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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Design and simulation of solar absorption cooling systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The absorption chiller modeling is then exploited in a computer tool that gives valuable information on the planning of solar cooling systems. The design of… (more)

NURZIA, GIOVANNI

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Performance Modeling of a Solar Driven Absorption Cooling System for Carnegie Mellon University's Intelligent Workplace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system for space heating and cooling. The proposed energy supply system configuration includes integrated compound parabolic concentrator (ICPC), a hot storage tank, a gas fired auxiliary heater, a steam generator, a steam driven absorption chiller...

Masson, S. V.; Qu, M.; Archer, D. H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Solar Energy to Drive Absorption Cooling Systems Suitable for Small Building Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

results and an overview of the performance of low capacity single stage and half-effect absorption cooling systems, suitable for residential and small building applications. The primary heat source is solar energy supplied from flat plate collectors...

Gomri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

SIMULATION OF A SOLAR ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM J.P. Praene*, D. Morau, F. Lucas, F. Garde, H. Boyer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

collector. A field of these collectors feed a single-effect absorption chiller of 35 kW nominal coolingSIMULATION OF A SOLAR ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM J.P. Praene*, D. Morau, F. Lucas, F. Garde, H; accepted: 15 Oct 2007 This paper describes the dynamic modeling of a solar absorption cooling plant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Simulation of solar lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system with parabolic trough collector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ahwaz is one of the sweltering cities in Iran where an enormous amount of energy is being consumed to cool residential places in a year. The aim of this research is to simulate a solar single effect lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system in Ahwaz. The solar energy is absorbed by a horizontal N–S parabolic trough collector and stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system has been designed to supply the cooling load of a typical house where the cooling load peak is about 17.5 kW (5 tons of refrigeration), which occurs in July. A thermodynamic model has been used to simulate the absorption cycle. The working fluid is water, which is pumped directly to the collector. The results showed that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 57.6 m2, which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy.

M. Mazloumi; M. Naghashzadegan; K. Javaherdeh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Small capacity absorption systems for cooling and power with a scroll expander and ammonia based working fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Up to now, the use of ammonia/water absorption cycles has been mainly limited to the production of refrigeration or air conditioning but due to the relatively high generator pressure some authors have proposed the integration in parallel of an expander to produce cooling and power simultaneously. This feature could provide many benefits in the future such as the use of solar thermal energy to partially cover the heating, cooling and electricity demand of a building. In the other hand the life cycle cost of the absorption system is improved because of the increase in the number of running hours in periods in which there is no demand for cooling but the demand for electrical power is still important. This paper shows a new combined absorption system using a scroll expander and three different working fluids using ammonia as refrigerant: ammonia/water, ammonia/lithium nitrate and ammonia/sodium thiocyanate. The scroll expander performance maps were obtained experimentally and modeled to predict the power production, rotational speed and exhaust temperature of the expander and included in the complete absorption cycle model build using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) Software. This system produces different amounts of cooling and power at the desired power/cooling ratio to cover varying demand profiles.

Luis Carlos Mendoza; Dereje S. Ayou; Joaquín Navarro-Esbrí; Joan Carles Bruno; Alberto Coronas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

9

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was used to calculate the PWC of the system for annual operating hours of 8760 and the same is compared with the electric based vapour compression chiller (VCRS) of same capacity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of waste heat operated absorption chiller...

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Development of a single-family absorption chiller for use in a solar heating and cooling system. Phase III, final report. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

The appendices provide supporting information on: properties of a chemical system for solar fired, air-cooled absorption equipment, air-side performance of a one-inch tube, absorber plate-fin coil, listings of the programs used for simulation and data reduction, and evaluation of the Carrier 3-ton chiller in an integrated heating and cooling system. (LEW)

Reimann, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Solar absorption cooling in South China  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a major energy research project carried out in China and Hong Kong over the last ten years. It covers medium temperature solar collectors, cooling and hot water supply systems and describes the design and manufacture of a novel two-stage absorption Li-Br chiller. One of the primary objectives of this project was to encourage technology transfer to China of the manufacturing processes relating to medium temperature solar collectors.

Ward, H.S.; Chu, C.Y. [Lingnan College/Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang, Z.C.; Xia, W. [Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion (China)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Energy and Exergy Analysis of Water-LiBr Absorption Systems with Adiabatic Absorbers for Heating and Cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar energy can be used to produce cold through absorption systems. In this study, the energy and exergy analysis on a single effect water-LiBr absorption facility is presented. The work is carried out for heating and cooling applications. Performance parameters are the coefficient of performance and exergy efficiency. The influence of operating temperatures on such parameters is included. An analysis of individual components is also presented. The most noticeable effect is observed for the case of exergy efficiency for absorber and generator. This parameter increases with an increase of absorption temperature. The opposite effect is observed when the generation temperature increases. Results obtained allow the identification of parameters that may influence the exergy efficiency of the adiabatic absorption system. The first candidate to optimize is the absorber, due to the lowest value of exergy efficiency obtained among all components of the system. For adiabatic absorbers, the recirculation ratio emerges as a new parameter. The solution heat exchanger is also susceptible to optimization.

G. Gutiérrez-Urueta; A. Huicochea; P. Rodríguez-Aumente; W. Rivera

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Modeling of Solar-Powered Single-Effect Absorption Cooling System and Supermarket Refrigeration/HVAC System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis consists of two different research problems. In the first one, the aim is to model and simulate a solar-powered, single-effect, absorption refrigeration system… (more)

Bahman, Ammar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Development status of air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)-water absorption chillers for cooling, heating, and power (CHP) system applications in light-commercial buildings.

15

Absorption cooling in district heating network: Temperature difference examination in hot water circuit.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Absorption cooling system driven by district heating network is relized as a smart strategy in Sweden. During summer time when the heating demand is… (more)

Yuwardi, Yuwardi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Modeling of Solar-Powered Single-Effect Absorption Cooling System and Supermarket Refrigeration/HVAC System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis consists of two different research problems. In the first one, the aim is to model and simulate a solar-powered, single-effect, absorption refrigeration… (more)

Bahman, Ammar Mohammad Khalil

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

18

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

19

Cooling System Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT This master thesis report describes the behavior of a cooling system based on the power consumption and power losses during the velocity range. The… (more)

Cruz, João Pedro Brás da

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

(Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of...

22

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

23

Heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Heating and cooling of dwelling houses and other confined spaces is facilitated by a system in which thermal energy is transported between an air heating and cooling system in the dwelling and a water heat storage sink or source, preferably in the form of a swimming pool or swimming pool and spa combination. Special reversing valve circuitry and the use of solar collectors and liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers on the liquid side of the system , and special air valves and air modules on the air side of the system, enhance the system's efficiency and make it practical in the sense that systems employing the invention can utilize existing craft skills and building financing arrangements and building codes, and the like, without major modification.

Krumhansl, M.U.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

24

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS Gary C . V l i e t , Michael B . Lawson, and Rudolf0 A . Lithgow Center f o r Energy Studies The University of Texas a t Austin December 1980 Final Report f o r Contract: DE AC03-79SF10540 (Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

25

Multi-Phase Galaxy Formation and Quasar Absorption Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The central problem of galaxy formation is understanding the cooling and condensation of gas in dark matter halos. It is now clear that to match observations this requires further physics than the simple assumptions of single phase gas cooling. A model of multi-phase cooling (Maller & Bullock 2004) can successfully account for the upper cutoff in the masses of galaxies and provides a natural explanation of many types of absorption systems (Mo & Miralda-Escude 1996). Absorption systems are our best probes of the gaseous content of galaxy halos and therefore provide important constraints on models for gas cooling into galaxies. All physical processes that effect gas cooling redistribute gas and therefore are detectable in absorption systems. Detailed studies of the nature of gas in galaxy halos using absorption systems are crucial for building a correct theory of galaxy formation.

Ariyeh H. Maller

2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

26

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas...

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

29

Thermal model of solar absorption HVAC systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a thermal model that describes the performance of solar absorption HVAC systems. The model considers the collector array, the building cooling and heating loads, the absorption chiller and the high temperature storage. Heat losses from the storage tank and piping are included in the model. All of the results presented in the paper are for an array of flat plate solar collectors with black chrome (selective surface) absorber plates. The collector efficiency equation is used to calculate the useful heat output from the array. The storage is modeled as a non-stratified tank with polyurethane foam insulation. The system is assumed to operate continuously providing air conditioning during the cooling season, space heating during the winter and hot water throughout the year. The amount of heat required to drive the chiller is determined from the coefficient of performance of the absorption cycle. Results are presented for a typical COP of 0.7. The cooling capacity of the chiller is a function of storage (generator) temperature. The nominal value is 190 F (88 C) and the range of values considered is 180 F (82 C) to 210 F (99 C). Typical building cooling and heating loads are determined as a function of ambient conditions. Performance results are presented for Sacramento, CA and Washington, D.C. The model described in the paper makes use of National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) data and results are presented for these two locations. The uncertainties in the NSRDB are estimated to be in a range of 6% to 9%. This is a significant improvement over previously available data. The model makes it possible to predict the performance of solar HVAC systems and calculate quantities such as solar fraction, storage temperature, heat losses and parasitic power for every hour of the period for which data are available.

Bergquam, J.B.; Brezner, J.M. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; [Bergquam Energy Systems, Sacramento, CA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

32

Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

33

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

35

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

36

Dynamic performance testing of prototype 3 ton air-cooled carrier absorption chiller  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a prototype 3 ton cooling capacity air-cooled lithium bromide/water absorption chiller was tested using an absorption chiller test facility which was modified to expand its testing capabilities to include air-cooled chillers in addition to water-cooled chillers. Temperatures of the three externally supplied fluid loops: hot water, chilled water, and cooling air, were varied in order to determine the effects this would have on the two principal measures of chiller performance: cooling capacity and thermal coefficient of performance (COP). A number of interrelated factors were identified as contributing to less than expected performance. For comparison, experimental correlations of other investigators for this and other similar absorption chillers are presented. These have been plotted as both contour and three-dimensional performance maps in order to more clearly show the functional dependence of the chiller performance on the fluid loop temperatures.

Borst, R.R.; Wood, B.D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

38

Information technology equipment cooling system  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

Schultz, Mark D.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

39

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SCMAG-SIO The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems With76SF0009S. The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems WithAbstract- The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical

Green, Michael A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) Project objectives: Create a campus geothermal heating and cooling...

43

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

A new cylinder cooling system using oil  

SciTech Connect

The design of engine cylinders must satisfy two conflicting requirements, good cooling performance and ease of manufacture. A cooling system was designed to permit the circulation of engine lubricating oil as a coolant at high speed through grooves provided on the external periphery of the cylinder liner. Testing in an actual operating engine confirmed that this cooling system design not only provides better heat transfer and higher cooling performance but also simplifies the manufacturing of the cylinder since external cooling fins are not required. In this paper, the authors will discuss the cylinder cooling effect of the new cylinder cooling system, referring mainly to the test results of a single-cylinder motorcycle engine with lubricating oil from the crankcase used as the coolant.

Harashina, Kenichi; Murata, Katsuhiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Hamamura, Masahiro

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

46

Development of a 5 kW Cooling Capacity Ammonia-water Absorption Chiller for Solar Cooling Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of a small capacity absorption chiller and the numerical and experimental results are presented in this paper. The prototype is a thermally driven ammonia-water absorption chiller of 5 kW cooling capacity for solar cooling applications. The chiller was developed in an industrial perspective with a goal of overall compactness and using commercially available components. In order to characterize various component technologies and different optimization components, the prototype is monitored with temperature, pressure and mass flow rate accurate sensors. The resulting chiller, characterized by a reduced load in ammonia-water solution and the use of brazed plate heat exchanger, has shown good performance during the preliminary tests. A comparison with the expected numerical results is given.

François Boudéhenn; Hélène Demasles; Joël Wyttenbach; Xavier Jobard; David Chèze; Philippe Papillon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:Load Design Tool for Underfloor Air Distribution Systems. ”for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Backscatter absorption gas imaging system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

McRae, Jr., Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Active Solar Heating and Cooling Systems Exemption  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Active solar heating and cooling systems may not be assessed at more than the value of a conventional system for property tax purposes. This law applies only to active solar systems and does not...

51

Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

52

Hot gas path component cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

53

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

54

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

55

Cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

Amtmann, Hans H. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Advanced Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of staged regeneration as means of improving the desiccant cooling system performance is the subject of investigation in this study. In the staged regeneration, the regeneration section of desiccant dehumidifier is divided into two parts...

Ko, Y. J.; Charoensupaya, D.; Lavan, Z.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Process Cooling Pumping Systems Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

their calculated design conditions. As observed, each system was running +1 pump more than required to meet the requirement. System 1 was overpumped by 25%, or 1100 GPM, and System 2 was overpumped by 37%, or 1850 GPM. Both systems may provide adequate heat...

Sherman, C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Heating by Optical Absorption and Cooling of High Power Laser Mirrors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In high power laser system, laser mirror is the core and the most sensitive optical component, which influences the increase of laser power and the quality of laser. Absorption of light at mirrors causes wavef...

Ci-Ming Zhou; Zu-Hai Cheng; Yu-Feng Peng

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Optimizing the Low Temperature Cooling Energy Supply: Experimental Performance of an Absorption Chiller, a Compression Refrigeration Machine and Direct Cooling - a Comparison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A strategy to optimize the low temperature cooling energy supply of a newly build office building is discussed against the background of a changing energy system. It is focused on, what production way - Direct Cooling, the Compression Refrigeration...

Uhrhan, S.; Gerber, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

62

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

63

Solar heating and cooling system installed at RKL Controls Company, Lumberton, New Jersey. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Solar heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the solar computer control center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The solar system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, controls, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower.

None

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California, Center for Ocean Health, Long Marine Lab GREGOR CAILLIET, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories DAVID MAYER be obvious that large studies like these require the coordinated work of many people. We would first like

65

Techno-Economic Assessment of Solar PV/Thermal System for Power and Cooling Generation in Antalya, Turkey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In this study a roof-top PVT/absorption chiller system is modeled for a hotel building in Antalya, Turkey to cover the cooling demand of the… (more)

Kumbasar, Serdar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Cooling system for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system for an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a head-side water jacket and a block-side water jacket made independent of each other; and a radiator and a cooling fan shared between the two water jackets. The improvement comprises: a first cooling water conduit for connecting the outlet of the head-side water jacket and the inlet of the radiator; a mixing valve having two water inlets and one water outlet; a second cooling water conduit for connecting one of the water inlets of the mixing valve and the outlet of the radiator; a third conduit for connecting the water outlet of the block-side water jacket and the remaining one of the water inlets of the mixing valve; a water pump, a fourth conduit branched midway from the second conduit and connected with the water inlet of the head-side water jacket; an auxiliary water pump; a fifth conduit branched midway from the third conduit and connected with the first conduit; one-way valve; and a control unit for controlling the mixing ratio of the mixing valve, the displacement of the auxiliary water pump and the operation of the cooling fan.

Itakura, M.

1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

67

Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

68

Thermostatically controlled solar heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar heating and cooling system for simultaneously heating or cooling an ambient air system within a building, heating a hot water supply for domestic use within the building and heating or cooling a swimming pool adjacent the building comprising a building. This comprises a swimming pool as a primary water source, a solar connector connected to the swimming pool, a heat pump for controlling ambient air temperature within the building, an energy conservation unit connected to the heat pump and to the hot water supply for utilizing hot gases from the heat pump to heat water in the hot water supply and an air heat exchanger connected to the air system and to the heat pump for selectively heating or cooling air in the building. Also a water heat exchanger is connected to a water source for selectively transferring heat between the heat pump and the water source, a well as a secondary water source connected to the water heat exchanger.

Yovanofski, T.

1986-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

69

Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods  

SciTech Connect

Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Radiant heating and cooling, displacement ventilation with heat recovery and storm water cooling: An environmentally responsible HVAC system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of an HVAC system installed as part of a project to demonstrate energy efficiency and environmental responsibility in commercial buildings. The systems installed in the 2180 m{sup 2} office building provide superior air quality and thermal comfort while requiring only half the electrical energy of conventional systems primarily because of the hydronic heating and cooling system. Gas use for the building is higher than expected because of longer operating hours and poor performance of the boiler/absorption chiller.

Carpenter, S.C.; Kokko, J.P. [Enermodal Engineering Ltd., Kitchener, Ontario (Canada)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Hybrid optomechanical cooling by atomic $?$ systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of a cavity optomechanical device optically coupled to an ultracold quantum gas. We show that the dispersive properties of the ultracold gas can be used to dramatically modify the optomechanical response of the mechanical resonator. We examine hybrid schemes wherein the mechanical resonator is coupled either to the motional or the spin degrees of freedom of the ultracold gas. In either case, we find an enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude in optomechanical cooling due to this hybrid interaction. Significantly, based on demonstrated parameters for the cavity optomechanical device, we identify regimes that enable the ground state cooling of the resonator from room temperature. In addition, the hybrid system considered here represents a powerful interface for the use of an ultracold quantum gas for state preparation, sensing and quantum manipulation of a mesoscopic mechanical resonator.

F. Bariani; S. Singh; L. F. Buchmann; M. Vengalattore; P. Meystre

2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

73

Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

Marra, John J

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12  

SciTech Connect

The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

Bauman, L.E.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Chapter 7 - Test Cell Cooling Water and Exhaust Gas Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Part 1 considers the thermodynamics of water cooling systems, water quality, typical cooling water circuits, and engine coolant control units. Also covered are the commissioning cooling circuits, thermal shock, and chilled water systems. Part 2 covers the design of test cell exhaust systems, exhaust silencers, exhaust gas volume flow, exhaust silencers, and exhaust cowls. Part 3 briefly covers the testing of turbochargers.

A.J. Martyr; M.A. Plint

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

77

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

78

Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensation in winter, reduced life and reliability of ventilation equipment, and high repair bills cooling and heating systems. VENTILATION SYSTEMS The operating efficiency of a ventilation fan can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling from evaporative cooling pads, high heating expenses, heavy

Watson, Craig A.

79

CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The application of a floating cooling concept to evaporative heat rejection systems can have significant impact on improving plant performance. The floating cooling concept refers to the optimization of yearly plant output and energy consumption by taking...

Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Case study details Marshall Space Flight Center's innovative technologies to improve water efficiency and cooling performance for one of its problematic cooling systems. The program saved the facility more than 800,000 gallons of water in eight months.

83

Corrosion in HVDC valve cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel couplings in the main cooling water pipes of HVDC thyristor valves have been in use since 1983, with an overall satisfactory behavior. However, some water leakage due to corrosion below the sealing O-rings of the couplings was observed during 1992. An extensive investigation and follow-up worldwide showed a direct correlation between water quality and the corrosion rate of the stainless steel couplings. Recommendations are given about actions to be taken in order to maintain a long lifetime for the fine water systems.

Jackson, P.O.; Abrahamsson, B.; Gustavsson, D.; Igetoft, L.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems Featured on NBC Nightly...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cooling systems that are providing 30%-70% energy and cost savings for homeowners in Jordan, New York. Demand for these systems is growing; nationally, shipments of geothermal...

85

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

86

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The absorption chiller in large scale solar pond cooling design with condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using solar ponds as low-cost solar collectors combined with commercial absorption chillers in large scale solar cooling design is investigated. The analysis is based on the combination of a steady-state solar pond mathematical model with the operational characteristics of a commercial absorption chiller, assuming condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone (U.C.Z.). The numerical solution of the nonlinear equations involved leads to results which relate the chiller capacity with pond design and environmental parameters, which are also employed for the investigation of the optimum pond size for a minimum capital cost. The derived cost per cooling kW for a 350 kW chiller ranges from about 300 to 500 $/kW cooling. This is almost an order of magnitude lower than using a solar collector field of evacuated tube type.

Tsilingiris, P.T. (Commercial Bank of Greece, Athens (Greece))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in DataFOR A MODULAR, SCALABLE LIQUID-RACK COOLING SYSTEM IN DATA3 M ODULAR LIQUID - RACK COOLING

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ratio of time between Fan Coil Units Perimeter Zone Linearand underfloor fan coil units. cooling contribution of

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

QSO Metal Absorption Systems at High Redshift Toru Misawa1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

QSO Metal Absorption Systems at High Redshift Toru Misawa1 , Nobunari Kashikawa2 , Youichi Ohyama2 Abstract. Quasar absorption systems give us useful information about very faint objects that we cannot detect directly. For example, metal absorption systems are generally provided by star formation

Iye, Masanori

91

Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Solar Heating Program Info State Maryland Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Eligible property is assessed at no more than the value of a conventional system Provider Department of Assessments and Taxation Title 8 of Maryland's property tax code includes a state-wide special assessment for solar and geothermal heating and cooling systems. Under this provision, such systems are to be assessed at not more than the value of a conventional system for property tax purposes if no conventional system

92

Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) James Lowe Ball State University May 03, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise...

95

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Project...

96

APPLICATION OF TURBOMACHINERY IN SOLAR-ASSISTED RANKINE COOLING SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

machinery. and the solar-assisted approach at these higherevaluation of the solar-assisted Rankine cycle could beTURBOMACHINER Y IN SOLAR - ASSISTED RANKINE COOLING SYSTEMS

Leech, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Solar absorption aqua-ammonia absorption system simulation base on climate of Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy is one of the most well known green sources of energy. This research presents a feasibility study of evacuated solar thermal collector by aqua-ammonia ejector absorption systems as a small scale air conditioning unit. The modeling has been ... Keywords: ejector, evacuated tubes, solar assisted absorption system

Poorya Ooshaksaraei; Sohif Mat; M. Yahya; Ahmad Mahir Razali; Azami Zaharim; K. Sopian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Analysis of combined cooling, heating, and power systems based on source primary energy consumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) is a cogeneration technology that integrates an absorption chiller to produce cooling, which is sometimes referred to as trigeneration. For building applications, CCHP systems have the advantage to maintain high overall energy efficiency throughout the year. Design and operation of CCHP systems must consider the type and quality of the energy being consumed. Type and magnitude of the on-site energy consumed by a building having separated heating and cooling systems is different than a building having CCHP. Therefore, building energy consumption must be compared using the same reference which is usually the primary energy measured at the source. Site-to-source energy conversion factors can be used to estimate the equivalent source energy from site energy consumption. However, building energy consumption depends on multiple parameters. In this study, mathematical relations are derived to define conditions a CCHP system should operate in order to guarantee primary energy savings.

Nelson Fumo; Louay M. Chamra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

Anstine, Larry D. (San Jose, CA); James, Dean B. (Saratoga, CA); Melaika, Edward A. (Berkeley, CA); Peterson, Jr., John P. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating-Cooling Application Heating-Cooling Application Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed Generation Study/10 West 66th Street Corp + Domestic Hot Water +, Space Heat and/or Cooling + Distributed Generation Study/Aisin Seiki G60 at Hooligans Bar and Grille + Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Arrow Linen + Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Dakota Station (Minnegasco) + Space Heat and/or Cooling +, Other + Distributed Generation Study/Elgin Community College + Space Heat and/or Cooling +, Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Emerling Farm + Domestic Hot Water +, Process Heat and/or Cooling +

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Theoretical study on a novel ammonia–water cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel ammonia–water cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios is proposed and investigated. In the combined system, a modified Kalina subcycle and an ammonia absorption cooling subcycle are interconnected by mixers, splitters, absorbers and heat exchangers. The proposed system can adjust its cooling to power ratios from the separate mode without splitting/mixing processes in the two subcycles to the combined operation modes which can produce different ratios of cooling and power. Simulation analysis is conducted to investigate the effects of operation parameter on system performance. The results indicate that the combined system efficiency can reach the maximum values of 37.79% as SR1 (split ratio 1) is equal to 1. Compared with the separate system, the combined efficiency and COP values of the proposed system can increase by 6.6% and 100% with the same heat input, respectively. In addition, the cooling to power ratios of the proposed system can be adjusted in the range of 1.8–3.6 under the given operating conditions.

Zeting Yu; Jitian Han; Hai Liu; Hongxia Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

103

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Cooling system early-stage design tool for naval applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis utilizes concepts taken from the NAVSEA Design Practices and Criteria Manualfor Surface Ship Freshwater Systems and other references to create a Cooling System Design Tool (CSDT). With the development of new ...

Fiedel, Ethan R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption solar cooling Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

will introduce the theory of radiative transfer; the second part Summary: to greenhouse effect and solar radiation 6. Radiative heating and cooling a. The Chapman layer b....

106

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Energy efficient operation strategy design for the combined cooling, heating and power system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems are known as trigeneration systems, designed to provide electricity, cooling and heating simultaneously. The CCHP system has become… (more)

Liu, Mingxi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Redesigning Process Cooling Systems in the Plastics Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REDESIGNING PROCESS COOLING SYSTEMS IN THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY Glen R Anderson - Senior Energy Analyst - etc Group, Inc - Salt Lake City, UT ABSTRACT Lifetime Products grew their plastics division rapidly starting in the mid 1990’s.... During this growth, their support systems were designed with one thing in mind – ensuring adequate capacity. Energy consumption was a much lower priority with their process cooling systems, resulting in inefficient chillers, oversized pumps...

Anderson, G. R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Power Plant Cooling Systems: Policy Alternatives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contrast, provide convenient field laboratories for examining...barrels per day of additional oil equivalent would be required...num-ber of citations is the cumulative total and does not include...of a Cooling Lake Fishery, Illinois Natural History Survey, project...

John Z. Reynolds

1980-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

111

Solar cooling systems for climate change mitigation: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The impact of global warming and an increase in the indoor cooling equipments using energy sources other than conventional energy have become very attractive because they can reduce consumption of fossil fuels as well as harmful emissions in to the environment. The solar energy is one of the readily available forms of renewable energy which can be used to operate the cooling equipments depending on the geographical location of the area where solar cooling system needs to be installed. The effectiveness of solar cooling also needs to be evaluated based on various performance indicating parameters. However, different types of solar collectors also need to be evaluated in order to find out their feasibility for cooling applications. Thus in this article review of different types of solar cooling technologies have been carried out. The study reveals that evacuated tube collectors are best option for solar cooling where as desiccant cooling helps in improving the indoor air quality. Also, thermal energy storage and ejector based solar cooling efficiently improves the performance besides energy saving.

S. Anand; A. Gupta; S.K. Tyagi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

113

A Semi-Passive Containment Cooling System Conceptual Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to investigate a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) for the double concrete containment of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). Two conceptual PCCS designs: the thermosyphon ...

Liu, H.

114

Cooling system for three hook ring segment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple hook ring segment including forward, midsection and aft mounting hooks for engagement with respective hangers formed on a ring segment carrier for supporting a ring segment panel, and defining a forward high pressure chamber and an aft low pressure chamber on opposing sides of the midsection mounting hook. An isolation plate is provided on the aft side of the midsection mounting hook to form an isolation chamber between the aft low pressure chamber and the ring segment panel. High pressure air is supplied to the forward chamber and flows to the isolation chamber through crossover passages in the midsection hook. The isolation chamber provides convection cooling air to an aft portion of the ring segment panel and enables a reduction of air pressure in the aft low pressure chamber to reduce leakage flow of cooling air from the ring segment.

Campbell, Christian X.; Eng, Darryl; Lee, Ching-Pang; Patat, Harry

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

115

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Septic Tank/Soil Absorption Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For septic tank and soil absorption systems to work properly, homeowners must choose the right kind of system for their household size and soil type, and they must maintain them regularly. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

116

Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy System installed at Columbus Technical Institute, Columbus, Ohio was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system, hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building. Extracts from the site files specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

Coy, R. G.; Braden, R. P.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Improving the liquid-cooling systems of power units and technological equipment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Processes in the liquid cooling systems of power units and technological equipment are considered. Criteria ... of the energy and resource aspects of the cooling systems.

V. A. Zhukov

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

119

Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:28pm Addthis Thermostats and ducts provide opportunities for saving energy. Dehumidifying heat pipes provide a way to help central air conditioners and heat pumps dehumidify air. Electric and gas meters allow users to track energy use. Thermostats Programmable thermostats can store and repeat multiple daily settings. Users can adjust the times heating or air-conditioning is activated according to a pre-set schedule. Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about thermostats and control systems in homes. Ducts Efficient and well-designed duct systems distribute air properly throughout a building, without leaking, to keep all rooms at a comfortable

120

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Speaker(s): Chadi Maalouf Date: December 2, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Peng Xu Increased living standards and high occupants comfort demands lead to a growth in air conditioning market. This results in high energy consumption and high CO2 emissions. For these reasons, the solar desiccant cooling system is proposed as an alternative to traditional air conditioning systems. This system comprises a desiccant wheel containing Lithium Chloride in tandem with a rotating heat exchanger and two humidifiers on both supply and return air. The required regeneration temperature for the desiccant wheel varies between 40oC and 70oC which makes possible the use

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be achieved. GPM 2 /GPM 1 = RPM 2 /RPM 1 Equation (1) (RPM 2 /RPM 1 ) 3 = HP 2 /HP 1 Equation (2) ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty-ninth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 8-11, 2007. COOLING WATER PUMPING Pumping... Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Months Ri ver l eve l ( f t ) 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 T e mp er at ur e ( F) Average River Level Average River Temperature ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty...

Mendez, T.

122

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description - Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School, Middle School and Elementary School. - Provide jobs, and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District, and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession. - The new Heat Pumps will be targeted to perform at very high efficiency with EER (energy efficiency ratios) of 22+/-. System capacity is planned at 610 tons. - Remove unusable antiquated existing equipment and systems from the campus heating and cooling system, but utilize ductwork, piping, etc. where feasible. The campus is served by antiquated air conditioning units combined with natural gas, and with very poor EER estimated at 6+/-. - Monitor for 3 years the performance of the new systems compared to benchmarks from the existing system, and provide data to the public to promote adoption of Geothermal technology. - The Geothermal installation contractor is able to provide financing for a significant portion of project funding with payments that fall within the energy savings resulting from the new high efficiency heating and cooling systems.

123

Design and test results of a low-capacity solar cooling system in Alicante (Spain)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite its attractiveness, solar cooling technology is still in an early stage of development. Most installations currently in operation show differences in the collector area per kilowatt of cooling capacity that cannot be explained only by project-specific circumstances. The purpose of this paper was twofold. First, to answer some questions that came up during the design process of the plant by using a TRNSYS system model and statistical tools. Second, to gain knowledge about the plant operation and validate the TRNSYS model through measured data. The system was equipped with a flat-plate collector field of 38.4 m2. A lithium bromide-water single-effect absorption chiller (17.6 kW) was selected in order to provide chilled water to fan-coils. Performance data were registered at the solar plant working with a 1000-l heat storage tank and a required temperature of 80 °C to drive the absorption machine. An average of 29% of the solar energy incident on the solar collectors’ surface was transferred to the hot water storage. The registered average COP of the absorption chiller was 0.691. The performance data were compared with the values predicted by the TRNSYS plant model and a high level of agreement was obtained.

Pedro J. Martínez; José C. Martínez; Manuel Lucas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Analysis of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System for Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is an important heat removal system in case of accidents...

Frisani, Angelo

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

125

A Peltier cooling system for SiPM temperature stabilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Peltier cooling system for SiPM temperature stabilization von Simon Nieswand Bachelorarbeit auÃ?en thermisch isolierten Kupferblockes einzulassen, an welchen ein Peltier-Element angebracht wird. Um das System zu automatisieren, werden der Temperatursensor und die Stromquelle des Peltier- Elements

Hebbeker, Thomas

126

A COOLING SYSTEM FOR BUIDINGS USING WIND ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A COOLING SYSTEM FOR BUIDINGS USING WIND ENERGY Hamid Daiyan Islamic Azad University - Semnan in dray land, and only uses wind energy for conditioning. It technologies date back over 1000 years. Wind system, Wind energy, Temperature Fig.1 Wind tower of Doulat-Abad garden of Yazd with it's altitude is 33

127

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sensors and control valves used in our generalized experimental system. The experimental solarsensors are remotely located at critical (in terms of decision-making) locations in the solar

Dols, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Geometric effect on cooling power and performance of an integrated thermoelectric generation-cooling system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Geometric design of an integrated thermoelectric generation-cooling system is performed numerically using a finite element method. In the system, a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is powered directly by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Two different boundary conditions in association with the effects of contact resistance and heat convection on system performance are taken into account. The results suggest that the characteristics of system performance under varying TEG length are significantly different from those under altering TEC length. When the TEG length is changed, the entire behavior of system performance depends highly on the boundary conditions. On the other hand, the maximum distributions of cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) are exhibited when the TEC length is altered, whether the hot surface of TEG is given by a fixed temperature or heat transfer rate. The system performance will be reduced once the contact resistance and heat convection are considered. When the lengths of TEG and TEC vary, the maximum reduction percentages of system performance are 12.45% and 18.67%, respectively. The numerical predictions have provided a useful insight into the design of integrated TEG–TEC systems.

Wei-Hsin Chen; Chien-Chang Wang; Chen-I Hung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SOLAR HEATING and COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Energy Society Meeting, Los Angeles, California, Julysolar in- solation measuring stations in northern and central California (California 94720 August 1975 A control system is being developed that will be capable of operating solar

Dols, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

Bagepalli, Bharat (Niskayuna, NY); Barnes, Gary R. (Delanson, NY); Gadre, Aniruddha D. (Rexford, NY); Jansen, Patrick L. (Scotia, NY); Bouchard, Jr., Charles G. (Schenectady, NY); Jarczynski, Emil D. (Scotia, NY); Garg, Jivtesh (Cambridge, MA)

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

131

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumptions. The cooling capacities for WC and AC systems were 373 and 278 tons-of- refrigeration, respectively. It was found that for the same cooling production, the peak power demand and the daily energy consumption of the WC system were 45 and 32% less...

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.  

SciTech Connect

This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

ANDREWS,J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

Lee, Ching-Pang

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Metal Absorption Systems in Spectra of Pairs of QSOs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first large sample of absorption systems in paired QSOs consisting of 691 absorption systems in the spectra of 310 QSOs including 170 pairings. All these absorption systems have metal lines, usually C IV or Mg II. We see 17 cases of absorption in one line-of-sight within 200 km/s (1 Mpc) of absorption in the paired line-of-sight with the probability at least approx 50% at 100kpc, declining rapidly to 23% at 100 - 200 kpc. We detect clustering on 0.5Mpc scales and see a hint of the "fingers of God" redshift-space distortion. The distribution matches absorbers arising in galaxies at z=2 with a normal correlation function and systematic infall velocities but unusually low random pair-wise velocity differences. Absorption in gas flowing out from galaxies at a mean velocity of 250 km/s would produce vastly more elongation than we see. The UV absorption from fast winds that Adelberger et al. 2005 see in spectra of LBGs is not representative of the absorption that we see. Either the winds are confined to LBGs, or they can not extend to 40 kpc with large velocities, while continuing to make UV absorption we see, implying most metals were in place in the IGM long before z=2. Separately, when we examine the absorption seen when a sight line passes a second QSO, we see 19 absorbers within 400 km/s of the partner QSO. The probability of seeing absorption is approximately constant for impact parameters 0.1 - 1.5 Mpc. Perhaps we do not see a rapid rise in the probability at small impact parameters because the UV from QSOs destroys some absorbers near to the QSOs. The 3D distribution of 64 absorbers around 313 QSOs is to first order isotropic, with just a hint of the anisotropy expected if the QSO UV emission is beamed, or alternatively QSOs might emit UV isotropically but for a surprisingly short time of only 0.3Myr.

David Tytler; Mark Gleed; Carl Melis; Angela Chapman; David Kirkman; Dan Lubin; Pascal Paschos; Tridivesh Jena; Arlin P. S. Crotts

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

District cooling gets hot  

SciTech Connect

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water  

SciTech Connect

This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

Michael Corradini; Mark Anderson; Yassin Hassan; Akira Tokuhiro

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

137

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is a key heat removal system during normal and off-normal conditions. The design and validation of the RCCS is necessary to demonstrate that VHTRs can survive to the postulated accidents. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) STAR-CCM+/V3.06.006 code was used for three-dimensional system modeling and analysis of the RCCS. A CFD model was developed to analyze heat exchange in the RCCS. The model incorporates a 180-deg section resembling the VHTR RCCS experimentally reproduced in a laboratory-scale test facility at Texas A&M University. All the key features of the experimental facility were taken into account during the numerical simulations. The objective of the present work was to benchmark CFD tools against experimental data addressing the behavior of the RCCS following accident conditions. Two cooling fluids (i.e., water and air) were considered to test the capability of maintaining the RCCS concrete walls' temperature below design limits. Different temperature profiles at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall obtained from the experimental facility were used as boundary conditions in the numerical analyses to simulate VHTR transient evolution during accident scenarios. Mesh convergence was achieved with an intensive parametric study of the two different cooling configurations and selected boundary conditions. To test the effect of turbulence modeling on the RCCS heat exchange, predictions using several different turbulence models and near-wall treatments were evaluated and compared. The comparison among the different turbulence models analyzed showed satisfactory agreement for the temperature distribution inside the RCCS cavity medium and at the standpipes walls. For such a complicated geometry and flow conditions, the tested turbulence models demonstrated that the realizable k-epsilon model with two-layer all y+ wall treatment performs better than the other k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models when compared to the experimental results and the Reynolds stress transport turbulence model results. A scaling analysis was developed to address the distortions introduced by the CFD model in simulating the physical phenomena inside the RCCS system with respect to the full plant configuration. The scaling analysis demonstrated that both the experimental facility and the CFD model achieve a satisfactory resemblance of the main flow characteristics inside the RCCS cavity region, and convection and radiation heat exchange phenomena are properly scaled from the actual plant.

Angelo Frisani; Yassin A. Hassan; Victor M. Ugaz

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

Absorption Systems in the Spectrum of GRB 021004  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a 3600 s spectrum of GRB 021004 obtained with the Nordic Optical Telecope on La Palma 10.71 hours after the burst. We identify absorption lines from five systems at redshifts 1.3806, 1.6039, 2.2983, 2.3230, and 2.3292. In addition we find an emission line which, if due to Ly-alpha from the host galaxy, gives a redshift of 2.3351. The nearest absorber is blueshifted by 530 km/s with respect to this line, consistent with shifts seen in Damped Ly-alpha and Lyman-Break galaxies at similar redshifts. The emission line flux is 2.46+-0.50 x 10^-16 erg/s/cm^2. Some of the absorption systems are "line-locked", an effect often seen in QSO absorption systems believed to originate close to the QSO central engine.

P. Møller; J. P. U. Fynbo; J. Hjorth; B. Thomsen; M. P. Egholm; M. I. Andersen; J. Gorosabel; S. T. Holland; P. Jakobsson; B. L. Jensen; H. Pedersen; K. Pedersen; M. Weidinger

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008) “Optimization of a solar-assisted drying system forfuel efficiency, such as the solar assisted air conditioning

Poiry, Heather Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Method and system for powering and cooling semiconductor lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor laser system includes a diode laser tile. The diode laser tile includes a mounting fixture having a first side and a second side opposing the first side and an array of semiconductor laser pumps coupled to the first side of the mounting fixture. The semiconductor laser system also includes an electrical pulse generator thermally coupled to the diode bar and a cooling member thermally coupled to the diode bar and the electrical pulse generator.

Telford, Steven J; Ladran, Anthony S

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels  

SciTech Connect

Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Exergy analysis of a novel air-cooled non-adiabatic absorption refrigeration cycle with NH3–NaSCN and NH3–LiNO3 refrigerant solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a methodology of exergy analysis for ammonia-lithium nitrate and ammonia-sodium thiocyanate absorption refrigeration cycle which applies a novel air-cooled type non-adiabatic absorber to improve both the coefficient of performance and exegetic efficiency of the system under air cooling condition. A modified entropy calculation method for NH3/NaSCN and NH3/LiNO3 solutions is presented in this literature and different results are obtained comparing to previous research. In addition to the variation of solution temperature and pressure from specific working state to the reference state, the variation of solution concentration, which was always neglected by previous researchers in ammonia/salt solution exergy calculation, has been taken into account while analyzing the least potential of ammonia/salt solution for doing useful work, and a corresponding approach for specific exergy calculation is presented. The effects of generator temperature, absorber outlet temperature, absorber efficiency and other system parameters on system exergetic efficiency have been discussed in this study. Analysis results indicate that relatively high system performance can be obtained by air-cooled type ammonia/salt absorption refrigeration cycles when non-adiabatic absorbers are applied in these systems.

Dehua Cai; Guogeng He; Qiqi Tian; Weier Tang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during stead-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the stead-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

Hassan, Yassin; Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

145

Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

natural gas and using solar thermal energy. There is a solarnatural gas or on solar thermal energy before it will switcha solar thermal system, strictly in terms of energy only.

Poiry, Heather Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

A detailed MILP optimization model for combined cooling, heat and power system operation planning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A detailed optimization model is presented for planning the short-term operation of combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) energy systems. The purpose is, given the design of a cogeneration system, to determine an operating schedule that minimizes the total operating and maintenance costs minus the revenue due to the electricity sold to the grid, while taking into account time-varying loads, tariffs and ambient conditions. The model considers the simultaneous use of different prime movers (generating electricity and heat), boilers, compression heat pumps and chillers, and absorption chillers to satisfy given electricity, heat and cooling demands. Heat and cooling load can be stored in storage tanks. Units can have one or two operative variables, highly nonlinear performance curves describing their off-design behavior, and limitations or penalizations affecting their start-up/shut-down operations. To exploit the effectiveness of state-of-the-art Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) solvers, the resulting Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model is converted into a MILP by appropriate piecewise linear approximation of the nonlinear performance curves. The model, written in the AMPL modeling language, has been tested on several plant test cases. The computational results are discussed in terms of the quality of the solutions, the linearization accuracy and the computational time.

Aldo Bischi; Leonardo Taccari; Emanuele Martelli; Edoardo Amaldi; Giampaolo Manzolini; Paolo Silva; Stefano Campanari; Ennio Macchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Numerical investigations on the pressure wave absorption and the gas cooling interacting in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with adapted safety and protection systems in order to sustain a possible internal arc fault. During such event, CNRS UMR 6620, 24 Avenue des Landais, F 63177 Aubière Cedex, France. c Schneider Electric ­ Science to experimental measurements performed on appara­ tus specially adapted for tests. They allow a better

Sart, Remi

150

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils...

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

Kulp, Thomas Jan (Livermore, CA); Kliner, Dahv A. V. (San Ramon, CA); Sommers, Ricky (Oakley, CA); Goers, Uta-Barbara (Campbell, NY); Armstrong, Karla M. (Livermore, CA)

2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

152

Improving the Efficiency of Your Process Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many industries require process cooling to achieve desired outcomes of specific processes. This cooling may come from cooling towers, once-through water, mechanical refrigeration, or cryogenic sources such as liquid nitrogen or dry ice. This paper...

Baker, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

An experimental investigation of CI engine operated micro-cogeneration system for power and space cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper describes the performance and emission characteristics of a micro cogeneration system based on a single cylinder diesel engine. In this cogeneration system, in addition to the electricity generated from the genset, waste heat from hot exhaust gas of diesel engine was used to drive a combination of four units of Electrolux vapor absorption (VA) system for space cooling. The capacity and heat input of each unit of VA system was 51 l and 95 W respectively. A cabin of 900 mm width, 1500 mm length and 1800 mm height made of ply wood was fabricated as a space for air conditioning. A temperature drop of 5 °C was obtained in cabin at full engine load about 6 h after system start up. The reduction of CO2 emission in kg per kWh of useful energy output was 19.49% compared to that of single generation (power generation only) at full load. The decrease in specific fuel consumption in case of cogeneration compared to that in single generation was 2.95% at full load. The test results show that micro capacity (3.7 kW) stationary single cylinder diesel engine can be successfully modified to simultaneously produce power and space cooling.

Rahul Goyal; Dilip Sharma; S.L. Soni; Pradeep Kumar Gupta; Dheeraj Johar

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

155

CFD analyses of natural circulation in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is currently being built at Argonne National Laboratory, to evaluate the feasibility of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). CFD simulations have been applied to evaluate the NSTF and NGNP RCCS designs. However, previous simulations found that convergence was very difficult to achieve in simulating the complex natural circulation. To resolve the convergence issue and increase the confidence of the CFD simulation results, additional CFD simulations were conducted using a more detailed mesh and a different solution scheme. It is found that, with the use of coupled flow and coupled energy models, the convergence can be greatly improved. Furthermore, the effects of convection in the cavity and the effects of the uncertainty in solid surface emissivity are also investigated. (authors)

Hu, R. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL (United States); Pointer, W. D. [Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A gas-cooled reactor surface power system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed depending on the number of astronauts level of scientific activity and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

Ronald J. Lipinski; Steven A. Wright; Roger X. Lenard; Gary A. Harms

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Control of Noise in Power Station Cooling Tower Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power?station cooling tower systems must handle large volumes of water and air with large potential energy in the water flows and the requirement for large fans. To minimize the noise generated at power station sites use is made of efficient tower fill materials dual low?speed fans (which shifts the spectrum and lowers mid?frequency noise level) and barrier effects in tower location and orientation. Conventional noise control measures such as mufflers are avoided because of the required increase in pressure across the fan and the high initial cost for quieting large towers. The use of natural draft towers is discussed and it is shown that although the low?frequency noise may be reduced the noise levels at typical property line locations are of the same order of magnitude as that for conventional mechanical cooling towers. Since cooling towers at power stations are required as an environmental (thermal) pollution control measure a trade?off between temperature rise of local water supplies versus increases in community noise becomes a critical factor.

Lewis S. Goodfriend

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

The Helium Cooling System and Cold Mass Support System for theMICE Coupling Solenoid  

SciTech Connect

The MICE cooling channel consists of alternating threeabsorber focus coil module (AFC) and two RF coupling coil module (RFCC)where the process of muon cooling and reacceleration occurs. The RFCCmodule comprises a superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around fourconventional conducting 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities and producing up to2.2T magnetic field on the centerline. The coupling coil magnetic fieldis to produce a low muon beam beta function in order to keep the beamwithin the RF cavities. The magnet is to be built using commercialniobium titanium MRI conductors and cooled by pulse tube coolers thatproduce 1.5 W of cooling capacity at 4.2 K each. A self-centering supportsystem is applied for the coupling magnet cold mass support, which isdesigned to carry a longitudinal force up to 500 kN. This report willdescribe the updated design for the MICE coupling magnet. The cold masssupport system and helium cooling system are discussed indetail.

Wang, L.; Wu, H.; Li, L.K.; Green, M.A.; Liu, C.S.; Li, L.Y.; Jia, L.X.; Virostek, S.P.

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

159

Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor  

SciTech Connect

To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24 deg. C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Jalan Tamansari 71, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

160

A review of solar photovoltaic panel cooling systems with special reference to Ground coupled central panel cooling system (GC-CPCS)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The efficiency of wafer-based crystalline as well as Thin film Solar photovoltaic cells get reduced with increase of panel temperature. It is noted that the efficiency drops by about 0.5% for increase of 1 °C of panel temperature. It is necessary to operate them at low temperatures in order to keep the PV module electrical efficiency at acceptable level. Therefore need for a low-cost cooling system for the Solar panels is felt. The cooling of Solar PV panels is a problem of great practical significance. It has the potential to reduce the cost of solar energy in three ways. First, cooling can improve the electrical production of standard flat plate PV modules. Second, cooling makes possible the use of concentrating PV systems. Finally, the heat removed by the PV cooling system can be used for domestic or industrial use. Various Solar PV panel cooling systems have been developed in past. A new system for cooling of Solar PV panels called the Ground-Coupled Central Panel Cooling System (GC-CPCS) is installed and operational at the Energy Park of Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya (RGPV), Bhopal, India. This paper discusses various Solar PV panel cooling technologies and the testing and performance of the newly developed Ground-Coupled Central Panel Cooling System (GC-CPCS). This study is unique in three ways. First, it introduces the concept of Central cooling of Solar PV panels. Second, Ground Coupled Heat Exchanger is used for the first time in any Solar PV Panel Cooling System. Third, the testing is done on site under actual solar irradiance.

Amit Sahay; V.K. Sethi; A.C. Tiwari; Mukesh Pandey

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Optimal Scheduling for Biocide and Heat Exchangers Maintenance Towards Environmentally Friendly Seawater Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FOR SEAWATER-COOLED POWER AND DESALINATION PLANTS....................................................... 127 5.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 127 5.2 Introduction... 5.2 Representation of a Once-Thorough Cooling System................................ 141 5.3 An Overall Representation of the Power/Desalination Plant ..................... 152 5.4 The Cooling System for the Case Study...

Binmahfouz, Abdullah

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

162

Preliminary Analysis of a Solar Heat Pump System with Seasonal Storage for Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and cooling were set up, which is responsible for the space heating and cooling and domestic hot water for a residential block. Through hourly simulation, the performance and the economics of such systems were analyzed, for the different tank volumes...

Yu, G.; Chen, P.; Dalenback, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Experimental and Computational Study of a Scaled Reactor Cavity Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) is one of the next generation nuclear reactors designed to achieve high temperatures to support industrial applications and power generation. The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a passive...

Vaghetto, Rodolfo

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

164

Analysis of recoverable waste heat of circulating cooling water in hot-stamping power system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article studies the possibility of using heat pump instead of cooling tower to decrease temperature and recover waste heat of circulating cooling water of power system. Making use of heat transfer theory ......

Panpan Qin; Hui Chen; Lili Chen; Chong Wang…

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Intermittent absorption refrigeration system equipped with an economizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Conservation of useful form of energy, i.e. electricity to be used in the production sector rather than consumption sector is becoming a priority in the KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). One of the consumption sectors which utilize a large amount of electrical energy is the air-conditioning and refrigeration sector. Improving the performance of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems and utilizing solar energy in powering such systems will contribute to significant conservation of electrical energy in the kingdom of Saudi-Arabia. Hence, the objective of the present study is to improve the performance of intermittent solar absorption refrigeration system. To achieve this objective, the design of a conventional intermittent system has been modified by introducing an economizer into the system. The analysis of the modified design system indicated an increase of 20% in the coefficient of performance of the system.

S.A.M. Said; M.A.I. El-Shaarawi; M.U. Siddiqui

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because the absorption refrigeration system uses the Lithium bromide- water solution as refrigerant, it is profitable for the environment that human beings are living since the values of ODP and GWP of the refrigerant almost are zero. However...

Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - auxiliary cooling system Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Panels Summary: Heating System Preheat - Solar thermal 80-gal tank, electric auxiliary heating Active, indirect forced... -circulation system for cool climates Four solar thermal...

168

Experimental and CFD Analysis of Advanced Convective Cooling Systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenomena in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) of very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs). One of the primary design objectives is to assure that RCCS acts as an ultimate heat sink capable of maintaining thermal integrity of the fuel, vessel, and equipment within the reactor cavity for the entire spectrum of postulated accident scenarios. Since construction of full-scale experimental test facilities to study these phenomena is impractical, it is logical to expect that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations will play a key role in the RCCS design process. An important question then arises: To what extent are conventional CFD codes able to accurately capture the most important flow phenomena, and how can they be modified to improve their quantitative predictions? Researchers are working to tackle this problem in two ways. First, in the experimental phase, the research team plans to design and construct an innovative platform that will provide a standard test setting for validating CFD codes proposed for the RCCS design. This capability will significantly advance the state of knowledge in both liquid-cooled and gas-cooled (e.g., sodium fast reactor) reactor technology. This work will also extend flow measurements to micro-scale levels not obtainable in large-scale test facilities, thereby revealing previously undetectable phenomena that will complement the existing infrastructure. Second, in the computational phase of this work, numerical simulation of the flow and temperature profiles will be performed using advanced turbulence models to simulate the complex conditions of flows in critical zones of the cavity. These models will be validated and verified so that they can be implemented into commercially available CFD codes. Ultimately, the results of these validation studies can then be used to enable a more accurate design and safety evaluation of systems in actual nuclear power applications (both during normal operation and accident scenarios).

Yassin A. Hassan; Victor M. Ugaz

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

169

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biologically Relevant Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

308, Messer, B. M. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of AqueousSarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy 5.1 Introductionwith Carboxylate by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Liquid

Uejio, Janel Sunayo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

172

[Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development program  

SciTech Connect

Objective is the development of a gas-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell for electric utility power plant application. Primary objectives are to: demonstrate performance endurance in 10-cell stacks at 70 psia, 190 C, and 267 mA/cm[sup 2]; improve cell degradation rate to less than 8 mV/1000 hours; develop cost effective criteria, processes, and design configurations for stack components; design multiple stack unit and a single 100 kW fuel cell stack; design a 375 kW fuel cell module and demonstrate average cell beginning-of-use performance; manufacture four 375-kW fuel cell modules and establish characteristics of 1.5 MW pilot power plant. The work is broken into program management, systems engineering, fuel cell development and test, facilities development.

Not Available

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Absorption Spectra Related to Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Reactions: The Perylene TiO2 System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption Spectra Related to Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Reactions: The Perylene TiO2 System Form: March 16, 2005 Linear absorption spectra of dye-semiconductor systems (perylene attached displaying line broadenings follow the qualitative trend obtained from transient absorption spectra. I

Röder, Beate

174

Research on Solar High-Temperature Absorption Air-Conditioning Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies the characteristics and performance of solar higher-temperature absorption air conditioning systems which employed linear concentrating collectors and double-effect absorption chillers. A solar...

Guoqing Yu; Jinhua Tang; Zhijun Zou

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented

177

Cooling system having reduced mass pin fins for components in a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system having one or more pin fins with reduced mass for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The cooling system may include one or more first surfaces defining at least a portion of the cooling system. The pin fin may extend from the surface defining the cooling system and may have a noncircular cross-section taken generally parallel to the surface and at least part of an outer surface of the cross-section forms at least a quartercircle. A downstream side of the pin fin may have a cavity to reduce mass, thereby creating a more efficient turbine airfoil.

Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

178

Modeling the transient operation of an endothermic fuel cooling system for high Mach number vehicle missions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A computer model was developed to simulate the transient operation of a hypothetical endothermic fuel cooling system. The model simulated the performance of a cross-flow,… (more)

Williams, Mark Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Air-cooled Condensers in Next-generation Conversion Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to reduce the costs associated with the generation of electrical power from air-cooled binary plants.

180

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performanc...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10: Cooling Towers (Revised) (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) nasa-msfcwatercs2.pdf More Documents & Publications NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

An economic comparison between two district cooling systems in Halmstad.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The supply of cooling has increased significantly in recent years, the trend shows that the increase will continue one reason is that the standard… (more)

Le, Alex

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Improving Cooling performance of the mechanical resonator with the two-level-system defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study cooling performance of a realistic mechanical resonator containing defects. The normal cooling method through an optomechanical system does not work efficiently due to those defects. We show by employing periodical $\\sigma_z$ pulses, we can eliminate the interaction between defects and their surrounded heat baths up to the first order of time. Compared with the cooling performance of no $\\sigma_z$ pulses case, much better cooling results are obtained. Moreover, this pulse sequence has an ability to improve the cooling performance of the resonator with different defects energy gaps and different defects damping rates.

Tian Chen; Xiang-Bin Wang

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

183

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

1980-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

185

Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993  

SciTech Connect

This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen Ho-793, South Korea Abstract Heat transfer analysis on a newly proposed cryogenic cooling system is performed, and over-load operation. One of the key techniques to realize these advantages in practice is the cryogenic

Chang, Ho-Myung

187

A Simple and Intuitive Graphical Approach to the Design of Thermoelectric Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Simple and Intuitive Graphical Approach to the Design of Thermoelectric Cooling Systems Simon, thermoelectric active cooling systems can help maintain electronic devices at a desired temperature condition and others. The method could help designers to examine and choose a thermoelectric module from catalogues

188

Solar Cooling Using Variable Geometry Ejectors Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrically driven heat pumps to be deployed to locations such as houses where a steady source of heat may pumps were other notable benefits. Heat pump cooling systems dominate the air-conditioning market to consider solar heat driven cooling systems, most prominently since the 1990s. The Ejector Heat Pump

189

Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of jet-cooled gold silicides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bonding trends for the three coinage metal silicide diatoms. © 1995 American Institute of Physics. I. INTRODUCTION As is the case for the other coinage metal silicides, cur- rent research on gold­silicides has-cooled gold silicides J. J. Scherer,a) J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, A. O'Keefe,b) and R. J. Saykally Department

Cohen, Ronald C.

190

Cooling season study and economic analysis of a desiccant cooling system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Gas Cost (3/GJ) Figure 4. 4 Gas Price vs DINC Cycle Payback Period at Various Electricity Prices SEER = 12 35 20 18 16 ~ 14 ~ 12 D o 10 8 6 o 4 $0. 06/Kwh $0. 09/Kwh $0. 12/Kwh $0. 15/Kwh $0. 'I 8/Kwh 10 20... IV ECONOMIC ANALYSIS V CONCLUSIONS 28 36 NOMENCLATURE 39 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A - HOUSE CONSTRUCTION DATA . . APPENDIX B - SECOND LAW COMPARISON 48 53 APPENDIX C - COOLING SEASON AND DINC CYCLE PROGRAM LISTING 72 APPENDIX D - ECONOMIC...

Lee, James Howard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

191

Decompression cooling system operation for HTS power cable in the KEPCO power grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 3-phase 22.9 kV/50 MVA 410 m HTS power cable system was installed at power grid of KEPCO and had been operated for 20 months. In the HTS cable system an open type cooling system was constructed for cooling LN2 using as coolant for superconducting cable. The cooling capacity of the cooling system was 6 kW at 69 K. Subcooled LN2 flew thorough 410 m HTS cable maintaining 69 K of operating temperature for HTS cable. The electric load had fluctuated continuously with the load status so that the cooling state was also controlled to keep stable operating condition. The consumed LN2 used for making subcooled state was refilled periodically and the amount was 3 tons in average. During all the operating period the HTS cable system supplied electric power stably without any problem.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

SciTech Connect

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level...

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Understanding and reducing energy and costs in industrial cooling systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial cooling remains one of the largest potential areas for electrical energy savings in industrial plants today. This is in spite of a relatively small amount of attention paid to it by energy auditors and rebate program designers. US DOE...

Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption lidar system Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

light absorption... lidar system are proposed ... Source: Zavrtanik, Marko - Experimental Particle Physics Department, Jozef Stefan Institute Collection: Physics 77 Atmos. Chem....

196

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMULATION CODE FOR A COOL-DOWN PROCESS OF THE CRYOGENIC HYDROGEN SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical hydrogen with a pressure of 1.5 MPa and a temperature of 20 K has been selected as a moderator material in an intense spallation neutron source (JSNS), which is one of main experimental facilities in J-PARC. The cryogenic hydrogen system, in which a hydrogen circulation system is cooled by a helium refrigerator with the refrigeration power of 6.45 kW at 15.5 K, has been designed to provide the supercritical hydrogen to the moderator and to remove the nuclear heating generated there. In this study, we have developed a simulation code that predicts temperature behaviors in the hydrogen circulation system during its cool-down process. Cool-down process analyses have been performed, and an operational method for the cool-down process has been studied. The analytical results indicate that the hydrogen circulation system would be able to be cooled down to 18 K within 19 hours.

Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Kato, T.; Futakawa, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

197

Conservation of Energy Through The Use of a Predictive Performance Simulator of Operating Cooling Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical treatment program for the prevention of corrosion, scale and deposit accumulations. Calgon has made available a computerized performance simulator of operating cooling water systems which reliably predicts system corrosion rates, percent scale...

Schell, C. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.  

SciTech Connect

The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

ANDREWS, J.W.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Method of, and apparatus for, killing marine life in and about the cooling system of a marine vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of killing marine life in the cooling system of a marine vehicle having a water-cooled internal combustion engine. It comprises: providing an enclosure about the inlet and outlet ports such that water circulated through the cooling system will be drawn from, and discharged back into, the enclosure; and operating the engine so as to cause the temperature of the water within the enclosure and the cooling system to increase to a predetermined minimum temperature; thereby to cause marine life in the enclosure and cooling system to be killed by the increased temperature of water within the cooling system and enclosure.

Brockhurst, J.V.

1992-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

200

Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

System and method of active vibration control for an electro-mechanically cooled device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method of active vibration control of an electro-mechanically cooled device is disclosed. A cryogenic cooling system is located within an environment. The cooling system is characterized by a vibration transfer function, which requires vibration transfer function coefficients. A vibration controller generates the vibration transfer function coefficients in response to various triggering events. The environments may differ by mounting apparatus, by proximity to vibration generating devices, or by temperature. The triggering event may be powering on the cooling system, reaching an operating temperature, or a reset action. A counterbalance responds to a drive signal generated by the vibration controller, based on the vibration signal and the vibration transfer function, which adjusts vibrations. The method first places a cryogenic cooling system within a first environment and then generates a first set of vibration transfer function coefficients, for a vibration transfer function of the cooling system. Next, the cryogenic cooling system is placed within a second environment and a second set of vibration transfer function coefficients are generated. Then, a counterbalance is driven, based on the vibration transfer function, to reduce vibrations received by a vibration sensitive element.

Lavietes, Anthony D. (Hayward, CA); Mauger, Joseph (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Eric H. (Mountain View, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cooling effect of water evaporation to cool a facilities water cooling system while the gas engine drive chiller uses a standard "freon" compressor driven by a gas engine' to provide its cooling. In the absorption chiller, a heat generator boils... for the water in the evaporator section. A pump then moves the dilute solution back to the generator to continue the process. GED chillers are no different than their electric counterparts except an engine drives the compressor instead of an electric motor...

Phillips, J. N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Solar assisted cooling with sorption systems: status of the research in Mexico and Latin America  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar refrigeration projects both national and international with sorption and other refrigeration systems have been developed in Mexico and other Latin American countries in the last 15 years. A review of the main projects, both for solar cooling and refrigeration and the results obtained are presented in this paper. A methodology where 19 solar technologies for cooling were identified is also presented. Although solar cooling is still not an economically viable technology, the advances made and the experience gained in the projects described and the improved systems envisaged, will make solar refrigeration systems play an important role in the future.

Roberto Best; Isaac Pilatowsky

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Proposal for the Award of a Contract for Maintenance, Operation and Minor Installation Work for CERN Cooling and HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the Award of a Contract for Maintenance, Operation and Minor Installation Work for CERN Cooling and HVAC Systems

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Numerical assessment of liquid cooling system for power electronics in fuel cell electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrical power from the fuel cells is converted and controlled by power electronics that are composed of control units, converters and switching devices. During the power management, the inevitable power losses induce heat generation in the power electronics. In this, effective design for the cooling system is essential in terms of safety, reliability, and durability. A liquid cooling system for the power electronics is applied to chill the electrical components below the thermal specifications. Nonetheless, the layout of cooling components is usually designed after the completion of the chassis and power electronics in the automotive applications, thus, only a little freedom is allowed to change the layout. Thus, it is significant and urgent to investigate the cooling performance before finalizing the layout design. In this paper, one dimensional and computerized fluid dynamics code is employed to simulate the performance of the cooling system at the early stage of conceptual design. Three different layouts of cooling systems are chosen to compare the ensuing systematic cooling performances. The liquid flow rates, pressure drops, and maximum temperatures are computed by the numerical simulations of the cooling system which comprises the cold plates, liquid pump, radiator, and plumbing network. It is demonstrated that for a fuel cell electric vehicle of 100 kW, the dual cooling loops with a specified array control the maximum temperatures below thermal specification by inducing the higher liquid flow rate of rate of 33.4 L/min through radiator than 20.0 L/min in a single loop. The proposed systematic numerical simulation provides significant information to determine the layout of the power electronics coupled with the cooling performance at the early stage of conceptual design.

Heesung Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-04-13 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume I, Houston, TX, April 15-18, 1984 COOLING TOWER #3 FROM EAST FROM WEST TOWER TO TO EAST WES TOWER TOW8:R ELEC. #9 2000 TON MOOE, ?YAP. CHILLING LOAD SHAVING Sl...

Jansen, P. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been...

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Passive-solar-cooling system concepts for small office buildings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the efforts of a small group of building design professionals and energy analysis experts to develop passive solar cooling concepts including first cost estimates for small office buildings. Two design teams were brought together at each of two workshops held in the fall of 1982. Each team included an architect, mechanical engineer, structural engineer, and energy analysis expert. This report presents the passive cooling system concepts resulting from the workshops. It summarizes the design problems, solutions and first-cost estimates relating to each technology considered, and documents the research needs identified by the participants in attempting to implement the various technologies in an actual building design. Each design problem presented at the workshops was based on the reference (base case) small office building analyzed as part of LBL's Cooling Assessment. Chapter II summarizes the thermal performance, physical specifications and estimated first-costs of the base case design developed for this work. Chapters III - VI describe the passive cooling system concepts developed for each technology: beam daylighting; mass with night ventilation; evaporative cooling; and integrated passive cooling systems. The final Chapters, VII and VIII present the preliminary implications for economics of passive cooling technologies (based on review of the design concepts) and recommendations of workshop participants for future research in passive cooling for commercial buildings. Appendices provide backup information on each chapter as indicated.

Whiddon, W.I.; Hart, G.K.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Absorption free superluminal light propagation in a three level pump-probe system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dispersion and the absorption properties of a weak probe field in a three-level pump-probe atomic system. It is shown that the slope of dispersion changes from positive to negative just with the intensity of the coherent or indirect incoherent pumping fields. It is demonstrated that the absorption free superluminal light propagation is appeared in this system.

M. Mahmoudi; S. Worya Rabiei; L. Ebrahimi Zohravi; M. Sahrai

2007-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

212

NH3- H2O absorption systems used for research and student activities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the context of the sustainable development and of the future environment and energy concerns, a new laboratory was developed based on absorption systems (a chiller-heater and a heat pump). The installation together with the proposed experimental activity ... Keywords: absorption systems, education and research activity, environment, heat pump

Ioan Boian; Alexandru Serban; Stan Fota; Florea Chiriac

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-11-002 DOE Direct cooling system [1].doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 SECTION A. Project Title: Cooling System for Substation Bldg CPP-613 SECTION B. Project Description The scope of work includes the purchase and installation of an Energy Star compliant 208V three phase staged cooling system capable of maintaining CPP-613 at a temperature below 85 degrees F. The system shall be designed to operate at an elevation of 5000 feet with outside environmental temperatures ranging from -20°F to 100°F. The cooling system shall be pad mounted on the east side of the building between the two cable feeds. The concrete pad will be provided by DOE. The scope of work includes purchasing an appropriately sized cooling system, placing the unit on the concrete pad, making all necessary wall penetrations into the building, installing ductwork and air handlers inside the building, and installing a

214

A computer simulation appraisal of non-residential low energy cooling systems in California  

SciTech Connect

An appraisal of the potential performance of different Low Energy Cooling (LEC) systems in nonresidential buildings in California is being conducted using computer simulation. The paper presents results from the first phase of the study, which addressed the systems that can be modeled, with the DOE-2.1E simulation program. The following LEC technologies were simulated as variants of a conventional variable-air-volume system with vapor compression cooling and mixing ventilation in the occupied spaces: Air-side indirect and indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beams. Displacement ventilation. Results are presented for four populous climates, represented by Oakland, Sacramento, Pasadena and San Diego. The greatest energy savings are obtained from a combination of displacement ventilation and air-side indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beam systems have the lowest peak demand but do not reduce energy consumption significantly because the reduction in fan energy is offse t by a reduction in air-side free cooling. Overall, the results indicate significant opportunities for LEC technologies to reduce energy consumption and demand in nonresidential new construction and retrofit.

Bourassa, Norman; Haves, Philip; Huang, Joe

2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

215

Numerical simulation of an innovated building cooling system with combination of solar chimney and water spraying system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, passive cooling of a room using a solar chimney and water spraying system in the room ... a hot and arid city with very high solar radiation). The performance of this system ... some parameters suc...

Ramin Rabani; Ahmadreza K. Faghih; Mehrdad Rabani; Mehran Rabani

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Economical and environmental assessment of an optimized solar cooling system for a medium-sized benchmark office building in Los Angeles, California  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a systematic energetic, economical, and environmental assessment on a solar cooling system for a medium-sized office building in Los Angeles, California by means of system modeling. The studied solar cooling system primarily consists of evacuated tube solar collectors, a hot water storage tank, a single-effect LiBr–H2O absorption chiller, and a gas-fired auxiliary heater. System performance optimization and sensitivity analysis were conducted by varying two major parameters (i.e. storage tank volume and collector area). The results suggest that a trade-off exists between economic performance indicated by the equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) and the energetic/environmental performance indicated by the solar fraction and CO2 reduction percentage, respectively. The cost of carbon footprint reduction was defined and served as an indicator for the overall system performance. Based on this indicator, the optimal system design could be found for a solar cooling system. The approach adapted in this study can be applied to other buildings located in different climate zones to reveal the cost and benefits of solar cooling technologies and facilitate decision-making.

Yin Hang; Ming Qu; Fu Zhao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Retro-Commissioning and Improvement for District Heating and Cooling System Using Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) system, retro-commissioning was analyzed using visualization method and simulation based on mathematical models, and improved operation schemes were proposed...

Shingu, H.; Nakajima, R.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-4 Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation Yanli Ren1, Deying Li2, Yufeng Zhang1 1...

Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

MIT Electric Vehicle Team Porsche designing a cooling system for the AC24 electric motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis I worked on the design and analysis of a cooling system for the electric motor of the MIT Electric Vehicle Team's Porsche 914 Battery Electric Vehicle. The vehicle's Azure Dynamics AC24 motor tended to ...

Meenen, Jordan N

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Operation Management and Energy Consumption Analysis of the District Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the investigation of the district cooling system of the Zhongguancun Square in Beijing, we thoroughly analyzed the process of its operation management and the main factors that affect energy consumption. The basis was provided...

Xu, Q.; Li, D.; Xu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

makeup. Though they use no water, air-cooling systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at a higher temperature), lower power sales due to higher...

222

Effect of Cooling Flow on the Operation of a Hot Rotor-Gas Foil Bearing System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas foil bearings (GFBs) operating at high temperature rely on thermal management procedures that supply needed cooling flow streams to keep the bearing and rotor from overheating. Poor thermal management not only makes systems inefficient...

Ryu, Keun

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

223

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description As the geothermal industry moves to use geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. Because of increasing demand on finite supplies of water, this next generation of more efficient plants will likely need to reject heat sensibly to the ambient (air-cooling). This will be especially true in western states having higher grade Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) resources, as well as most hydrothermal resources. If one had a choice, an evaporative heat rejection system would be selected because it would provide both cost and performance advantages. The evaporative system, however, consumes a significant amount of water during heat rejection that would require makeup. Though they use no water, air-cooling systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at a higher temperature), lower power sales due to higher parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power output (because of large variation in the dry-bulb temperature).

224

Assessment of passive safety system performance under gravity driven cooling system drain line break accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A generation III+ Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) which relies on natural circulation has evolved from earlier BWR designs by incorporating passive safety features to improve safety and performance. Natural circulation allows the elimination of emergency injection pump and no operator action or alternating current (AC) power supply. The generation III+ BWR's passive safety systems include the Automatic Depressurization System (ADS), the Suppression Pool (SP), the Standby Liquid Control System (SLCS), the Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS), the Isolation Condenser System (ICS) and the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). The ADS is actuated to rapidly depressurize the reactor leading to the GDCS injection. The large amount of water in the SP condenses steam from the reactor. The SLCS provides makeup water to the reactor. The GDCS injects water into the reactor by gravity head and provides cooling to the core. The ICS and the PCCS are used to remove the decay heat from the reactor. The objective of this paper is to analyze the response of passive safety systems under the Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). A GDCS Drain Line Break (GDLB) test has been conducted in the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) which is scaled to represent the generation III+ BWR. The main results of PUMA GDLB test were that the reactor coolant level was well above the Top of Active Fuel (TAF) and the reactor containment pressure has remained below the design pressure. In particular, the containment maximum pressure (266 kPa) was 36% lower than the safety limit (414 kPa). The minimum collapsed water level (1.496 m) before the GDCS injection was 8% lower than the TAF (1.623 m) but it was ensured that two-phase water level was higher than the TAF with no core uncovery.

J. Lim; J. Yang; S.W. Choi; D.Y. Lee; S. Rassame; T. Hibiki; M. Ishii

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

226

Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning Finned tube adsorber bed Specific cooling power Adsorber bed to adsorbent mass ratio a b s t r a c t Adsorber bed design strongly affects the performance of waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems (ACS

Bahrami, Majid

227

Propellant feed system of a regeneratively cooled scramjet  

SciTech Connect

An expander cycle for an airframe-integrated hydrogen-fueled scramjet is analyzed to study regenerative cooling characteristics and overall specific impulse. Below Mach 10, the specific impulse and thrust coincide with the reference values. At Mach numbers above 10, a reduction of the specific impulse occurs due to the coolant flow rate requirement, which is accompanied by an increase of thrust. It is shown that the thrust may be increased by injecting excess fuel into the combustor to compensate for the decrease of the specific impulse. 9 refs.

Kanda, Takeshi; Masuya, Goro; Wakamatsu, Yoshio (National Aerospace Laboratory, Kakuda (Japan))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Asymmetric crystallization during cooling and heating in model glass-forming systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the crystallization process in binary Lennard-Jones systems during heating and cooling to investigate atomic-scale crystallization kinetics in glass-forming materials. For the cooling protocol, we prepared equilibrated liquids above the liquidus temperature $T_l$ and cooled each sample to zero temperature at rate $R_c$. For the heating protocol, we first cooled equilibrated liquids to zero temperature at rate $R_p$ and then heated the samples to temperature $T > T_l$ at rate $R_h$. We measured the critical heating and cooling rates $R_h^*$ and $R_c^*$, below which the systems begin to form a substantial fraction of crystalline clusters during the heating and cooling protocols. We show that $R_h^* > R_c^*$, and that the asymmetry ratio $R_h^*/R_c^*$ includes an intrinsic contribution that increases with the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the system and a preparation-rate dependent contribution that increases strongly as $R_p \\rightarrow R_c^*$ from above. We also show that the predictions from classical nucleation theory (CNT) can qualitatively describe the dependence of the asymmetry ratio on the GFA and preparation rate $R_p$ from the MD simulations and results for the asymmetry ratio measured in Zr- and Au-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG). This work emphasizes the need for and benefits of an improved understanding of crystallization processes in BMGs and other glass-forming systems.

Minglei Wang; Kai Zhang; Zhusong Li; Yanhui Liu; Jan Schroers; Mark D. Shattuck; Corey S. O'Hern

2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

229

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling provided, inGenerally, total modular cooling power demand was somewhathigher server loads. The cooling power demand decreased when

Adams, Barbara J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling transported,Generally, total modular cooling power demand stabilized atrack) in this study. The cooling power demand decreased when

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of total hydraulic power for cooling to cooling delivered,temperatures, and cooling output power. 6 Test proceduresefficiency defined as power demand per cooling transferred.

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume (~570 cm3, ~3 kg, 140% or larger) germanium detectors for field applications. We are using a new generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers for operating the very largest volume germanium detectors with absolutely no maintenance or liquid nitrogen requirements. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed five years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (NEM). The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be utilized. These mechanically cooled germanium detector systems being developed here will provide the largest, most sensitive detectors possible for use with the RASA. To provide such systems, the appropriate technical fundamentals are being researched. Mechanical cooling of germanium detectors has historically been a difficult endeavor. The success or failure of mechanically cooled germanium detectors stems from three main technical issues: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors affect one another. There is a particularly crucial relationship between vacuum and temperature. These factors will be experimentally studied both separately and together to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system for field use. Using this knowledge, a series of mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems are being designed and fabricated. Our collaborators at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will evaluate these detector systems on the bench top and eventually in RASA systems to insure reliable and practical operation.

Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Bowyer, Ted W.

2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

233

Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

234

Analysis of simultaneous cooling and heating in supermarket refrigeration systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In this master thesis project, conventional supermarket refrigeration systems using R404A are compared with refrigeration system solutions using natural refrigerants such as carbon dioxide… (more)

Marigny, Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Ethylene mass flow measurements with an automatic CO2 laser long-path absorption system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A computer controlled CO2 laser long-path absorption system has been used in a field experiment to measure the total emission of ethylene from a petrochemical factory. The...

Persson, U; Johansson, J; Marthinsson, B; Eng, S T

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Incorporating reliability analysis into the design of passive cooling systems with an application to a gas-cooled reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A time-dependent reliability evaluation of a two-loop passive decay heat removal (DHR) system was performed as part of the iterative design process for a helium-cooled fast reactor. The system was modeled using RELAP5-3D. The uncertainties in input parameters were assessed and were propagated through the model using Latin hypercube sampling. An important finding was the discovery that the smaller pressure loss through the DHR heat exchanger than through the core would make the flow to bypass the core through one DHR loop, if two loops operated in parallel. This finding is a warning against modeling only one lumped DHR loop and assuming that n of them will remove n times the decay power. Sensitivity analyses revealed that there are values of some input parameters for which failures are very unlikely. The calculated conditional (i.e., given the LOCA) failure probability was deemed to be too high leading to the identification of several design changes to improve system reliability. This study is an example of the kinds of insights that can be obtained by including a reliability assessment in the design process. It is different from the usual use of PSA in design, which compares different system configurations, because it focuses on the thermal–hydraulic performance of a safety function.

Francisco J. Mackay; George E. Apostolakis; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

"Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System"  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System" Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System" Inventor ..--.. Richard P. Majeski Disclosed is a design for a fully axisymmetric, fast flowing liquid lithium plasma facing "wall" or surface which, in its present form, is intended for implementation in a tokamak. The design employs JxB forces to form a free-surface flow along a guide wall at the outer boundary of the plasma. The implementation of the disclosure design includes a system for recirculating the liquid metal within the volume of the toroidal field coils using inductive pumping, an approach wich allows independent energizing of the wall-forming and recirculating pumping systems, cooling of the recirculating liquid using fluid heat exchange with a molten salt,

238

Heating and cooling performance analysis of a ground source heat pump system in Southern Germany  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper examines thermal performance of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. The GSHP system was installed in an office building in Nuremberg city of Germany. In order to evaluate system performance the GSHP system has been continuously monitored for 4 years. Heating and cooling performance of the GSHP system is analyzed based on the accumulated data. Major findings of this work include: (1) coefficient of performance (COP) is estimated to be 3.9 for a typical winter day and energy efficiency ratio (EER) is assessed to be 8.0 for a typical summer day. These results indicate that the GSHP system has a higher efficiency for building cooling than building heating. (2) For a long-term period, the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of the GSHP system is observed to increase by 8.7% annually, whereas the seasonal COP is decreased by 4.0% over a 4-year period. The heating and cooling performance of the GSHP system migrates in opposite trend is caused by the unevenly distributed heating and cooling load of the building. This phenomenon deserves serious attention in the design of future GSHP systems in order to avoid the reducing of energy efficiency over long-term operation.

Jin Luo; Joachim Rohn; Manfred Bayer; Anna Priess; Lucas Wilkmann; Wei Xiang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Assessment of off-design performance of a small-scale combined cooling and power system using an alternative operating strategy for gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A small-scale combined cooling and power (CCP) system usually serves district air conditioning apart from power generation purposes. The typical system consists of a gas turbine and an exhaust gas-fired absorption refrigerator. The surplus heat of the gas turbine is recovered to generate cooling energy. In this way, the CCP system has a high overall efficiency at the design point. However, the CCP system usually runs under off-design conditions because the users’ demand varies frequently. The operating strategy of the gas turbine will affect the thermodynamic performance of itself and the entire CCP system. The operating strategies for gas turbines include the reducing turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and the compressor inlet air throttling (IAT). A CCP system, consisting of an OPRA gas turbine and a double effects absorption refrigerator, is investigated to identify the effects of different operating strategies. The CCP system is simulated based on the partial-load model of gas turbine and absorption refrigerator. The off-design performance of the CCP system is compared under different operating strategies. The results show that the IAT strategy is the better one. At 50% rated power output of the gas turbine, the IAT operating strategy can increase overall system efficiency by 10% compared with the TIT strategy. In general, the IAT operating strategy is suited for other gas turbines. However, the benefits of IAT should be investigated in the future, when different gas turbine is adopted. This study may provide a new operating strategy of small scale gas turbine to improve the off-design performance of CCP system.

Wei Han; Qiang Chen; Ru-mou Lin; Hong-guang Jin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total Power for Server Power Cooling Module Power (kW) (Cooling is the amount of cooling power removed from the dataratio of total cooling power to the cooling transported by

Xu, TengFang T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Adaptive Thermal Management for Portable System Batteries by Forced Convection Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adaptive Thermal Management for Portable System Batteries by Forced Convection Cooling Qing Xie the battery longevity increases. This is the first work that formulates the adaptive thermal management is proposed to derive the ATMB policy. Keywords-- battery system; adaptive thermal management; forced

Pedram, Massoud

242

Quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy system with a servo-motor-driven channel-cut monochromator with a temporal resolution of 10 ms  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a quick-scanning x-ray absorption fine structure (QXAFS) system and installed it at the recently constructed synchrotron radiation beamline BL33XU at the SPring-8. Rapid acquisition of high-quality QXAFS data was realized by combining a servo-motor-driven Si channel-cut monochromator with a tapered undulator. Two tandemly aligned monochromators with channel-cut Si(111) and Si(220) crystals covered energy ranges of 4.0-28.2 keV and 6.6-46.0 keV, respectively. The system allows the users to adjust instantly the energy ranges of scans, the starting angles of oscillations, and the frequencies. The channel-cut crystals are cooled with liquid nitrogen to enable them to withstand the high heat load from the undulator radiation. Deformation of the reflecting planes is reduced by clamping each crystal with two cooling blocks. Performance tests at the Cu K-edge demonstrated sufficiently high data quality for x-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine-structure analyses with temporal resolutions of up to 10 and 25 ms, respectively.

Nonaka, T.; Dohmae, K.; Araki, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y. [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Uruga, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanida, H.; Goto, S. [JASRI/Spring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mochizuki, T. [JASRI/Spring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Toyama Corp., Zama, Kanagawa 228-0003 (Japan)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Thermal performance of oil spray cooling system for in-wheel motor in electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The cooling of the motor in an in-wheel system is critical to its performance and durability. In the present study, the shape of the channel in the hollow shaft for the oil spray cooling of a high-capacity 35 kW in-wheel motor was optimized, and the thermal performance of the motor was evaluated by numerical analysis and experiments. The thermal flow was analyzed by evaluating the thermal performance of two conventional cooling models of in-wheel motors under conditions of continuous rating base speed. For conventional model #1, in which the cooling oil is stagnant in the lower end of the motor, the maximum temperature of the coil was 221.7 °C. For conventional model #2, in which the cooling oil circulates through the exit and entrance of the housing and jig, the maximum temperature of the coil was 155.4 °C. Both models thus proved to be unsuitable for in-wheel motors because the motor control specifications limit the maximum temperature to 150 °C. We designed and manufactured an enhanced model for in-wheel motors, which we equipped with an optimized channel for the oil spray cooling mode, and evaluated its thermal performance under continuous rating conditions. The maximum temperatures of the coil at the base and maximum speeds, which were set as the design points, were below the motor temperature limit, being 138.1 and 137.8 °C, respectively.

Dong Hyun Lim; Sung Chul Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Single-Photon Absorption in Coupled Atom-Cavity Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show how to capture a single photon of arbitrary temporal shape with one atom coupled to an optical cavity. Our model applies to Raman transitions in three-level atoms with one branch of the transition controlled by a (classical) laser pulse, and the other coupled to the cavity. Photons impinging on the cavity normally exhibit partial reflection, transmission, and/or absorption by the atom. Only a control pulse of suitable temporal shape ensures impedance matching throughout the pulse, which is necessary for complete state mapping from photon to atom. For most possible photon shapes, we derive an unambiguous analytic expression for the shape of this control pulse, and we discuss how this relates to a quantum memory.

Jerome Dilley; Peter Nisbet-Jones; Bruce W. Shore; Axel Kuhn

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

American Indian Complex to Cool Off Using Ice Storage System...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

demand and prices are at their lowest. An energy savings calculator from Oklahoma Gas & Electric suggests the system could save nearly 42,000 a year over conventional...

246

Numerical simulation of a blanket cooling system for fusion reactor based on PWR conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The simulations of a blanket cooling system were presented to address the choice of cooling channel geometry and coolant input data which are related to blanket engineering implementation. This work was performed using computer aided design (CAD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Simulations were carried out for the blanket module with a size of 0.6 m × 0.45 m in toroidal plane, and the nuclear heat was applied on the cooling system at Pn (neutron wall load) of 5 MW/m2. The structure factors and input data of hydraulics were investigated to explore the optimal parameters to match the PWR condition. It was found that the inlet velocity of first wall (FW) channel should be within the range of 2.48–3.34 m/s. As a result, the temperature rise (TR) of the coolant in the FW channel would be 24–25 K. This leads to the remaining space for TR within the range of 15 K in the piping circuits. It also indicated that the FW plays an important role in TR (reaches 60% of the whole cooling system) due to its high level of Pn and heat flux in the zones. It was predicted that the nuclear heat inside blanket module could be removed completely by the piping circuits with an acceptable pipe bore and the related input data. Finally, a possible design range of cooling parameters was proposed in view of engineering feasibility and blanket neutronics design.

Changle Liu; Jianzhong Zhang; Yinfeng Zhu; Songlin Liu; Xuebin Ma; Peiming Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Enhancing VHTR passive safety and economy with thermal radiation based direct reactor auxiliary cooling system  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The RVACS can be characterized as a surface-based decay heat removal system. It is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to the core volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to the vessel surface area). Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environmental side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps or annular regions formed between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions among the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power density and therefore the reactor power can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options with different cooling pipe locations are discussed. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations are presented. (authors)

Zhao, H.; Zhang, H.; Zou, L. [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Sun, X. [Ohio State Univ. (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences  

SciTech Connect

Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

Wiltsee, G.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A comparative assessment of alternative combustion turbine inlet air cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Interest in combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTAC) has increased during the last few years as electric utilities face increasing demand for peak power. Inlet air cooling increases the generating capacity and decreases the heat rate of a combustion turbine during hot weather when the demand for electricity is generally the greatest. Several CTAC systems have been installed, but the general applicability of the concept and the preference for specific concepts is still being debated. Concurrently, Rocky Research of Boulder City, Nevada has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct research on complex compound (ammoniated salt) chiller systems for low-temperature refrigeration applications.

Brown, D.R.; Katipamula, S.; Konynenbelt, J.H.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM COUPLED TO A UNIT OF MICROCOGENERATION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??O presente trabalho apresenta uma análise teórico-experimental de uma planta de cogeração, composta por um chiller de absorção que utiliza a tecnologia NH3/H2O, um recuperador… (more)

Daniel Ferreira Queiroz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A simulation study for single and double effect absorption solar cooling systems operated under Taiwan climate.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract There is much rich solar energy in Taiwan situated at the subtropics;Therefore itâs suitable for solar energy is utilized as the driving energy for… (more)

Shen, Jyun-long

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Cogeneration Systems for Powering and Cooling Data Centers: The Green Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cogeneration Systems for Powering and Cooling Data Centers: The Green Data Cogeneration Systems for Powering and Cooling Data Centers: The Green Data Center at Syracuse University Speaker(s): Dustin W. Demetriou Date: October 28, 2013 - 12:00pm - 1:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: William Tschudi In the near future, nearly 30 percent of data centers will run out of space, power or cooling capacity. The demand for these resources has brought energy efficiency to the forefront and driven creative thinking when considering data center construction. Syracuse University, IBM and GEM Energy opened a state-of-the-art data center composed of several innovative features that promised to reduce primary energy consumption by as much as 50 percent compared to a conventional utility-powered data center. Much of the advantage stems from the use of an on-site natural gas

253

Contol of integrated mechanical dehumidification and passive cooling systems to produce energy efficient comfort  

SciTech Connect

Detailed computer simulations validated by full scale testing indicate that roof pond type passive cooling systems can provide acceptable residential temperature conditions in all climates of the United States. Passive cooling systems as presently conceived, however, require complementary dehumidification to carry existing latent loads. A study is made of the relative dehumidification efficiencies of conventional air conditioners and an improved mechanical dehumidifier which utilizes sensible cooling recovery. The effects of dew point and dry bulb temperatures, controller set point and humidity band width, infiltration, and climate are evaluated. A simple dehumidifier sizing procedure is presented. Results indicate that the improved dehumidifiers are several times as efficient as conventional air conditioners under desired steady state room conditions. It is also shown that dehumidifier capacities at AHAM test conditions may be misleading if used for design purposes.

Doderer, E.; Marcus, D.; Hoffner, J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Underground Mine Water Heating and Cooling Using Geothermal Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect

In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems. For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains 5.1 x 1012 L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totals 380,000 L/min, which could theoretically heat and cool 20,000 homes. Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning).

Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Analysis of solar desiccant cooling system for an institutional building in subtropical Queensland, Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Institutional buildings contain different types of functional spaces which require different types of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In addition, institutional buildings should be designed to maintain an optimal indoor comfort condition with minimal energy consumption and minimal negative environmental impact. Recently there has been a significant interest in implementing desiccant cooling technologies within institutional buildings. Solar desiccant cooling systems are reliable in performance, environmentally friendly and capable of improving indoor air quality at a lower cost. In this study, a solar desiccant cooling system for an institutional building in subtropical Queensland (Australia) is assessed using TRNSYS 16 software. This system has been designed and installed at the Rockhampton campus of Central Queensland University. The system's technical performance, economic analysis, energy savings, and avoided gas emission are quantified in reference to a conventional HVAC system under the influence of Rockhampton's typical meteorological year. The technical and economic parameters that are used to assess the system's viability are: coefficient of performance (COP), solar fraction, life cycle analysis, payback period, present worth factor and the avoided gas emission. Results showed that, the installed cooling system at Central Queensland University which consists of 10 m2 of solar collectors and a 0.400 m3 of hot water storage tank, achieved a 0.7 COP and 22% of solar fraction during the cooling season. These values can be boosted to 1.2 COP and 69% respectively if 20 m2 of evacuated tube collector's area and 1.5 m3 of solar hot water storage volume are installed.

Ali M. Baniyounes; Gang Liu; M.G. Rasul; M.M.K. Khan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating/Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can systems. A promising application of DR fluids is in district heating/ cooling systems (DHCs)9

Raghavan, Srinivasa

257

Use of electromagnetic clutch water pumps in vehicle engine cooling systems to reduce fuel consumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In general, when the internal combustion engine of a vehicle is started, its operationally connected cooling system provides excessive cooling, resulting in unnecessary energy consumption and excessive emission of exhaust gas. If the rotational speed of the engine is high, the excessive cooling causes the combustion efficiency to decrease. Therefore, better control of the operating temperature range of the engine through use of an active cooling system can achieve better fuel economy and reduction of exhaust gas emission. Effective control of the cooling system in accordance with the operating conditions of the engine can be realized by changing the mass flow rate of the coolant. In this study, we designed electromagnetic clutch water pumps that can control the coolant flow. We made two types of water pump: (1) a planetary gear (PG)-type water pump which can reduce the rotation speed of the water pump by 65%, compared with a pulley; and (2) an on/off-type water pump which can completely stop the rotation of the impeller. The performance evaluation of these pumps consisted of a warm-up test and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Warm-up test results showed that the time required to achieve a temperature of approximately 80 °C with the PG water pump and the on/off water pump was improved by 7.3% and 24.7% respectively, compared with that of a conventional water pump. Based on the NEDC results, we determined that the fuel economy of the engine using the PG water pump and the on/off water pump was improved by 1.7% and 4.0% compared with the fuel economy when using the conventional water pump. The application of clutch water pumps is expected to contribute to the improvement of engine cooling system performance, because their effect in reducing the fuel consumption rate is similar to that of an electric water pump.

Yoon Hyuk Shin; Sung Chul Kim; Min Soo Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller  

SciTech Connect

Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

Crispin, Larry G. (Akron, OH); Weitzel, Paul S. (Canal Fulton, OH)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Experimental studies of a single-effect absorption refrigerator using aqueous lithium-bromide: Effect of operating condition to system performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an experimental investigation of a single-effect absorption using aqueous lithium-bromide as working fluid. A 2 kW cooling capacity experimental refrigerator was tested with various operating temperatures. It was found that the solution circulation ratio (SCR) has a strong effect on the system performance. The measured SCR was 2-5 times greater than the theoretical prediction. This was due to the low performance of the absorber. The use of solution heat exchanger could increase the COP by up to 60%. (author)

Aphornratana, Satha [Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Thammasat Rangsit Post Office, Patumthani 12121 (Thailand); Sriveerakul, Thanarath [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Solar space cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Jump to: navigation, search Solarcooling.jpg Contents 1 Introduction 2 Solar Absorption Technology 3 Solar Desiccant Technology 4 Passive Solar Cooling 5 References Introduction There are many benefits to Solar Cooling systems. For one the sun is a clean energy resource that we should be using more often. It also produces no emissions and is replenished naturally, it reduces greenhouse gases, it saves the release of 1.6 lbs. of carbon dioxide (CO2) for each kilowatt-hour (kWh) produced, it saves the use of one-half gallon of water for each kWh of solar energy produced, it saves the release of other emissions that result from the burning of fossil fuels such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide or mercury and it provides customers with options to reduce their electric bills. But up to this point Solar Cooling systems are

265

Use of caged fish for mariculture and environmental monitoring in a power-plant cooling-water system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-nydrocarbon pesticides in fishes cultured at various locations within the cooling system. 203 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Map of the research site ~g the location of the power plant, cooling-water system, and research facilities 17 Schematic representation... quality might conceivably be available considering the large number of power plants utilizing coastal waters for cooling. Other important benefits of thermal fish-culture include ample water supply, and reduced pumping costs as a result of the massive...

Chamberlain, George William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Design and optimization of the heat rejection system for a liquid cooled thermionic space nuclear reactor power system  

SciTech Connect

The heat transport subsystem for a liquid metal cooled thermionic space nuclear power system was modelled using algorithms developed in support of previous nuclear power system study programs, which date back to the SNAP-10A flight system. The model was used to define the optimum dimensions of the various components in the heat transport subsystem subjected to the constraints of minimizing mass and achieving a launchable package that did not require radiator deployment. The resulting design provides for the safe and reliable cooling of the nuclear reactor in a proven lightweight design.

Moriarty, M.P. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: To improve the efficiency and output variability of geothermal-based ORC power production systems with minimal water consumption by deploying: 1) a hybrid-water/air cooled condenser with low water consumption and 2) an enhanced turbine with high efficiency.

268

MAGNET/CRYOCOOLER INTEGRATIONFOR THERMAL STABILITY IN CONDUCTION-COOLED SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAGNET/CRYOCOOLER INTEGRATIONFOR THERMAL STABILITY IN CONDUCTION-COOLED SYSTEMS H.-M. Chang and K The stability conditions that take into accounts the size of superconducting magnets and the refrigeration the refrigeration, causing a rise in the temperature of the magnet winding and leading to burnout. It is shown

Chang, Ho-Myung

269

Cryogenic systems for proof of the principle experiment of coherent electron cooling at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The Coherent electron Cooling (CeC) Proof of Principle (PoP) experiment is proposed to be installed in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to demonstrate proton and ion beam cooling with this new technique that may increase the beam luminosity in certain cases, by as much as tenfold. Within the scope of this project, a 112 MHz, 2MeV Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) electron gun and a 704 MHz 20MeV 5-cell SRF cavity will be installed at IP2 in the RHIC ring. The superconducting RF electron gun will be cooled in a liquid helium bath at 4.4 K. The 704 MHz 5-cell SRF cavity will be cooled in a super-fluid helium bath at 2.0 K. This paper discusses the cryogenic systems designed for both cavities. For the 112 MHz cavity cryogenic system, a condenser/boiler heat exchanger is used to isolate the cavity helium bath from pressure pulses and microphonics noise sources. For the 704 MHz 5-cell SRF cavity, a heat exchanger is also used to isolate the SRF cavity helium bath from noise sources in the sub-atmospheric pumping system operating at room temperature. Detailed designs, thermal analyses and discussions for both systems will be presented in this paper.

Huang, Yuenian; Belomestnykh, Sergey; Brutus, Jean Clifford; Lederle, Dewey; Orfin, Paul; Skaritka, John; Soria, Victor; Tallerico, Thomas; Than, Roberto [Collider Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

270

EIS-0121: Alternative Cooling Water Systems, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of cooling water systems for thermal discharges from K– and C-Reactors and from a coal-fired powerhouse in the D-Area at the Savannah River Plant (SRP)

271

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (PHASE I) Geothermal Project |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (PHASE I) Geothermal Project BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (PHASE I) Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (PHASE I) Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description The Project will result in the construction of the largest ground source geothermal-based closed loop GHP heating and cooling system in America. Phase I of the Project began with the design, competitive bidding, and contract award for the drilling and "looping" of 1,800 boreholes in sports fields and parking lots on the north side of campus. The components of the entire Project include: (1) 4,100 four hundred feet deep boreholes spread over about 25 acres of sport fields and parking lots (Phase I will involve 1,800 boreholes spread over about 8 acres); (2) Each Phase will require a district energy station (about 9,000 sq. feet) that will each contain (A) two 2,500 ton heat pump chillers (which can produce 150 degree (F) water for heating purposes and 42 degree (F) water for cooling purposes); and (B) a variety of water pumps, electrical and other control systems; (3) a closed loop piping system that continuously circulates about 20,000 gallons of water (no anti-freeze) per minute through the boreholes, energy stations, a (two pipe) hot water loop and a (two pipe) chilled water loop (no water is drawn from the aquifer at any point in the operation); and (4) hot/chilled water-to-air heat exchangers in each of the buildings.

272

Performance prediction of refrigerant-DMF solutions in a single-stage solar-powered absorption refrigeration system at low generating temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical analysis of the coefficient of performance was undertaken to examine the efficiency characteristics of R22 + DMF, R134a + DMF, R32 + DMF as working fluids, respectively, for a single-stage and intermittent absorption refrigerator which allows the use of heat pipe evacuated tubular collectors. The modeling and simulation of the performance considers both solar collector system and the absorption cooling system. The typical meteorological year file containing the weather parameters for Hangzhou is used to simulate the system. The results show that the system is in phase with the weather. In order to increase the reliability of the system, a hot water storage tank is essential. The optimum ratio of storage tank per solar collector area for Hangzhou's climate for a 1.0 kW system is 0.035-0.043L. Considering the relative low pressure and the high coefficient of performance, R134a + DMF mixture presents interesting properties for its application in solar absorption cycles at moderate condensing and absorbing temperatures when the evaporating temperatures in the range from 278 K to 288 K which are highly useful for food preservation and for air-conditioning in rural areas. (author)

He, L.J. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Environment and Energy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Tang, L.M.; Chen, G.M. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Principles of passive and active cooling of mirror-based hybrid systems employing liquid metals  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents principles of passive and active cooling that are suitable to mirrorbased hybrid, nuclear fission/fusion systems. It is shown that liquid metal lead-bismuth cooling of the mirror machine with 25 m height and 1.5 GW thermal power is feasible both in the active mode during the normal operation and in the passive mode after the reactor shutdown. In the active mode the achievable required pumping power can well be below 50 MW, whereas the passive mode provides enough coolant flow to keep the clad temperature below the damage limits.

Anglart, Henryk [Div. of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106-91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

274

Method and apparatus for enhancing reactor air-cooling system performance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An enhanced decay heat removal system for removing heat from the inert gas-filled gap space between the reactor vessel and the containment vessel of a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. Multiple cooling ducts in flow communication with the inert gas-filled gap space are incorporated to provide multiple flow paths for the inert gas to circulate to heat exchangers which remove heat from the inert gas, thereby introducing natural convection flows in the inert gas. The inert gas in turn absorbs heat directly from the reactor vessel by natural convection heat transfer.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Method and apparatus for enhancing reactor air-cooling system performance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An enhanced decay heat removal system is disclosed for removing heat from the inert gas-filled gap space between the reactor vessel and the containment vessel of a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. Multiple cooling ducts in flow communication with the inert gas-filled gap space are incorporated to provide multiple flow paths for the inert gas to circulate to heat exchangers which remove heat from the inert gas, thereby introducing natural convection flows in the inert gas. The inert gas in turn absorbs heat directly from the reactor vessel by natural convection heat transfer. 6 figs.

Hunsbedt, A.

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

276

The computational-and-experimental investigation into the head-flow characteristic of the two-stage ejector for the emergency core cooling system of the NPP with a water-moderated water-cooled power reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of the computational-and-experimental investigation into the two-stage ejector for the emergency cooling system of the core of the water-moderated water-cooled power reactor. The results of experiment...

Yu. V. Parfenov

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Prototype explosives-detection system based on nuclear-resonance absorption in nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

A prototype explosives-detection system (EDS) that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear-resonance absorption technique is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Krauss, R.A. [Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City International Airport, NJ (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Techno-Economic Evaluation of Using Different Air Inlet Cooling Systems in Gas Compressor Station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to review the state of the art in applications for reducing the gas turbine intake air temperature and examine the merits from integration of the different air-cooling methods for 25 MW gas turbine based pipeline gas station . Four different intake air cooling methods have been applied in two pipeline gas stations. The calculations were performed on a yearly basis of operation. The case study is related to Dehshir and Kashan pipeline gas stations in Iran Gas Trunk line 8. The simulation has been performed in Thermoflex Software. Also, the Matlab code has been developed for thermodynamic simulation and exergoeconomic analysis of different scenarios. Finally, the thermodynamic, economics and exergoeconomic parameters for integration of the different cooling systems were calculated and compared.

V. Mazhari; S. Khamis Abadi; H. Ghalami; M.H. Khoshgoftar Manesh; M. Amidpour

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Energy audit case studies II—air conditioning (cooling) systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses a novel methodology for determination of the efficiencies of each segment in a centralized air conditioning (A/C) plant. The methodology is useful analytical tool in energy audit where it can be used for decision support for evolution of energy conservation measures and techno-economic evaluation of the various options. The procedure is applied to three A/C plants of capacity range from 50 to 500 TR. Losses in chilled air ducts and cycling losses in the refrigerant circuit are identified to be the major causes for decrease in the efficiency and capacity under rating of the systems. Effective controls and insulation of air ducts: have been shown to be the most cost effective solutions to improve the energy efficiency of the A/C plants. The generalized experimental data on overall performance of sixteen A/C plants is also provided.

M Siddhartha Bhatt

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Absorption-free superluminal light propagation in a V-type system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dispersion and absorption properties of a weak probe field in a three-level V-type atomic system is studied. By application of indirect incoherent pump fields the effect of populating upper levels on optical properties of the atomic medium in presence of a strong coherent pump field is investigated. It is shown that the slope of dispersion changes from positive to negative just by changing the intensity of the coherent or indirect incoherent pump fields. It is demonstrated that the absorption-free subluminal and superluminal light propagation appears in this system.

Khaled Saaidi; Bahareh Ruzbahani; S. Worya Rabiei; Mohammad Mahmoudi

2010-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

282

Optimal Operation Scheme for a Cogeneration System Promoted from an Emergency Standby System Combined with Absorption Chiller  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel optimal operation scheme for a cogeneration system that is promoted from an emergency standby system combined with absorption chiller is introduced. The fuel cost, Time-of-use (TOU) tariff and various operational constrains are taken into account ... Keywords: cogeneration system, Time-of-use tariff, optimal operation scheme

Shyi-Wen Wang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

LiCl dehumidifier/LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

Ko, S.M.

1980-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

284

LiCl dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system. 4 figs.

Ko, S.M.

1980-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

285

Personal Comfort Systems: Cooling/Heating Local Body Parts Efficient Ways  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Personal Comfort Systems: Cooling/Heating Local Body Parts Efficient Ways Personal Comfort Systems: Cooling/Heating Local Body Parts Efficient Ways to Provide Comfort Indoors Speaker(s): Hui Zhang Date: October 9, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Rongxin Yin This presentation describes energy efficient approaches to provide comfort in offices by creating non-uniform and transient thermal environments. The presentation will describe 1) distributions and characteristics of thermoreceptors of human body, 2) comfort responses of people exposed to complex thermal environments, 3) concept of "alliesthesia", 4) personal comfort systems developed by CBE, 5) their energy efficiency and demand response potential, and 6) the CBE advanced thermal comfort model. A recording of this seminar is available at: https://vimeo.com/51536661

286

INCIDENCE OF Mg II ABSORPTION SYSTEMS TOWARD FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

The conventional wisdom that the rate of incidence of Mg II absorption systems, dN/dz (excluding 'associated systems' having a velocity {beta}c relative to the active galactic nucleus (AGN) of less than {approx}5000 km s{sup -1}), is totally independent of the background AGNs has been challenged by a recent finding that dN/dz for strong Mg II absorption systems toward distant blazars is 2.2 {+-} {sup 0.8}{sub 0.6} times the value known for normal optically selected quasars (QSOs). This has led to the suggestion that a significant fraction of even the absorption systems with {beta} as high as {approx}0.1 may have been ejected by the relativistic jets in the blazars, which are expected to be pointed close to our direction. Here, we investigate this scenario using a large sample of 115 flat-spectrum radio-loud quasars (FSRQs) that also possess powerful jets, but are only weakly polarized. We show, for the first time, that dN/dz toward FSRQs is, on the whole, quite similar to that known for QSOs and that the comparative excess of strong Mg II absorption systems seen toward blazars is mainly confined to {beta} < 0.15. The excess relative to FSRQs probably results from a likely closer alignment of blazar jets with our direction; hence, any gas clouds accelerated by them are more likely to be on the line of sight to the active quasar nucleus.

Chand, Hum [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263 129 (India); Gopal-Krishna, E-mail: hum@aries.res.in, E-mail: krishna@ncra.tifr.res.in [NCRA-TIFR, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

287

THE EVOLUTION OF LYMAN LIMIT ABSORPTION SYSTEMS TO REDSHIFT SIX  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the redshift evolution of the density of Lyman limit systems (LLSs) in the intergalactic medium over the redshift range 0 < z < 6. We have used two new quasar samples to (1) improve coverage at z {approx} 1, with GALEX grism spectrograph observations of 50 quasars with 0.8 < z{sub em} < 1.3, and (2) extend coverage to z {approx} 6, with Keck ESI spectra of 25 quasars with 4.17 < z{sub em} < 5.99. Using these samples together with published data, we find that the number density of LLS per unit redshift, n(z), can be well fit by a simple evolution of the form n(z) = n{sub 3.5}[(1 + z)/4.5]{sup {gamma}} with n{sub 3.5} = 2.80 {+-} 0.33 and {gamma} = 1.94{sup +0.36}{sub -0.32} for the entire range 0 < z < 6. We have also reanalyzed the evolution of damped Ly{alpha} systems (DLAs) in the redshift range 4 < z < 5 using our high-redshift quasar sample. We find a total of 17 DLAs and sub-DLAs, which we have analyzed in combination with published data. The DLAs with log H{sub I} column density > 20.3 show the same redshift evolution as the LLS. When combined with previous results, our DLA sample is also consistent with a constant {Omega}{sub DLA} = 9 x 10{sup -4} from z = 2 to z = 5. We have used the LLS number density evolution to compute the evolution in the mean free path (mfp) of ionizing photons. We find a smooth evolution to z {approx} 6, very similar in shape to that of Madau et al. but about a factor of two higher. Recent theoretical models roughly match to the z < 6 data but diverge from the measured power law at z>6 in different ways, cautioning against extrapolating the fit to the mfp outside the measured redshift range.

Songaila, Antoinette; Cowie, Lennox L. [W. M. Keck Observatory, which is jointly operated by the California Institute of Technology, University of California, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (United States)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Development of passive dry cooling system for power plants in arid land  

SciTech Connect

Availability of large amounts of cooling water is essential for steam power plants. In inland arid areas, gas turbines are usually used for electric power generation at low efficiency and high operation costs. Dry cooling towers are another option but they are not effective with high ambient temperature. This work explores the use of radiative cooling for power plants and large refrigeration plants in inland arid areas. The work done consists of small scale experiments, mathematical models, a survey of the suitable materials, and a prototype experiment. This article presents the prototype experiment. The mathematical modeling was presented by the authors in Solar Energy 48(5), 279-286 (1992). A prototype experimental pond, 10m x 25m x 1m, covered with a painted white aluminum sheet was designed, constructed, and tested. The pond was divided into two layers. The experiment was carried out from January to June. Temperatures in the pond at different sections and depths, net radiation, and weather data were measured. At night the results showed an average heat rejection by radiation of 50 W/m[sup 2]. These results were comparable with the results of the mathematical model. The net result of the experiment was positive. It demonstrated the suitability of the covered pond as a heat rejection system in place where a sufficient amount of cooling water was not available.

Sabbagh, J.A.; Khalifa, A.M.A.; Olwi, I.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Engine coolant compatibility with the nonmetals found in automotive cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

High temperature, short term immersion testing was used to determine the impact of propylene and ethylene glycol base coolants on the physical properties of a variety of elastomeric and thermoplastic materials found in automotive cooling systems. The materials tested are typically used in cooling system hoses, radiator end tanks, and water pump seals. Traditional phosphate or borate-buffered silicated coolants as well as extended-life organic acid formulations were included. A modified ASTM protocol was used to carry out the testing both in the laboratory and at an independent testing facility. Post-test fluid chemistry including an analysis of any solids which may have formed is also reported. Coolant impact on elastomer integrity as well as elastomer-induced changes in fluid chemistry were found to be independent of the coolant`s glycol base.

Greaney, J.P.; Smith, R.A. [ARCO Chemical Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

An X-ray absorption analysis of the high-velocity system in NGC 1275  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an X-ray absorption analysis of the high-velocity system (HVS) in NGC 1275 using results from a deep 200 ks Chandra observation. We are able to describe the morphology of the HVS in more detail than ever before. We present an HST image for comparison, and note close correspondence between the deepest X-ray absorption and the optical absorption. A column density map of the HVS shows an average column density NH of 1x10^21 cm^-2 with a range from ~5x10^20 to 5x10^21 cm^-2. From the NH map we calculate a total mass for the absorbing gas in the HVS of (1.32+-0.05)x10^9 solar masses at solar abundance. 75 per cent of the absorbing mass is contained in the four regions of deepest absorption. We examine temperature maps produced by spectral fitting and find no direct evidence for shocked gas in the HVS. Using deprojection methods and the depth of the observed absorption, we are able to put a lower limit on the distance of the HVS from the nucleus of 57 kpc, showing that the HVS is quite separate from the body of NGC 1275.

K. Gillmon; J. S. Sanders; A. C. Fabian

2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

291

Exergoeconomic analysis of high concentration photovoltaic thermal co-generation system for space cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper provides an exergetic analysis of a 10 MW high concentration photovoltaic thermal (HCPVT) power plant case study located in Hammam Bou Hadjar, Algeria. The novel HCPVT multi-energy carrier plant converts 25% of the direct normal irradiance (DNI) into electrical energy and 62.5% to low grade heat for a combined efficiency of 87.5%. The HCPVT system employs a point focus dish concentrator with a cooled PV receiver module. The novel “hot-water” cooling approach is used for energy reuse purposes and is enabled by our state-of-the-art substrate integrated micro-cooling technology. The high performance cooler of the receiver with a thermal resistance of <0.12 cm2 K/W enables the receiver module to handle concentrations of up to 5000 suns. In the present study, a concentration of 2000 suns allows using coolant fluid temperatures of up to 80 °C. This key innovation ensures reliable operation of the triple junction PV (3JPV) cells used and also allows heat recovery for utilization in other thermal applications such as space cooling, heating, and desalination. Within this context, an exergoeconomics analysis of photovoltaic thermal co-generation for space cooling is presented in this manuscript. The valuation method presented here for the HCPVT multi-energy carrier plant comprises both the technical and economic perspectives. The proposed model determines how the cost structure is evolving in four different scenarios by quantifying the potential thermal energy demand in Hammam Bou Hadjar. The model pins down the influence of technical details such as the exergetic efficiency to the economic value of the otherwise wasted heat. The thermal energy reuse boosts the power station?s overall yield, reduces total average costs and optimizes power supply as fixed capital is deployed more efficiently. It is observed that even though potential cooling demand can be substantial (19,490 MWh per household), prices for cooling should be 3 times lower than those of electricity in Algeria (18 USD/MWh) to be competitive. This implies a need to reach economies of scale in the production of individual key components of the HCPVT system. The net present value (NPV) is calculated taking growth rates and the system?s modular efficiencies into account, discounted over 25 years. Scenario 1 shows that even though Algeria currently has no market for thermal energy, a break-even quantity (49,728 MWh) can be deduced by taking into account the relation between fixed costs and the marginal profit. Scenario 2 focuses on the national growth rate needed to break even, i.e. +10.92%. Scenario 3 illustrates thermal price variations given an increase in the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of a thermally driven adsorption chiller after year 10. In this case, the price for cooling will decrease from 18 USD/MWh to 14 USD/MWh. Finally, scenario 4 depicts Hammam Bou Hadjar?s potential cooling demand per household and the growth rate needed to break even if a market for heat would exist.

Veronica Garcia-Heller; Stephan Paredes; Chin Lee Ong; Patrick Ruch; Bruno Michel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

On variations in the fine-structure constant and stellar pollution of quasar absorption systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At redshifts z_abs < 2, quasar absorption-line constraints on space-time variations in the fine-structure constant, alpha, rely on the comparison of MgII and FeII transition wavelengths. One potentially important uncertainty is the relative abundance of Mg isotopes in the absorbers which, if different from solar, can cause spurious shifts in the measured wavelengths and, therefore, alpha. Here we explore chemical evolution models with enhanced populations of intermediate-mass (IM) stars which, in their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase, are thought to be the dominant factories for heavy Mg isotopes at the low metallicities typical of quasar absorption systems. By design, these models partially explain recent Keck/HIRES evidence for a smaller alpha in z_abs < 2 absorption clouds than on Earth. However, such models also over-produce N, violating observed abundance trends in high-z_abs damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs). Our results do not support the recent claim of Ashenfelter, Mathews & Olive (2004b) that similar models of IM-enhanced initial mass functions (IMFs) may simultaneously explain the HIRES varying-alpha data and DLA N abundances. We explore the effect of the IM-enhanced model on Si, Al and P abundances, finding it to be much-less pronounced than for N. We also show that the 13C/12C ratio, as measured in absorption systems, could constitute a future diagnostic of non-standard models of the high-redshift IMF.

Y. Fenner; M. T. Murphy; B. K. Gibson

2005-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

293

Systems having optical absorption layer for mid and long wave infrared and methods for making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical system according to one embodiment includes a substrate; and an optical absorption layer coupled to the substrate, wherein the optical absorption layer comprises a layer of diamond-like carbon, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). A method for applying an optical absorption layer to an optical system according to another embodiment includes depositing a layer of diamond-like carbon of an optical absorption layer above a substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). Additional systems and methods are also presented.

Kuzmenko, Paul J

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Institutional project summary University of Redlands direct fired gas absorption chiller system  

SciTech Connect

The University of Redlands, located in the California Inland Empire City of Redlands supplies six campus building with chilled and hot water for cooling and space heating from a centrally located Mechanical Center. The University was interested in lowering chilled water production costs and eliminating Ozone depleting chloroflourocarbon (CFC) refrigerants in addition to adding chiller capacity for future building to be added to the central plant piping {open_quotes}loop{close_quotes}. After initially providing a feasibility study of chiller addition alternatives and annual hourly load models, GRT & Associates, Inc. (GRT) provided design engineering for the installation of a 500 Ton direct gas fired absorption chiller addition to the University of Redland`s mechanical center. Based on the feasibility study and energy consumption tests done after the new absorption chiller was added, the university estimates annual energy cost saving versus the existing electric chiller is approximately $65,000 per year. Using actual construction costs, the simple before tax payback period for the project is six years.

Tanner, G.R.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

An experimental study of heat pipe thermal management system with wet cooling method for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An effective battery thermal management (BTM) system is required for lithium-ion batteries to ensure a desirable operating temperature range with minimal temperature gradient, and thus to guarantee their high efficiency, long lifetime and great safety. In this paper, a heat pipe and wet cooling combined BTM system is developed to handle the thermal surge of lithium-ion batteries during high rate operations. The proposed BTM system relies on ultra-thin heat pipes which can efficiently transfer the heat from the battery sides to the cooling ends where the water evaporation process can rapidly dissipate the heat. Two sized battery packs, 3 Ah and 8 Ah, with different lengths of cooling ends are used and tested through a series high-intensity discharges in this study to examine the cooling effects of the combined BTM system, and its performance is compared with other four types of heat pipe involved BTM systems and natural convection cooling method. A combination of natural convection, fan cooling and wet cooling methods is also introduced to the heat pipe BTM system, which is able to control the temperature of battery pack in an appropriate temperature range with the minimum cost of energy and water spray.

Rui Zhao; Junjie Gu; Jie Liu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Na Zhu*, Yu Lei, Pingfang Hu, Linghong Xu, Zhangning Jiang Department of Building Environment and Equipment Engineering... heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage technology could save energy and shift peak load. This paper studied the optimal design of a ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change thermal storage tank in an office...

Zhu, N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

FOCUS COOLING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

298

Experimental study on the operational and the cooling performance of the APR+ passive auxiliary feedwater system  

SciTech Connect

The passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+ which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. The PAFS cools down the steam generator secondary side and eventually removes the decay heat from the reactor core by introducing a natural driving force mechanism; i.e., condensing steam in nearly-horizontal U-tubes submerged inside the passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT). With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, the separate effect test, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop), is being performed to experimentally investigate the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS. A single nearly-horizontal U-tube whose dimension is same as the prototypic U-tube of the APR+ PAFS is simulated in the PASCAL test. By performing the PASCAL test, the major thermal-hydraulic parameters such as local/overall heat transfer coefficients, fluid temperature inside the tube, wall temperature of the tube, and pool temperature distribution in the PCCT were produced not only to evaluate the current condensation heat transfer model but also to present database for the safety analysis related with the PAFS. (authors)

Kang, K. H.; Bae, B. U.; Kim, S.; Cho, Y. J.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, B. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Heat pipe based passive emergency core cooling system for safe shutdown of nuclear power reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract On March 11th, 2011, a natural disaster created by earthquakes and Tsunami caused a serious potential of nuclear reactor meltdown in Fukushima due to the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) powered by diesel generators. In this paper, heat pipe based ECCS has been proposed for nuclear power plants. The designed loop type heat pipe ECCS is composed of cylindrical evaporator with 62 vertical tubes, each 150 mm diameter and 6 m length, mounted around the circumference of nuclear fuel assembly and 21 m × 10 m × 5 m naturally cooled finned condenser installed outside the primary containment. Heat pipe with overall thermal resistance of 1.44 × 10?5 °C/W will be able to reduce reactor temperature from initial working temperature of 282 °C to below 250 °C within 7 h. The overall ECCS also includes feed water flooding of the core using elevated water tank for initial 10 min which will accelerate cooling of the core, replenish core coolant during loss of coolant accident and avoids heat transfer crisis phenomena during heat pipe start-up process. The proposed heat pipe system will operate in fully passive mode with high runtime reliability and therefore provide safer environment to nuclear power plants.

Masataka Mochizuki; Randeep Singh; Thang Nguyen; Tien Nguyen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide, Americanfor design cooling loads in Underfloor Air Distribution (for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Diversified emergency core cooling in CANDU with a passive moderator heat rejection system  

SciTech Connect

Contemporary Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor designs employ redundancy and a considerable level of diversity in the safety systems. Thus redundancy and a high level of diversity exist in the two safety shutdown systems, which, in turn, are independent of the reactor regulating system, Also, a considerable level of diversity exists in the two emergency core cooling systems: the emergency coolant injection system and the CANDU low-pressure low-temperature moderator, which, in surrounding the fuel channels, can act as a redundant heat sink. However, common cooling water and common electrical supplies are used for heat rejection from the emergency coolant and from the moderator. Scenarios involving failures in these common supplies are the main contributors to the CANDU core-melt frequency of 4 x 10{sup -6} yr{sup -1}. The purpose of this work is to develop a passive moderator heat rejection system that, in avoiding the use of pumps and electrical supplies, enhances the independence of the moderator as a heat sink.

Spinks, N.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Transient modeling and validation of lithium ion battery pack with air cooled thermal management system for electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A transient numerical model of a lithium ion battery (LiB) pack with air cooled thermal management system is developed and validated for electric vehicle applications. In the battery model, the open circuit volta...

G. Y. Cho; J. W. Choi; J. H. Park; S. W. Cha

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

High-average-power cryogenically-cooled picosecond Yb:YAG amplifier seeded by a fiber CPA system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a 300-W-level picosecond laser based on a cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG amplifier seeded by a fiber CPA system. High-average-power picosecond second harmonic generation is also presented.

Gopinath, Juliet

304

High-Average-Power Cryogenically-Cooled Picosecond Yb:YAG Amplifier Seeded by a Fiber CPA System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a 300-W-level picosecond laser based on a cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG amplifier seeded by a fiber CPA system. High-average-power picosecond second harmonic generation is...

Hong, Kyung-Han; Gopinath, Juliet; Siddiqui, Aleem; Moses, Jeffrey; Lai, Chien-Jen; Hybl, John; Fan, Tso Yee

305

Water chemistry of the system for cooling the electrical generator’ stator of the power unit at a thermal power station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results from studies of the water chemistry used in the system for cooling the stator windings of alternators used in supercritical-pressure power units are presented, and a solution is ... suggested using which ...

B. M. Larin; A. B. Larin; A. N. Korotkov; M. Yu. Oparin

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Effect of Atomic Coherence on Absorption in Four-level Systems: an Analytical study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption profile of a four-level ladder atomic system interacting with three driving fields is studied perturbatively and analytical results are presented. Numerical results where the driving field strengths are treated upto all orders are presented. The absorption features is studied in two regimes, i) the weak middle transition coupling, i.e. $\\Omega_2 >\\Omega_{1,3}$. In case i), it is shown that the ground state absorption and the saturation characteristics of the population of level 2 reveal deviation due to the presence of upper level couplings. In particular, the saturation curve for the population of level 2 shows a dip for $\\Omega_1 = \\Omega_3$. While the populations of levels 3 and 4 show a maxima when this resonance condition is satisfied. Thus the resonance condition provides a criterion for maximally populating the upper levels. A second order perturbation calculation reveals the nature of this minima (maxima). In the second case, I report two important features: a) Filtering of the Aulter-Townes doublet in the three-peak absorption profile of the ground state, which is achieved by detuning only the upper most coupling field, and b) control of line-width by controlling the strength of the upper coupling fields. This filtering technique coupled with the control of linewidth could prove to be very useful for high resolution studies.

S N Sandhya

2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

307

Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

September 16, 2014 NIKKEN SEKKEI Research Institute Naoki Takahashi Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International... of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 District heating and cooling system in Nakanoshima 4 Characteristics of heat supply plant in Nakanoshima district -River water is utilized as heat...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Automated system for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of nanoparticle nucleation and growth  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for studying nanoparticle synthesis and growth. Described here is a system for automating synthesis and data collection, allowing time-resolved XAS measurements at a synchrotron to be accurately combined with measurements made under identical conditions elsewhere, and promising the ability to use XAS with experiments in combinatorial chemistry. The primary components of this system are a commercial parallel processor and a custom flow cell. The system has been used to collect data on the synthesis of iron oxides from iron(II) acetylacetonate.

Calvin, S.; Carpenter, E.E.; Cestone, V.; Kurihara, L.K.; Harris, V.G.; Brown, E.C. [Naval Research Lab, Code 6360, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Sarah Lawrence College, 1 Mead Way, Bronxville, New York 10708 (United States)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

310

The Gas Reservoir for present day Galaxies : Damped Ly-alpha Absorption Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from an ongoing search for galaxy counterparts of a subgroup of Quasar Absorption Line Systems called Damped Ly-alpha Absorbers (DLAs). DLAs have several characteristics that make them essential in the process of understanding how galaxies formed in the early universe and evolved to the galaxies we see today in the local universe. Finally we compare DLAs with recent findings of a population of starforming galaxies at high redshifts, so called Lyman-break galaxies.

J. U. Fynbo; B. Thomsen; P. Moller

1999-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

311

Limiting absorption principle for some long range perturbations of Dirac systems at threshold energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We establish a limiting absorption principle for some long range perturbations of the Dirac systems at threshold energies. We cover multi-center interactions with small coupling constants. The analysis is reduced to study a family of non-self-adjoint operators. The technique is based on a positive commutator theory for non self-adjoint operators, which we develop in appendix. We also discuss some applications to the dispersive Helmholzt model in the quantum regime.

Nabile Boussaid; Sylvain Golénia

2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

312

Fuzzy Logic Application for Optimization of the Cooling Towers Control System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The control system for the SPS-BA6 cooling towers station is considered in order to introduce the concept of a multivariable process. Multivariable control means the maintenace of several controlled variables at independent set points. In a single-variable system, to keep the single process variables within their critical values is considered a rather simple operation. In a complex multivariable system, the determination of the optimal operation point results in a combination of all set values of the variables. Control of a multivariable system requires therefore a more complex analysis. As the solution based on a mathematical model of the process is far beyond acceptable complexity, most mathematical models involve extensive simplifications and linearizations to optimize the resulting controllers. In this report the author will demonstrate how fuzzy logic might provide elegant and efficient solutions in the design of multivariable control based on experimental results rather than on mathematical models.

Blanc, D

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Theoretical model for evaluation of variable frequency drive for cooling water pumps in sea water based once through condenser cooling water systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In sea water based once through cooling water system for power plants, sea water is pumped through the condenser and the return hot water is let back to sea. The cooling water pumps (CWP) in power plants generally operate at constant speed, pumping variable quantities of water depending on the tide level in the sea. The variable flow causes variation in condenser back pressure resulting in changes in the turbine cycle heat rate. If the pump speed is controlled using a variable frequency drive (VFD) to maintain design flow irrespective of the tide level, the CWP power consumption can be reduced compared to the case with constant speed CWP. However, the turbine cycle heat rate benefit that could have accrued at tide levels above the pre defined level (for fixing the CWP head) with constant speed CWP would have to be sacrificed. This paper provides a theoretical model with a typical case study to establish viability of providing VFD for \\{CWPs\\} in power plants with sea water based once through condenser cooling water system.

R. Harish; E.E. Subhramanyan; R. Madhavan; S. Vidyanand

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Cooling system for a gas turbine using a cylindrical insert having V-shaped notch weirs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved cooling system for a gas turbine is disclosed. A plurality of V-shaped notch weirs are utilized to meter a coolant liquid from a pool of coolant into a plurality of platform and airfoil coolant channels formed in the buckets of the turbine. The V-shaped notch weirs are formed in a separately machined cylindrical insert and serve to desensitize the flow of coolant into the individual platform and airfoil coolant channels to design tolerances and non-uniform flow distribution.

Grondahl, Clayton M. (Clifton Park, NY); Germain, Malcolm R. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Thermal design and preliminary performance evaluation of the cooling system for BaR-SPOrt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

BaR-SPOrt is an experiment to measure the linearly polarized emission of 20°×20° sky patches at 32 GHz and 90 GHz from a stratospheric balloon. It consists of correlation polarimeters for direct measurements of the Q and U Stokes parameters coupled to an optics providing a beam of 0°.5 (32 GHz) and 0°.2 (90 GHz). Its aim is the study of the polarization of the Diffused Galactic Background as well as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR). The instrument thermal design and the preliminary performance evaluation of the cooling system are described.

C. Macculi; M. Zannoni

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by  the  power  distribution  and  cooling  systems.  The  the  power   distribution  and  cooling  infrastructure  IT  power  consumed  along  with   the  cooling  required  

Coles, Henry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Prototype Chemical Systems: Theory vs. Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acids by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS)X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Prototype ChemicalGlaeser Spring 2010 X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of

Schwartz, Craig Philip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

GAS AND DUST ABSORPTION IN THE DoAr 24E SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

We present findings for DoAr 24E, a binary system that includes a classical infrared companion. We observed the DoAr 24E system with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), with high-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy of CO vibrational transitions, and with mid-infrared imaging. The source of high extinction toward infrared companions has been an item of continuing interest. Here we investigate the disk structure of DoAr 24E using the column densities, temperature, and velocity profiles of two CO absorption features seen toward DoAr 24Eb. We model the spectral energy distributions found using T-ReCS imaging and investigate the likely sources of extinction toward DoAr 24Eb. We find the lack of silicate absorption and small CO column density toward DoAr 24Eb suggest that the mid-infrared continuum is not as extinguished as the near-infrared, possibly due to the mid-infrared originating from an extended region. This, along with the velocity profile of the CO absorption, suggests that the source of high extinction is likely due to a disk or disk wind associated with DoAr 24Eb.

Kruger, Andrew J. [Department of Physical Science, Wilbur Wright College, 4300 North Narragansett Avenue, Chicago, IL 60634 (United States); Richter, Matthew J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Seifahrt, Andreas [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Carr, John S. [Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7210, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Moerchen, Margaret M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Santiago (Chile); Doppmann, Greg W. [W.M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

319

Cleaning residual NaK in the fast flux test facility fuel storage cooling system  

SciTech Connect

The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation, is a liquid metal-cooled test reactor. The FFTF was constructed to support the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. The bulk of the alkali metal (sodium and NaK) has been drained and will be stored onsite prior to final disposition. Residual NaK needed to be removed from the pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, tanks, and vessels in the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) cooling system. The cooling system was drained in 2004 leaving residual NaK in the pipes and equipment. The estimated residual NaK volume was 76 liters in the storage tank, 1.9 liters in the expansion tank, and 19-39 liters in the heat transfer loop. The residual NaK volume in the remainder of the system was expected to be very small, consisting of films, droplets, and very small pools. The NaK in the FSF Cooling System was not radiologically contaminated. The portions of the cooling system to be cleaned were divided into four groups: 1. The storage tank, filter, pump, and associated piping; 2. The heat exchanger, expansion tank, and associated piping; 3. Argon supply piping; 4. In-vessel heat transfer loop. The cleaning was contracted to Creative Engineers, Inc. (CEI) and they used their superheated steam process to clean the cooling system. It has been concluded that during the modification activities (prior to CEI coming onsite) to prepare the NaK Cooling System for cleaning, tank T-914 was pressurized relative to the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and NaK was pushed from the tank back into the Cooler and that on November 6, 2005, when the gas purge through the In-Vessel NaK Cooler was increased from 141.6 slm to 283.2 slm, NaK was forced from the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and it contacted water in the vent line and/or scrubber. The gases from the reaction then traveled back through the vent line coating the internal surface of the vent line with NaK and NaK reaction products. The hot gases also exited the scrubber through the stack and due to the temperature of the gas, the hydrogen auto ignited when it mixed with the oxygen in the air. There was no damage to equipment, no injuries, and no significant release of hazardous material. Even though the FSF Cooling System is the only system at FFTF that contains residual NaK, there are lessons to be learned from this event that can be applied to future residual sodium removal activities. The lessons learned are: - Before cleaning equipment containing residual alkali metal the volume of alkali metal in the equipment should be minimized to the extent practical. As much as possible, reconfirm the amount and location of the alkali metal immediately prior to cleaning, especially if additional evolutions have been performed or significant time has passed. This is especially true for small diameter pipe (<20.3 centimeters diameter) that is being cleaned in place since gas flow is more likely to move the alkali metal. Potential confirmation methods could include visual inspection (difficult in all-metal systems), nondestructive examination (e.g., ultrasonic measurements) and repeating previous evolutions used to drain the system. Also, expect to find alkali metal in places it would not reasonably be expected to be. - Staff with an intimate knowledge of the plant equipment and the bulk alkali metal draining activities is critical to being able to confirm the amount and locations of the alkali metal residuals and to safely clean the residuals. - Minimize the potential for movement of alkali metal during cleaning or limit the distance and locations into which alkali metal can move. - Recognize that when working with alkali metal reactions, occasional pops and bangs are to be anticipated. - Pre-plan emergency responses to unplanned events to assure responses planned for an operating reactor are appropriate for the deactivation phase.

Burke, T.M.; Church, W.R. [Fluor Hanford, PO Box 1000, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Hodgson, K.M. [Fluor Government Group, PO Box 1050, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown from the existing SJGS Unit 3 tower--during the summer months of 2005. If successful, there may be follow-on testing using produced water. WSAC is discussed in this deliverable. Recall that Deliverable 4, Emerging Technology Testing, describes the pilot testing conducted at a salt water disposal facility (SWD) by the CeraMem Corporation. This filtration technology could be a candidate for future demonstration testing and is also discussed in this deliverable.

Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Radiant Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

hours, reducing the electrical demand on electric utilities. Learn More Home Cooling Systems References Final Report Compilation for Residential Hydronic Radiant Cooling and...

322

Absorption and spectra of optical parameters in amorphous solid solutions of the Se-S system  

SciTech Connect

A study of the optical properties of the Se-S system has revealed a correlation between the dependences of optical absorption coefficient {alpha}, effective concentration of charged defects N{sub t}, and characteristic energy E{sub 0} corresponding to the Urbach optical absorption in the spectral region where the Urbach rule works for the Se-S system on the S concentration. These optical properties are controlled by charged defects. It is shown that concentrations of intrinsic charged defects can be changed by variation in composition of the Se-S system. Reflectance spectra of amorphous solid solutions of the Se-S system are studied within the energy range 1-6 eV. Using the Kramers-Kronig method, spectral dependences of optical constants and derivative optical and dielectric functions are calculated. Variation in the spectra of optical parameters with composition of the Se-S system are explained within a cluster model in which the density of electron states is a function of atomic configurations in clusters, i.e., of the character of a short-range order.

Djalilov, N. Z.; Damirov, G. M., E-mail: gafil@phytsics.ab.az [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Selective radiative cooling with MgO and/or LiF layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A material for a wavelength-selective radiative cooling system, the material comprising an infrared-reflective substrate coated with magnesium oxide and/or lithium fluoride in a polycrystalline form. The material is non-absorptive for short wavelengths, absorptive from 8 to 13 microns, and reflective at longer wavelengths. The infrared-reflective substrate inhibits absorption at wavelengths shorter than 8 microns, and the magnesium oxide and/or lithium fluoride layers reflect radiation at wavelengths longer than 13 microns.

Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. SICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

Williams, Daniel David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Safety Issues and Approach to Meet the Safety Requirements in Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER  

SciTech Connect

The ITER (Latin for 'the way') tokamak cooling water system (TCWS) consists of several separate systems to cool the major ITER components - the divertor/limiter, the first wall blanket, the neutral beam injector and the vacuum vessel. The ex-vessel part of the TCWS systems provides a confinement function for tritium and activated corrosion products in the cooling water. The Vacuum Vessel System also has a functional safety requirement regarding the residual heat removal from in-vessel components. A preliminary hazards assessment (PHA) was performed for a better understanding of the hazards, initiating events, and defense in depth mechanisms associated with the TCWS. The PHA was completed using the following steps. (1) Hazard Identification. Hazards associated with the TCWS were identified including radiological/chemical/electromagnetic hazards and physical hazards (e.g., high voltage, high pressure, high temperature, falling objects). (2) Hazard Categorization. Hazards identified in step (1) were categorized as to their potential for harm to the workers, the public, and/or the environment. (3) Hazard Evaluation. The design was examined to determine initiating events that might occur and that could expose the public, environment, or workers to the hazard. In addition the system was examined to identify barriers that prevent exposure. Finally, consequences to the public or workers were qualitatively assessed, should the initiating event occur and one or more of the barriers fail. Frequency of occurrence of the initiating event and subsequent barrier failure was qualitatively estimated. (4) Accident Analysis. A preliminary hazards analysis was performed on the conceptual design of the TCWS. As the design progresses, a detailed accident analysis will be performed in the form of a failure modes and effects analysis. The results of the PHA indicated that the principal hazards associated with the TCWS were those associated with radiation. These were low compared to hazards associated with nuclear fission reactors and were limited to potential exposure to the on-site workers if appropriate protective actions were not used. However, the risk to the general public off-site was found to be negligible even under worst case accident conditions.

Flanagan, George F [ORNL] [ORNL; Reyes, Susana [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France] [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Chang, Keun Pack [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France] [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Berry, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Seokho H [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

THE DISAPPEARANCE OF A NARROW Mg II ABSORPTION SYSTEM IN QUASAR SDSS J165501.31+260517.4  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present for the first time the discovery of the disappearance of a narrow Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2796, 2803 absorption system from the spectra of the quasar SDSS J165501.31+260517.4 (z{sub e} = 1.8671). This absorber is located at z{sub abs} = 1.7877 and has a velocity offset of 8423 km s{sup -1} with respect to the quasar. According to the velocity offset and the line variability, this narrow Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2796, 2803 absorption system is likely intrinsic to the quasar. Since the corresponding UV continuum emission and the absorption lines of another narrow Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2796, 2803 absorption system at z{sub abs} = 1.8656 are very stable, we believe that the disappearance of the absorption system is unlikely to be caused by the change in ionization of absorption gas. Instead, it likely arises from the motion of the absorption gas across the line of sight.

Chen Zhifu; Qin Yiping [Department of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Baise University, Baise, Guangxi 533000 (China); Gu Minfeng, E-mail: zhichenfu@126.com, E-mail: ypqin@126.com, E-mail: gumf@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

328

The development of mathematical model for cool down technique in the LNG pipe-line system  

SciTech Connect

An increase in demand for LNG as energy source can be expected since LNG is clean, in stable supply and produces low levels of carbon dioxide. Expansion of various LNG plants is planned. However, the optimal design of the LNG pipe-line systems has not yet been determined since the LNG transport phenomenon is not yet fully understood clearly. For example, in the LNG pipe-line system, large temperature gradients occur when the LNG transport starts. Therefore, although the necessity to cool down the pipe in order to minimize serious deformation is clear, the studies to understand it quantitatively have not been carried out. In this study, experiments on a commercial plant scale and a computer simulation, made up of structural analysis and two phase flow simulation were carried out to establish a prediction model of pipe deformation and to understand the phenomenon in the pipe.

Hamaogi, Kenji; Takatani, Kouji; Kosugi, Sanai; Fukunaga, Takeshi

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

330

3.1 $?$m H$_{2}$O Ice Absorption in LINER-Type Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies with Cool Far-Infrared Colors: the Centrally-Concentrated Nature of Their Deeply Buried Energy Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground-based 2.8--4.1 $\\mu$m slit spectra of the nuclei of seven ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) that are classified optically as LINERs and have cool far-infrared colors are presented. All the nuclei show 3.3 $\\mu$m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, with equivalent widths that are systematically lower than those in starburst galaxies. Strong 3.1 $\\mu$m H$_{2}$O ice absorption, with optical depth greater than 0.6, is also detected in five nuclei, and 3.4 $\\mu$m carbonaceous dust absorption is detected clearly in one of the five nuclei. It is quantitatively demonstrated that the large optical depths of the H$_{2}$O ice absorption in the five sources, and the 3.4 $\\mu$m absorption in one source, are incompatible with a geometry in which the energy sources are spatially mixed with dust and molecular gas, as is expected for a typical starburst, but instead require that a large amount of nuclear dust (including ice-covered grains) and molecular gas be distributed in a screen in front of the 3--4 $\\mu$m continuum-emitting sources. This geometrical requirement can naturally be met if the energy sources are more centrally concentrated than the nuclear dust and molecular gas. The low equivalent widths of the PAH emission compared to starbursts and the central concentration of the nuclear energy sources in these five ULIRGs are best explained by the presence of energetically important active galactic nuclei deeply buried in dust and molecular gas.

Masatoshi Imanishi; Philip R. Maloney

2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

331

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

333

Safety margins in zircaloy oxidation and embrittlement criteria for emergency core cooling system acceptance  

SciTech Connect

Current emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria for light water reactors specify that, under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, the Baker-Just (BJ) correlation must be used to calculate Zircaloy-steam oxidation, calculated peak cladding temperatures (PCT) must not exceed 1204/sup 0/C, and calculated oxidation must not exceed 17% equivalent cladding reacted (ECR). An appropriately defined minimum margin of safety was estimated for each of these criteria. The currently required BJ oxidation correlation provides margins only over the 1100 to 1500/sup 0/C temperature range at the 95% confidence level. The PCT margins for thermal shock and handling failures are adequate at oxidation temperatures above 1204/sup 0/C for up to 210 and 160 s, respectively, at the 95% confidence level. The ECR thermal shock and handling margins at the 50 and 95% confidence levels, respectively, range between 2 and 7% ECR for the BJ correlation, but vanish at temperatures above 1100 to 1160/sup 0/C for the best-estimate Cathcart-Pawel correlation. However, use of the Cathcart Pawel correlation for ''design basis'' LOCA calculations can be justified at the 85 to 88% confidence level if cooling rate effects can be neglected.

Williford, R.E.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Reliability assessment of Passive Containment Cooling System of an Advanced Reactor using APSRA methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Passive Systems are increasingly playing a prominent role in the advanced nuclear reactor systems and are being utilised in normal operations as well as safety systems of the reactors following an accident. The Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) is one of the several passive safety features in an Advanced Reactor (AHWR). In this paper, the APSRA methodology has been employed for reliability evaluation of the PCCS of AHWR. Performance assessment of the PCCS is initially performed during a postulated design basis LOCA using the best-estimate code RELAP5/Mod 3.2. The parameters affecting the system performance are then identified and considered for further analysis. Based on some pre-determined failure criterion, the failure surface for the system is predicted using the best-estimate code taking into account the deviations of the identified parameters from their nominal states as well as the model uncertainties inherent to the best estimate code. Root diagnosis is then carried out to determine the various failure causes, which occurs mainly due to malfunctioning of mechanical components. The failure probabilities of the various components are assessed through a classical PSA treatment using generic data. The reliability of the PCCS is then evaluated from the probability of availability of these components.

Mukesh Kumar; Aranyak Chakravarty; A.K. Nayak; Hari Prasad; V. Gopika

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Optimization of Fog Inlet Air Cooling System for Combined Cycle Power Plants using Genetic Algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this research paper, a comprehensive thermodynamic modeling of a combined cycle power plant is first conducted and the effects of gas turbine inlet fogging system on the first and second law efficiencies and net power outputs of combined cycle power plants are investigated. The combined cycle power plant (CCPP) considered for this study consist of a double pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to utilize the energy of exhaust leaving the gas turbine and produce superheated steam to generate electricity in the Rankine cycle. In order to enhance understanding of this research and come up with optimum performance assessment of the plant, a complete optimization is using a genetic algorithm conducted. In order to achieve this goal, a new objective function is defined for the system optimization including social cost of air pollution for the power generation systems. The objective function is based on the first law efficiency, energy cost and the external social cost of air pollution for an operational system. It is concluded that using inlet air cooling system for the CCPP system and its optimization results in an increase in the average output power, first and second law efficiencies by 17.24%, 3.6% and 3.5%, respectively, for three warm months of year.

Mehdi A. Ehyaei; Mojtaba Tahani; Pouria Ahmadi; M. Esfandiari

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Simultaneous use of MRM (maximum rectangle method) and optimization methods in determining nominal capacity of gas engines in CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Energy, economic, and environmental analyses of combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems were performed here to select the nominal capacities of gas engines by combination of optimization algorithm and maximum rectangle method (MRM). The analysis was performed for both priority of providing electricity (PE) and priority of providing heat (PH) operation strategies. Four scenarios (SELL-PE, SELL-PH, No SELL-PE, No SELL-PH) were followed to specify design parameters such as the number and nominal power of prime movers, heating capacities of both backup boiler and energy storage tank, and the cooling capacities of electrical and absorption chillers. By defining an objective function called the Relative Annual Benefit (RAB), Genetic Algorithm optimization method was used for finding the optimal values of design parameters. The optimization results indicated that two gas engines (with nominal powers of 3780 and 3930 kW) in SELL-PE scenario, two gas engines (with nominal powers of 5290 and 5300 kW) in SELL-PH scenario, one gas engine (with nominal power of 2440 kW) in No SELL-PE scenario provided the maximum value of the objective function. Furthermore in No SELL-PE scenario (which had the lowest RAB value in comparison with that for the above mentioned scenarios), thermal energy storage was not required. Due to very low value of RAB, any gas engine in No SELL-PH scenario was not recommended.

Sepehr Sanaye; Navid Khakpaay

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Multi-objective optimization of a combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presented a multi-objective optimization of a combined cooling, heating and power system (CCHP) driven by solar energy. The flat-plate solar collector was employed to collect the solar radiation and to transform it into thermal energy. The thermal storage unit was installed to storage the thermal energy collected by the collectors to ensure a continuous energy supplement when solar energy was weak or insufficient. The CCHP system combined an organic Rankine cycle with an ejector refrigeration cycle to yield electricity and cold capacity to users. In order to conduct the optimization, the mathematical model of the solar-powered CCHP system was established. Owing to the limitation of the single-objective optimization, the multi-objective optimization of the system was carried out. Four key parameters, namely turbine inlet temperature, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature and pinch temperature difference in vapor generator, were selected as the decision variables to examine the performance of the overall system. Two objective functions, namely the average useful output and the total heat transfer area, were selected to maximize the average useful output and to minimize the total heat transfer area under the given conditions. NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm-II) was employed to achieve the final solutions in the multi-objective optimization of the system operating in three modes, namely power mode, combined heat and power (CHP) mode, and combined cooling and power (CCP) mode. For the power mode, the optimum average useful output and total heat transfer area were 6.40 kW and 46.16 m2. For the CCP mode, the optimum average useful output and total heat transfer area were 5.84 kW and 58.74 m2. For the CHP mode, the optimum average useful output and total heat transfer area were 8.89 kW and 38.78 m2. Results also indicated that the multi-objective optimization provided a more comprehensive solution set so that the optimum performance could be achieved according to different requirements for system.

Man Wang; Jiangfeng Wang; Pan Zhao; Yiping Dai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Solar-powered/fuel-assisted Rankine-cycle power and cooling system: Simulation method and seasonal performance  

SciTech Connect

The subject of this analysis is a solar cooling system based on a novel hybrid steam Rankine cycle. Steam is generated by the use of solar energy collected at about 100/sup 0/C, and it is then superheated to about 600/sup 0/C in a fossil-fuel-fired superheater. The addition of about 20-26 percent of fuel doubles the power cycle's efficiencyas compared to organic Rankine cycles operating at similar collector temperatures. A comprehensive computer program was developed to analyze the operation and performance of the entire power/cooling system. Transient simulation was performed on an hourly basis over a cooling season in two representative climatic regions (Washington, D.C. and Phoenix, Ariz.). One of the conclusions is that the seasonal system COP is 0.82 for the design configuration and that the use of watercooled condensers and flat-plate collectors of higher efficiency increases this value to 1.35.

Lior, N.; Koai, K.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Performance of a real-time local thermal management system for casting dies with multiple cooling channels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In high-pressure die casting processes, proper control of die temperature is essential for producing superior quality components and yielding high production rates. Very often it is impractical to control die temperature to a specific point during solidification stages. In this paper, a computerised Intelligent Real-Time Monitoring and Control System (IRMCS) is developed for die casting processes involving cooling of a die with multiple channels. A local temperature controller is designed to confine temperature fluctuations of a die within a desirable range. The performance of the system is evaluated through a laboratory die casting process simulator in terms of measurement accuracy, time delay and local heat removal rate. The experimental results indicate that the developed control system is capable of adjusting the desirable supply of cooling water into multiple cooling lines. Hence, the ideal thermal pattern of the die becomes achievable.

Tiebao Yang; Henry Hu; Xiang Chen; Yeou-li Chu; Patrick Cheng

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Solar cooling in the food industry in Mexico: A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Mexico efforts are being made to promote the use of solar energy for cooling in the Agro-Food Industries (AFI), 120 industries were contacted in order to assess the solar cooling potential application in the sector. One case study was selected among the visited potential end users according to the size of the facility, the information available and their willingness to collaborate in the present project. Data from the industry was used to select the appropriate solar cooling concept and therefore the collector’s typology, and the absorption cooling system. Moreover, the operation of the system was simulated in order to define the optimal size of the collector field required. The proposed cooling system was composed by a Fresnel concentrating collector field to activate a series of air cooled single-effect ammonia–water absorption chillers. The cooling system simulation was carried out with the Transient Systems Simulation Programme (TRNSYS) which allowed to model the collector system that fulfill the required load. The calculated saved electricity was around 19% of the total consumption, this small fraction is due to the fact that the selected facility is operating continuously with very large refrigeration capacities. The specifications of the simulated solar cooling system are presented.

Roberto Best B.; Juan M. Aceves H.; Jorge M. Islas S.; Fabio L. Manzini P.; Isaac Pilatowsky F.; Rossano Scoccia; Mario Motta

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the outlet side of fan coil units (FCU) served by variableunit (AHU) including a return air economizer, chilled water cooling coil, hot water heating coil and supply fan.

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide, Atlanta:application and design of underfloor air distributionfor design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Critical coupling and coherent perfect absorption for ranges of energies due to a complex gain and loss symmetric system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a non-Hermitian medium with a gain and loss symmetric, exponentially damped potential distribution to demonstrate different scattering features analytically. The condition for critical coupling (CC) for unidirectional wave and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) for bidirectional waves are obtained analytically for this system. The energy points at which total absorption occurs are shown to be the spectral singular points for the time reversed system. The possible energies at which CC occurs for left and right incidence are different. We further obtain periodic intervals with increasing periodicity of energy for CC and CPA to occur in this system.

Mohammad Hasan; Ananya Ghatak; Bhabani Prasad Mandal

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal. Membrane treatment (nanofiltration or reverse osmosis) can be employed to reduce TDS and sulfate concentrations to acceptable levels for reuse of the blowdown in the cooling systems as makeup water.

Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

346

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPTIMIZING COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS, CHEMICAL PLANTS, AND POWER PLANTS ALL HAVE A RESOURCE QUIETLY AWAITING EXPLOITATION - COLD WATER!! ROBERT BURGER President Burger and Associates, Inc. Dallas, Texas Cooling... towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system...

Burger, R.

347

High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. Modular HTGR systems design and cost summary. [Methane reforming; steam cycle-cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary description of the preconceptual design and energy product costs of the modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). The reactor system was studied for two applications: (1) reforming of methane to produce synthesis gas and (2) steam cycle/cogeneration to produce process steam and electricity.

Not Available

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Analysis of combined cooling, heating, and power systems under a compromised electric–thermal load strategy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Following the electric load (FE) and following the thermal load (FT) strategies both have advantages and disadvantages for combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems. In this paper, the performance of different strategies is evaluated under operation cost (OC), carbon dioxide emission (CDE) and exergy efficiency (EE). Analysis of different loads in one hour is conducted under the assumption that the additional electricity is not allowed to be sold back to the grid. The results show that FE produces less OC, less CDE, and FT produces higher EE when the electric load is larger. However, FE produces less OC, less CDE and higher EE when the thermal load is larger. Based on a hybrid electric–thermal load (HET) strategy, compromised electric–thermal (CET) strategies are innovatively proposed using the efficacy coefficient method. Additional, the CCHP system of a hotel in Tianjin is analyzed for all of the strategies. The results for an entire year indicate the first CET strategy is the optimal one when dealing with OC, CDE and EE. And the second CET is the optimal one when dealing with OC and EE. Moreover, the laws are strictly correct for different buildings in qualitative terms.

Gang Han; Shijun You; Tianzhen Ye; Peng Sun; Huan Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Scaling Analysis for the Direct Reactor Auxillary Cooling System For AHTRS  

SciTech Connect

The Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive heat removal system proposed for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) that combines the coated particle fuel and graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three coupled natural circulation/convection loops relying completely on buoyancy as the driving force. In the DRACS, two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) and the Natural Draft Heat Exchanger (NDHX) are used to couple these loops. In addition, a fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow during normal operation of the reactor and to activate the DRACS in accidents. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for AHTRs built and tested in the literature. In this paper, a detailed scaling analysis for the DRACS is performed, which will provide guidance for the design of the scaled-down DRACS test facilities. Based on the Boussinesq assumption and one-dimensional flow formulation, the governing equations are non-dimensionalized by introducing appropriate dimensionless parameters. The key dimensionless numbers that characterize the DRACS system are obtained straightforwardly from the non-dimensional governing equations. Based on the dimensionless numbers and non-dimensional governing equations, similarity laws are proposed. In addition, a scaling methodology has also been developed, which consists of the core scaling and loop scaling. The consistence between the core and loop scaling is examined through the reference volume ratio, which can be obtained from the core and loop scaling processes. The scaling methodology and similarity laws have been applied to obtain a design of the scaled-down high-temperature DRACS test facility (HTDF).

Lv, Q. NMN [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University; Wang, X. NMN [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University; Sun, X NMN [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University; Christensen, R. N. [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University; Blue, T. E. [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL] [ORNL; Subharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)] [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Adams, I. [Ohio State University, Columbus] [Ohio State University, Columbus

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

Yong Seok Choi; Dal Mo Kang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

District Cooling Using Central Tower Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract During the operation of solar power towers there are occasions, commonly in the summer season, where some of the heliostats have to stop focusing at the central receiver, located at the top of the tower, because the maximum temperature that the receiver can withstand has been reached. The highest demands of cooling for air conditioning take place at these same occasions. In the present paper, we have analyzed the possibility of focusing the exceeding heliostats to the receiver increasing the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid over the nominal value and using the extra heat as a source of an absorption chiller. The chilled water would be used to cool buildings and offices, using a district cooling network. Using the extra heat of the solar power tower plant would greatly reduce the electricity usage. In this work we have analyzed the case of a circular field of heliostats focusing at a circular receiver, such as the case of Gemasolar plant. We have quantified the thermal power that can be obtained from the unused heliostats, the cooling capacity of the absorption system as well as the heat losses through the insulated pipes that distribute the chilled water to the buildings of the network.

C. Marugán-Cruz; S. Sánchez-Delgado; M.R. Rodríguez-Sánchez; M. Venegas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Operating experience of the IFSMTF (International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility) vapor-cooled lead system  

SciTech Connect

The International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) uses six pairs of vapor-cooled leads (VCLs) to introduce electric power to six test coils. Each VCL is housed in a dewar outside the 11-m vacuum vessel and is connected to the coal via a superconducting bus duct;the various VCLs are rated at 12 to 20 kA. Heat loss through the leads constitutes the single largest source of heat load to the cryogenic system. Concerns about voltage breakdown if a coil quenches have led to precautionary measures such as installation of a N/sub 2/-purged box near the top of the lead and shingles to collect water that condenses on the power buses. A few joints between power buses and VCLs were found to be inadequate during preliminary single-coil tests. This series of tests also pointed to the need for automatic control of helium flow through the leads. This was achieved by using the resistance measurements of the leads to control flow valves automatically. By the time full-array tests were started, a working scheme had developed that required little attention to the leads and that had little impact on the refrigerator between zero and full current to the coils. The operating loss of the VCLs at full current is averaging at about 7.4 gs of warm flow and 360 W of cold-gas return load. These results are compared with predictions that were based on earlier tests. 4 refs., 6 figs

Lue, J.W.; Fehling, D.T.; Fietz, W.A.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Shen, S.S.; Stamps, R.E.; Thompson, D.H.; Wilson, C.T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

354

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha absorption systems Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chuck - Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology Collection: Physics 60 DARK MATTER Tracing the "Cosmic Web" with Diffuse Gas Summary: Absorption Lines use...

355

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption spectrometry system Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

avril1994 Summary: down to about 310 nm. Such powers are sufficient for laser atomic absorption spectrometry (LAAS... in graphite tube atomizers and analytical flames...

356

Purge needs in absorption chillers  

SciTech Connect

Absorption chillers are regaining a significant share of large tonnage chiller sales, such as they had 20 years ago. Gas-fired chillers are now available that have a base energy (ultimate fuel usage) consumption rate per ton comparable to that in electric units. Effective purging in an absorption chiller is an absolute necessity to achieve the low chilled water temperature needed for dehumidification and to fully benefit from the energy savings offered by double-effect cycles. Although the purge system is usually not shown on the typical cycle schematic, its proper functioning is a key requirement for satisfactory machine operation. This article discusses the effect of noncondensible (N/C) gases on the absorption cooling process and the basics of purge systems. In addition, the article discusses the rationale for the important design step of selecting the location of the N/C probe, and discusses purge systems applicable to the direct-fired, double-effect machines now entering the marketplace.

Murray, J.G. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with automatic inspection, control the condense times and installing toroidal swirl type filtering water purifier. We have solved the water quality fundamentally of the circulation cooling water. This way will make the chem..with medicine more reliable...

Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Radionuclides in the Natural–Anthropogenic System Comprising a Nuclear Power Plant and a Cooling Reservoir  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The sources of technological radionuclides coming into the ecosystem of a nuclear power plant (NPP) cooling reservoir are considered and estimated. The information ... The activity reserve in the ecosystems of th...

Yu. A. Egorov

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Multi-Scale Thermal Measurement and Design of Cooling Systems in Gas Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present gas turbine technology increases the turbine inlet temperature to a limitation which is very high gas temperature accomplished by recently developed material and cooling technology. In order to overco...

Hyung Hee Cho; Kyung Min Kim; Sangwoo Shin…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Hydrogen cooling options for MgB{sub 2}-based superconducting systems  

SciTech Connect

With the arrival of MgB{sub 2} for low-cost superconducting magnets, hydrogen cooling has become an interesting alternative to costly liquid helium. Hydrogen is generally regarded as the most efficient coolant in cryogenics and, in particular, is well suited for cooling superconducting magnets. Cooling methods need to take into account the specific quench propagation in the MgB{sub 2} magnet winding and facilitate a cryogenically reliable and safe cooling environment. The authors propose three different multi-coolant options for MRI scanners using helium or hydrogen within the same design framework. Furthermore, a design option for whole-body scanners which employs technology, components, fueling techniques and safety devices from the hydrogen automotive industry is presented, continuing the trend towards replacing helium with hydrogen as a safe and cost efficient coolant.

Stautner, W.; Xu, M.; Mine, S.; Amm, K. [Electromagnetics and Superconductivity Lab, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

362

Forster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems: III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Forster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable e...

Moix, Jeremy; Cao, Jianshu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/cm2 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 TFC [ K ] C O P COPEn at tmem = 0.016 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.016 cm COPEn at tmem = 0.017 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.017 cm COPEn at tmem = 0.018 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.018 cm PFC = 3... + QFC s 7,ammonia = s ( 'Ammonia' , P = P7 , h =h7 ) s 7,water = s ( 'Water' , P = P7 , h =h7 ) s 7 = x7 ? s 7,ammonia + ( 1 ? x7 ) ? s 7,water h 19,ammonia = h ( 'Ammonia' , T =T19 , P = P19 ) h 19,water = h ( 'Water' , T =T19...

Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Very Cool Close Binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new observations of cool <6000K and low mass <1Msun binary systems that have been discovered by searching several modern stellar photometric databases. The search has led to a factor of 10 increase in the number of known cool close eclipsing binary systems.

J. Scott Shaw; Mercedes Lopez-Morales

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

365

Increasing the renewable energy sources absorption capacity of the Macedonian energy system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Macedonian energy sector is the main emitter of greenhouse gases with share of about 70% in the total annual emissions. Also 70%–75% of emissions are associated with the electricity generation due to the predominant role of the lignite fuelled power plants. Recently the government has adopted a strategy for the use of renewable energy sources (RES) which identifies a target of 21% of final energy consumption from RES by 2020. In this paper analyses are conducted in order to investigate to which extent and in which way the absorption capacity of the power system for RES electricity can be improved. For this purpose combining various conventional and RES technologies including pump storage hydro power plant and revitalisation of the existing lignite power plants six scenarios for the power system expansion are developed by making use of EnergyPLAN model. Critical excess of electricity analyses are conducted in order to identify the maximal penetration of wind electricity. The results have shown that in the exiting capacities maximal penetration of wind electricity in 2020 is 13% of total electricity consumption. The revitalization of the existing lignite power plants and building of pump storage power plant would increase the wind penetration. Furthermore the developed scenarios are comparatively assessed in terms of the associated greenhouse gases emissions and import of electricity.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

368

Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001)Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water  

SciTech Connect

We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

Nordlund, D

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

369

Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001); Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water  

SciTech Connect

We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

Nordlund, D.; Ogasawara, H.; Andersson, K.J.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Salmeron, M.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Nilsson, A.

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

370

Cost reduction performance enhancements of multiple site cooling water systems, enabled by remote system monitoring/control and multifaceted data management  

SciTech Connect

An outsourced cooling water treatment automated control and data acquisition package, has been designed, installed, and commissioned in over 70 sites in North America and offshore. The standard package consists of a controller, sensors, human-machine interface software, data acquisition and management software, communications, and reporting. Significant challenges to applying this standard package in multiple sites arose from variations in cooling system design and makeup water quality as well as operations, environmental considerations, metrics, and language. A standard approach has met these challenges and overcome effects of downsizing through significant reduction in non-value-added, manual activities. Overall system reliability has been improved by migration to best practice throughout the organizations involved and immediate proactive response to out-of-specification conditions. This paper documents the evolution of a standard cooling water automation and data management package from its inception to current practice.

Cook, B. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States); Young, D. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Tari, K. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, New York, NY (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

An assessment of the use of direct contact condensers with wet cooling systems for utility steam power plants  

SciTech Connect

Potential use of a direct contact condenser for steam recovery at the turbine exhaust of a utility power plant using a wet cooling system is investigated. To maintain condensate separate from the cooling water, a bank of plate heat exchangers is used. In a case study for a nominal 130-MW steam power plant, two heat rejection systems, one using a conventional surface condenser and another using a direct contact condenser together with a set of plate heat exchangers are compared on the basis of their performance, operation and maintenance, and system economics. Despite a higher initial cost for the direct contact system, the advantages it offers suggests that this system is viable both technically and economically. Key to the improvements the direct contact system offers is a higher equivalent availability for the power system. Reduction of dissolved oxygen and other metallic ions in the condensate, reduced use of chemical scavengers and polishers, and potential elimination of a plant floor are also major benefits of this system. Drawbacks include added plant components and higher initial cost. The potential for long-term cost reduction for the direct contact system is also identified.

Bharathan, D.; Hoo, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); D`Errico, P. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)] [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings  

SciTech Connect

These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Heat Transfer Simulation of Reactor Cavity Cooling System Experimental Facility using RELAP5-3D and Generation of View Factors using MCNP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As one of the most attractive reactor types, The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is designed to be passively safe with the incorporation of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). In this paper, a RELAP5-3D simulation model is set up based...

Wu, Huali

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor. [PWR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides improved means for detecting the water levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting the density of the water in these regions. The invention utilizes a plurality of exterior gamma radiation detectors and a collimator technique operable to sense separate regions of the reactor vessel to give respectively, unique signals for these regions, whereby comparative analysis of these signals can be used to advise of the presence and density of cooling water in the vessel.

DeVolpi, A.

1984-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

Integration of an Ammonia-water Absorption Refrigeration System with a Marine Diesel Engine: A Thermodynamic Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines through a thermodynamic analysis the feasibility of using waste heat from marine Diesel engines to drive an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system. An energy balance of a diesel engine shows that sufficient waste heat is provided. The results illustrate that higher performance of the system is obtained at high generator and evaporator temperatures and also at low condenser and absorber temperatures.

Ahmed Ouadha; Youcef El-Gotni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump Systems and Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump use of buildings Gas Heat Pump Solution #12;Gas Heat Pump - deserves special attention due to its source in addition to the outside air ·A further essential component of Gas Heat Pump air conditioning

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

378

User-friendly and intuitive graphical approach to the design of thermoelectric cooling systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to examine and choose a thermo- electric module from catalogues to meet a specific cooling problem. To start Simon Lineykin*, Sam Ben-Yaakov Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Power Electronics-friendly graphical method for calculating the steady-state operational point of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC

379

Delivering Tons to the Register: Energy Efficient Design and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, was used to determine the effect of several parameters on energy consumption, peak electrical demand cooling performance and lower energy consumption than houses with ducts in conventional attics. However consumption, and power demand. The effects of refrigerant charge, evaporator air flow), oversizing (relative

380

Performance of an experimental ground-coupled heat pump system for heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is a type of renewable energy technology providing space heating and cooling as well as domestic hot water. However, experimental studies on GCHP systems are still insufficient. This paper first presents an energy-operational optimisation device for a GCHP system involving insertion of a buffer tank between the heat pump unit and fan coil units and consumer supply using quantitative adjustment with a variable speed circulating pump. Then, the experimental measurements are used to test the performance of the GCHP system in different operating modes. The main performance parameters (energy efficiency and CO2 emissions) are obtained for one month of operation using both classical and optimised adjustment of the GCHP system, and a comparative analysis of these performances is performed. In addition, using TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation) software, two simulation models of thermal energy consumption in heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation are developed. Finally, the simulations obtained using TRNSYS are analysed and compared to experimental data, resulting in good agreement and thus the simulation models are validated.

Calin Sebarchievici; Ioan Sarbu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The HIGH-COMBI project: High solar fraction heating and cooling systems with combination of innovative components and methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The scope of the HIGH-COMBI project is the development of high solar fraction systems by innovative combination of optimized solar heating, cooling and storage technologies as well as control strategies, in order to contribute and assist the further deployment of the solar energy market. Within this project, six demonstration plants were installed in four European countries (Greece, Italy, Spain and Austria). The purpose of this article is to assess the result achieved in the technical field of the project and to present the technical aspects of the six innovative demonstration systems realised during the project period.

Vassiliki N. Drosou; Panagiotis D. Tsekouras; Th.I. Oikonomou; Panos I. Kosmopoulos; Constantine S. Karytsas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the most important design considerations for any method of Natural Cool ing is the chil led water temperature range selected for use during Natural Cool ing. Figure VI shows that for a hypo thetical Chicago plant, the hours of operation for a Natural..." system on the Natural Cool ing cycle. As the pressures and flow rates of the condenser and chil led water systems are seldom the same, the designer must pay careful attention to the cross over system design to ensure harmonious operations on both...

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

384

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Multi-nozzle array spray cooling for large area high power devices in a closed loop system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A prototype of a closed loop system was built to study multi-nozzle array spray cooling on high-power, large-area electronic devices. Fifty-four nozzles with an in-lined array of 9 × 6 were applied to spray cool a simulated 6U electronic card using R134a. Simple drainage concepts were introduced to assist the drainage of both liquid and vapour on the heated surface. The results indicated a promising prospect of using a multi-nozzle array on large-area power electronics cooling. 16 kW heat was removed from the 6U card area by maintaining the mean surface temperature below 26.5  ° C . Heat transfer coefficient up to 2.8  × 10 4 W / m 2 K was obtained, and liquid usage fraction as high as 0.88 was achieved before CHF occurred. It was found that increasing nozzle pressure drop or flow rate enhanced heat transfer and gave better surface temperature uniformity. Chamber pressure significantly influenced mean surface temperature, but had no observable effects on surface temperature uniformity. The control of chamber pressure can maintain a constant temperature on the heated surface when heat load varied largely. The results also showed that the spray-to-spray interactions had inconspicuous effects on local surface temperatures but rather the distance from a location relative to the drainage outlets.

J.L. Xie; Y.B. Tan; T.N. Wong; F. Duan; K.C. Toh; K.F. Choo; P.K. Chan; Y.S. Chua

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, January--February 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

387

An overview of solar assisted air-conditioning system application in small office buildings in Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many regions of the world especially tropical weather in Malaysia, the demand for cooling of indoor air is growing due to increasing comfort expectations and increasing cooling loads. Air-conditioning, the most common cooling mechanism for providing ... Keywords: Malaysian climatic conditions, absorption chiller, evacuated tube solar collector, high energy consumption, peak load demand, solar assisted air conditioning system, solar energy

Lim Chin Haw; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Yusof Sulaiman

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

HomeCooling101  

Energy Savers (EERE)

openings to prevent warm air from leaking into your home. Insulate and seal ducts -- air loss through ducts accounts for about 30 percent of a cooling system's energy consumption....

390

FIVE-YEAR PROGRESS REPORT ON A SUCCESSFUL SOLAR/GEOTHERMAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM FOR A COMMERCIAL OFFICE BUILDING IN BURLINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to present: 1) a description of a solar/geothermal heating and cooling system that has been in successful operation in a commercial office building for over five years; and 2) to present technical and cost operational results that indicate a total annual energy consumption of approximately 25,000 Btu/sq ft/ year. The paper includes a general description of the three-story multi-tenant office building located in Burlington, Massachusetts, its energy efficient design features, its active solar space heating and hot water system, its solar/geothermal heat pump back-up heating system and its geothermal cooling system. A description of the solar/geothermal system is presented including the liquid flat plate collectors, storage tanks, heat exchangers, heat pump, heat transfer fluid, control system, operational modes and the energy monitoring system. KEYWORDS Solar space heating; geothermal heating; geothermal cooling; solar domestic hot water; energy monitoring and control.

John Zvara; P.E.; Ronald J. Adams

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Daniel Alonso; Gerardo Adesso

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

392

The Future of Absorption Technology in America: A Critical Look...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 Use...

393

Advanced Exergy Analysis for a Solar Double Stage Absorption Chiller.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solar driven absorption chiller technology as an alternative mechanism for cooling has been the focus of tremendous recent interest due to its potential advantages for… (more)

Hu, Yang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Optimization of Chilled Water Flow and Its Distribution in Central Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

delivered to branch 3; the branch with maximum cooling load and proportionately deficient water flow, the same amount of water (10,000 l/m) it was receiving with three pumps, as shown in Table 2. This measure saved the power of one pump and reduced its.... 2b. Temperature rise in three branches for the adjusted flow with two pumps and six chillers in flow. Table 2. Original and Adjusted Flow with Two and Three Pumps and Six Chillers. l/m GPM % l/m GPM % l/m GPM % l/m GPM...

Maheshwari, G. P.; Hajiah, A. E.; ElSherbini, A. I.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

396

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

397

Integration of Renewable Energy with Industrial Absorption Refrigeration Systems: Systematic Design and Operation with Technical, Economic, and Environmental Objectives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Integration of Renewable Energy with Industrial Absorption Refrigeration Systems: Systematic Design and Operation with Technical, Economic, and Environmental Objectives ... Chemical Engineering & Pilot Plant Department, Engineering Division, National Research Centre, El-Buhoos St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, 12311 ... Heat is required to run the AR system by heating the absorbent above 80 °C and it can be provided by several media (e.g., Ziegler and Riesch(14) and Herold et al.(15)) including fossil fuels, as well as sustainable energies such as biofuels and solar energy. ...

Jose? Mari?a Ponce-Ortega; Eman A. Tora; J. Betzabe Gonza?lez-Campos; Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi

2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

398

Thermal analysis for fuel handling system for sodium cooled reactor considering minor actinide-bearing metal fuel.  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) is one of the components of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) used to close the fuel cycle. ABR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor that is used to consume transuranic elements resulting from the reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. ABR-1000 [1000 MW(thermal)] is a fast reactor concept created at Argonne National Laboratory to be used as a reference concept for various future trade-offs. ABR-1000 meets the GNEP goals although it uses what is considered base sodium fast reactor technology for its systems and components. One of the considerations of any fast reactor plant concept is the ability to perform fuel-handling operations with new and spent fast reactor fuel. The transmutation fuel proposed as the ABR fuel has a very little experience base, and thus, this paper investigates a fuel-handling concept and potential issues of handling fast reactor fuel containing minor actinides. In this study, two thermal analyses supporting a conceptual design study on the ABR-1000 fuel-handling system were carried out. One analysis investigated passive dry spent fuel storage, and the other analysis investigated a fresh fuel shipping cask. Passive dry storage can be made suitable for the ABR-1000 spent fuel storage with sodium-bonded metal fuel. The thermal analysis shows that spent fast reactor fuel with a decay heat of 2 kW or less can be stored passively in a helium atmosphere. The 2-kW value seems to be a reasonable and practical level, and a combination of reasonably-sized in-sodium storage followed by passive dry storage could be a candidate for spent fuel storage for the next-generation sodium-cooled reactor with sodium-bonded metal fuel. Requirements for the shipping casks for minor actinide-bearing fuel with a high decay heat level are also discussed in this paper. The shipping cask for fresh sodium-cooled-reactor fuel should be a dry type to reduce the reaction between residual moisture on fresh fuel and the sodium coolant. The cladding temperature requirement is maintained below the creep temperature limit to avoid any damage before core installation. The thermal analysis shows that a helium gas-filled cask can accommodate ABR-1000 fresh minor actinide-bearing fuel with 700-W decay heat. The above analysis results revealed the overall requirement for minor actinide-bearing metal fuel handling. The information is thought to be helpful in the design of the ABR-1000 and future sodium-cooled-reactor fuel-handling system.

Chikazawa, Y.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev FNAL - AD April 28, 2005 #12;Electron Cooling methods must "get around the theorem" e.g. by pushing phase-space around. #12;Electron Cooling - Nagaitsev 3 TodayToday''s Menus Menu What is cooling? Types of beam cooling Electron cooling Conclusions #12

Fermilab

400

Energy absorption behaviors of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a nanoporous energy absorption system by using chemicalSurani, and Y. Qiao, "Energy absorption of nanoporous silicaSAN DIEGO Energy Absorption Behaviors of Nanoporous

Kim, Tae Wan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants...

Abernethy, D.

402

Study on Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method of Cooling Water System of Surface Water Source Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water source heat pump system is a green air-conditioning system which has high efficiency, energy saving, and environmental protection, but inappropriate design of the system type of water intake will impact on ...

Jibo Long; Siyi Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Multi-criteria assessment of combined cooling, heating and power systems located in different regions in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As an efficient measure for rational use of energy, the combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system plays an increasingly important role in commercial buildings in Japan. In this study, aiming at examining the influences of building type and climate condition on the introduction of CCHP systems, four representative commercial building categories (hotel, hospital, store and office) located in six major climate zones in Japan are compared and evaluated. In order to have a comprehensive understanding about the performances of the assumed CCHP systems, besides simple assessment from energy, economic and environmental aspects, a multi-criteria evaluation method has been employed for the final determination. According to the assessment results, the CCHP systems in hotels and hospitals enjoy better overall performances than those in stores and offices. On the other hand, the potentials of energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction of the CCHP systems in the mild climate zones are smaller than that in other climate zones. In addition, the performances of CCHP systems in stores and offices located in Kagoshima are superior to those in other cities; while, CCHP systems in hospitals and hotels located in Sapporo illustrate better overall performance.

Qiong Wu; Hongbo Ren; Weijun Gao; Jianxing Ren

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Exergy efficiency analysis in buildings climatized with LiCl–H2O solar cooling systems that use swimming pools as heat sinks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar cooling is emerging as one of the most interesting applications in the harnessing of solar energy for alternative uses. Current devices can effectively control the climates of small buildings while addressing the issues associated with the excessive thermal energy captured during the summer months. This article presents an exergy analysis of buildings with solar thermal systems used for Domestic Hot Water (DHW) production and heating and cooling support. The cooling system analyzed is a LiCl–H2O thermally driven heat pump with integral energy storage that uses outdoor swimming pools as heat sink. All subsystems were integrated into the model and considered as a single energy system, and data from installations in three different locations were used. The influences of the heating and cooling demand ratios and the dead state and house temperatures were analyzed. Further, the use of dissipated energy was analyzed, demonstrating that the proposed method facilitates the realistic study of these systems and provides useful analytical tools for improving the overall exergy performance. The energy delivered for heating, cooling and DHW production strongly influences global performance, suggesting that the appropriate sizing of each system is a priority.

D. Borge; A. Colmenar; M. Castro; S. Martín; E. Sancristobal

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Dr. Cool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...replace fossil fuels, and analyses of hydrogen fuel, natural gas...quickly "cut the average rate of global...global cooling effect of large volcanic...dollars—"the price of a Hollywood blockbuster...away from fossil fuels, he concedes...

Eli Kintisch

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

406

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The abundance and distribution of macro-invertebrates in the cooling-water canal system of the P. H. Robinson Generating Station located on Galveston Bay, Texas, with emphasis on the effect of supplemental cooling towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Goodyear 1972; Raney et al. 1973; Belts et al. 1974). There is aslo increasing awareness and concern for other power plant related problems such as mechanical and pressure stress due to entrainment through the condenser tubes, impingement upon intake... to determine the abundance, distribution and survival rate of macro- invertebrates present in the cooling-water canal system of Houston Lighting 6 Power Company's P. H. Robinson Generating Station. Surface and bottom, day and night collections were taken...

Margraf, F. Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

408

Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. These are also called gas-fired coolers. How Absorption Heat Pumps Work Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

409

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

410

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

411

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Numerical calculation of dynamical friction in electron cooling systems, including magnetic field perturbations and finite time effects  

SciTech Connect

The orders-of-magnitude higher luminosities required by future electron-ion collider concepts require a dissipative force to counteract the numerous factors acting to gradually increase the phase space volume of relativistic ion beams. High-energy electron cooling systems could provide the necessary dissipation via dynamical friction, but will have to be designed for new parameter regimes. It is expected that magnetic field errors, finite interaction time and other effects will reduce the dynamical friction and hence increase the cooling time, so improved understanding of the underlying dynamics is important. We present a generalized form of the classical field-free friction force equation, which conveniently captures some of these effects. Previous work (Bell et al 2008 J. Comput. Phys. 227 8714) shows both numerical and conceptual subtleties associated with undersampling of strong collisions, and we present a rigorous mathematical treatment of such difficulties, based on the use of a modified Pareto distribution for the electron-ion impact parameters. We also present a very efficient numerical algorithm for calculating the dynamical friction on a single ion in the field free case. For the case of arbitrary magnetic field errors, we present numerical simulation results, showing agreement with our generalized friction force formula.

Sobol, A.V.; Fedotov, A.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Bell, G.I.; Litvinenko, V.

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

413

Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Representative dehumidification increase using Trane CDQ dehumidification system Standard HVAC coil - 20% latent dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet, supply fan, cooling coil, optional reheat coil, optional final filters. A CDQ system in a Custom Climate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

414

Multi-pressure absorption cycles in solar refrigeration:: A technical and economical study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technical and economical study of regenerative absorption chillers with multi-pressure cycle has been undertaken as solar operated refrigeration systems. Referred to as advanced absorption chillers they represent one of the new technology options that are under development. Advanced absorption cooling technology offers the possibility of chillers with thermal \\{COPs\\} of 1.5 or greater at driving temperatures of 140°C, which reduces the collector area and the heat rejection requirements compared to current absorption cooling technology. Two different absorption systems have been considered. The first is an advanced, double-effect regenerative absorption cooling system, driven at 140°C, whose efficiency is about 55% of the Carnot efficiency. The second is an ideal, single-effect regenerative absorption system that achieves 70% of the Carnot efficiency driven at 140°C or 200°C. To evaluate the solar performance of a thermally driven chiller requires a separate analysis of the solar availability for a given location compared to the required monthly average solar input. In this analysis different systems, including the vapour compression chillers, have been compared in terms of the thermal and electrical energy input. An effective electrical COP may be computed assuming that the ratio of electrical energy cost to thermal energy cost is four, which is typical of today’s fossil fuel costs. The effective electrical \\{COPs\\} of different technical options can then be compared. Those systems with higher electrical \\{COPs\\} will have lower energy costs. If solar is to be competitive, then the cost of delivered solar thermal energy should be less than the cost of delivered fossil thermal energy.

Shahab Alizadeh

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

Michael N. DiFilippo

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Thermodynamic consideration of some systems for the cooling of highspeed vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature vith Ambient Temperature for Various Mach Number of Vehicle Variation of Carnot, Coefficient of Performance with Sink Temperature 4. Variation of Refrigeration Produced by Open Systems vith the Sink Temperature -- ? ? --? ? ----- 9 5... vehicles. Equations are deri~ed giv1ng the refrigeration produced by the systems and the coefficient. of performance of the systems. The results of the analysis show the maximum conceivable Coefficient of performance for systems closed to the atmosphere...

Rice, Warren

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

417

Cooling, Heating, Generating Power, and Recovering Waste Heat with Thermoelectric Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...typical conventional system, such as one that uses R-134A. Ideal TE system efficiency increases nonlinearly...knowledge and design tools has created yet another...Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental...Phenomena in Electronic Systems , San Diego, CA, 30 May...

Lon E. Bell

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

418

Optimization of Advanced Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems A heat pump is a technology in which heating and cooling are provided by a single piece of equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of Advanced Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems A heat pump is a technology in which heating and cooling are provided by a single piece of equipment. In a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system a length of pipe is buried in the ground and the ground acts as a reservoir to store the heat

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

419

Reliability study of a special decay heat removal system of a gas-cooled fast reactor demonstrator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The European roadmap toward the development of generation IV concepts addresses the safety and reliability assessment of the special system designed for decay heat removal of a gas-cooled fast reactor demonstrator (GFRD). The envisaged system includes the combination of both active and passive means to accomplish the fundamental safety function. Failure probabilities are calculated on various system configurations, according to either pressurized or depressurized accident events under investigation, and integrated with probabilities of occurrence of corresponding hardware components and natural circulation performance assessment. The analysis suggests the improvement of measures against common cause failures (CCF), in terms of an appropriate diversification among the redundant systems, to reduce the system failure risk. Particular emphasis is placed upon passive system reliability assessment, being recognized to be still an open issue, and the approach based on the functional reliability is adopted to address the point. Results highlight natural circulation as a challenging factor for the decay heat removal safety function accomplishment by means of passive devices. With the models presented here, the simplifying assumptions and the limited scenarios considered according to the level of definition of the design, where many systems are not yet established, one can conclude that attention has to be paid to the functional aspects of the passive system, i.e. the ones not pertaining to the “hardware” of the system. In this article the results of the analysis are discussed, where the effects of the analytical assumptions, design options, accident managements on the reliability are examined. The design diversity of the components undergoing \\{CCFs\\} can be effective for the improvement and some accident management measures are also possible by making use of the long grace period in GFRD.

Luciano Burgazzi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the ice storage system, during direct cooling, thethe building cooling load. In dynamic systems, ice is formedcooling/demand-limited storage / electric load management / full storage / ice

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, kWh/Unit = 0.0039 85.1% February 5 12PM to 1PM Annual Values 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 G a l / U n i t P r o d u c e d D...1Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology...

Carter, T. P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

[Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development program]. Quarterly technical progress narrative No. 21, December 1, 1987--February 29, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Objective is the development of a gas-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell for electric utility power plant application. Primary objectives are to: demonstrate performance endurance in 10-cell stacks at 70 psia, 190 C, and 267 mA/cm{sup 2}; improve cell degradation rate to less than 8 mV/1000 hours; develop cost effective criteria, processes, and design configurations for stack components; design multiple stack unit and a single 100 kW fuel cell stack; design a 375 kW fuel cell module and demonstrate average cell beginning-of-use performance; manufacture four 375-kW fuel cell modules and establish characteristics of 1.5 MW pilot power plant. The work is broken into program management, systems engineering, fuel cell development and test, facilities development.

Not Available

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Study on The Intelligence Control System of Artificial Cooling Source in Architecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In the system, MPI channel was used to communicate between PLC and PC, and WINCC was used for the man-machine conversation....

Yang, Z.; Xu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Dynamic Simulation of a Superinsulated Residential Structure with a Hybrid Desiccant Cooling System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis explores the efficiency and performance of residential HVAC systems applied to new high performance buildings which meet the standards of the Passivhaus movement.… (more)

O'Kelly, Matthew E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Second law analysis of a liquid cooled battery thermal management system for hybrid and electric vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As hybrid and electric vehicles continue to evolve there is a need for better battery thermal management systems (BTMS), which maintain uniformity of operating temperature… (more)

Ramotar, Lokendra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Exergy analysis of a vapour compression-absorption cascaded refrigeration system using modified Gouy-Stodola equation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study, the performance of vapour compression-absorption cascaded refrigeration system (VCACRS) is studied with modified Gouy-Stodola equation and the results are compared with the classical approach of exergy evaluation. The quantitative difference in two approaches is presented which necessitates the need to employ modified approach. The expressions are formulated for effective temperature and real irreversible loss for different components of VCACRS. The overall performance of system can be improved by increasing the evaporator and generator temperature and by decreasing the absorber, cascade condenser and condenser temperature. Coefficient of structural bonds (CSB) analysis shows evaporator is relatively more sensitive to change in its temperature as compared with the other components.

Vaibhav Jain; Surendra Singh Kachhwaha; Gulshan Sachdeva

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Gas Absorption in the KH 15D System: Further Evidence for Dust Settling in the Circumbinary Disk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Na I D lines in the spectrum of the young binary KH 15D have been analyzed in detail. We find an excess absorption component that may be attributed to foreground interstellar absorption, and to gas possibly associated with ...

Lawler, S. M.

428

Guide to Minimizing Compress-based Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Guide describes best practices for reducing energy use and total-cost-of-ownership for data center cooling systems.

429

Technical and Economic Analysis of Solar Cooling Systems in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

optimization model is developed to determine whether a particular solar system is economically advantageous for a particular project. This model explains and illustrates with simple, but realistic examples the use of life-cycle cost analysis and benefit-cost...

Moaveni, H.

430

Power conversion system design for supercritical carbon dioxide cooled indirect cycle nuclear reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO?) cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples nicely to many Generation IV nuclear reactors. This work investigates the power conversion system design and ...

Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Design and Development of an Intelligent Energy Controller for Home Energy Saving in Heating/Cooling System .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy is consumed every day at home as we perform simple tasks, such as watching television, washing dishes and heating/cooling home spaces during season of… (more)

Abaalkhail, Rana

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Thermodynamic analysis of a transcritical CO2/propylene (R744–R1270) cascade system for cooling and heating applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper natural refrigerant propylene (R1270) has been proposed for transcritical cascade refrigeration system and analyzed. Propylene is used in the low temperature (LT) cycle and carbon dioxide is used in the high temperature (HT) cycle of the cascade transcritical refrigeration system. The proposed transcritical cascade cycle can be used for simultaneous cooling and heating applications. Thermal performance of the cascade cycle is evaluated for different combinations of design and operating variables and optimum performance parameters such as Topt, \\{COPmax\\} and mass flow of propylene and CO2 have been predicted. Design parameters include the evaporator temperature of LT cycle (TE), gas cooler outlet temperature (TC) and cascade heat exchanger temperature difference (DT). The results of the analysis show better thermal performance of CO2–propylene transcritical cycle than subcritical cascade cycle and also better than N2O–CO2 transcritical cycle. A methodology to obtain relevant performance diagrams and regression correlations to serve as a guideline for the design and optimization of transcritical CO2–propylene cascade system has been developed.

Alok Manas Dubey; Suresh Kumar; Ghanshyam Das Agrawal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Design of A Conduction-cooled 4T Superconducting Racetrack for Multi-field Coupling Measurement System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A conduction-cooled superconducting magnet producing a transverse field of 4 Tesla has been designed for the new generation multi-field coupling measurement system, which was used to study the mechanical behavior of superconducting samples at cryogenic temperature and intense magnetic fields. Considering experimental costs and coordinating with system of strain measurements by contactless signals (nonlinear CCD optics system), the racetrack type for the coil winding was chosen in our design, and a compact cryostat with a two-stage GM cryocooler was designed and manufactured for the superconducting magnet. The magnet was composed of a pair of flat racetrack coils wound by NbTi/Cu superconducting composite wires, a copper and stainless steel combinational form and two Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy superconducting current leads. All the coils were connected in series and can be powered with a single power supply. The maximum central magnetic field is 4 T. In order to support the high stress and uniform thermal distribution in t...

Chen, Yuquan; Wu, Wei; Guan, Mingzhi; Wu, Beimin; Mei, Enming; Xin, Canjie

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Energy consumption and optimization of internally cooled/heated liquid desiccant air-conditioning system: A case study in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract LDAC (liquid desiccant air-conditioning system) is promising for reducing the energy consumption, and improving the indoor air quality. In this paper, the operation performance of LDAC with internally cooled/heated dehumidifier/regenerator was simulated and optimized. The cooling tower and solar collectors were employed as the cooling/heating source. Four nested iteration loops were developed and solved for system modeling. A typical commercial building in Hong Kong was selected as a case study, which air-conditioning load was obtained by Energy-plus. Results show that with the increase of solar collector area, the electricity consumption of AC (air-conditioning systems) system reduced by 11–35% in original system, but only a part of dehumidification demand was handled with liquid desiccant ventilation, which led to a low chiller COP (coefficient of performance). By adding a cooling coil for the solution entering dehumidifier, the electricity saving effectively increased to 22–47%, while the heat demand for regeneration also increased by 17%. So, a heat exchanger between water leaving regenerator and solution leaving dehumidifier was introduced. With the lower thermal requirement (reduced by 20%) and higher solar fraction (increased from 30 to 40%), the saving further increased to 29–49%, and the required collector area obviously reduced by 50–60% for the similar energy saving purpose.

Ronghui Qi; Lin Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Experiments on sorption characteristics of solid desiccant materials for solar desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A test facility for measuring the sorption properties of candidate solid desiccant materials under dynamic conditions as well as equilibrium conditions, those experienced during desiccant dehumidifier operation, was constructed and tested. The theory of perturbation chromatography was initially used to measure the equilibrium properties of a desiccant/water-vapor system for the first time. Silica gel, molecular sieve, and gamma-manganese dioxide were tested. The equilibrium capacity estimated by the perturbation chromatography was lower than those available in literature, which suggests that perturbation chromatography may not be applicable to desiccant/water-vapor systems. The perturbation chromatography was replaced with a gravimetric technique, and satisfactory results were obtained for a water-vapor/molecular-sieve system.

Pesaran, A.A.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The culture of estuarine fishes in net pens and cages in a power plant cooling system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hewlett Packard 9830 mini computer was used to produce the plots and to do simple statistics. The programs used were either those used previously by past students at the CBGS or were especially written by me. The Statistical Analysis System (SAS...

Ojeda Gonzalez, Gabriel Mauricio

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Operating Experience and Economic Assessment of Commercial and Industrial Cool Storage Systems - TVA Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal storage systems offer utilities a means to change the energy use patterns of both residential and commercial and industrial (C&I) customers by moving water-heating and space-conditioning loads from peak to offpeak periods. Benefits from...

Sieber, R. E.; Dahmus, A. B.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating and Cooling Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Name Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Place Linwood, NJ Website http://bartholomewheatingandco References Bartholomew Heating and Cooling[1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Bartholomew Heating and Cooling is a company located in Linwood, NJ. References ↑ "Bartholomew Heating and Cooling" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Bartholomew_Heating_and_Cooling&oldid=381585" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

439

Experimental Study of the Thermal-Hydraulic Phenomena in the Reactor Cavity Cooling System and Analysis of the Effects of Graphite Dispersion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental activity was performed to observe and study the effects of graphite dispersion and deposition on thermal hydraulic phenomena in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The small scale RCCS experimental facility (16.5cm x 16.5cm x 30...

Vaghetto, Rodolfo

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

440

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the diameter and depth of the wheel, face flow velocity, rotational speed and other operating conditions. Bulk et al. [11] proposed NTU correlations for design calculation of latent and total effectiveness of enthalpy wheels coated with silica gel..., Wr Te1,We1 Space Fig.2. Passive desiccant system Enthalpy wheels normally use an aluminum substrate coated with a molecular sieve material or silica gel. The effectiveness of an enthalpy wheel depends on the load of desiccant materials...

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Improving Cooling System Immunity Supply Voltage Sags in Petroleum and Chemical Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

there has not been very much attention to the area of maintaining process continuity. Often it is the motor controls, and not the processes or the motors themselves that limit the system tolerance. Considering that most power supply disturbances... process may implement adjustable speed drives and almost always utilizes standard motor control circuitry. It is in this motor control circuitry that we fmd the best opportunity to tum a weak link into a more robust "sag tolerant" element...

Dorr, D. S.

442

Impact of Different Glazing Systems on Cooling Load of a Detached Residential Building at Bhubaneswar, India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

assuming north?south and east?west facings of the building. For each orientation, different types of glazing (Table 4) and different glazing areas are considered. The first case(the base case) assumes a single clear glazing with a window-to-wall ratio.... Floor plan of the east-west oriented residential building taken for study (not to scale) Table 1. The zones basic characteristics Zone Area (m2) Volume (m3) Occupancy (people/m2) Venti- lation (l/s) HVAC system Bed room1 15.12 52...

Sahoo, P. K.; Sahoo, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% of energy used in the commercial sector; commercial use is about 18.2% of the total energy used (EIA, 2010). Air conditioning is becoming more widely used in commercial buildings. The chilled water system is a very important component in large air....1 Simulation baseline Total face area / Face velocity 44 ft2 / 477.3 cfm Coil FH?FL 36 inch?88 inch Rows ? FPI 8 ? 11 Fin thickness / Material 0.008 inch / AL Tube outside diameter / Wall 5/8 inch / 0.025 inch Interior tube wall area Ai 759 ft2 Exterior...

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

444

Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments  

SciTech Connect

In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

Jose Reyes

2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

445

Radiation-pressure self-cooling of a micromirror in a cryogenic environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate radiation-pressure cavity-cooling of a mechanical mode of a micromirror starting from cryogenic temperatures. To achieve that, a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity (F\\approx 2200) was actively stabilized inside a continuous-flow 4He cryostat. We observed optical cooling of the fundamental mode of a 50mu x 50 mu x 5.4 mu singly-clamped micromirror at \\omega_m=3.5 MHz from 35 K to approx. 290 mK. This corresponds to a thermal occupation factor of \\approx 1x10^4. The cooling performance is only limited by the mechanical quality and by the optical finesse of the system. Heating effects, e.g. due to absorption of photons in the micromirror, could not be observed. These results represent a next step towards cavity-cooling a mechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state.

Simon Groeblacher; Sylvain Gigan; Hannes R. Boehm; Anton Zeilinger; Markus Aspelmeyer

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

446

The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology’s Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; Little, William A.; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

447

NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect

Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

448

A FOURTH H I 21 cm ABSORPTION SYSTEM IN THE SIGHT LINE OF MG J0414+0534: A RECORD FOR INTERVENING ABSORBERS  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of a strong H I 21 cm absorption system at z = 0.5344, as well as a candidate system at z = 0.3389, in the sight line toward the z = 2.64 quasar MG J0414+0534. This, in addition to the absorption at the host redshift and the other two intervening absorbers, takes the total to four (possibly five). The previous maximum number of 21 cm absorbers detected along a single sight line is two and so we suspect that this number of gas-rich absorbers is in some way related to the very red color of the background source. Despite this, no molecular gas (through OH absorption) has yet been detected at any of the 21 cm redshifts, although, from the population of 21 cm absorbers as a whole, there is evidence for a weak correlation between the atomic line strength and the optical-near-infrared color. In either case, the fact that so many gas-rich galaxies (likely to be damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems) have been found along a single sight line toward a highly obscured source may have far-reaching implications for the population of faint galaxies not detected in optical surveys, a possibility which could be addressed through future wide-field absorption line surveys with the Square Kilometer Array.

Tanna, A.; Webb, J. K. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Curran, S. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Whiting, M. T. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Bignell, C., E-mail: sjc@physics.usyd.edu.au [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Rt. 28/92 Green Bank, WV 24944-0002 (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

UW -Center for Intelligent Materials and Systems Design of Energy Absorption Bases on Porous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NiTi Alloy Disk EDM Cutting (Electro-Discharge Machining) Porous NiTi Alloy Cylindrical Specimen HeatTi Alloy Porous Disc EDM Cutting (Electro-Discharge Machining) Porous NiTi Alloy Cylindrical Specimen Heat for Intelligent Materials and Systems EDM Cutting and Heat Treatment NiTi Porous Disc ( =30mm, h=4.5mm) = 5.0mm

Taya, Minoru

450

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol absorption  

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absorption absorption ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol absorption The process in which radiation energy is retained by aerosols. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) PSAP : Particle Soot Absorption Photometer PASS : Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer External Instruments OMI : Ozone Monitoring Instrument

451

Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems  

SciTech Connect

Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Experimental Study of the Effect of Graphite Dispersion on the Heat Transfer Phenomena in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System  

SciTech Connect

An experimental activity was performed to observe and study the effects of graphite dispersion and deposition on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The small-scale RCCS experimental facility (16.5 x 16.5 x 30.4 cm) used for this activity represents half of the reactor cavity with an electrically heated vessel. Water flowing through five vertical pipes removes the heat produced in the vessel and releases it into the environment by mixing with cold water in a large tank. The particle image velocimetry technique was used to study the velocity field of the air inside the cavity. A set of 52 thermocouples was installed in the facility to monitor the temperature profiles of the vessel, pipe walls, and air. Ten grams of a fine graphite powder (average particle size 2 m) was injected into the cavity through a spraying nozzle placed at the bottom of the vessel. The temperatures and air velocity field were recorded and compared with the measurements obtained before the graphite dispersion, showing a decrease of the temperature surfaces that was related to an increase in their emissivity. The results contribute to the understanding of RCCS capability in an accident scenario.

Rodolfo Vaghetto; Luigi Capone; Yassin A. Hassan

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

Wind tunnel simulation of exhaust recirculation in an air-cooling system at a large power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recirculation of hot exhaust air and its dependence on wind direction was investigated as a cause of reduced efficiency in an air-cooled condenser (ACC). A method of simulating exhaust air recirculation at an ACC platform using a wind tunnel is presented, and applied to a proposed ACC addition at an existing power plant. It was found that wind speed and the height of an ACC platform have a significant impact on recirculation. Wind direction was also found to be significant, due to the interference of the buildings adjacent to the ACC platform. The mechanisms that cause recirculation are presented and analyzed, and the characteristics of the recirculating flow are described. It was found that when considering additions to existing power plants, the distance of the new ACC and power plant from the original buildings and structures has only a minor effect on the recirculation of the added ACC platform. Wind tunnel simulation is recommended in the initial design stage of new or renovated power plants with ACC systems to minimize exhaust recirculation.

Zhifu Gu; Xuerei Chen; William Lubitz; Yan Li; Wenlin Luo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

Matson, J.

455

Operational Performance Results of an Innovative Solar Thermal Cooling and Heating Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar thermal cooling and heating plants with single-effect sorption chillers/heat pumps promise primary energy savings compared to electric vapor compression chiller systems. Yet, the need of auxiliary electric a nd fossil energy for the operation and backup of the thermal cooling system possibly worsen the primary energy balance. An auspicious approach to overcome this problem is the application of a more efficient multi -stage sorption chiller with flexible operational modes. A pilot installation of that innovative solar thermal heating and cooling plant comprising a two stage absorption chiller/heat pump is presented. Beginning with the motivation and the system concept, a detailed analysis of the 2011/2012 cooling and heating periods is shown. The influence of the different system components – especially the absorption chiller – on the overall system performance is analyzed and a comparison to data from a detailed dynamic model is carried out. Recommendations for the improvement with respect to efficiency and economic aspects are given based on the installation process and the operational experience gained in the last 1 ½ years.

Manuel Riepl; Felix Loistl; Richard Gurtner; Martin Helm; Christian Schweigler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Cooling system design tool for rapid development and analysis of chilled water systems aboard U.S. Navy surface ships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the last several decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the complexity and power requirements of radars and other combat systems equipment aboard naval combatants and this trend is expected to continue for the ...

Sanfiorenzo, Amiel B. (Amiel Benjamin)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Echelle Spectroscopy of QSO Absorption Line Systems with Metals in the Direction of HS 1700+6416  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a high signal-to-noise high resolution spectrum of the radio-quiet QSO HS1700+6416 (z = 2.72). Analysis of the absorption line systems with metals yields the following results. (1) The dense cluster of C IV doublets at 2.432 -0.95 and [Al/H] > -0.96 for the strongest component of this absorber. Abundances of three other Lyman limit absorbers are also derived from photoionization models. (3) Unsaturated C IV and rather strong N V are detected in the associated absorber at z(abs) = 2.7125. The apparent column density profiles indicate that N V is affected by unresolved saturation or that the N V absorbing gas does not completely cover the QSO flux source. From photoionization models we derive [N/H] > -0.65 and [C/H] > -0.82. (4) We tentatively conclude that the number of Mg II systems detected per unit redshift is dominated by weak Mg II lines with rest equivalent width less than 0.3 A.

Tripp, T M; Savage, B D; Tripp, Todd M.; Lu, Limin; Savage, Blair D.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Fuel Cycle System Analysis Implications of Sodium-Cooled Metal-Fueled Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect

If advanced fuel cycles are to include a large number of fast reactors (FRs), what should be the transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR)? The nuclear energy era started with the assumption that they should be breeder reactors (CR > 1), but the full range of possible CRs eventually received attention. For example, during the recent U.S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, the proposal was burner reactors (CR < 1). Yet, more recently, Massachusetts Institute of Technology's "Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle" proposed CR [approximately] 1. Meanwhile, the French company EDF remains focused on breeders. At least one of the reasons for the differences of approach is different fuel cycle objectives. To clarify matters, this paper analyzes the impact of TRU CR on many parameters relevant to fuel cycle systems and therefore spans a broad range of topic areas. The analyses are based on a FR physics parameter scan of TRU CR from 0 to [approximately]1.8 in a sodium-cooled metal-fueled FR (SMFR), in which the fuel from uranium-oxide-fueled light water reactors (LWRs) is recycled directly to FRs and FRs displace LWRs in the fleet. In this instance, the FRs are sodium cooled and metal fueled. Generally, it is assumed that all TRU elements are recycled, which maximizes uranium ore utilization for a given TRU CR and waste radiotoxicity reduction and is consistent with the assumption of used metal fuel separated by electrochemical means. In these analyses, the fuel burnup was constrained by imposing a neutron fluence limit to fuel cladding to the same constant value. This paper first presents static, time-independent measures of performance for the LWR [right arrow] FR fuel cycle, including mass, heat, gamma emission, radiotoxicity, and the two figures of merit for materials for weapon attractiveness developed by C. Bathke et al. No new fuel cycle will achieve a static equilibrium in the foreseeable future. Therefore, additional analyses are shown with dynamic, time-dependent measures of performance including uranium usage, TRU inventory, and radiotoxicity to evaluate the complex impacts of transition from the current uranium-fueled LWR system, and other more realistic impacts that may not be intuited from the time-independent steady-state conditions of the end-state fuel cycle. These analyses were performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model VISION. Compared with static calculations, dynamic results paint a different picture of option space and the urgency of starting a FR fleet. For example, in a static analysis, there is a sharp increase in uranium utilization as CR exceeds 1.0 (burner versus breeder). However, in dynamic analyses that examine uranium use over the next 1 to 2 centuries, behavior as CR crosses the 1.0 threshold is smooth, and other parameters such as the time required outside of reactors to recycle fuel become important. Overall, we find that there is no unambiguously superior value of TRU CR; preferences depend on the relative importance of different fuel cycle system objectives.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ryan Clement; David W. Gerts

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Parametric Optimization of Vapor Power and Cooling Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The proposed solar thermal based combined power and cooling cycle can be operated from low grade energy such as heat and well suited for domestic and industrial needs. The hybridization of vapour absorption refrigeration (VAR) and Kalina cycle system (KCS) results power in addition to cooling. The proposed plant has two turbines with super heater and reheater to recover more heat from the solar thermal collectors. The refrigerant vapour from the high pressure turbine is reheated for low pressure turbine which gives 9.3 kW of extra power. The total power and cooling are 14.05 kW and 73.58 kW respectively at 0.42 absorber concentration and 99% of turbine concentration and 150 °C of solar collector temperature. The invention also highlights the flexibility in the operation of system on only power mode or on only cooling mode. Thermodynamic analysis has been carried out with a focus on separator temperature and turbine concentration.

R. Shankar; T. Srinivas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat pumps) are also present. Thermally-activated cooling is achieved through absorption or adsorption

Firestone, Ryan Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Integrating district cooling with cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

Spurr, M.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Ground Water Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to conc~ntrate their turbine business efforts in the electric power generation market. In 1979, Westinghouse Canada Inc., Turbine and Generator Division, embarked on an intensive expansion program to increase production capabili ties and improve... capacity well was recorded. This well was drilled in the Town of Renfrew, February 1963, for United Dairy and Poultry Coop. From the well drillers log, it was determined that the well was approximately 700 feet deep with a casing diameter of eight...

Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cool roofs—roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission—lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in con...

Ronnen Levinson; Hashem Akbari

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the “Energy Crisis” Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

465

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Revised) (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

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National Aeronautics and Space National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is located in Huntsville, Alabama, adjacent to Redstone Arsenal. MSFC has over 4.5 million square feet of building space occupied by 7,000 personnel, and consumes approximately 240 million gallons of potable water annually, supplied through the City of Huntsville. MSFC has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. In 2005, MSFC built Building 4600, NASA's first certified building under the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, achieving a prestigious Silver rating. Since that time, a companion building has been constructed at MSFC that achieved a

466

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Revised) (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Aeronautics and Space National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is located in Huntsville, Alabama, adjacent to Redstone Arsenal. MSFC has over 4.5 million square feet of building space occupied by 7,000 personnel, and consumes approximately 240 million gallons of potable water annually, supplied through the City of Huntsville. MSFC has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. In 2005, MSFC built Building 4600, NASA's first certified building under the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, achieving a prestigious Silver rating. Since that time, a companion building has been constructed at MSFC that achieved a

467

Parametric analysis of a double-effect steam absorption chiller  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development in the field of refrigeration and cooling systems based on absorption cycles has attained its own internal dynamic in the last decade. A major obstacle for developing model is the lack of available component specifications. These specifications are commonly proprietary of the chiller's manufacturers and normally the available information is not sufficient. This work presented a double-effect parallel-flow-type steam absorption chiller model based on thermodynamic and energy equations. The chiller studied is 1250 RT (Refrigeration Tons) using lithium bromide -water as working pair. The mathematical equations that govern the operation of the steam absorption chiller are developed and from the available design data the values of the overall heat transfer coefficient multiplied by the heat exchanger surface area and the characteristics of each component of the absorption chiller at the design point are calculated. For thermo physical and thermodynamic properties for lithium bromide-water solution set of computationally efficient formulations are used. The model gives the required information about temperature concentration and flow rate at each state point of the system. The model calculates the heat load at each component as well as the performance of the system.

Mojahid Sid Ahmed Mohammed Salih Ahmed; Syed Ihtsham Ul-Haq Gilani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Multiphoton Absorption and Coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the probability for multiphoton absorption processes induced by both laser and thermal light acting on an atomic system. When the thermal radiation, suitably filtered, has the same frequency spectrum and the same total energy as the laser packet, we find that the ratio between the relative probabilities for s-photon absorption can be expressed by (4?)-12(s-1)s!s12(?c?)s-1, where ? is the time during which the atomic system is illuminated by thermal radiation with coherence time ?c. This shows that multiphoton absorption processes depend on the statistical properties of the incident light, and that the probability induced by the laser packet is certainly greater than that induced by the thermal light if s

S. Carusotto; G. Fornaca; E. Polacco

1968-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

469

Root Absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Root Absorption Root Absorption Name: Carolyn Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: MY Neice is doing a science fair project on plants. More specifically she needs to know if you water your flowering plants with colored water, does the flower change colors and if so, why? Replies: Dear Carolyn, Dyeing flowers works best on cut stems in water: http://youth.net/nsrc/sci/sci032.html#anchor598182 Title: The Effect Of Color On The Speed Of Dyeing Flowers Some rooted plants can change flower color by altering the soil pH: http://www.cahe.nmsu.edu/pubs/yard/1996/120996.html Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach This sounds like a good question for a science project. I think she should do the project first and get some data and then try to answer the question herself. If she can't figure it out, then she should look for some help.

470

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

471

Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is