar driven absorption chiller technology as an alternative mechanism for cooling has been the focus of tremendous recent interest due to its potential advantages for… (more)

Hu, Yang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Design and simulation of solar absorption cooling systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The absorption chiller modeling is then exploited in a computer tool that gives valuable information on the planning of solar cooling systems. The design of… (more)

NURZIA, GIOVANNI

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Multipass absorption cell designed for high temperature UHV operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and performance of a tunable diode laser system, incorporating a multipass absorption cell to allow determination of water concentration below 10 ppb...

Schaeffer, Ronald D; Sproul, J C; O’Connell, J; van Vloten, C; Mantz, Arlan W

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

The Effect of Surface Heterogeneity on Cloud Absorption Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Surface Heterogeneity on Cloud Absorption Estimates W. J. Wiscombe and A. Marshak National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Goddard Space Flight Center Climate and...

486

Solar absorption by Mie resonances in cloud droplets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and narrower. These sensors measure solar backscattered andsensor channels where atmospheric absorption is particle dominated. The canonical resolution produces broadband solar

Zender, Charles S; Talamantes, Jorge

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Optimizing Nanoparticle Designs to Reach Ideal Light Absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ideal absorption describes a particular means of optimizing light-matter interactions with a host of potential applications. This work presents new analytic formulas and describes semi-analytical methods for the design of electric or magnetic ideal absorption in nanoparticles. These formulas indicate that ideal absorption is attainable in homogeneous spheres with known materials at specific sizes and frequencies. They also provide a means of designing core-shell particles to produce ideal absorption at virtually any frequency in the visible and near infrared range.

Grigoriev, Victor; Wenger, Jerome; Stout, Brian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Polarization-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for laser stabilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate a variation of pump-probe spectroscopy that is particularly useful for laser frequency stabilization. The polarization-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (POLEAS) signal...

Kunz, Paul D; Heavner, Thomas P; Jefferts, Steven R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Colored solar-thermal absorbing coatings with high absorptance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It's difficult to obtain different color appearance and keep high absorptance simultaneously. We introduced AR films into solar-thermal absorbing coatings to tune the color appearance...

Wang, Shao-Wei; Chen, Feiliang; Liu, Xingxing; Wang, Xiaofang; Yu, Liming; Lu, Wei

490

Hydrogen Absorption Induced Metal Deposition on Palladium and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Absorption Induced Metal Deposition on Palladium and Palladium-Alloy Particles Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology

High resolution...

491

Diffraction: Enhanced Light Absorption of Solar Cells and Photodetecto...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Diffraction: Enhanced Light Absorption of Solar Cells and Photodetectors Sandia National Laboratories Contact...

492

X-ray absorption fine structure and magnetization characterization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

characterization of the metallic Co component in Co-doped ZnO thin films . X-ray absorption fine structure and magnetization characterization of the metallic Co...

493

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

SciTech Connect

The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

The Seasonal Cycle over the United States and Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The annual cycle occupies a unique position in the spectra of meteorological time series. This cycle and its first three harmonics are extracted from the series as a seasonal cycle. The distributions of the annual and seasonal cycles are studied ...

Vernon E. Kousky; S. Srivatsangam

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle for combined power and cooling using low and mid temperature solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

A combined thermal power and cooling cycle is proposed which combines the Rankine and absorption refrigeration cycles. It can provide power output as well as refrigeration with power generation as a primary goal. Ammonia-water mixture is used as a working fluid. The boiling temperature of the ammonia-water mixture increases as the boiling process proceeds until all liquid is vaporized, so that a better thermal match is obtained in the boiler. The proposed cycle takes advantage of the low boiling temperature of ammonia vapor so that it can be expanded to a low temperature while it is still in a vapor state or a high quality two phase state. This cycle is ideally suited for solar thermal power using low cost concentrating collectors, with the potential to reduce the capital cost of a solar thermal power plant. The cycle can also be used as a bottoming cycle for any thermal power plant. This paper presents a parametric analysis of the proposed cycle.

Goswami, D.Y.; Xu, F. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Lab.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

SciTech Connect

This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Efficiency combined cycle power plant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of operating a combined cycle power plant. It comprises: flowing exhaust gas from a combustion turbine through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); flowing feed water through an economizer section of the HRSG at a flow rate and providing heated feed water; flowing a first portion of the heated feed water through an evaporator section of the HRSG and producing saturated steam at a production rate, the flow rate of the feed water through the economizer section being greater than required to sustain the production rate of steam in the evaporator section; flowing fuel for the turbine through a heat exchanger; and, flowing a second portion of the heated feed water provided by the economizer section through the heat exchanger then to an inlet of the economizer section, thereby heating the fuel flowing through the heat exchanger.

Pavel, J.; Meyers, G.A.; Baldwin, T.S.

1990-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

499

2D representation of life cycle greenhouse gas emission and life cycle cost of energy conversion for various energy resources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We suggest a 2D-plot representation combined with life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and life cycle cost for various energy conversion technologies. In general, life cycle ... use life cycle GHG emissions ...

Heetae Kim; Claudio Tenreiro; Tae Kyu Ahn

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing% in the order: thiosulfatecarbonate is ineffective in the absence of oxygen

Rochelle, Gary T.