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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

1

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Absorption cooling system driven by district heating network is relized as a smart strategy in Sweden. During summer time when the heating demand is… (more)

Yuwardi, Yuwardi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

3

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility of using solar ponds as low-cost solar collectors combined with commercial absorption chillers in large scale solar cooling design is investigated. The analysis is based on the combination of a steady-state solar pond mathematical model with the operational characteristics of a commercial absorption chiller, assuming condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone (U.C.Z.). The numerical solution of the nonlinear equations involved leads to results which relate the chiller capacity with pond design and environmental parameters, which are also employed for the investigation of the optimum pond size for a minimum capital cost. The derived cost per cooling kW for a 350 kW chiller ranges from about 300 to 500 $/kW cooling. This is almost an order of magnitude lower than using a solar collector field of evacuated tube type. Tsilingiris, P.T. (Commercial Bank of Greece, Athens (Greece)) 1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z 4 E-Print Network [OSTI] was used to calculate the PWC of the system for annual operating hours of 8760 and the same is compared with the electric based vapour compression chiller (VCRS) of same capacity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of waste heat operated absorption chiller... Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V. 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 5 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract Solar energy can be used to produce cold through absorption systems. In this study, the energy and exergy analysis on a single effect water-LiBr absorption facility is presented. The work is carried out for heating and cooling applications. Performance parameters are the coefficient of performance and exergy efficiency. The influence of operating temperatures on such parameters is included. An analysis of individual components is also presented. The most noticeable effect is observed for the case of exergy efficiency for absorber and generator. This parameter increases with an increase of absorption temperature. The opposite effect is observed when the generation temperature increases. Results obtained allow the identification of parameters that may influence the exergy efficiency of the adiabatic absorption system. The first candidate to optimize is the absorber, due to the lowest value of exergy efficiency obtained among all components of the system. For adiabatic absorbers, the recirculation ratio emerges as a new parameter. The solution heat exchanger is also susceptible to optimization. G. Gutiérrez-Urueta; A. Huicochea; P. Rodríguez-Aumente; W. Rivera 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 6 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. These are also called gas-fired coolers. How Absorption Heat Pumps Work Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its 7 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its 8 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its 9 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The appendices provide supporting information on: properties of a chemical system for solar fired, air-cooled absorption equipment, air-side performance of a one-inch tube, absorber plate-fin coil, listings of the programs used for simulation and data reduction, and evaluation of the Carrier 3-ton chiller in an integrated heating and cooling system. (LEW) Reimann, R.C.; Biermann, W.J. 1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z 10 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) In high power laser system, laser mirror is the core and the most sensitive optical component, which influences the increase of laser power and the quality of laser. Absorption of light at mirrors causes wavef... Ci-Ming Zhou; Zu-Hai Cheng; Yu-Feng Peng 2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z 11 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Heating and cooling of dwelling houses and other confined spaces is facilitated by a system in which thermal energy is transported between an air heating and cooling system in the dwelling and a water heat storage sink or source, preferably in the form of a swimming pool or swimming pool and spa combination. Special reversing valve circuitry and the use of solar collectors and liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers on the liquid side of the system , and special air valves and air modules on the air side of the system, enhance the system's efficiency and make it practical in the sense that systems employing the invention can utilize existing craft skills and building financing arrangements and building codes, and the like, without major modification. Krumhansl, M.U. 1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z 12 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Chemical heat pump cools as well as heats ... Innovative heat pump uses methanol refrigerant, calcium chloride absorber to use and store solar energy for heating, air conditioning, hot water ... Though the EIC heat pump is similar in concept to other chemical heat pumps now being used or developed, it does offer a number of innovations, not the least of which are its novel refrigerant (methanol) and absorption medium (calcium chloride). ... RON DAGANI 1980-10-20T23:59:59.000Z 13 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback. Damman, Dennis 2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z 14 E-Print Network [OSTI] We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched. A. Mari; J. Eisert 2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z 15 Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE] In summer, the fluid removes heat from the building and transfers it to the relatively cooler ground in order to cool the building. 16 Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE] Development status of air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)-water absorption chillers for cooling, heating, and power (CHP) system applications in light-commercial buildings. 17 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water 18 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water 19 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given. Wiltsee, G. 1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z 20 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The absorber is one of the most expensive components of an absorption heat pump or chiller, respectively. In order to reduce the cost of a heat exchanger, much effort is invested into searching for additives for heat transfer enhancement. Another way to reduce heat exchanger cost, especially for machines with low capacities, is to use an adiabatic spray absorber. The basic principles of the spray absorber is to perform heat and mass transfer separated from each other in two different components. In this way the heat can be rejected effectively in a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, whereas the mass transfer occurs subsequently in a simple vessel. The spray technique can not only save heat exchanger cost in conventional absorption systems working with water and lithium bromide, it also allows the use of quite different working fluids such as hydroxides, which have lower heat transfer coefficients in falling films. Moreover, the separated heat transfer can easily be performed in a liquid-to-air heat exchanger. Hence it is obvious to use hydroxides that allow for a high temperature lift for building an air-cooled chiller with spray absorber. In this presentation theoretical and experimental investigations of the spray absorber as well as the setup will be described. Finally, possible applications will be outlined. Summerer, F.; Alefeld, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Munich (Germany). Physics Dept.; Zeigler, F.; Riesch, P. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung, Munich (Germany) 1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 21 Open Energy Info (EERE) Heating and Cooling Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Name Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Place Linwood, NJ Website http://bartholomewheatingandco References Bartholomew Heating and Cooling[1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Bartholomew Heating and Cooling is a company located in Linwood, NJ. References â†‘ "Bartholomew Heating and Cooling" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Bartholomew_Heating_and_Cooling&oldid=381585" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations 22 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) ...radiation during good weather are not very high, and...Atmospheric Administration weather ser-vice measures total...largely to experi-mental operation of 3-ton LiBr-H2O...a million solar water heaters are in use in these countries...air House heating load Cold air return 'S T~rgeo... John A. Duffie; William A. Beckman 1976-01-16T23:59:59.000Z 23 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) The implementation of both new thermodynamic cycles and new suitable fluids makes it possible to considerably widen the capacity to recover and upgrade low level heat contained particularly in industrial therm... G. Cohen; A. Rojey 1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 24 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Cooling Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Did you know that heating and cooling accounts for more than half of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes? Energy Saver shares tips and advice on ways you can reduce your heating and cooling costs, putting more money in your wallet. 25 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle. Gottschalk, M.A. 1994-10-10T23:59:59.000Z 26 DOE Patents [OSTI] A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor. Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA) 1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 27 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This paper summarizes a major energy research project carried out in China and Hong Kong over the last ten years. It covers medium temperature solar collectors, cooling and hot water supply systems and describes the design and manufacture of a novel two-stage absorption Li-Br chiller. One of the primary objectives of this project was to encourage technology transfer to China of the manufacturing processes relating to medium temperature solar collectors. Ward, H.S.; Chu, C.Y. [Lingnan College/Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Huang, Z.C.; Xia, W. [Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion (China) 1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z 28 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) Project objectives: Create a campus geothermal heating and cooling... 29 E-Print Network [OSTI] results and an overview of the performance of low capacity single stage and half-effect absorption cooling systems, suitable for residential and small building applications. The primary heat source is solar energy supplied from flat plate collectors... Gomri, R. 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 30 E-Print Network [OSTI] system for space heating and cooling. The proposed energy supply system configuration includes integrated compound parabolic concentrator (ICPC), a hot storage tank, a gas fired auxiliary heater, a steam generator, a steam driven absorption chiller... Masson, S. V.; Qu, M.; Archer, D. H. 2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 31 SciTech Connect (OSTI) We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using three-dimensional radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magnetorotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers are heated by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations in the fields move the starlight-absorbing surface up and down. The height ranges between 13% and 24% of the radius over timescales of several orbits, with implications for infrared variability. The fields are buoyant, so the accretion heating occurs higher in the atmosphere than the stresses. The heating is localized around current sheets, caused by magnetorotational instability at lower elevations and by Parker instability at higher elevations. Gas in the sheets is heated above the stellar irradiation temperature, even though accretion is much less than irradiation power when volume averaged. The hot optically thin current sheets might be detectable through their line emission. Hirose, S. [Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Turner, N. J., E-mail: shirose@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States) 2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z 32 Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE] The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These... 33 DOE Patents [OSTI] A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs. Pendergrass, J.C. 1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z 34 DOE Patents [OSTI] A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA) 1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 35 E-Print Network [OSTI] ??The absorption chiller modeling is then exploited in a computer tool that gives valuable information on the planning of solar cooling systems. The design of… (more) NURZIA, GIOVANNI 2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 36 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:38pm Addthis Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Heating and cooling your home uses more energy and costs more money than any other system in your home -- typically making up about 54% of your 37 E-Print Network [OSTI] There are (at least) two unsolved problems concerning the current state of the thermal gas in clusters of galaxies. The first is identifying the source of the heating which offsets cooling in the centers of clusters with short cooling times (the cooling flow'' problem). The second is understanding the mechanism which boosts the entropy in cluster and group gas. Since both of these problems involve an unknown source of heating it is tempting to identify them with the same process, particular since AGN heating is observed to be operating at some level in a sample of well-observed cooling flow'' clusters. Here we show, using numerical simulations of cluster formation, that much of the gas ending up in clusters cools at high redshift and so the heating is also needed at high-redshift, well before the cluster forms. This indicates that the same process operating to solve the cooling flow problem may not also resolve the cluster entropy problem. Greg L. Bryan; G. Mark Voit 2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z 38 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This patent describes a solar heating and cooling system for simultaneously heating or cooling an ambient air system within a building, heating a hot water supply for domestic use within the building and heating or cooling a swimming pool adjacent the building comprising a building. This comprises a swimming pool as a primary water source, a solar connector connected to the swimming pool, a heat pump for controlling ambient air temperature within the building, an energy conservation unit connected to the heat pump and to the hot water supply for utilizing hot gases from the heat pump to heat water in the hot water supply and an air heat exchanger connected to the air system and to the heat pump for selectively heating or cooling air in the building. Also a water heat exchanger is connected to a water source for selectively transferring heat between the heat pump and the water source, a well as a secondary water source connected to the water heat exchanger. Yovanofski, T. 1986-12-16T23:59:59.000Z 39 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of absorption heat... 40 E-Print Network [OSTI] of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device H.C. Coles, S.prototype computer equipment rack-level cooling device withIT equipment cooling, server rack cooling, server cooling, Greenberg, Steve 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 41 E-Print Network [OSTI] (Bhattacharyya, et al. 1995; Rowe 1995; Goodfellow 1994). First, the results for a positive J when heat is absorbed at the interface, i. e. , when the interface cools (initially), is reported. An examination of various product catalogs (for example, Melcor... Honea, Mark Stephen 1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 42 Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE] Active solar heating and cooling systems may not be assessed at more than the value of a conventional system for property tax purposes. This law applies only to active solar systems and does not... 43 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs. Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A. 1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z 44 Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) (Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of... 45 Energy Savers [EERE] Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's... 46 E-Print Network [OSTI] Zasulauks Â­ wood-chips fired boiler house, (20 MWth) in 2013/05 Â· DHP Ziepniekkalns Â­ wood-chips fired cogeneration unit, (4 MWel, 22 MWth) in 2013/2. Â· DHP Vecmlgrvis Â­ wood-chips fired boilers, (2x7 MWth) in 2010, Nuremberg, 15-16.10.2013 Â· Cooling load is close to the set up chiller capacity Â· HP/chiller is designed Oak Ridge National Laboratory 47 SciTech Connect (OSTI) An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated. Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co. 2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z 48 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program Jones-Onslow EMC - Residential Heating and Cooling Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Central AC (15 SEER or greater):$35 Central AC (16 SEER or greater): $50 Heat Pump (15 SEER or greater):$250 Geothermal Heat Pump (19 EER or greater): $350 Provider Jones-Onslow EMC Jones-Onslow Electric Membership Corporation offers rebates to residential members who install energy efficient heating and cooling equipment. Members can replace an existing central AC or heat pump, which does not have a SEER rating greater than 13, with a central AC, heat pump, or geothermal heat 49 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Principles of Heating and Cooling Principles of Heating and Cooling Principles of Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:04pm Addthis To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of Ã‚Â©iStockphoto/kryzanek. To heat and cool your house efficiently, it is important to know how heat transfers to and from objects. | Photo courtesy of Â©iStockphoto/kryzanek. Understanding how heat is transferred from the outdoors into your home and from your home to your body is important for understanding the challenge of keeping your house cool. Understanding the processes that help keep your body cool is important in understanding cooling strategies for your home. Principles of Heat Transfer Heat is transferred to and from objects -- such as you and your home -- via 50 Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE] 3 3 Main Commercial Primary Energy Use of Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995 Heating Equipment | Cooling Equipment Packaged Heating Units 25% | Packaged Air Conditioning Units 54% Boilers 21% | Room Air Conditioning 5% Individual Space Heaters 2% | PTAC (2) 3% Furnaces 20% | Centrifugal Chillers 14% Heat Pumps 5% | Reciprocating Chillers 12% District Heat 7% | Rotary Screw Chillers 3% Unit Heater 18% | Absorption Chillers 2% PTHP & WLHP (1) 2% | Heat Pumps 7% 100% | 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) PTHP = Packaged Terminal Heat Pump, WLHP = Water Loop Heat Pump. 2) PTAC = Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume 1: Chillers, Refrigerant Compressors, and Heating Systems, Apr. 2001, Figure 5-5, p. 5-14 for cooling and Figure 5-10, p. 5-18 for heating 51 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) The development of a small capacity absorption chiller and the numerical and experimental results are presented in this paper. The prototype is a thermally driven ammonia-water absorption chiller of 5 kW cooling capacity for solar cooling applications. The chiller was developed in an industrial perspective with a goal of overall compactness and using commercially available components. In order to characterize various component technologies and different optimization components, the prototype is monitored with temperature, pressure and mass flow rate accurate sensors. The resulting chiller, characterized by a reduced load in ammonia-water solution and the use of brazed plate heat exchanger, has shown good performance during the preliminary tests. A comparison with the expected numerical results is given. François Boudéhenn; Hélène Demasles; Joël Wyttenbach; Xavier Jobard; David Chèze; Philippe Papillon 2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 52 E-Print Network [OSTI] Algorithmic cooling (AC) is a method to purify quantum systems, such as ensembles of nuclear spins, or cold atoms in an optical lattice. When applied to spins, AC produces ensembles of highly polarized spins, which enhance the signal strength in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). According to this cooling approach, spin-half nuclei in a constant magnetic field are considered as bits, or more precisely, quantum bits, in a known probability distribution. Algorithmic steps on these bits are then translated into specially designed NMR pulse sequences using common NMR quantum computation tools. The$algorithmic$cooling of spins is achieved by alternately combining reversible, entropy-preserving manipulations (borrowed from data compression algorithms) with$selectivereset$, the transfer of entropy from selected spins to the environment. In theory, applying algorithmic cooling to sufficiently large spin systems may produce polarizations far beyond the limits due to conservation of Shannon entropy. Here, only selective reset steps are performed, hence we prefer to call this process "heat-bath" cooling, rather than algorithmic cooling. We experimentally implement here two consecutive steps of selective reset that transfer entropy from two selected spins to the environment. We performed such cooling experiments with commercially-available labeled molecules, on standard liquid-state NMR spectrometers. Our experiments yielded polarizations that$bypassShannon'sentropy$-$conservationbound$, so that the entire spin-system was cooled. This paper was initially submitted in 2005, first to Science and then to PNAS, and includes additional results from subsequent years (e.g. for resubmission in 2007). The Postscriptum includes more details. Gilles Brassard; Yuval Elias; José M. Fernandez; Haggai Gilboa; Jonathan A. Jones; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein; Li Xiao 2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z 53 E-Print Network [OSTI] The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity... Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y. 2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 54 Energy Savers [EERE] - 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain... 55 Open Energy Info (EERE) Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Project... 56 DOE Patents [OSTI] This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs. Jardine, D.M. 1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z 57 DOE Patents [OSTI] This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO) 1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 58 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] sector. chpindustrymarketassessment0803.pdf More Documents & Publications Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment, September 2002 Cooling, Heating,... 59 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) In response to the ever increasing demand for smaller and lighter high performance cooling devices a new heat transfer liquids come into picture, called Nanofluids. Nanofluids are new class of heat transfer fluids developed by suspending nanosized solid particles in liquids. Larger thermal conductivity of solid particles compared to the base fluid such as water, ethylene glycol, engine oil, etc. significantly enhances its thermal properties. Numbers of phenomenological models have been proposed to explain the anomalous heat transfer enhancement in nanofluids. This paper presents systematic literature survey observed to exploit several characteristic behaviours of nanofluids viz. increase in thermal conductivity, specific heat and other thermal properties. An empirical correlation for Al2O3 + water nanofluid and effects of temperature, volume fraction and size of nanoparticle is studied. The effect of temperature on nanofluid thermal conductivity is also brought out. This behaviour combined with better mechanical properties makes fluids embedded with nanomaterials are excellent candidates for future applications. V. Vasu; K Rama Krishna; A.C.S. Kumar 2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 60 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Solar heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the solar computer control center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The solar system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, controls, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower. None 1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 61 E-Print Network [OSTI] The discovery of extended, approximately spherical weak shock waves in the hot intercluster gas in Perseus and Virgo has precipitated the notion that these waves may be the primary heating process that explains why so little gas cools to low temperatures. This type of heating has received additional support from recent gasdynamical models. We show here that outward propagating, dissipating waves deposit most of their energy near the center of the cluster atmosphere. Consequently, if the gas is heated by (intermittent) weak shocks for several Gyrs, the gas within 30-50 kpc is heated to temperatures that far exceed observed values. This heating can be avoided if dissipating shocks are sufficiently infrequent or weak so as not to be the primary source of global heating. Local PV and viscous heating associated with newly formed X-ray cavities are likely to be small, which is consistent with the low gas temperatures generally observed near the centers of groups and clusters where the cavities are located. W. G. Mathews; A. Faltenbacher; F. Brighenti 2005-11-05T23:59:59.000Z 62 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling April 24, 2012 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs can be reduced to less than half the cost of heating a typical home. Passive solar design can also help lower your cooling costs. Passive solar cooling techniques include carefully designed overhangs and using reflective coatings on windows, exterior walls, and roofs. Newer techniques include placing large, insulated windows on south-facing walls and putting thermal mass, such as a concrete slab floor or a heat-absorbing wall, close to the windows. A passive solar house requires careful design and siting, which vary by 63 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling April 24, 2012 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs can be reduced to less than half the cost of heating a typical home. Passive solar design can also help lower your cooling costs. Passive solar cooling techniques include carefully designed overhangs and using reflective coatings on windows, exterior walls, and roofs. Newer techniques include placing large, insulated windows on south-facing walls and putting thermal mass, such as a concrete slab floor or a heat-absorbing wall, close to the windows. A passive solar house requires careful design and siting, which vary by 64 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of an HVAC system installed as part of a project to demonstrate energy efficiency and environmental responsibility in commercial buildings. The systems installed in the 2180 m{sup 2} office building provide superior air quality and thermal comfort while requiring only half the electrical energy of conventional systems primarily because of the hydronic heating and cooling system. Gas use for the building is higher than expected because of longer operating hours and poor performance of the boiler/absorption chiller. Carpenter, S.C.; Kokko, J.P. [Enermodal Engineering Ltd., Kitchener, Ontario (Canada) 1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z 65 Open Energy Info (EERE) Heating-Cooling Application Heating-Cooling Application Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed Generation Study/10 West 66th Street Corp + Domestic Hot Water +, Space Heat and/or Cooling + Distributed Generation Study/Aisin Seiki G60 at Hooligans Bar and Grille + Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Arrow Linen + Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Dakota Station (Minnegasco) + Space Heat and/or Cooling +, Other + Distributed Generation Study/Elgin Community College + Space Heat and/or Cooling +, Domestic Hot Water + Distributed Generation Study/Emerling Farm + Domestic Hot Water +, Process Heat and/or Cooling + 66 Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS Gary C . V l i e t , Michael B . Lawson, and Rudolf0 A . Lithgow Center f o r Energy Studies The University of Texas a t Austin December 1980 Final Report f o r Contract: DE AC03-79SF10540 (Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately 67 E-Print Network [OSTI] condensation in winter, reduced life and reliability of ventilation equipment, and high repair bills cooling and heating systems. VENTILATION SYSTEMS The operating efficiency of a ventilation fan can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling from evaporative cooling pads, high heating expenses, heavy Watson, Craig A. 68 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) 9. Heating and 9. Heating and Cooling Revised January 2008 9.1 Overview 2 9.2 Central Cooling Systems 3 Chiller Plant Operations and Maintenance 4 Chiller Plant Retrofits 6 9.3 Central Heating Systems 10 Boiler System Operations and Maintenance 11 Boiler System Retrofits 11 Improving Furnace Efficiency 13 9.4 Unitary Systems 14 Packaged Rooftop Units 16 Split-System Packaged Units 18 Air-Source Heat Pumps 18 Ground-Source, Closed-Loop Heat Pumps 19 9.5 Additional Strategies 20 Air-Side Economizer 20 Energy Recovery 20 Desiccant Dehumidification 20 Night Precooling 21 Cool Storage 22 Evaporative Cooling 22 9.6 Summary 22 Bibliography 23 Glossary G-1 1 ENERGY STAR Â® Building Manual ENERGY STAR Â® Building Manual 9. Heating and Cooling 9.1 Overview Although heating and cooling systems provide a useful service by keeping occupants comfort- 69 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems Special Property Assessment for Renewable Heating and Cooling Systems < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Solar Heating Program Info State Maryland Program Type Property Tax Incentive Rebate Amount Eligible property is assessed at no more than the value of a conventional system Provider Department of Assessments and Taxation Title 8 of Maryland's property tax code includes a state-wide special assessment for solar and geothermal heating and cooling systems. Under this provision, such systems are to be assessed at not more than the value of a conventional system for property tax purposes if no conventional system 70 E-Print Network [OSTI] Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Paul Byrne1 *, Jacques-012-0089-0 #12;1. ABSTRACT The heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) carries out space heating to a standard reversible heat pump (HP). The air evaporator is defrosted by a two-phase thermosiphon without Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de 71 DOE Patents [OSTI] A high efficiency solar heating system comprising a plurality of hollow modular units each for receiving a thermal storage mass, the units being arranged in stacked relation in the exterior frame of a building, each of the units including a port for filling the unit with the mass, a collector region and a storage region, each region having inner and outer walls, the outer wall of the collector region being oriented for exposure to sunlight for heating the thermal storage mass; the storage region having an opening therein and the collector region having a corresponding opening, the openings being joined for communicating the thermal storage mass between the storage and collector regions by thermosiphoning; the collector region being disposed substantially below and in parallel relation to the storage region in the modular unit; and the inner wall of the collector region of each successive modular unit in the stacked relation extending over the outer wall of the storage region of the next lower modular unit in the stacked relation for reducing heat loss from the system. Various modifications and alternatives are disclosed for both heating and cooling applications. Maloney, Timothy J. (Winchester, VA) 1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 72 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating March 26, 2013 - 3:08pm Addthis Solar heating systems can be a cost-effective way to heat your home. | Photo courtesy of Solar Design Associates, Inc. Solar heating systems can be a cost-effective way to heat your home. | Photo courtesy of Solar Design Associates, Inc. Erin Connealy Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy How can I participate? Read Energy Saver's article on solar heating systems to see whether see whether active solar heating is a good option for you. Most people are familiar with solar photovoltaic panels, but far fewer know about using solar as a source of heat in their homes. Active solar heating uses solar energy to heat fluid or air, which then transfers the solar heat 73 Open Energy Info (EERE) Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Roofs Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Resource assessment Website: eetd.lbl.gov/r-bldgsee-crhi.html References: [1] Logo: Cool Roofs "On warm summer days, a city can be 6 to 8Â°F warmer than its surrounding areas. This effect is called the urban heat island. Cool roof materials, pavements, and vegetation can reduce the heat island effect, save energy and reduce smog formation. The goal of this research is to develop cool materials to save energy and money." [1] The Cool Roof Calculator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a useful tool for exploring the benefits of cool materials. 74 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services June 24, 2012 - 2:50pm Addthis Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for space heating and cooling. Product Information Boilers ENERGY STARÂ® Information on the benefits of ENERGY STAR boilers, as well as resources to calculate savings and find products. Ceiling Fans ENERGY STARÂ® Describes the benefits of choosing ENERGY STAR ceiling fans, as well as 75 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services June 24, 2012 - 2:50pm Addthis Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for space heating and cooling. Product Information Boilers ENERGY STARÂ® Information on the benefits of ENERGY STAR boilers, as well as resources to calculate savings and find products. Ceiling Fans ENERGY STARÂ® Describes the benefits of choosing ENERGY STAR ceiling fans, as well as 76 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services June 24, 2012 - 2:50pm Addthis Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for space heating and cooling. Product Information Boilers ENERGY STARÂ® Information on the benefits of ENERGY STAR boilers, as well as resources to calculate savings and find products. Ceiling Fans ENERGY STARÂ® Describes the benefits of choosing ENERGY STAR ceiling fans, as well as 77 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Space Heating & Cooling Research The Emerging Technology team conducts research in space heating and cooling technologies, with a goal of realizing aggregate energy savings of 20% relative to a 2010 baseline. In addition to work involving the development of products, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with industry partners and researchers, develops best practices, tests, and guides designed to reduce market barriers and increase public awareness of these energy saving technologies. Research is currently focusing on: Geothermal Heat Pumps Photo of a home with a geothermal heat pump, showing how it can regulate the temperature of a home using the temperature underground to cool warm air or heat cold air. 78 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) James Lowe Ball State University May 03, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise... 79 E-Print Network [OSTI] Simulation study of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling coupled to buildings Redouane) 141-149" DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.12.047 #12;ABSTRACT In several situations, a heat pump occur. Unlike a reversible heat pump that works alternatively in heating or cooling, a HPS operates Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de 80 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) 19 February 1974 research-article Heat Transfer from an Air-Cooled Rotating Disk J. M. Owen C...theoretical and experimental investigation into the heat transfer from a disk rotating close to a stator with a radial... 1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 81 E-Print Network [OSTI] effectiveness of an aircraft de-icing strategy by re-designing the cooling bay surface shape. The design of a helicopter cooling bay can be ice prone under certain atmospheric conditions. Its effective shape design1 THERMOFLUID OPTIMIZATION OF A HEATED HELICOPTER ENGINE COOLING BAY SURFACE D. Wang 1 , G. F Wang, Gaofeng Gary 82 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Liquid metal heat pipe cooling systems have been investigated for the combustor liner and engine inlet leading edges of scramjet engines for a missile application. The combustor liner is cooled by a lithium-TZM molybdenum annular heat pipe, which incorporates a separate lithium reservoir. Heat is initially absorbed by the sensible thermal capacity of the heat pipe and liner, and subsequently by the vaporization and discharge of lithium to the atmosphere. The combustor liner temperature is maintained at 3400 F or less during steady-state cruise. The engine inlet leading edge is fabricated as a sodium-superalloy heat pipe. Cooling is accomplished by radiation of heat from the aft surface of the leading edge to the atmosphere. The leading edge temperature is limited to 1700 F or less. It is concluded that heat pipe cooling is a viable method for limiting scramjet combustor liner and engine inlet temperatures to levels at which structural integrity is greatly enhanced. Silverstein, C.C. 1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z 83 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting August 14, 2013 - 1:39pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's efforts to reduce energy bills for American families and businesses and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Energy Department today announced 12 projects to develop innovative heating, cooling and insulation technologies as well as open source energy efficiency software to help homes and commercial buildings save energy and money. These projects will receive an approximately$11 million Energy Department investment, matched by about $1 million in private sector funding. "Energy efficient technologies - from improved heating and cooling 84 SciTech Connect (OSTI) During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model. Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S. 1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z 85 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The Recirculated Cooling Water (RCW) system of a Candu reactor is a closed cooling system which delivers demineralized water to coolers and components in the Service Building, the Reactor Building, and the Turbine Building and the recirculated cooling water is designed to be cooled by the Raw Service Water (RSW). During the period of scheduled outage, the RCW system provides cooling water to the heat exchangers of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS) in order to remove the residual heat of the reactor, so the RCW heat exchangers have to operate at all times. This makes it very hard to replace the inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers because the replacement work requires the isolation of the RCW. A task force was formed to prepare a plan to substitute the recirculated water with the chilled water system in order to cool the SDCS heat exchangers. A verification test conducted in 2007 proved that alternative cooling was possible for the removal of the residual heat of the reactor and in 2008 the replacement of inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers for both Wolsong unit 3 and 4 were successfully completed. (authors) Park, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, D. S.; Jung, C. Y.; Choi, K. Y. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 260 Naa-ri Yangnam-myeon Gyeongju-si, Gyeonasangbuk-do, 780-815 (Korea, Republic of) 2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z 86 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Heat Generated Cooling Heat Generated Cooling A counterintuitive but promising path to reducing the loads imposed by automotive air conditioning systems is to use heat-specifically the waste heat generated by engines. This can be an abundant source of energy, since most light-duty vehicles with combustion engines are only about 30% efficient at best. With that degree of thermal efficiency, an engine releases 70% of its fuel energy as waste heat through the coolant, exhaust gases, and engine compartment warm-up. During much of a typical drive cycle, the engine efficiency is even lower than 30%. As efficiency decreases, the amount of waste heat increases, representing a larger potential energy source. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team is investigating a number of heat generated cooling technologies 87 E-Print Network [OSTI] HHFW absorption in Neutral-Beam heated NSTX plasmas B. LeBlanc, M. PodestÃ , W. Heidbrink XP -1012 ions Need to characterize RF absorption as a function of RF phasing, L vs. H-mode plasmas, outer gap, optimized for FIDA measurements Â· Similar to 2008 FIDA experiment on RF absorption by fast ions Â· NB sources Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 88 E-Print Network [OSTI] SPECTRA OF CRITICAL EXPONENTS IN NONLINEAR HEAT EQUATIONS WITH ABSORPTION V.A. GALAKTIONOV AND P of the classical porous medium equation with absorption u t = #1;u m u p in R N #2; R+ change their large-time behaviour at the critical absorption exponent p 0 = m+2=N . We show that, actually, there exists an in#12 Bath, University of 89 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been very expensive for their rating. To enhance collector thermal efficiency the liquid flowing within the collectors must be kept as cool as possible. However, there is also a need to operate the absorption reported earlier. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and more efficient. As noted in Part 1, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures. Therefore, a smaller, less expensive chiller is required. The reduced investment in solar arrays and absorption chillers is estimated along with a range of paybacks. Fineblum, S. [Megadyne Inc., Rochester, NY (United States) 1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z 90 DOE Patents [OSTI] A heat-driven acoustic cooling engine having no moving parts receives heat from a heat source. The acoustic cooling engine comprises an elongated resonant pressure vessel having first and second ends. A compressible fluid having a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave is contained in the resonant pressure vessel. The heat source supplies heat to the first end of the vessel. A first heat exchanger in the vessel is spaced-apart from the first end and receives heat from the first end. A first thermodynamic element is adjacent to the first heat exchanger and converts some of the heat transmitted by the first heat exchanger into acoustic power. A second thermodynamic element has a first end located spaced-apart from the first thermodynamic element and a second end farther away from the first thermodynamic element than is its first end. The first end of the second thermodynamic element heats while its second end cools as a consequence of the acoustic power. A second heat exchanger is adjacent to and between the first and second thermodynamic elements. A heat sink outside of the vessel is thermally coupled to and receives heat from the second heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one-fourth wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM) 1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 91 E-Print Network [OSTI] A class of Hamiltonians that are experimentally feasible in several contexts within quantum optics and lead to so-called cooling by heating for fermionic as well as for bosonic systems has been analyzed numerically. We have found a large range of parameters for which cooling by heating can be observed either for the fermionic system alone or for the combined fermionic and bosonic systems. Analyzing the experimental requirements, we conclude that cooling by heating is achievable with present-day technology, especially in the context of trapped-ion and cavity QED, thus contributing to the understanding of this interesting and counterintuitive effect. D. Z. Rossatto; A. R. de Almeida; T. Werlang; C. J. Villas-Boas; N. G. de Almeida 2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z 92 E-Print Network [OSTI] and cooling were set up, which is responsible for the space heating and cooling and domestic hot water for a residential block. Through hourly simulation, the performance and the economics of such systems were analyzed, for the different tank volumes... Yu, G.; Chen, P.; Dalenback, J. 2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 93 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Solar thermal cooling and heating plants with single-effect sorption chillers/heat pumps promise primary energy savings compared to electric vapor compression chiller systems. Yet, the need of auxiliary electric a nd fossil energy for the operation and backup of the thermal cooling system possibly worsen the primary energy balance. An auspicious approach to overcome this problem is the application of a more efficient multi -stage sorption chiller with flexible operational modes. A pilot installation of that innovative solar thermal heating and cooling plant comprising a two stage absorption chiller/heat pump is presented. Beginning with the motivation and the system concept, a detailed analysis of the 2011/2012 cooling and heating periods is shown. The influence of the different system components – especially the absorption chiller – on the overall system performance is analyzed and a comparison to data from a detailed dynamic model is carried out. Recommendations for the improvement with respect to efficiency and economic aspects are given based on the installation process and the operational experience gained in the last 1 ½ years. Manuel Riepl; Felix Loistl; Richard Gurtner; Martin Helm; Christian Schweigler 2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 94 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This article reports the results of applying a finite-difference-based computational technique to the problem of predicting the transient thermal behavior of a scramjet engine inlet exposed to a typical hypersonic flight aerodynamic surface heating environment, including type IV shock interference heating. The leading-edge cooling model utilized incorporates liquid metal heat pipe cooling with surface transpiration and film cooling. Results include transient structural temperature distributions, aerodynamic heat inputs, and surface coolant distributions. It seems that these cooling techniques may be used to hold maximum skin temperatures to near acceptable values during the severe aerodynamic and type IV shock interference heating effects expected on the leading edge of a hypersonic aerospace vehicle scramjet engine. 15 refs. Modlin, J.M.; Colwell, G.T. (U.S. Army, Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, AL (United States) Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States)) 1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z 95 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract Up to now, the use of ammonia/water absorption cycles has been mainly limited to the production of refrigeration or air conditioning but due to the relatively high generator pressure some authors have proposed the integration in parallel of an expander to produce cooling and power simultaneously. This feature could provide many benefits in the future such as the use of solar thermal energy to partially cover the heating, cooling and electricity demand of a building. In the other hand the life cycle cost of the absorption system is improved because of the increase in the number of running hours in periods in which there is no demand for cooling but the demand for electrical power is still important. This paper shows a new combined absorption system using a scroll expander and three different working fluids using ammonia as refrigerant: ammonia/water, ammonia/lithium nitrate and ammonia/sodium thiocyanate. The scroll expander performance maps were obtained experimentally and modeled to predict the power production, rotational speed and exhaust temperature of the expander and included in the complete absorption cycle model build using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) Software. This system produces different amounts of cooling and power at the desired power/cooling ratio to cover varying demand profiles. Luis Carlos Mendoza; Dereje S. Ayou; Joaquín Navarro-Esbrí; Joan Carles Bruno; Alberto Coronas 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 96 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics Heating and Cooling System Support Equipment Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:28pm Addthis Thermostats and ducts provide opportunities for saving energy. Dehumidifying heat pipes provide a way to help central air conditioners and heat pumps dehumidify air. Electric and gas meters allow users to track energy use. Thermostats Programmable thermostats can store and repeat multiple daily settings. Users can adjust the times heating or air-conditioning is activated according to a pre-set schedule. Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about thermostats and control systems in homes. Ducts Efficient and well-designed duct systems distribute air properly throughout a building, without leaking, to keep all rooms at a comfortable 97 E-Print Network [OSTI] ??Combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems are known as trigeneration systems, designed to provide electricity, cooling and heating simultaneously. The CCHP system has become… (more) Liu, Mingxi 2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 98 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Cooling and Heating Loads Cooling and Heating Loads The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide focuses on improvements to small office buildings, less than 20,000ft2. The recommendations in this article are adapted from the implementation section of the guide and focus on heating and cooling system design loads for the purpose of sizing systems and equipment should be calculated in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks such as ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. Publication Date: Wednesday, May 13, 2009 air_cooling_and_heating_loads.pdf Document Details Affiliation: DOE BECP Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 99 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) MOFs as Adsorbents for Low Temperature Heating and Cooling Applications ... Therefore, the loading spread ?X (in g of adsorbed vapor/kg of adsorbent) of the adsorbent over a given cycle is a good first figure of merit. ... Stefan K. Henninger; Hesham A. Habib; Christoph Janiak 2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z 100 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This document provides an overview of the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebook for Heating and Cooling with information directing people to the Web site for more in-depth information. Not Available 2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 101 E-Print Network [OSTI] An analysis is performed to investigate the signatures of different parameters on the heating and cooling energy consumption of typical air handling units (AHUs). The results are presented in graphic format. HVAC simulation engineers can use... Wei, G.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E. 1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 102 E-Print Network [OSTI] #12;Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump use of buildings Gas Heat Pump Solution #12;Gas Heat Pump - deserves special attention due to its source in addition to the outside air Â·A further essential component of Gas Heat Pump air conditioning Oak Ridge National Laboratory 103 E-Print Network [OSTI] ENERGY ACCOUNTING FOR DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING PLANTS John A. Barrett, P.E. Manager, Central Plant Utilities University of Houston Houston, Texas Introduction Energy accounting combines engineering science with the insights of cost... Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 The Science of Plant Utilities Control While the Weiss papers are not as specific to district heating and cooling plants as the preceding papers, they do treat other problem areas of interest... Barrett, J. A. 1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 104 E-Print Network [OSTI] for both coolants was determined for similar blowing rates and was used as a basis for comparisons. Heat transfer coefficients were calcula- ted from the experimental data using a transient analysis. DEDICATION To my wife and family. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE 1 Variation in the Blowing Rate ------------ 55 TABLE 2 TABLE 3 Typical Air Film Cooling Effectiveness Data Typical Steam Film Cooling Effectiveness Data 62 62 1X LIST OF FIGURES PAGE Figure 1 Comparison of Heat... Conklin, Gary Eugene 1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 105 Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE] Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment must be ENERGY STAR®–qualified. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. This product overview explains how to meet energy-efficiency requirements for Federal purchases of light commercial heating and cooling equipment and how to maximize energy savings throughout products' useful lives. 106 E-Print Network [OSTI] ??An iterative conjugate heat transfer technique was developed and automated to predict the temperatures on film cooled surfaces such as flat plates and turbine blades.… (more) Dhiman, Sushant 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 107 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down July 22, 2010 - 4:14pm Addthis Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Birmingham received a$2.4 million Energy Efficiency Community Block Grant under the Recovery Act. The HVAC system will use ground source heat pump technology. It seems like these days there's just no avoiding the heat. Whether we're in our homes, at our places of work, and certainly every time we

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While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down While Summer Heats Up, Birmingham Community Centers Cool Down July 22, 2010 - 4:14pm Addthis Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Birmingham Mayor William A. Bell, Sr., City officials, and DOE representatives at Monday's groundbreaking. Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Birmingham received a 2.4 million Energy Efficiency Community Block Grant under the Recovery Act. The HVAC system will use ground source heat pump technology. It seems like these days there's just no avoiding the heat. Whether we're in our homes, at our places of work, and certainly every time we 109 Open Energy Info (EERE) School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description - Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School, Middle School and Elementary School. - Provide jobs, and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District, and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession. - The new Heat Pumps will be targeted to perform at very high efficiency with EER (energy efficiency ratios) of 22+/-. System capacity is planned at 610 tons. - Remove unusable antiquated existing equipment and systems from the campus heating and cooling system, but utilize ductwork, piping, etc. where feasible. The campus is served by antiquated air conditioning units combined with natural gas, and with very poor EER estimated at 6+/-. - Monitor for 3 years the performance of the new systems compared to benchmarks from the existing system, and provide data to the public to promote adoption of Geothermal technology. - The Geothermal installation contractor is able to provide financing for a significant portion of project funding with payments that fall within the energy savings resulting from the new high efficiency heating and cooling systems. 110 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Presently available absorption machines for air conditioning are driven with heat of a minimum of 80 C (176 F). A combination of the standard single-effect and a double-lift process has been identified as a new cycle that can use driving heat down to return temperatures of about 55 C (131 F) and permits temperature glides in generation of more than 30 K (54 F). Thus a larger cooling capacity can be produced from the same heat source compared to a single-effect chiller run with the same heat carrier supply temperature and mass flow. According to the estimated heat exchanger area, competitive machine costs for this new chiller can be expected. This single-effect/double-lift absorption chiller can be operated with waste heat from industrial processes, as well as with low-temperature heat (e.g., heat from solar collectors) as driving heat for air conditioning. The large temperature glide and the low return temperature especially fit the operating conditions in district heating networks during the summer. The cycle will be presented, followed by a discussion of suitable operating conditions. Schweigler, C.J.; Riesch, P.; Demmel, S.; Alefeld, G. [ZAE Bayern, Garching/Muenchen (Germany) 1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z 111 E-Print Network [OSTI] to maintain a constant cooling water supply temperature in the cold well. The cooling tower fans can be manually reversed on slow speed for de-icing the cooling tower in winter to remove ice buildup on the slats. Level controller LL-2 shuts down pumps PI...HEAT RECOVERY FROM ARC FURNACES USING WATER COOLED PANELS D. F. Darby Deere & Company Moline, Illinois ABSTRACT In 1980-81, the John Deere Foundry at East Moline underwent an expansion program that in creased its capacity by over 60... Darby, D. F. 112 E-Print Network [OSTI] A SIMPLIFIED METHODOLOGY FOR SIZING GROUND COUPLED HEAT PUMP HEAT EXCHANGERS IN COOLING DOMINATED CLIMATES A Thesis by JOSE ANTONIO GONZALEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering A SIMPLIFIED METHODOLOGY FOR SIZING GROUND COUPLED HEAT PUMP HEAT EXCHANGERS IN COOLING DOMINATED CLIMATES A Thesis by JOSE ANTONIO GONZALEZ Approved... Gonzalez, Jose Antonio 2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z 113 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) ...extensively to control the humidity of warehouses, hotels, supermarkets, electronic...day will provide about 1.5 kWh/m2 of heating and cooling...hot water needs in almost any climate area. Such a home, shown in...with a heat output of 0.262 kWh/kg, is most suitable for... Dimiter I. Tchernev 114 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) A new approach to prevent the influx of high-Z impurities into the core of a tokamak discharge by using rf power to modify the edge plasma temperature profile is discussed. This concept is based on spectroscopic measurements on PLT (Princeton Large Torus) during ohmic heating and ATC (Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor) during rf heating. S. Suckewer and R. J. Hawryluk 1978-06-19T23:59:59.000Z 115 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) is a cogeneration technology that integrates an absorption chiller to produce cooling, which is sometimes referred to as trigeneration. For building applications, CCHP systems have the advantage to maintain high overall energy efficiency throughout the year. Design and operation of CCHP systems must consider the type and quality of the energy being consumed. Type and magnitude of the on-site energy consumed by a building having separated heating and cooling systems is different than a building having CCHP. Therefore, building energy consumption must be compared using the same reference which is usually the primary energy measured at the source. Site-to-source energy conversion factors can be used to estimate the equivalent source energy from site energy consumption. However, building energy consumption depends on multiple parameters. In this study, mathematical relations are derived to define conditions a CCHP system should operate in order to guarantee primary energy savings. Nelson Fumo; Louay M. Chamra 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 116 E-Print Network [OSTI] The standard cooling flow model has predicted a large amount of cool gas in the clusters of galaxies. The failure of the Chandra and XXM-Newton telescopes to detect cooling gas (below 1-2 keV) in clusters of galaxies has suggested that some heating process must work to suppress the cooling. The most likely heating source is the heating by AGNs. There are many heating mechanisms, but we will adopt the effervescent heating model which is a result of the interaction of the bubbles inflated by AGN with the intra-cluster medium(ICM). Using the FLASH code, we have carried out time dependent simulations to investigate the effect of the heating on the suppression of the cooling in cooling flow clusters. We have found that the effervescent heating model can not balance the radiative cooling and it is an artificial model. Furthermore, the effervescent heating is a function of the ICM pressure gradient but the cooling is proportional to the gas density square and square root of the gas temperature. Nasser Mohamed Ahmed 2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z 117 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) will introduce the theory of radiative transfer; the second part Summary: to greenhouse effect and solar radiation 6. Radiative heating and cooling a. The Chapman layer b.... 118 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been, typically, very expensive for their rating. The need to keep the liquid flowing within the collectors as cool as possible to enhance collector thermal efficiency, conflicts with the need to operate the absorption chiller at a higher temperature. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and much more efficient. In addition, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures and, therefore, a smaller chiller is required. The economic consequences of these benefits will be presented in Part 2. Fineblum, S. [Megadyne Inc., Rochester, NY (United States) 1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z 119 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The performance of a prototype 3 ton cooling capacity air-cooled lithium bromide/water absorption chiller was tested using an absorption chiller test facility which was modified to expand its testing capabilities to include air-cooled chillers in addition to water-cooled chillers. Temperatures of the three externally supplied fluid loops: hot water, chilled water, and cooling air, were varied in order to determine the effects this would have on the two principal measures of chiller performance: cooling capacity and thermal coefficient of performance (COP). A number of interrelated factors were identified as contributing to less than expected performance. For comparison, experimental correlations of other investigators for this and other similar absorption chillers are presented. These have been plotted as both contour and three-dimensional performance maps in order to more clearly show the functional dependence of the chiller performance on the fluid loop temperatures. Borst, R.R.; Wood, B.D. 1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z 120 Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE] An analysis of the benefits of cooling, heating, and power (CHP) technologies in commercial buildings Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 121 E-Print Network [OSTI] We study thermal structure and evolution of magnetars as cooling neutron stars with a phenomenological heat source in a spherical internal layer. We explore the location of this layer as well as the heating rate that could explain high observable thermal luminosities of magnetars and would be consistent with the energy budget of neutron stars. We conclude that the heat source should be located in an outer magnetar's crust, at densities rho heat intensity of the order of 1e20 erg/s/cm^3. Otherwise the heat energy is mainly emitted by neutrinos and cannot warm up the surface. A. D. Kaminker; D. G. Yakovlev; A. Y. Potekhin; N. Shibazaki; P. S. Shternin; O. Y. Gnedin 2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z 122 E-Print Network [OSTI] collector. A field of these collectors feed a single-effect absorption chiller of 35 kW nominal coolingSIMULATION OF A SOLAR ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM J.P. Praene*, D. Morau, F. Lucas, F. Garde, H; accepted: 15 Oct 2007 This paper describes the dynamic modeling of a solar absorption cooling plant Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de 123 SciTech Connect (OSTI) NASA LeRC is currently developing a FORTRAN based computer model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle that can be used for piloted and cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. Proposed designs feature either a Brayton or a K-Rankine power conversion cycle to drive a turbine coupled with rotary alternators. Both ion and magnetoplasmodynamic (MPD) thrusters will be considered in the model. In support of the NEP model, Rocketdyne is developing power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD) subroutines. The subroutines will be incorporated into the NEP vehicle model which will be written by NASA LeRC. The purpose is to document the heat pipe cooled heat rejection subsystem model and its supporting subroutines. The heat pipe cooled heat rejection subsystem model is designed to provide estimate of the mass and performance of the equipment used to reject heat from Brayton and Rankine cycle power conversion systems. The subroutine models the ductwork and heat pipe cooled manifold for a gas cooled Brayton; the heat sink heat exchanger, liquid loop piping, expansion compensator, pump and manifold for a liquid loop cooled Brayton; and a shear flow condenser for a K-Rankine system. In each case, the final heat rejection is made by way of a heat pipe radiator. The radiator is sized to reject the amount of heat necessary. Moriarty, M.P. 1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z 124 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Spray cooling has become increasingly popular as a thermal management solution for high-heat flux (>100 W/cm{sup 2}) applications such as laser diodes and radars. Research has shown that using sub-cooled liquid can increase the heat flux from the hot surface. The objective of this study was to use a multi-phase numerical model to simulate the effect of a sub-cooled droplet impacting a growing vapor bubble in a thin (<100 {mu}m) liquid film. The two-phase model captured the liquid-vapor interface using the level set method. The effects of surface tension, viscosity, gravity and phase change were accounted for by using a modification to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, which were solved using the finite difference method. The computed liquid-vapor interface and temperature distributions were visualized for better understanding of the heat removal process. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms of sub-cooled droplet impact on a growing vapor bubble, various initial droplet temperatures were modeled (from 20 deg. C below saturation temperature to saturation temperature). This may provide insights into how to improve the heat transfer in future spray cooling systems. Johnston, Joseph E.; Selvam, R. P. [Power Electronics Leveling Solutions LLC, 700 Research Boulevard, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Bell 4190 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Silk, Eric A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States) 2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z 125 E-Print Network [OSTI] It is well known that the radiative cooling time of the hot X-ray emitting gas in the cores of most clusters of galaxies is less than 10^10 yr. In many clusters the gas temperature also drops towards the centre. If we draw a causal connection between these two properties then we infer the presence of a cooling flow onto the central galaxy. High spectral resolution XMM-Newton data and high spatial resolution Chandra data, show however a lack of X-ray emitting gas below about one third of the cluster virial temperature. The explanation is that some form of heating balances cooling. The smoothness and similarity of the cooling time profiles and the flatness of the required heating profiles all indicate that we must seek a relatively gentle, quasi-continuous (on timescales heat source. The likely such source is the central black hole and its powerful jets which create bubble-like cavities in the inner hot gas. We briefly review the general heating and cooling statistics in an X-ray bright sample of cluster before we discuss the detailed situation in the Perseus cluster, the X-ray brightest cluster in the Sky. A. C. Fabian; J. S. Sanders 2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z 126 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) This article studies the possibility of using heat pump instead of cooling tower to decrease temperature and recover waste heat of circulating cooling water of power system. Making use of heat transfer theory ...... Panpan Qin; Hui Chen; Lili Chen; Chong Wang… 2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z 127 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions. None 1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z 128 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The contractual work is in three parts: Part I - Effect of rotation on enhanced cooling passage heat transfer, Part II - Effect of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) spallation on surface heat transfer, and Part III - Effect of surface roughness and trailing edge ejection on turbine efficiency under unsteady flow conditions. Each section of this paper has been divided into three parts to individually accommodate each part. Part III is further divided into Parts IIIa and IIIb. Han, Je-Chin; Schobeiri, M.T. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering 1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z 129 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) pumps Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: absorption heat pumps... 130 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) transformer Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: absorption heat transformer... 131 SciTech Connect (OSTI) In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems. For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains 5.1 x 1012 L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totals 380,000 L/min, which could theoretically heat and cool 20,000 homes. Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning). Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E. 2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z 132 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract A detailed optimization model is presented for planning the short-term operation of combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) energy systems. The purpose is, given the design of a cogeneration system, to determine an operating schedule that minimizes the total operating and maintenance costs minus the revenue due to the electricity sold to the grid, while taking into account time-varying loads, tariffs and ambient conditions. The model considers the simultaneous use of different prime movers (generating electricity and heat), boilers, compression heat pumps and chillers, and absorption chillers to satisfy given electricity, heat and cooling demands. Heat and cooling load can be stored in storage tanks. Units can have one or two operative variables, highly nonlinear performance curves describing their off-design behavior, and limitations or penalizations affecting their start-up/shut-down operations. To exploit the effectiveness of state-of-the-art Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) solvers, the resulting Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model is converted into a MILP by appropriate piecewise linear approximation of the nonlinear performance curves. The model, written in the AMPL modeling language, has been tested on several plant test cases. The computational results are discussed in terms of the quality of the solutions, the linearization accuracy and the computational time. Aldo Bischi; Leonardo Taccari; Emanuele Martelli; Edoardo Amaldi; Giampaolo Manzolini; Paolo Silva; Stefano Campanari; Ennio Macchi 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 133 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This report summarizes the development options for introducing district cooling and heating in downtown Stamford, Connecticut. A district energy system as defined for the Stamford project is the production of chilled and hot water at a central energy plant, and its distribution underground to participating building in the vicinity. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of a district energy system in conjunction with cogeneration as a means to encourage energy conservation and provide the city with an economic development tool. Analysis of the system configuration focused on selecting an arrangement which offered a realistic opportunity for implementation. Three main alternatives were investigated: (1) construction of an 82 MW cogeneration plant and a district heating and cooling system to serve downtown buildings, (2) construction of a small (4 MW) in-fence cogeneration plant combined with cooling and heating, and (3) construction of a district cooling and heating plant to supply selected buildings. Option (1) was determined to be unfeasible at this time due to low electricity prices. The analysis demonstrated that alternatives (2) and (3) were feasible. A number of recommendations are made for detailed cost estimates and ownership, leasing, and financial issues. 12 figs., 10 tabs. NONE 1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z 134 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The objective of this project is to perform a preliminary investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of implementing a district heating and cooling (DHC) system in the City of Dunkirk, New York. The study was conducted by first defining a heating and cooling (HC) load service area. Then, questionnaires were sent to prospective DHC customers. After reviewing the owners responses, large consumers of energy were interviewed for more detail of their HC systems, including site visits, to determine possibilities of retrofitting their systems to district heating and cooling. Peak HC loads for the buildings were estimated by Burns and Roe's in-house computer programs. Based on the peak loads, certain customers were determined for suitability as anchor customers. Various options using cogeneration were investigated for possible HC sources. Equipment for HC sources and HC loads were sized and their associated costs estimated. Finally, economic analyses were performed. The conclusion is that it is technically and economically feasible to implement a district heating and cooling system in the City of Dunkirk. 14 figs., 15 tabs. Not Available 1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z 135 Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE] Presentation covers the new and existing buildings heating and cooling opportunities and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island. 136 E-Print Network [OSTI] We investigate heating of the cool core of a galaxy cluster through the dissipation of sound waves excited by the activities of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a weak shock theory, we show that this heating mechanism alone cannot reproduce observed temperature and density profiles of a cluster, because the dissipation length of the waves is much smaller than the size of the core and thus the wave energy is not distributed to the whole core. However, we find that if it is combined with thermal conduction from the hot outer layer of the cluster, the wave heating can reproduce the observational results. Yutaka Fujita; Takeru Ken Suzuki 2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z 137 SciTech Connect (OSTI) A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated. Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L. 1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z 138 E-Print Network [OSTI] . The trailing edge is typically cooled by pin-fins or dimpled surfaces and the mid-chord section is normally cooled by serpentine rib-roughened coolant passages. Jet impingement methods have also been used in the mid-chord section of the blade as well... induced by the ribs that cause the flow to separate and reattach itself. In terms of rib roughen surface configurations, many studies have been performed to determine which alignment of the ribs with respect to the flow produces the highest heat... Krad, Belal 2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z 139 E-Print Network [OSTI] s maximum power is 4.8 watts for cooling (3.6W for the chairfor heating, cooling, or off, and the power level iselectrical power in) is therefore 3 to 8 in cooling mode. In Pasut, Wilmer; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed; Zhai, Yongchao 2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 140 E-Print Network [OSTI] Optimization of a transcritical CO2 heat pump cycle for simultaneous cooling and heating carbon dioxide based systems mainly due to the low critical temperature of CO2. As a result and also vapor compression refrigeration system was patented as far back as 1850, and this was followed Bahrami, Majid Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 141 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Absorption chiller/heaters using non-CFC refrigerants are attracting attention as environmentally friendly energy systems. As the refrigerant/absorbent pair, the water/lithium bromide aqueous solution pair is preferably used for most absorption chiller/heaters in Japan. Absorption chiller/heaters, mainly used as water chillers and air-conditioners, are commercially available at least for unit cooling capacities above 60 kW. In absorption chiller/heaters, the absorber must be made compact, because the absorber has the largest heat transfer area of the four primary heat exchangers in the system: the evaporator, absorber, regenerator and condenser. Although a great amount of information is available on the evaporator and condenser, the same type of information concerning the absorber is lacking. This paper introduces two kinds of double fluted tubes called Arm tubs and Floral tubes for film absorbers. Arm tubes are manufactured using a two-pass drawbench process, while Floral tubes are made using a single pass drawbench process. The experiments using a lithium bromide aqueous solution with the addition of 250 ppm n-octyl alcohol as the surfactant showed that Arm tubes and Floral tubes had about 40% higher heat transfer performance than plain tubes. Therefore, Floral tubes are expected to realize a high performance at low cost. Furthermore, the optimization of the number of grooves on the outside of the tubes is also described here. Sasaki, Naoe; Nosetani, Tadashi [Sumitomo Light Metal Industry, Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Ora, Gunma (Japan). Commercial Air-Conditioning Div. 1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z 142 Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE] The focus of this study was to assess the market for cooling, heating, and power applications in the industrial sector. 143 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader. ANDREWS,J. 2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 144 Open Energy Info (EERE) Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Geothermal, People and Policy Phase: Create a Vision, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Resource Type: Guide/manual, Case studies/examples, Templates, Technical report User Interface: Website Website: www.nrel.gov/geothermal/publications.html Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024Â°, -95.712891Â° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]} 145 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The feasibility of using waste heat from municipal water wells to replace natural gas for heating of the City Hall, Fire Station, and Community Hall in Wilmer, Texas was studied. At present, the 120/sup 0/F well water is cooled by dissipating the excess heat through evaporative cooling towers before entering the distribution system. The objective of the study was to determine the pumping cycle of the well and determine the amount of available heat from the water for a specified period. This data were correlated with the heating and cooling demand of the City's buildings, and a conceptual heat recovery system will be prepared. The system will use part or all of the excess heat from the water to heat the buildings, thereby eliminating the use of natural gas. The proposed geothermal retrofit of the existing natural gas heating system is not economical because the savings in natural gas does not offset the capital cost of the new equipment and the annual operating and maintenance costs. The fuel savings and power costs are a virtual trade-off over the 25-year period. The installation and operation of the system was estimated to cost105,000 for 25 years which is an unamortized expense. In conclusion, retrofitting the City of Wilmer's municipal buildings is not feasible based on the economic analysis and fiscal projections as presented.

Morgan, D.S.; Hochgraf, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes replacement of the University of California at Los Angeles' aging boiler and refrigeration equipment with a central chiller/combined-cycle cogeneration plant. The topics of the article include the work scope, the chilled water plant including absorption and steam turbine driven centrifugal chillers, and the cogeneration plant including two packaged combustion turbines, two heat-recovery steam generators and one steam turbogenerator.

Johnson, D.N. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Bakker, V.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through the joint efforts of the Pennsylvania State University and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an experimental rod bundle heat transfer (RBHT) facility was designed and built. The rod bundle consists of a 7 x 7 square pitch array with spacer grids and geometry similar to that found in a modern pressurized water reactor. From this facility, a series of steady-state steam cooling experiments were performed. The bundle inlet Reynolds number was varied from 1 400 to 30 000 over a pressure range from 1.36 to 4 bars (20 to 60 psia). The bundle inlet steam temperature was controlled to be at saturation for the specified pressure and the fluid exit temperature exceeded 550 deg. C in the highest power tests. One important quantity of interest is the local convective heat transfer coefficient defined in terms of the local bulk mean temperature of the flow, local wall temperature, and heat flux. Steam temperatures were measured at the center of selected subchannels along the length of the bundle by traversing miniaturized thermocouples. Using an analogy between momentum and energy transport, a method was developed for relating the local subchannel centerline temperature measurement to the local bulk mean temperature. Wall temperatures were measured using internal thermocouples strategically placed along the length of each rod and the local wall heat flux was obtained from an inverse conduction program. The local heat transfer coefficient was calculated from the data at each rod thermocouple location. The local heat transfer coefficients calculated for locations where the flow was fully developed were compared against several published correlations. The Weisman and El-Genk correlations were found to agree best with the RBHT steam cooling data, especially over the range of turbulent Reynolds numbers. The effect of spacer grids on the heat transfer enhancement was also determined from instrumentation placed downstream of the spacer grid locations. The local heat transfer was found to be greatest at locations immediately downstream of the grid, and as the flow moved further downstream from the grid it became more developed, thus causing the heat transfer to diminish. The amount of heat transfer enhancement was found to depend not only on the spacer grid design, but also on the local Reynolds number. It was seen that decreasing Reynolds number leads to greater heat transfer enhancement. (authors)

Spring, J.P.; McLaughlin, D.M. [The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Shields Building University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of flow-induced vibration problems of component cooling water heat exchangers in one of Taipower's nuclear power stations. Specifically, it describes flow-induced vibration phenomena, tests to identify the excitation mechanisms, measurement of response characteristics, analyses to predict tube response and wear, various design alterations, and modifications of the original design. Several unique features associated with the heat exchangers are demonstrated, including energy-trapping modes, existence of tube-support-plate (TSP)-inactive modes, and fluidelastic instability of TSP-active and -inactive modes. On the basis of this evaluation, the difficulties and future research needs for the evaluation of heat exchangers are identified. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Yeh, Y.S.; Chen, S.S. (Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper examines thermal performance of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. The GSHP system was installed in an office building in Nuremberg city of Germany. In order to evaluate system performance the GSHP system has been continuously monitored for 4 years. Heating and cooling performance of the GSHP system is analyzed based on the accumulated data. Major findings of this work include: (1) coefficient of performance (COP) is estimated to be 3.9 for a typical winter day and energy efficiency ratio (EER) is assessed to be 8.0 for a typical summer day. These results indicate that the GSHP system has a higher efficiency for building cooling than building heating. (2) For a long-term period, the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of the GSHP system is observed to increase by 8.7% annually, whereas the seasonal COP is decreased by 4.0% over a 4-year period. The heating and cooling performance of the GSHP system migrates in opposite trend is caused by the unevenly distributed heating and cooling load of the building. This phenomenon deserves serious attention in the design of future GSHP systems in order to avoid the reducing of energy efficiency over long-term operation.

Jin Luo; Joachim Rohn; Manfred Bayer; Anna Priess; Lucas Wilkmann; Wei Xiang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Basic experimental investigations were carried out with an aqueous solution of a mixture of KOH and NaOH for use as an absorbent in absorption heat pumps. Due to its thermophysical properties this mixture allows temperature lifts from evaporator to absorber of more than 75 K (135 F) in a single-stage absorption chiller. Thermophysical and hydrodynamical properties of the solution were measured. Vapor-liquid-equilibrium data and specific heat capacities were determined for concentrations ranging from 35% up to 75% and temperatures up to 200 C (392 F). From these data the enthalpy of the solution was calculated. Additionally the crystallization temperatures, the density, and the viscosity of the solution were determined. The experimental equipment is described. The data are presented as polynomials and diagrams including experimental accuracy. An apparatus was constructed to measure heat and mass transfer coefficients of the absorption process with this solution. The apparatus is a model of a horizontal tube falling-film absorber. The experimental setup of the apparatus and results of the first measurements are presented.

Beutler, A.S.; Feuerecker, G.R.; Alefeld, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Munich (Germany). Physik Dept.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of cooling hypersonic-vehicle leading-edge structures exposed to severe aerodynamic surface heat fluxes was studied, using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipes and surface-mass-transfer cooling techniques. A generalized, transient, finite-difference-based hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed that incorporated these effects and was demonstrated on an assumed aerospace plane-type wing leading edge section and a SCRAMJET engine inlet leading-edge section. The hypersonic leading-edge cooling model was developed using an existing, experimentally verified heat-pipe model. Then the existing heat-pipe model was modified by adding both transpiration and film-cooling options as new surface boundary conditions. The models used to predict the leading-edge surface heat-transfer reduction effects of the transpiration and film cooling were modifications of more-generalized, empirically based models obtained from the literature. It is concluded that cooling leading-edge structures exposed to severe hypersonic-flight environments using a combination of liquid-metal heat pipe, surface transpiration, and film cooling methods appears feasible.

Modlin, J.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As part of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory thermionics program Rocketdyne performed a design study for an in?core thermionic fuel element (TFE) heat pipe cooled reactor power system. This effort involved a testability evaluation that was performed starting with testing of individual components followed by testing at various stages of fabrication and concluding with full system acceptance and qualification testing. It was determined that the system could be thoroughly tested to ensure a high probability of successful operation in space after launch.

Richard E. Durand

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuts and bolts of a system used to heat and cool gas-gun targets is described. We have now used the system for more than 35 experiments, all of which have used electromagnetic gauging. Features of the system include a cover which is removed (remotely) just prior to projectile impact and the widespread use of metal/polymer insulations. Both the cover and insulation were required to obtain uniform temperatures in samples with low thermal conductivity. The use of inexpensive video cameras to make remote observations of the cover removal was found to be very useful. A brief catalog of useful glue, adhesive tape, insulation, and seal materials is given.

Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gehr, Russell J [HONEYWEL FM& T; Bucholtz, Scott M [HINEYWELL FM& T

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas-Fired Absorption Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

159

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? Why drop off near sfc? 4 #12;Net flux Net flux: F = F+ - F- 1 2 F-(1) F+(1) F-(2) F+(2) Net energy at the top of the atmosphere is zero. Then we can write 1' ' )',( )'()0,()( 0 * dz dz zzdT zBzTBzF z z F F Â· The heating rate at z is defined as follows: )( )( d zdF zH net four termsofconsistwilland dz A

Li, Zhanqing

160

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

161

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study is performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics with subcooled coolant to create engineering database for basic applications in a lead alloy cooled reactor. Tests are performed in the ALTOS (Applied Liquid-metal Thermal Operation Study) apparatus as part of MITHOS (Metal Integrated Thermo Hydrodynamic Operation System). A relationship is determined between the Nusselt number Nu and the Rayleigh number Ra in the liquid metal rectangular pool. Results are compared with correlations and experimental data in the literature. Given the similar Ra condition, the present test results for Nu of the liquid metal pool with top subcooling are found to be similar to those predicted by the existing correlations or experiments. The current test results are utilized to develop natural convection heat transfer correlations applicable to low Prandtl number Pr fluids that are heated from below and cooled by the external coolant above. Results from this study are slated to be used in designing BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System), a small lead cooled modular fast reactor for deployment at remote sites cycled with MOBIS (Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System) for electricity generation, tied with NAVIS (Naval Application Vessel Integral System) for ship propulsion, joined with THAIS (Thermochemical Hydrogen Acquisition Integral System) for hydrogen production, and coupled with DORIS (Desalination Optimized Reactor Integral System) for seawater desalination. Tests are performed with Wood's metal (Pb-Bi-Sn-Cd) filling a rectangular pool whose lower surface is heated and upper surface cooled by forced convection of water. The test section is 20 cm long, 11.3 cm high and 15 cm wide. The simulant has a melting temperature of 78 deg. C. The constant temperature and heat flux condition was realized for the bottom heating once the steady state had been met. The test parameters include the heated bottom surface temperature of the liquid metal pool, the input power to the bottom surface of the section, and the coolant temperature. (authors)

Lee, Il S.; Yu, Yong H.; Son, Hyoung M.; Hwang, Jin S.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of combined heat, power, and cold production in total energy systems could be improved significantly if absorption chillers were available that could be driven with limited mass flows of low-temperature hot water. In the case of district heat-driven air conditioning, for example, currently available standard absorption chillers are often not applied because they cannot provide the low hot water return temperature and the specific cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow that are required by many district heating networks. Above all, a drastic increase in the size of the machine (total heat exchanger area) due to low driving temperature differences if of concern in low-temperature applications. A new type of multistage lithium bromide/water absorption chiller has been developed for the summertime operating conditions of district heating networks. It provides large cooling of the district heating water (some 30 K) and large cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow. Two pilot plants of this novel absorption chiller were designed within the framework of a joint project sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF), a consortium of 15 district heating utilities, and two manufacturers. The plants have been operated since summer 1996 in the district heating networks of Berlin and Duesseldorf. This paper describes the concept, installation, and control strategy of the two pilot plants, and it surveys the performance and operating experience of the plants under varying practical conditions.

Schweigler, C.J.; Preissner, M.; Demmel, S.; Hellmann, H.M.; Ziegler, F.F. [ZAE Bayern, Garching/Munich (Germany)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ahwaz is one of the sweltering cities in Iran where an enormous amount of energy is being consumed to cool residential places in a year. The aim of this research is to simulate a solar single effect lithium bromide–water absorption cooling system in Ahwaz. The solar energy is absorbed by a horizontal N–S parabolic trough collector and stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system has been designed to supply the cooling load of a typical house where the cooling load peak is about 17.5 kW (5 tons of refrigeration), which occurs in July. A thermodynamic model has been used to simulate the absorption cycle. The working fluid is water, which is pumped directly to the collector. The results showed that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 57.6 m2, which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy.

M. Mazloumi; M. Naghashzadegan; K. Javaherdeh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four different microchannel heat sinks are designed to study the effects of structures in microchannel heat sinks for electronic chips cooling. Based on the theoretic analysis and numerical computation of flow...

Shanglong Xu; Guangxin Hu; Jie Qin…

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fluctuating electric fields with the motional state of the ion leads to heating and thus to decoherence of decoherence in ion traps and possibly other charge-based quantum systems. #12;Cooling and HeatingABSTRACT Cooling and Heating of the Quantum Motion of Trapped Cd+ Ions by Louis Deslauriers Chair

Monroe, Christopher

166

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat and Mass Transfer of the New LiBr-Based Working Fluids for Absorption Heat Pump ... The electrical heating inside the evaporator was provided to treat the heat of vaporization during vapor generation. ... To provide the proper heat to the strong solution, an electrical heater equipped with a power supply was inserted indirectly in the solution chamber. ...

Sung-Bum Park; Huen Lee

2002-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

167

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating a solid sphere at the surface induces mechanical stresses inside the sphere. If a finite amount of heat is supplied, the stresses gradually disappear as temperature becomes homogeneous throughout the sphere. We show that before this happens, there is a temporary lowering of pressure and density in the interior of the sphere, inducing a transient lowering of the temperature here. For ordinary solids this effect is small because c_p is almost equal to c_V. For fluent liquids the effect is negligible because their dynamic shear modulus vanishes. For a liquid at its glass transition, however, the effect is generally considerably larger than in solids. This paper presents analytical solutions of the relevant coupled thermoviscoelastic equations. In general, there is a difference between the isobaric specific heat, c_p, measured at constant isotropic pressure and the longitudinal specific heat, c_l, pertaining to mechanical boundary conditions that confine the associated expansion to be longitudinal. In the exact treatment of heat propagation the heat diffusion constant contains c_l rather than c_p. We show that the key parameter controlling the magnitude of the "cooling-by-heating" effect is the relative difference between these two specific heats. For a typical glass-forming liquid, when temperature at the surface is increased by 1 K, a lowering of the temperature in the sphere center of order 5 mK is expected if the experiment is performed at the glass transition. The cooling-by-heating effect is confirmed by measurements on a 19 mm diameter glucose sphere at the glass transition.

Jon J. Papini; Jeppe C. Dyre; Tage Christensen

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

168

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Design and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling using HFC or CO2: +33 2 23 23 42 97 Fax: +33 2 23 23 40 51 ABSTRACT This article presents a Heat Pump for Simultaneous heat pump i in is isentropic mec mechanical nof without frosting o out r refrigerant S sublimation sc

169

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) is an emerging category of energy systems consisting of power generation equipment coupled with thermally activated components. The application of… (more)

Oliver, Jason Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSORPTION-DELAY MODELS OF HEAT TRANSPORT R.E. SHOWALTER AND D.B. VISARRAGA Abstract. A temperature jump in the water traveling through a pipe is delayed by the absorption of heat into the pipe wall transfer, absorption, memory, kinetic models, approximation. 1 #12;2 R.E. SHOWALTER AND D.B. VISARRAGA 1

171

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING PONDS R. K. Hadlock 0 . B. Abbey Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories Prepared for U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission b + NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, nor assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, pro- duct or process disclosed, nor represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. F Available from National Technical Information Service

172

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of melting heat transfer on the two dimensional boundary layer flow of a micropolar fluid near a stagnation point embedded in a porous medium in the presence of internal heat generation/absorption is i...

M. A. A. Mahmoud; S. E. Waheed

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A heat transfer study on jet impingement cooling is presented. The study focuses on the effect of impingement jet flow rate, jet angle, and flow exit direction on various target surface heat transfer distributions. A two-channel test section...

Huang, Yizhe

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

175

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Advanced Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems A heat pump is a technology in which heating and cooling are provided by a single piece of equipment. In a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system a length of pipe is buried in the ground and the ground acts as a reservoir to store the heat

176

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose and analyze a method for significant reduction in the area of heat scattering surfaces in thermal cooling batteries, where the latter are used to cool....

E. K. Iordanishvili

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the cooling performance for a water-to-water ground source heat pump (GSHP) by using the counter flow and parallel flow methods. The GSHP uses R-410A as a refrigerant, and its main components are a scroll compressor, plate heat exchangers as a condenser, an evaporator, a thermostatic expansion valve, a receiver, and an inverter. Based on our modeling results, the heat transfer rate of the counter flow evaporator is higher than that of the parallel flow evaporator for a heat exchanger length greater than 0.42 m. The evaporator length of the GSHP used in this study was set to over 0.5 m. The performance of the water-to-water GSHP was measured by varying the compressor speed and source-side entering water temperature (EWT). The cooling capacity of the GSHP increased with increased compressor \\{RPMs\\} and source side EWT. Also, using the counter flow method, compared to the parallel flow method, improves the COP by approximately 5.9% for an ISO 13256-2 rated condition.

Ohkyung Kwon; KyungJin Bae; Chasik Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manufacturer. The operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling, heating and cooling energies using the same electric energy input at the compressor. Chua et al. [31 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Â­ Part 1

Boyer, Edmond

179

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Â­ Part 2 the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out without stopping the heat production

Boyer, Edmond

180

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

181

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Emerging Technologies Â» Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Emerging Technologies Â» Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into carbon gas-fired absorption heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to increase water heating energy efficiency over conventional gas storage water heaters by 40%. Project Description This project seeks to develop a natural gas-fired water heater using an absorption heat. The development effort is targeting lithium bromide aqueous solutions as a working fluid in order to avoid the negative implications of using more toxic ammonia. Project Partners Research is being undertaken through a Cooperative Research and Development

184

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

2 2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14% 14% District Heat 10% 8% 8% District Chilled Water 4% 4% 4% Other 11% 6% 5% Swamp Coolers 4% 3% 2% Other 2% 2% 2% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Heating and cooling equipment percentages of floorspace total more than 100% since equipment shares floorspace. 2) Malls are no longer included in most CBECs tables; therefore, some data is not directly comparable to past CBECs.

185

cooling systems that are providing 30%-70% energy and cost savings for homeowners in Jordan, New York. Demand for these systems is growing; nationally, shipments of geothermal...

186

E-Print Network [OSTI]

absorption chiller which can produce chilled water 44% more efficiently than the conventional single stage absorption chillers. The new 2-stage parallel flow system makes the chiller package more compact, more efficient, and easier to operate. Many types...

Hufford, P. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absorption technique for refrigeration or air conditioning is ... using CFCs as working fluids in the conventional chillers based on the vapor compression technique. The absorption systems use thermal energy ...

Sana El May; Ismail Boukholda; Ahmed Bellagi

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings Sunday 19 heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES

Hayden, Nancy J.

189

E-Print Network [OSTI]

192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

Ghajar, Afshin J.

190

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a combination of mechanisms of anisotropic heating (e.g., cyclotron-resonant heating and dissipation of kineticWhat Are the Relative Roles of Heating and Cooling in Generating Solar Wind Temperature, anisotropy-driven instabilities such as the cyclotron, mirror, and firehose instabilities limit the allowable

California at Berkeley, University of

191

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

5 5 Commercial Equipment Efficiencies Equipment Type Chiller Screw COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.02 / 4.45 Scroll COP 2.80 / 3.06 2.96 / 4.40 N.A. Reciprocating COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.52 / 4.40 Centrifugal COP(full-load / IPLV) 5.0 / 5.2 6.1 / 6.4 7.3 / 9.0 Gas-Fired Absorption COP 1.0 1.1 N.A. Gas-Fired Engine Driven COP 1.5 1.8 N.A. Rooftop A/C EER 10.1 11.2 13.9 Rooftop Heat Pump EER (cooling) 9.8 11.0 12.0 COP (heating) 3.2 3.3 3.4 Boilers Gas-Fired Combustion Efficiency 77 80 98 Oil-Fired Thermal Efficiency 80 84 98 Electric Thermal Efficiency 98 98 98 Furnace AFUE 77 80 82 Water Heater Gas-Fired Thermal Efficiency 78 80 96 Oil-Fired Thermal Efficiency 79 80 85 Electric Resistance Thermal Efficiency 98 98 98 Gas-Fired Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 77 84 89 Source(s): Parameter Efficiency

194

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

roofing is the fastest growing sector roofing is the fastest growing sector of the building industry, as building owners and facility managers realize the immediate and long-term benefits of roofs that stay cool in the sun. Studies exploring the energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of cool roofs show that in warm or hot climates, substituting a cool roof for a conventional roof can: * Reduce by up to 15% the annual air-

195

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thereby reducing the energy consumption by almost half. The concept...heat, or any type of fossil fuel. This heat pump has two operating...of the internal combustion engine as the heat source for the...utilizing the waste heat of the engine with a 60 sec cycling time...

Dimiter I. Tchernev

196

E-Print Network [OSTI]

model estimated the electrical energy required to generatethat estimated the electrical energy required to produceor not including the electrical energy required for cooling

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heating Up While Staying Cool? Heating Up While Staying Cool? Discovery & Innovation Stories of Discovery & Innovation Brief Science Highlights SBIR/STTR Highlights Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 04.30.13 Heating Up While Staying Cool? Exotic effects at the nanoscale could help shape the future of electronics. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo An image of a remote Joule heating. Image courtesy of John Cumings Artist's rendering of remote Joule heating. Silver blocks are palladium plates. Carbon nanotube is shown in dark blue. If you had to summarize the biggest challenge confronting the field of electronics in a single word today, you might well say, "heat." With the

198

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) system, retro-commissioning was analyzed using visualization method and simulation based on mathematical models, and improved operation schemes were proposed...

Shingu, H.; Nakajima, R.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation into determining the effect of rotation on heat transfer in smooth, rib-roughened, and dimpled rectangular channels with aspect ratio of 4:1 is detailed in this thesis. Internal cooling channels are incorporated into gas turbine...

Griffith, Todd Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses energy conservation projects in the area of industrial environment heating and cooling that have been recommended by the Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) to small and medium-sized industries in Texas...

Saman, N.; Eggebrecht, J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

201

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Cooling rate; Heating rate; Physiological thermoregulation; Rubber boa; Temperature 1. Introduction Body temperature greatly impacts the ecology, behavior, and physiology of reptiles (Huey, 1982; Peterson, 1987; Peterson et al., 1993). Consequently, many species of reptiles thermoregulate to maintain body temperatures

Dorcas, Michael E.

202

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the turbine. Turbine inlet conditions in a gas turbine engine gen- erally consist of temperature and velocityHeat transfer and film-cooling for the endwall of a first stage turbine vane Karen A. Thole of the airfoils. One means of preventing degradation in the turbine is to film-cool components whereby coolant

Thole, Karen A.

203

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for converting to geothermal heating at the campus of San Bernardino Valley College is considered. Also considered is the possibility of using well water for water cooled condenser cooling of air conditioning equipment. To provide water supply a production well, water distribution system and an injection well would be installed for each system.

Gemeinhardt, M.A.; Tharaldson, L.C.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University of Colorado, 1991 cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP

Victoria, University of

205

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is used for the generation of electricity. The advantages of district heating using WTE plants are heating and cooling system in Indianapolis. However, there are few U.S. hot water district heating systems,800 district heating and cooling systems, providing 320 million MWh of thermal energy. Currently, 28 of the 88

Shepard, Kenneth

206

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies have investigated the fluid flow and heat transfer behavior in high Reynolds number flows. Blair [7,8] investigated the effect of grid generated turbulence on flat plate heat transfer. He showed that turbulent heat transfer coefficient in flow... AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF TURBINE BLADE HEAT TRANSFER AND TURBINE BLADE TRAILING EDGE COOLING A Dissertation by JUNGHO CHOI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Choi, Jungho

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

207

recuperators to maximize generation efficiency, even if waste heat is utilized. chpbenefitscommercialbuildings.pdf More Documents & Publications Opportunities for...

208

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider MHD waves as a heating source of cool cores of galaxy clusters. In particular, we focus on transverse waves (Alfven waves), because they can propagate a longer distance than longitudinal waves (sound waves). Using MHD simulations, we found that the transverse waves can stably heat a cool core if the wave period is large enough (>~ 10^8 yr). Moreover, the longitudinal waves that are created as a by-product of the nonlinear evolution of the transverse waves could be observed as the 'ripples' found in cool cores.

Yutaka Fujita; Takeru K. Suzuki; Takahiro Kudoh; Takaaki Yokoyama

2007-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

210

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-XXXXX Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water;included a water- side economizer. This model estimated theand without a water-side economizer and including or not

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? September 23, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, Chris told you about his new ceiling fan and how it's changed the way he cools his home. In warm weather, ceiling fans cool people (not rooms) by producing a wind-chill effect-which is why you should turn off fans when you leave the room. A ceiling fan allows you to raise the thermostat setting about 4Â°F with no reduction in comfort. Ceiling fans don't just cool in the summer; you can also reverse the direction in the winter to provide an updraft and force warm air down into the room. How has a ceiling fan affected the way you heat and cool your home? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question

212

Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? September 23, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, Chris told you about his new ceiling fan and how it's changed the way he cools his home. In warm weather, ceiling fans cool people (not rooms) by producing a wind-chill effect-which is why you should turn off fans when you leave the room. A ceiling fan allows you to raise the thermostat setting about 4Â°F with no reduction in comfort. Ceiling fans don't just cool in the summer; you can also reverse the direction in the winter to provide an updraft and force warm air down into the room. How has a ceiling fan affected the way you heat and cool your home? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question

213

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Decentralized, liquefied natural gas-fueled, trigeneration plants are considered as alternatives to centralized, electricity-only generating power plants to improve efficiency and minimize running costs. The proposed system is analyzed in terms of efficiency and cost. Electrical power is generated with a gas turbine, while waste heat is recovered and utilized effectively to cover heating and cooling needs for buildings located in the vicinity of the plant. The high quality of cooling energy carried in the LNG fluid is used to cool the air supply to the air compressor. Waste heat is recovered with heat exchangers to generate useful heating in the winter period, while in the summer period an integrated double-effect absorption chiller converts waste heat to useful cooling. For the base system (10 MWe), net electrical efficiency is up to 36.5%, while the primary energy ratio reaches 90%. The payback period for the base system is 4 years, for a lifecycle cost of 221.6 million euros and an investment cost of 13 million euros. The base system can satisfy the needs of more than 21,000 average households, while an equivalent conventional system can only satisfy the needs of 12,000 average households.

Alexandros Arsalis; Andreas Alexandrou

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transfer from Rotating Blade Transfer from Rotating Blade Platforms with and without Film Cooling J.C. Han and M.T. Schobeiri SCIES Project 03-01-SR113 DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT DE-FC26-02NT41431 Texas A&M University Tom J. George, Program Manager, DOE/NETL Richard Wenglarz, Manager of Research, SCIES Project Awarded 07/01/2003 (36 Month Duration) $461,024 Total Contract Value ($361,024 DOE) Turbine Heat Transfer Laboratory Texas A&M University SR 113 - 10-2005 - JCHan Gas Turbine Needs Need Detailed Heat Transfer Data on Rotating Blade Platforms Improve Current Rotor Blade Cooling Schemes Provide Options for New Rotor Blade Cooling Designs Need Accurate and Efficient CFD Codes to Improve Flow and Heat Transfer Predictions and Guide Rotor Blade Cooling Designs Improved Turbine Power Efficiency by Increasing Turbine

215

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the crystallization process in binary Lennard-Jones systems during heating and cooling to investigate atomic-scale crystallization kinetics in glass-forming materials. For the cooling protocol, we prepared equilibrated liquids above the liquidus temperature $T_l$ and cooled each sample to zero temperature at rate $R_c$. For the heating protocol, we first cooled equilibrated liquids to zero temperature at rate $R_p$ and then heated the samples to temperature $T > T_l$ at rate $R_h$. We measured the critical heating and cooling rates $R_h^*$ and $R_c^*$, below which the systems begin to form a substantial fraction of crystalline clusters during the heating and cooling protocols. We show that $R_h^* > R_c^*$, and that the asymmetry ratio $R_h^*/R_c^*$ includes an intrinsic contribution that increases with the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the system and a preparation-rate dependent contribution that increases strongly as $R_p \\rightarrow R_c^*$ from above. We also show that the predictions from classical nucleation theory (CNT) can qualitatively describe the dependence of the asymmetry ratio on the GFA and preparation rate $R_p$ from the MD simulations and results for the asymmetry ratio measured in Zr- and Au-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG). This work emphasizes the need for and benefits of an improved understanding of crystallization processes in BMGs and other glass-forming systems.

Minglei Wang; Kai Zhang; Zhusong Li; Yanhui Liu; Jan Schroers; Mark D. Shattuck; Corey S. O'Hern

2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

216

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to crystalline polyethylene pieces having optimum crosslinking for use in storage and recovery of heat, and it further relates to methods for storage and recovery of heat using crystalline polymer pieces having optimum crosslinking for these uses. Crystalline polymer pieces are described which retain at least 70% of the heat of fusion of the uncrosslinked crystalline polymer and yet are sufficiently crosslinked for the pieces not to stick together upon being cycled above and below the melting point of said polymer, preferably at least 80% of the heat of fusion with no substantial sticking together.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Botham, Ruth A. (Dayton, OH); Ball, III, George L. (West Carrollton, OH)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

capacities of 240,000 British thermal units per hour (Btuhr) or less. Packaged terminal air conditioners and heat pumps are excluded. Meeting Energy Efficiency Requirements for...

219

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with wind and solar energy options will help address the problem of climate change and compensate and expected technological improvements, it is thought that geothermal energy will be able to "contribute harnessing of low temperature, renewable geothermal energy for hot water heating and heating and cooling

Coles, Cynthia

220

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers assembly of a sodium heat pipe, testing to verify performance during start-up and under steady-state conditions with stagnation point heat loads to about 80 W/cm{sup 2}, performance analysis and evaluation. Evaluation of this leading edge cooling concept is offered and recommendations for further research discussed.

Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Glass, D.E. [Analytical Services and Materials, Hampton, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

221

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning Finned tube adsorber bed Specific cooling power Adsorber bed to adsorbent mass ratio a b s t r a c t Adsorber bed design strongly affects the performance of waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems (ACS

Bahrami, Majid

222

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

Hankins, J.D.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Approved...

Herron, Steven Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

224

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown from a quasilinear theory that an initially isotropic magnetized plasma will be forced into an anisotropic state in ion-cyclotron-resonance heating. Strong heating of the perpendicular ion temperature and strong cooling of the longitudinal temperature should occur simultaneously. The maximum temperature ratio predicted by the quasilinear theory is in exact agreement with that predicted from the basic thermodynamic arguments by Busnardo-Neto, Dawson, Kamimura, and Lin. Heating by fast hydromagnetic waves is also examined.

V. Arunasalam

1976-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

225

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling apparatus for an electronics rack is provided which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures and a tube. The heat exchanger, which is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of distinct, coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

Chainer, Timothy J; Coico, Patrick A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the radius evolution of close-in extra-solar Jupiters under Ohmic heating, a mechanism that was recently proposed to explain the large observed sizes of many of these planets. Planets are born with high entropy and they subsequently cool and contract. We focus on two cases: first, that Ohmic heating commences when the planet is hot (high entropy); and second, that it commences after the planet has cooled. In the former case, we use analytical scaling and numerical experiments to confirm that Ohmic heating is capable of suspending the cooling as long as a few percent of the stellar irradiation is converted into Ohmic heating and the planet has a surface wind that extends to pressures of {approx}10 bar or deeper. For these parameters, the radii at which cooling is stalled are consistent with (or larger than) the observed radii of most planets. The only two exceptions are WASP-17b and HAT-P-32b. In contrast to the high entropy case, we show that Ohmic heating cannot significantly re-inflate planets after they have already cooled. This leads us to suggest that the diversity of radii observed in hot Jupiters may be partially explained by the different epochs at which they are migrated to their current locations.

Wu, Yanqin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Lithwick, Yoram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

228

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can systems. A promising application of DR fluids is in district heating/ cooling systems (DHCs)9

Raghavan, Srinivasa

229

Project objectives: Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School and Middle School.; Provide jobs; and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District; and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession.

230

Open Energy Info (EERE)

231

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Degree-day data are fundamental for simplified energy calculations. For Saudi Arabia the data necessary for simplified energy analysis are lacking, and the need of designers, engineers, and researchers in the building sector for such data as heating and cooling degree-days is growing. Weather data are available for many Saudi cities but not in a format usable by building designers and engineers. This paper presents variable-base heating and cooling degree-days is growing. Weather data are available for many Saudi cities but not in a format usable by building designers and engineers. This paper presents variable-base heating and cooling degree-day data for 24 Saudi locations based on long-term monthly average temperatures. These data will be of great help in performing simplified energy calculations for Saudi buildings.

Al-Homoud, M.S. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architectural Engineering

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M. Wahlig, E. Wali,are liquid paths. DM: multistage pump driver, driven by highvapor. DW: main circulation pump driven by strong absorbent.

Dao, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis used to establish the limiting heat flux for passively cooled thermoelectric generators (TEG). 2 commercially available TEG’s further referred as type A and type B with different allowable hot side temperatures (150 °C and 250 °C respectively) were investigated in this research. The thermal resistance of TEG was experimentally verified against the manufacturer’s specifications and used for theoretical analysis in this paper. A theoretical model is presented to determine the maximum theoretical heat flux capacity of both the TEG’s. The conventional methods are used for cooling of TEG’s and actual limiting heat flux is experimentally established for various cold end cooling configurations namely bare plate, finned block and heat pipe with finned condenser. Experiments were performed on an indoor setup and outdoor setup to validate the results from the theoretical model. The outdoor test setup consist of a fresnel lens solar concentrator with manual two axis solar tracking system for varying the heat flux, whereas the indoor setup uses electric heating elements to vary the heat flux and a low speed wind tunnel blows the ambient air past the device to simulate the outdoor breezes. It was observed that bare plate cooling can achieve a maximum heat flux of 18,125 W/m2 for type A and 31,195 W/m2 for type B at ambient wind speed of 5 m/s while maintaining respective allowable temperature over the hot side of TEG’s. Fin geometry was optimised for the finned block cooling by using the fin length and fin gap optimisation model presented in this paper. It was observed that an optimum finned block cooling arrangement can reach a maximum heat flux of 26,067 W/m2 for type A and 52,251 W/m2 for type B TEG at ambient wind speed of 5 m/s of ambient wind speed. The heat pipe with finned condenser used for cooling can reach 40,375 W/m2 for type A TEG and 76,781 W/m2 for type B TEG.

Ashwin Date; Abhijit Date; Chris Dixon; Randeep Singh; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have observed experimentally that during electron-cyclotron heating the electron longitudinal temperature drops as the perpendicular temperature increases. The experiment was carried out in a linear mirror machine with a low-density (1010 cm-3) weakly ionized (?1.0%) plasma.

C. da C. Rapozo; A. S. de Assis; J. Busnardo-Neto

1990-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Heated, Cooled, and Lit Buildings, Floorspace, 1999" 1. Heated, Cooled, and Lit Buildings, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Heated Buildings",,"Cooled Buildings",,"Lit Buildingsc" ,,"Total Floorspacea","Heated Floorspaceb","Total Floorspacea","Cooled Floorspaceb","Total Floorspacea","Lit Floorspaceb" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,53812,58474,42420,64085,54696 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,5684,5055,4879,3958,5859,4877 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,7090,5744,6212,4333,7421,5583 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11153,9865,8196,9530,6195,10358,8251

236

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Energy is consumed every day at home as we perform simple tasks, such as watching television, washing dishes and heating/cooling home spaces during season of… (more)

Abaalkhail, Rana

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Presentation on the results of a survey of the nation's colleges and university to identify cooling, heating, and power installations on college campuses

238

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the cooling of 72 M- and X-class flares is examined using GOES/XRS and SDO/EVE. The observed cooling rates are quantified and the observed total cooling times are compared with the predictions of an analytical zero-dimensional hydrodynamic model. We find that the model does not fit the observations well, but does provide a well-defined lower limit on a flare's total cooling time. The discrepancy between observations and the model is then assumed to be primarily due to heating during the decay phase. The decay-phase heating necessary to account for the discrepancy is quantified and found be ~50% of the total thermally radiated energy, as calculated with GOES. This decay-phase heating is found to scale with the observed peak thermal energy. It is predicted that approximating the total thermal energy from the peak is minimally affected by the decay-phase heating in small flares. However, in the most energetic flares the decay-phase heating inferred from the model can be several times greater than the peak thermal energy.

Daniel F. Ryan; Phillip C. Chamberlin; Ryan O. Milligan; Peter T. Gallagher

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In the present work, the more important parameters of the heat pump system and of solar assisted heat pump systems were analysed in a quantitative… (more)

Pabón Díaz, Misael

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

241

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate heating of the cool core of a galaxy cluster through the dissipation of sound waves and weak shocks excited by the activities of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using a weak shock theory, we show that this heating mechanism alone cannot reproduce observed temperature and density profiles of a cluster, because the dissipation length of the waves is much smaller than the size of the core and thus the wave energy is not distributed to the whole core.

Yutaka Fujita; Takeru Ken Suzuki

2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

242

E-Print Network [OSTI]

September 16, 2014 NIKKEN SEKKEI Research Institute Naoki Takahashi Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International... of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 District heating and cooling system in Nakanoshima 4 Characteristics of heat supply plant in Nakanoshima district -River water is utilized as heat...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract On March 11th, 2011, a natural disaster created by earthquakes and Tsunami caused a serious potential of nuclear reactor meltdown in Fukushima due to the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) powered by diesel generators. In this paper, heat pipe based ECCS has been proposed for nuclear power plants. The designed loop type heat pipe ECCS is composed of cylindrical evaporator with 62 vertical tubes, each 150 mm diameter and 6 m length, mounted around the circumference of nuclear fuel assembly and 21 m × 10 m × 5 m naturally cooled finned condenser installed outside the primary containment. Heat pipe with overall thermal resistance of 1.44 × 10?5 °C/W will be able to reduce reactor temperature from initial working temperature of 282 °C to below 250 °C within 7 h. The overall ECCS also includes feed water flooding of the core using elevated water tank for initial 10 min which will accelerate cooling of the core, replenish core coolant during loss of coolant accident and avoids heat transfer crisis phenomena during heat pipe start-up process. The proposed heat pipe system will operate in fully passive mode with high runtime reliability and therefore provide safer environment to nuclear power plants.

Masataka Mochizuki; Randeep Singh; Thang Nguyen; Tien Nguyen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Geothermal heat pumps (GSHPs), or direct expansion (DX) ground source heat pumps, are highly efficient renewable energy technology, ... the earth, groundwater or surface water as heat sources when operating in heating

Saffa Riffat; Siddig Omer; Abdeen Omer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cool roofs—roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission—lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in con...

Ronnen Levinson; Hashem Akbari

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments have been performed to study and obtain the adiabatic wall film cooling effectiveness and the heat transfer over a film-cooled surface that is made inclined at various angles with respect to a highly turbulent flow. The vertical temperature distribution was measured to infer the flow structure and the rate of mixing of film jet with the freestream. The freestream turbulence intensity is controlled to range from 1.0% to 26.4%, the inclination or the divergent angle of the film-cooled surface ranges from 0 to 20 , the blowing parameter from 0.5 to 2.0. It is found that the mixing of the film jet with the freestream is significantly enhanced by both the freestream turbulence intensity and the divergent angle of the film-cooled surface, which leads to the decrease in the film cooling effectiveness and the increase in the heat transfer. However, the inclination angle has more effect on the film cooling performance while the turbulence intensity has more effect on the heat transfer under the film. More detailed discussion is presented. Correlations for both the film cooling effectiveness and the heat transfer under the film-cooled surface have been very successful and are provided. (author)

Yang, Chih-Sheng [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering Far East University (China); Lin, C.L.; Gau, C. [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

248

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoscale Joule heating, Peltier cooling and current crowding at grapheneÂ­metal contacts Kyle L are the Joule and Peltier effects. The Joule effect9 occurs as charge carriers dissipate energy within the lattice, and is pro- portional to resistance and the square of the current. The Peltier effect17

King, William P.

250

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is a general description of the Burns and Roe study of District Heating and Cooling Feasibility for Salt Lake City, Utah. The study assesses District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and develops a conceptual district system for Salt Lake City. In assessing District Heating and Cooling in Salt Lake City, the system conceived is evaluated to determine whether it is technically and economically viable. To determine technical viability, aspects such as implementation, pipe routing, and environmental restrictions are reviewed to foresee any technical problems that would arise as a result of DHC. To determine economic feasibility, the conceived system is priced to determine the capital cost to construct, and modeled in an economic analysis using anticipated operating and fuel costs to produce the required revenue necessary to run the system. Technical and Economic feasibility are predicated on many variables, including heating and cooling load, pipe routing, system implementation, and fuel costs. These variables have been investigated and demonstrate a substantial potential for DHC in Salt Lake City. Areas of consideration include the Downtown Area, Metropolitan Hall of Justice and surrounding area, and the Hotel District.

Not Available

1988-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

251

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is a general description of the Burns and Roe study of District Heating and Cooling Feasibility for Salt Lake City, Utah. The study assesses District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and develops a conceptual district system for Salt Lake city. In assessing District Heating and Cooling in Salt Lake City, the system conceived is evaluated to determine whether it is technically and economically viable. To determine technical viability, aspects such as implementation, pipe routing, and environmental restrictions are reviewed to foresee any technical problems that would arise as a result of DHC. To determine economic feasibility, the conceived system is priced to determine the capital cost to construct, and modeled in an economic analysis using anticipated operating and fuel costs to produce the required revenue necessary to run the system. Technical and Economic feasibility are predicated on many variables, including heating and cooling load, pipe routing, system implementation, and fuel costs. These variables have been investigated and demonstrate a substantial potential for DHC in Salt Lake City. Areas of consideration include the Downtown Area, Metropolitan Hall of Justice and surrounding area, and the Hotel District.

Not Available

1988-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

252

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The model of the perfect continuous counterflow heat exchanger introduced by Frossati et al. to describe the performance of dilution refrigerators is solved rigorously with the proper boundary condition. Unlike the original solution by Frossati et al. the present solution gives the refrigerator cooling power which is in good agreement with experimental data over the entire temperature range. The analysis of the cooling power using the present result allows more detailed evaluation of the refrigerator performance than has been possible with the analysis of the base temperature. An approximate expression for the cooling power is discussed which simplifies the prediction of the cooling rate of a large thermal load such as a copper nuclear?demagnetization stage.

Y. Takano

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Langfitt Langfitt U S Department of State Overseas Buildings Operations Mechanical Engineering Division *Engineers are working Harder AND Smarter *New Energy Economy *Heating Is Where The Opportunity Is ï‚¡ 39% of total US energy goes into non-residential buildings. ï‚¡ Gas for heating is about 60% of energy used in a building ï‚¡ Gas for heating is at least 25% of total energy used in the US. Heat Generation System Heat Disposal System What's Wrong With This Picture? Keep the heat IN the system Don't run main plant equipment until necessary ! Less rejected heat Less gas consumption High Temp >160F with conventional boilers Hydronic heating... condensing style modular boilers. The entire heating system... designed for low temperature water, recommend maximum temperature of 135ÂºF.

254

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACT OF THE SUN PATCH ON HEATING AND COOLING POWER EVALUATION: APPLIED TO A LOW ENERGY CELL A we study the impact of the incoming radiation through a window (sun patch) on the heating and cooling demand. Existing studies have shown that not considering the sun patch and fast climatic variations

255

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical analysis of the combined heat and mass transfer process taking place in the absorption of a gas or vapor into a laminar liquid film is described. This type of process, which occurs in many gas-liquid systems, often releases only a small amount of heat, making the process almost isothermal. In some cases, however, the heat of absorption is significant and temperature variations cannot be ignored. One example, from which the present study originated, is in absorption heat pumps where mass transfer is produced specifically to generate a temperature change. The model analyzed describes a liquid film that flows over an inclined plane and has its free surface in contact with stagnant vapor. The absorption process at the surface creates nonuniform temperature and concentration profiles in the film, which develop until equilibrium between the liquid and vapor is achieved. The energy and diffusion equations are solved simultaneously to give the temperature and concentration variations at the interface and the wall. Two cases of interest are considered: constant-temperature and adiabatic walls. The Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are expressed in terms of the operating parameters, from which heat and mass transfer coefficients can be determined. The Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are found to depend on the Peclet and Lewis numbers as well as on the equilibrium characteristics of the working materials.

Grossman, G

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Louay Chamra

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

258

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in high temperature lift industrial heat pump cycles. Complex compound heat pumping and refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present vapor compression systems...

Rockenfeller, U.; Dooley, B.

259

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. STEP 1 Assess the Local Industry and Resource Potential STEP 2 Identify Challenges to Local Development STEP 3 Evaluate Current Policy STEP 4 Consider Policy Options STEP 5 Implement Policies Increased Development Policymakers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling This document identifies and describes five steps for implementing geothermal policies that may reduce barriers and result in deployment and implementation of geothermal heating and cooling technologies, such as ground source heat pumps (GSHP) and direct-use applications. Step 1: Assess the Local Industry and Resource Potential Increasing the use of geothermal energy requires a baseline level of knowledge about the industry and market trends in your locality. As you

260

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

261

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

262

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

263

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is a type of renewable energy technology providing space heating and cooling as well as domestic hot water. However, experimental studies on GCHP systems are still insufficient. This paper first presents an energy-operational optimisation device for a GCHP system involving insertion of a buffer tank between the heat pump unit and fan coil units and consumer supply using quantitative adjustment with a variable speed circulating pump. Then, the experimental measurements are used to test the performance of the GCHP system in different operating modes. The main performance parameters (energy efficiency and CO2 emissions) are obtained for one month of operation using both classical and optimised adjustment of the GCHP system, and a comparative analysis of these performances is performed. In addition, using TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation) software, two simulation models of thermal energy consumption in heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation are developed. Finally, the simulations obtained using TRNSYS are analysed and compared to experimental data, resulting in good agreement and thus the simulation models are validated.

Calin Sebarchievici; Ioan Sarbu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

ANDREWS, J.W.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Na Zhu*, Yu Lei, Pingfang Hu, Linghong Xu, Zhangning Jiang Department of Building Environment and Equipment Engineering... heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage technology could save energy and shift peak load. This paper studied the optimal design of a ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change thermal storage tank in an office...

Zhu, N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The potential of thermal insulation and solar thermal energy in domestic water heating, space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings Lebanon is studied… (more)

Zaatari, Z.A.R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Personal Comfort Systems: Cooling/Heating Local Body Parts Efficient Ways Personal Comfort Systems: Cooling/Heating Local Body Parts Efficient Ways to Provide Comfort Indoors Speaker(s): Hui Zhang Date: October 9, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Rongxin Yin This presentation describes energy efficient approaches to provide comfort in offices by creating non-uniform and transient thermal environments. The presentation will describe 1) distributions and characteristics of thermoreceptors of human body, 2) comfort responses of people exposed to complex thermal environments, 3) concept of "alliesthesia", 4) personal comfort systems developed by CBE, 5) their energy efficiency and demand response potential, and 6) the CBE advanced thermal comfort model. A recording of this seminar is available at: https://vimeo.com/51536661

268

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new thermal concept to be used with Li/SOCL2 batteries is presented. A thermal model of a grooved nickel heat pipe under uniform heat input is developed, and an experimental assembly is made to simulate the operating conditions in zero-G. It is shown how this new thermal concept can provide the following for the electrochemical cell: thermal cooling by heat pipe, mechanical reinforcement, and current collection. The thermal behavior of a Li/SOCL2 cell under high rate discharge using this concept is compared with that of a traditional concept (aluminum corset around the cell which is fixed to a coldplate). A thermal model is established that uses ESACAP software including about 100 nodes to represent the cell and the aluminum pipe or the heat pipe. 10 refs.

Alain, A.; Ali, S.; Luc, F.J. (Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d'Aerotechnique, Poitiers, (France) SAFT, Poitiers, (France))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated, via a 1-22 dimensional computer simulation, the possibility of forcing an initially isotropic, magnetized plasma into an anisotropic state by means of an external pump. Strong heating of the perpendicular ion temperature was observed together with a strong cooling of the longitudinal temperature. This mechanism could enhance particle trapping in tokamaks and increase confinement time in mirror machines. We use basic physical arguments to predict the maximum temperature ratio that can be obtained.

J. Busnardo-Neto; J. Dawson; T. Kamimura; A. T. Lin

1976-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

270

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the feasibility analysis of retrofitting the New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG) Goudey Generating Station for district heating and cooling supply to the SUNY-Binghamton Campus. The project involved detailed analysis of the power plant retrofit, dispatch analysis of the retrofitted Goudey Station in the New York Power Pool, environmental and permitting assessment, retrofit analysis of the SUNY campus to low temperature hot water and economic analysis.

McIntire, M.E.; Hall, D.; Beal, D.J. [New York State Electric & Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solar Energy System installed at Columbus Technical Institute, Columbus, Ohio was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system, hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building. Extracts from the site files specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

Coy, R. G.; Braden, R. P.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An effective battery thermal management (BTM) system is required for lithium-ion batteries to ensure a desirable operating temperature range with minimal temperature gradient, and thus to guarantee their high efficiency, long lifetime and great safety. In this paper, a heat pipe and wet cooling combined BTM system is developed to handle the thermal surge of lithium-ion batteries during high rate operations. The proposed BTM system relies on ultra-thin heat pipes which can efficiently transfer the heat from the battery sides to the cooling ends where the water evaporation process can rapidly dissipate the heat. Two sized battery packs, 3 Ah and 8 Ah, with different lengths of cooling ends are used and tested through a series high-intensity discharges in this study to examine the cooling effects of the combined BTM system, and its performance is compared with other four types of heat pipe involved BTM systems and natural convection cooling method. A combination of natural convection, fan cooling and wet cooling methods is also introduced to the heat pipe BTM system, which is able to control the temperature of battery pack in an appropriate temperature range with the minimum cost of energy and water spray.

Rui Zhao; Junjie Gu; Jie Liu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-dimensional numerical simulation of natural convection in a rectangular enclosure heated from below and cooled from above has been conducted with non-Newtonian phase-change-material (PCM) microcapsulate slu...

Hideo Inaba; Yanlai Zhang; Akihiko Horibe; Naoto Haruki

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study undertaken to evaluate the potential for district heating/cooling (DHC) in the City of Ecorse, Michigan is documented. the purpose of the study was to assess the concept of delivering energy from a centralized source (or several sources) through a piping network to many end users for heating domestic (tap) hot water, space heating, and space cooling. The primary focus of the study was the proposed redevelopment of eighty acres in Ecorse along the Detroit River waterfront known as Frenchman's Cove. As planned, the complete development would place nearly 2 million square feet of new, mixed use structures/facilities on the site and an eighteen acre undeveloped island located 300 feet offshore. Other areas of the city were also examined to identify and evaluate existing supply and end use possibilities. In addition, several neighboring communities were examined to determine the feasibility of downriver DHC network. Six large thermal energy producers identified in the study area include the Detroit Edison River Rouge power plant (DECo.-RR), the Wyandotte Municipal Services Commission (WMSC) power plant, a BASF/Wyandotte Corporation plant, a Marathon Oil refinery, the Great Lakes Steel complex, and the E.C. Levy Company slag processing site. Each was examined for potential as a thermal supplier on a district heating network.

Not Available

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contemporary Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor designs employ redundancy and a considerable level of diversity in the safety systems. Thus redundancy and a high level of diversity exist in the two safety shutdown systems, which, in turn, are independent of the reactor regulating system, Also, a considerable level of diversity exists in the two emergency core cooling systems: the emergency coolant injection system and the CANDU low-pressure low-temperature moderator, which, in surrounding the fuel channels, can act as a redundant heat sink. However, common cooling water and common electrical supplies are used for heat rejection from the emergency coolant and from the moderator. Scenarios involving failures in these common supplies are the main contributors to the CANDU core-melt frequency of 4 x 10{sup -6} yr{sup -1}. The purpose of this work is to develop a passive moderator heat rejection system that, in avoiding the use of pumps and electrical supplies, enhances the independence of the moderator as a heat sink.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zhang Yongpan Chen Zhen Liang Ph.D. Professor Doctoral Candidate Instructor School of Municipal & Environmental Eng, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin P. R. China, 150090 zhangjili@hit.edu.cn Abstract: Considering a heating/cooling coil... heat indoor, as is given by Equation (5) (noted in difference scheme), where Qr denotes sensible heat amount indoor (KW); ? denotes time variable (s); ? r denotes air density indoor (Kg/m3); CP denotes air specific heat at constant pressure (KJ...

Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data on Supercritical-Water (SCW) cooled bundles are very limited. Major problems with performing such experiments are technical difficulties in testing and experimental costs at high pressures, temperatures and heat fluxes. Also, there are only a few SCW experimental setups currently in the world capable of providing data. Supercritical Water-cooled nuclear Reactors (SCWRs), as one of the six concepts of Generation IV reactors, cannot be designed without such data. Therefore, a preliminary approach uses modeling fluids such as carbon dioxide and refrigerants instead of water is practical. In particularly, experiments in supercritical refrigerant-cooled bundles can be used. One of the SC modeling fluids typically used is Freon-12 (R-12) with the critical pressure of 4.136 MPa and the critical temperature of 111.97 deg. C. These conditions correspond to the critical pressure of 22.064 MPa and critical temperature of 373.95 deg. C in water. A set of experimental data obtained at the Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE, Obninsk, Russia) in a vertically-oriented bundle cooled with supercritical R-12 was analyzed. This dataset consisted of 20 runs. The test section was 7-element bundle installed in a hexagonal flow channel with 3 grid spacers. Data was collected at pressures of approximately 4.65 MPa for several different combinations of wall and bulk-fluid temperatures that were below, at, or above the pseudo-critical temperature. The values of mass flux were ranged from 400 to 1320 kg/m{sup 2}s and inlet temperatures ranged from 72 to 120 deg. C. The test section consisted of fuel-element simulators that were 9.5 mm in OD with the total heated length of about 1 m. Bulk-fluid and wall temperature profiles were recorded using a combination of 8 different thermocouples. Analysis of the data has confirmed that there are three distinct heat-transfer regimes for forced convention in supercritical fluids: 1) Normal heat transfer; 2) Deteriorated heat transfer characterized with higher than expected wall temperatures; and 3) Enhanced heat transfer characterized with lower than expected wall temperatures. It was also confirmed that the effects of spacers are evident which was previously observed in sub-critical experimental data. (authors)

Richards, G. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Ontario, Canada, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4 (Canada); Shelegov, A. S.; Kirillov, P. L. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Pioro, I. L.; Harvel, G. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Ontario, Canada, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4 (Canada)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decay heat of fission products plays an important role in predictions of the heat released by nuclear fuel in reactors. In this contribution we present results of the analysis of the measurement of the beta decay of some refractory isotopes that were considered possible important contributors to the decay heat in reactors. The measurements presented here were performed at the IGISOL facility of the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland. In our measurements we have combined for the first time a Penning trap (JYFLTRAP), which was used as a high resolution isobaric separator, with a total absorption spectrometer. The results of the measurements as well as their consequences for decay heat summation calculations are discussed.

Algora, A.; Sonzogni, A.; Algora, A.; Jordan, D.; Tain, J. L.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Caballero, L.; Nacher, E.; Perez-Cerdan, A. B.; Molina, F.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Hunyadi, M. D.; Gulyas, J.; Vitez, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Aysto, J.; Penttila, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Moore, I.; Eronen, T.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Hakala, J.; Karvonen, P.; Kankainen, A.; Hager, U.; Sonoda, T.; Saastamoinen, A.; Rissanen, J.; Kessler, T.; Weber, C.; Ronkainen, J.; Rahaman, S.; Elomaa, V.; Burkard, K.; Hueller, W.; Batist, L.; Gelletly, W.; Yoshida, T.; Nichols, A. L.; Sonzogni, A.; Perajarvi, K.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulation of the thermal-flow characteristics and heat transfer performance is made of an air-cooled steam condenser (ACSC) in a thermal power plant by considering the effects of ambient wind speed and...

Xiufeng Gao; Chengwei Zhang; Jinjia Wei; Bo Yu

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inverter-driven variable-capacity air conditioners, heat pumps, and chillers can provide energy-efficient cooling, particularly at part-load capacity. Varying the capacity of vapor compression systems enables operation at ...

Gayeski, Nicholas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

281

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

282

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons facilities use either a monochromator or a mirror as the first optical element. In this paper, the thermal and optical performance of an optimally designed contact-cooled high-heat-load x-ray mirror used as the first optical element on the 2ID undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is reported. It is shown that this simple and economical mirror design can comfortably handle the high heat load of undulator beamlines and provide good performance with long-term reliability and ease of operation. Availability and advantages of such mirrors can make the mirror-first approach to high-heat-load beamline design an attractive alternative to monochromator-first beamlines in many circumstances.

Cai, Z.; Khounsary, A.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Yun, W.

1998-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

283

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The uncertainty surrounding the nature of the heating mechanism for the dust that emits at mid- to far-IR (MFIR) wavelengths in active galaxies limits our understanding of the links between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy evolution, as well as our ability to interpret the prodigious infrared and sub-mm emission of some of the most distant galaxies in the Universe. Here we report deep Spitzer observations of a complete sample of powerful, intermediate redshift (0.05 power, as traced by [OIII]5007 emission, is strongly correlated with both the mid-IR (24 micron) and the far-IR (70 micron) luminosities, however, with increased scatter in the 70 micron correlation. A major cause of this increased scatter is a group of objects that falls above the main correlation and displays evidence for prodigious recent star formation activity at optical wavelengths, along with relatively cool MFIR colours. These results provide evidence that illumination by the AGN is the primary heating mechanism for the dust emitting at both 24 and 70 microns, with starbursts dominating the heating of the cool dust in only 20 -- 30% of objects. This implies that powerful AGN are not always accompanied by the type of luminous starbursts that are characteristic of the peak of activity in major gas-rich mergers.

C. Tadhunter; D. Dicken; J. Holt; K. Inskip; R. Morganti; D. Axon; C. Buchanan; R. González Delgado; P. Barthel; I. van Bemmel

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

285

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The onset of structural arrest and glass formation in a concentrated suspension of silica nanoparticles in a water-lutidine binary mixture near its consolute point is studied by exploiting the near-critical fluid degrees of freedom to control the strength of an attraction between particles and multispeckle x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to determine the particles' collective dynamics. This model system undergoes a glass transition both on cooling and on heating, and the intermediate liquid realizes unusual logarithmic relaxations. How vitrification occurs for the two different glass transitions is characterized in detail and comparisons are drawn to recent theoretical predictions for glass formation in systems with attractive interactions.

Xinhui Lu; S. G. J. Mochrie; S. Narayanan; A. R. Sandy; M. Sprung

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

287

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a review on combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems. This work summarizes the methods used to perform energetic and exergetic analyses, system optimization, performance improvement studies, and development and analysis of CCHP systems, as reported in existing literature. In addition, this work highlights the most current research and emerging trends in CCHP technologies. It is envisioned that the information collected in this review paper will be a valuable source of information, for researchers, designers, and engineers, and provides direction and guidance for future research in CCHP technology.

Heejin Cho; Amanda D. Smith; Pedro Mago

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARp?) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution Benjamin Brant Sabine Brueske Donald Erickson Riyaz Papar Planetec Planetec Energy Concepts Company Energy... in Denver, Colorado. The Waste Heat Ammo nia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP?) is based on a patented process and cycle design developed by Energy Concepts Co. (ECC) to cost effectively re cover 73,000 barrels a year of salable LPGs and gasoline...

Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

289

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presented a multi-objective optimization of a combined cooling, heating and power system (CCHP) driven by solar energy. The flat-plate solar collector was employed to collect the solar radiation and to transform it into thermal energy. The thermal storage unit was installed to storage the thermal energy collected by the collectors to ensure a continuous energy supplement when solar energy was weak or insufficient. The CCHP system combined an organic Rankine cycle with an ejector refrigeration cycle to yield electricity and cold capacity to users. In order to conduct the optimization, the mathematical model of the solar-powered CCHP system was established. Owing to the limitation of the single-objective optimization, the multi-objective optimization of the system was carried out. Four key parameters, namely turbine inlet temperature, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature and pinch temperature difference in vapor generator, were selected as the decision variables to examine the performance of the overall system. Two objective functions, namely the average useful output and the total heat transfer area, were selected to maximize the average useful output and to minimize the total heat transfer area under the given conditions. NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm-II) was employed to achieve the final solutions in the multi-objective optimization of the system operating in three modes, namely power mode, combined heat and power (CHP) mode, and combined cooling and power (CCP) mode. For the power mode, the optimum average useful output and total heat transfer area were 6.40 kW and 46.16 m2. For the CCP mode, the optimum average useful output and total heat transfer area were 5.84 kW and 58.74 m2. For the CHP mode, the optimum average useful output and total heat transfer area were 8.89 kW and 38.78 m2. Results also indicated that the multi-objective optimization provided a more comprehensive solution set so that the optimum performance could be achieved according to different requirements for system.

Man Wang; Jiangfeng Wang; Pan Zhao; Yiping Dai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Energy, economic, and environmental analyses of combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems were performed here to select the nominal capacities of gas engines by combination of optimization algorithm and maximum rectangle method (MRM). The analysis was performed for both priority of providing electricity (PE) and priority of providing heat (PH) operation strategies. Four scenarios (SELL-PE, SELL-PH, No SELL-PE, No SELL-PH) were followed to specify design parameters such as the number and nominal power of prime movers, heating capacities of both backup boiler and energy storage tank, and the cooling capacities of electrical and absorption chillers. By defining an objective function called the Relative Annual Benefit (RAB), Genetic Algorithm optimization method was used for finding the optimal values of design parameters. The optimization results indicated that two gas engines (with nominal powers of 3780 and 3930 kW) in SELL-PE scenario, two gas engines (with nominal powers of 5290 and 5300 kW) in SELL-PH scenario, one gas engine (with nominal power of 2440 kW) in No SELL-PE scenario provided the maximum value of the objective function. Furthermore in No SELL-PE scenario (which had the lowest RAB value in comparison with that for the above mentioned scenarios), thermal energy storage was not required. Due to very low value of RAB, any gas engine in No SELL-PH scenario was not recommended.

Sepehr Sanaye; Navid Khakpaay

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A strategy to optimize the low temperature cooling energy supply of a newly build office building is discussed against the background of a changing energy system. It is focused on, what production way - Direct Cooling, the Compression Refrigeration...

Uhrhan, S.; Gerber, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New York City through its Energy Office has identified and evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of district heating and cooling at three locations: Brooklyn Navy Yard, Kings County Medical Complex, and the S.W. Brooklyn Incinerator. Of these the Navy Yard has the most immediate potential for implementation. The Navy Yard has an extensive steam and electrical system that has not been used since the Navy turned most of the property over to New York City more than a decade ago. By remodeling several of the smaller boilers still in place or purchasing new boilers, an ample supply of steam and hot water can be produced. The steam will be used for heating and industrial process for the industrial tenants now occupying the former yards. Hot water will be sold to the New York City Housing Authority to heat between 3,500 and 5,000 nearby public housing units operated by the authority. Electricity will be cogenerated using present generators that will be overhauled. It is expected that some of the electricity will be used directly to supply power to a planned nearby Red Hook Sewage Treatment plant, while most will be sold to the industrial tenants of the Navy Yard. Studies will continue to determine the best market for excess power.

McLoughlin, G.T.; Kuo, R.P.; Karol, J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

U.S. Heating and Air-Conditioning System Manufacturer Shipments, by Type (Including Exports) 2005 Value of 2000 2005 2007 2009 2010 Shipments Equipment Type (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) (1,000s) ($million) (7) Air-Conditioners (1) 5,346 6,472 4,508 3,516 3419 5,837 Heat Pumps 1,539 2,336 1,899 1,642 1,748 2,226 Air-to-Air Heat Pumps 1,339 2,114 1,899 1,642 1748 1,869 Water-Source Heat Pumps (2) 200 222 N.A. N.A. N.A. 357 Chillers 38 37 37 25 29 1,093 Reciprocating 25 24 30 20 24 462 Centrifugal/Screw 8 6 7 5 5 566 Absorption (3) 5 7 N.A. N.A. N.A. 64 Furnaces 3,681 3,624 2,866 2,231 2,509 2,144 Gas-Fired (4) 3,104 3,512 2,782 2,175 2453 2,081 Electric 455 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. Oil-Fired (5) 121 111 84 56 56 63 Boilers (6) 368 370 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. Note(s): Source(s): 1) Includes exports and gas air conditioners (gas units <10,000 units/yr) and rooftop equipment. Excludes heat pumps, packaged terminal air 294 E-Print Network [OSTI] the amount of commercial building energy usage, particularlycommercial building sector. To compare the aggregated energy usagecommercial buildings. For the residential sector, the total heating and cooling energy usages Huang, Yu Joe; Brodrick, Jim 2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 295 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The heat transport subsystem for a liquid metal cooled thermionic space nuclear power system was modelled using algorithms developed in support of previous nuclear power system study programs, which date back to the SNAP-10A flight system. The model was used to define the optimum dimensions of the various components in the heat transport subsystem subjected to the constraints of minimizing mass and achieving a launchable package that did not require radiator deployment. The resulting design provides for the safe and reliable cooling of the nuclear reactor in a proven lightweight design. Moriarty, M.P. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States)) 1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z 296 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Buoyancy-induced flows in enclosures play an important role in many engineering applications, such as heating and cooling of buildings, electronics cooling, solar energy collection systems, materials processing, energy storage systems, etc. Here, a numerical investigation into two-dimensional transient natural convection of single-phase fluids inside a completely filled square enclosure has been conducted for the Prandtl numbers of 0.71 and 7.1, and the Rayleigh number range 10{sup 3}--10{sup 7}. The fluid is assumed to be initially at a uniform temperature and motionless. Then, at time zero, the flow is driven by instantaneously raising and lowering the temperatures at the left side and the top wall, respectively. Adiabatic boundary conditions are used at the remaining walls. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, governing the flow under Boussinesq approximation, are solved with the vorticity-stream function formulation using the finite difference method. The development of the flow and temperature fields following these temperature changes are determined numerically. The transient behavior of the average Nusselt number at the hot wall is traced. Aydin, O. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering 1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 297 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while thare is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system. Karaki, S.; Brothers, P. 1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z 298 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract The continuous demand for increased performance and reliability of gas turbines leads to the improvement of prediction tools. Having regard to the effects of heat transfer on the residual life of gas turbine components, it is necessary to achieve a high level of accuracy in the evaluation of thermal loads. Computational fluid dynamics is able to provide reliable data in a limited lapse of time. In this paper, the numerical analysis of the cooled vane of the MT1 high-pressure turbine stage is presented. A grid dependence analysis based on the evaluation of the aero-thermal characteristics of the vane has been performed. Turbulence is modeled using the kT-kL-? method whose performance in this kind of configuration is rarely debated in the scientific literature. Model parameters have been tuned to match the experimental data. The final objective of the present activity is to assess the capability of numerical methods to deal with an annular, transonic high-pressure vane with a realistic film cooling configuration. Adiabatic effectiveness, heat transfer coefficient and net heat flux reduction distributions have been evaluated, the latter providing relevant information on the performance of the cooling system. The coupled fluid-solid simulation of the cooled configuration has also been performed to evaluate the impact of conjugate heat transfer on the prediction of thermal loads. Results show a non-negligible difference in the wall temperature evaluation between the decoupled and the coupled approach, mainly caused by the heat conduction in the solid. Massimiliano Insinna; Duccio Griffini; Simone Salvadori; Francesco Martelli 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 299 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The procedure used was to obtain experimental performance data from a solar system using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions, develop a simulation model for the system, validate the model using the data, apply the model in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year, and estimate the life-cycle cost of the system for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Karaki, S.; Brothers, P. 1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z 300 SciTech Connect (OSTI) TRNSYS-compatible subroutines for the simulation of chemical heat pumps have been written, and simulations (including heating, cooling, and domestic hot water) have been performed for Washington, DC and Ft. Worth, Texas. Direct weekly comparisons of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and CaCl/sub 2//CH/sub 3/OH cycles have been carried out. Projected performance of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3//NH/sub 3/ cycle has also been investigated, and found to be essentially identical to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O. In all cases simulated, the solar collector is a fixed evacuated tube system, which is necessary because chemical heat pumps operate at higher solar collector temperatures (> 100/sup 0/C) than conventional solar systems. With standard residential loads, the chemical heat pumps performed surprisingly well. In the Ft. Worth climate, less than 45 m/sup 2/ of collectors were required to meet over 90% of the heating and cooling loads. In Washington, DC, the area required to meet the cooling load was smaller (as little as 20 m/sup 2/, depending on window shading), but was sufficient to meet only 50 to 60% of the heating load. However, gas-fired backup via the heat pump was quite effective in reducing fossil fuel consumption: the thermal COPs in the heating mode were in the range 1.6 to 1.7. Since chemical heat pumps are designed to reject heat at relatively high temperatures, they were also effective in providing domestic hot water, supplying ca. 70% of the DHW in summer, ca. 50% in winter, and nearly 100% in spring and fall. Offenhartz, P O.D. 1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 301 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The {beta} feeding probability of {sup 102,104,105,106,107}Tc, {sup 105}Mo, and {sup 101}Nb nuclei, which are important contributors to the decay heat in nuclear reactors, has been measured using the total absorption technique. We have coupled for the first time a total absorption spectrometer to a Penning trap in order to obtain sources of very high isobaric purity. Our results solve a significant part of a long-standing discrepancy in the {gamma} component of the decay heat for {sup 239}Pu in the 4-3000 s range. Algora, A.; Sonzogni, A.; Algora,A.; Jordan,D.; Tain,J.L.; Rubio,B.; Agramunt,J.; Perez-Cerdan,A.B.; Molina,F; Caballero,L.; Nacher,E.; Krasznahorkay,A.; Hunyadi,M.D.; Gulyas,J; Vitez,A.; Csatlos,M.; Csige,L.; Aysto,J.; Penttila,H.; Moore,I.D.; Eronen,T.; Jokinen,A.; Nieminen,A.; Hakala,J.; Karvonen,P.; Kankainen,A.; Saastamoinen,A.; Rissanen,J.; Kessler,T.; Weber,C.; Ronkainen,J.; Rahaman,S.; Elomaa,V.; Rinta-Antila,S.; Hager,U.; Sonoda,T.; Burkard,K.; Huller,W.; Batist,L.; Gelletly,W.; Nichols,A.L.; Yoshida,T.; Sonzogni,A.A.; Perajarvi,K. 2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z 302 E-Print Network [OSTI] We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ... McCarthy, Matthew 303 E-Print Network [OSTI] the cooling effect of water evaporation to cool a facilities water cooling system while the gas engine drive chiller uses a standard "freon" compressor driven by a gas engine' to provide its cooling. In the absorption chiller, a heat generator boils... for the water in the evaporator section. A pump then moves the dilute solution back to the generator to continue the process. GED chillers are no different than their electric counterparts except an engine drives the compressor instead of an electric motor... Phillips, J. N. 1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 304 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including air-source; geothermal; ductless, mini-split; and absorption heat pumps. Learn more about the different options and how to use your heat pump efficiently to save money and energy at home. Featured Heat Pump Systems A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar. 305 E-Print Network [OSTI] We present a detailed X-ray study of the intracluster medium (ICM) of the nearby, cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 478, with Chandra and XMM observations. Using a wavelet smoothing hardness analysis, we derive detailed temperature maps of A478, revealing a surprising amount of temperature structure. The broad band Chandra spectral fits yield temperatures which are significantly hotter than those from XMM, but the Fe ionization temperature shows good agreement. We show that the temperature discrepancy is slightly reduced when comparing spectra from regions selected to enclose nearly isothermal gas. However, by simulating multi-temperature spectra and fitting them with a single temperature model, we find no significant difference between Chandra and XMM, indicating that non-isothermality cannot fully explain the discrepancy. We have discovered 4 hot spots located between 30--50 kpc from the cluster center, where the gas temperature is roughly a factor of 2 higher than in the surrounding material. We estimate the combined excess thermal energy present in these hot spots to be (3+/-1)x10^59 erg. The location of and amount of excess energy present in the hot spots are suggestive of a common origin within the cluster core, which hosts an active galactic nucleus. This cluster also possesses a pair of X-ray cavities coincident with weak radio lobes, as reported in a previous analysis, with an associated energy <10% of the thermal excess in the hot spots. The presence of these hot spots could indicate strong-shock heating of the ICM from the central radio source -- one of the first such detections in a cool core cluster. We also probe the mass distribution in the core and find it to be characterized by a logarithmic slope of -0.35+/-0.22, which is significantly flatter than an NFW cusp of -1. (abridged) Alastair J. R. Sanderson; Alexis Finoguenov; Joseph J. Mohr 2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z 306 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to present: 1) a description of a solar/geothermal heating and cooling system that has been in successful operation in a commercial office building for over five years; and 2) to present technical and cost operational results that indicate a total annual energy consumption of approximately 25,000 Btu/sq ft/ year. The paper includes a general description of the three-story multi-tenant office building located in Burlington, Massachusetts, its energy efficient design features, its active solar space heating and hot water system, its solar/geothermal heat pump back-up heating system and its geothermal cooling system. A description of the solar/geothermal system is presented including the liquid flat plate collectors, storage tanks, heat exchangers, heat pump, heat transfer fluid, control system, operational modes and the energy monitoring system. KEYWORDS Solar space heating; geothermal heating; geothermal cooling; solar domestic hot water; energy monitoring and control. John Zvara; P.E.; Ronald J. Adams 1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 307 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) This paper presents the heat transfer characteristics of the internal heat exchanger (IHX) for CO2 heat pump system. The influence on the IHX length, the mass flow rate, the shape of IHX, the operating condition,... Young Chul Kwon; Dae Hoon Kim; Jae Heon Lee… 2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z 308 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath. Gupta, N.; Smith, A. 2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z 309 DOE Patents [OSTI] An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load. The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC) 2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z 310 E-Print Network [OSTI] FOR SEAWATER-COOLED POWER AND DESALINATION PLANTS....................................................... 127 5.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 127 5.2 Introduction... 5.2 Representation of a Once-Thorough Cooling System................................ 141 5.3 An Overall Representation of the Power/Desalination Plant ..................... 152 5.4 The Cooling System for the Case Study... Binmahfouz, Abdullah 2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z 311 DOE Patents [OSTI] A chemical heat pump that utilizes liquid/liquid phase separation rather than evaporation to separate two components in a heat of mixing chemical heat pump process. 3 figs. Scott, T.C.; Kaplan, S.I. 1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z 312 SciTech Connect (OSTI) District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air emissions associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such emissions. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum reductions in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air emissions credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air emissions that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development. Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States) 1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z 313 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract Following the electric load (FE) and following the thermal load (FT) strategies both have advantages and disadvantages for combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems. In this paper, the performance of different strategies is evaluated under operation cost (OC), carbon dioxide emission (CDE) and exergy efficiency (EE). Analysis of different loads in one hour is conducted under the assumption that the additional electricity is not allowed to be sold back to the grid. The results show that FE produces less OC, less CDE, and FT produces higher EE when the electric load is larger. However, FE produces less OC, less CDE and higher EE when the thermal load is larger. Based on a hybrid electric–thermal load (HET) strategy, compromised electric–thermal (CET) strategies are innovatively proposed using the efficacy coefficient method. Additional, the CCHP system of a hotel in Tianjin is analyzed for all of the strategies. The results for an entire year indicate the first CET strategy is the optimal one when dealing with OC, CDE and EE. And the second CET is the optimal one when dealing with OC and EE. Moreover, the laws are strictly correct for different buildings in qualitative terms. Gang Han; Shijun You; Tianzhen Ye; Peng Sun; Huan Zhang 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 314 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Corporation Auxiliary - Heat pump water heater 50... -gal tank, electric auxiliary heating Multiple operating modes: heat pump, hybrid and standard... and Ventilation Systems... 315 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Corporation Auxiliary - Heat pump water heater 50... -gal tank, electric auxiliary heating Multiple operating modes: heat pump, hybrid and standard... and Ventilation Systems... 316 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Ductless versions of air-source heat pumps. Absorption Heat Pump Uses heat as its energy source. Geothermal Heat Pumps Use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. Addthis Related Articles A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar. 317 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract The recently built school building has adopted a novel heat recovery air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification have been numerically investigated concerning the effects of the heat flow flux of passive cooling within the ceiling concrete in the classroom due to night ventilation in summer which could result in cooling energy storage. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of passive cooling can simultaneously decrease the volume averaged indoor temperatures and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air-cooling unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of exhaust air and the heat flux value for passive cooling within the classroom ceiling concrete. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. Yang Wang; Fu-Yun Zhao; Jens Kuckelkorn; Xiao-Hong Li; Han-Qing Wang 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 318 E-Print Network [OSTI] advances to commercialize stand-alone electric heat-pump storage hot water heaters. These systems offer design uses multiple systems and fuels to provide thermal services, the emerging generation of heat to experience this change as air-source heat-pump water heaters deliver obvious energy savings over electric California at Davis, University of 319 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This study assesses the available heat load, determines the available heat from the heat sources, develops a distribution network, develops a system implementation plan, assesses the environmental impacts, addresses institutional issues, and analyzes the economics of the conceptual system. Not Available 1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z 320 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. Yang Wang; Fu-Yun Zhao; Jens Kuckelkorn; Di Liu; Li-Qun Liu; Xiao-Chuan Pan 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 321 E-Print Network [OSTI] too much energy is used but there are also more comfort- related complaints than expected. In order to optimise the energy consumption and to reduce the complaints there should be much more attention to the control strategy and the heating.../cooling curve. Paper 81, ICEBO 2004 TNO Bouw, The Netherlands Page: 3 of 12 Despite many years of optimisation of single components, such as condensing boilers, there is no common knowledge about how to design your control strategy or how to design... 2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 322 DOE Patents [OSTI] The amount of building heating, cooling and daylighting is controlled by at least one pair of solar energy passing panels, with each panel of the pair of panels being exposed to a separate direction of sun incidence. A shutter-shade combination is associated with each pair of panels and the shutter is connected to the shade so that rectilinear movement of the shutter causes pivotal movement of the shade. Sanders, William J. (Kansas City, KS); Snyder, Marvin K. (Overland Park, KS); Harter, James W. (Independence, MO) 1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 323 E-Print Network [OSTI] This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period.... Stokes, Sandra R. 2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z 324 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption). Spurr, M. 1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z 325 E-Print Network [OSTI] Page 1. Version I: heat transport limits with two layers of 50 mesh. . . . 52 2. Version I: heat transport limits with two layers of 100 mesh. . . . 54 3. Version I: heat transport limits with two layers of 150 mesh. . . . 57 4. Version I: heat... transport limits with two layers of 200 mesh. . . . 59 5. Version I: maximum heat transport at various meshes. 62 6. Version I: maximum heat transport with different number of layers. 64 7. Version I: variation of heat transport with inclination. 8... Patnaik, Preetam 2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z 326 E-Print Network [OSTI] An AHU's energy performance is greatly influenced by its heating/cooling coil energy performance, which is also greatly influenced by the different kinds of control methodologies such as PID control and fuzzy logic control. The conventional... Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Liang, Z. 2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 327 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) ...research-article An Experimental Investigation of the Thermodynamical Properties of Super-Heated Steam. On the Cooling of Saturated Steam by Free Expansion John H. Grindley The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve... 1900-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 328 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual. Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H. 1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z 329 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation. Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States) 1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z 330 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) ......of geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity of rocks or sediments...the formation temperature and thermal conductivity. Ideally, to...measurements require extra battery power supply and an additional...cooling curve for deducing the thermal properties has been contemplated...... Tien-Chang Lee; A. D. Duchkov; S. G. Morozov 2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z 331 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) of California, Irvine Collection: Engineering 5 Factsheet on Summer Heat Gain and Winter Heat Loss In the summer we often feel warm in buildings and in the winter we may feel... 332 E-Print Network [OSTI] ??This thesis consists of two different research problems. In the first one, the aim is to model and simulate a solar-powered, single-effect, absorption refrigeration system… (more) Bahman, Ammar 2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 333 E-Print Network [OSTI] ?? This thesis consists of two different research problems. In the first one, the aim is to model and simulate a solar-powered, single-effect, absorption refrigeration… (more) Bahman, Ammar Mohammad Khalil 2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 334 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract The convection heat transfer of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure has a great influence on the regenerative cooling technology of a scramjet engine. A three-dimensional numerical simulation was conducted for the convection transfer of hydrocarbon fuel in the cooling panel of a combustion chamber wall. And the flow field around the local flow blockage structure and the outlet flow rate distribution characteristics of fuel in the cooling channels were analyzed in detail. The results of analyses indicate that with the optimized local flow blockage structure, the outlet flow rate distribution of fuel among the cooling channels become more uniform, as the area of local flow dead zone decreases. However, as the fuel temperature increases, the dramatic variation of thermodynamic physical properties of fuel has a strong influence on the flow field around the local flow blockage structure. Especially, a local flow dead zone can be easily formed in the supercritical temperature region. Meanwhile, transverse pressure gradient around the throat region of blockage structure and additional loss, which is caused by turbulence fluctuation and energy exchange of fluid in the downstream area, affect the outlet flow rate distribution of fuel among the coolant passages seriously. It can therefore be concluded that the local flow blockage structure is more suitably designed in the subcritical temperature region by taking above-mentioned factors into consideration. Yu Feng; Jiang Qin; Wen Bao; Qinchun Yang; Hongyan Huang; Zhongqi Wang 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 335 DOE Patents [OSTI] A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig. DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J. 1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z 336 DOE Patents [OSTI] A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY) 1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 337 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Experiments have been performed in a relatively large circular pipe to study and obtain the heat transfer data over a film-cooled surface, with the presence of weak swirling flow in the mainstream. The swirling flow is generated by a flat-vaned swirler situated upstream. A cooling film is injected from an annular slot formed by the pipe wall and the circular cover plate. The radial temperature distribution measurements at several axial locations were used to infer the film jet structure and the rate of mixing of the film jet with the swirling flow. The nondimensional parameters governing the heat transfer process under the film are derived from the system of governing equations. Experiments demonstrate that the swirl number, increasing with turbulence intensity and swirl velocity in the mainstream, can rapidly destroy the film jet structure and enhance the heat transfer process. During the course of the experiments, the blowing parameter ranged from 0.5 to 2 and the swirl number ranged from 0 to 0.6. Correlations for the Nusselt number which account for the effect of swirling flow are presented. (author) Yang, C.S. [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Far East University, Tainan (China); Kung, T.L.; Gau, C. [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University (China) 2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z 338 E-Print Network [OSTI] -09-25 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 18 Energy simulation In case of the variable cooling water flow system, the cooling water outlet temperature should be a parameter...,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 2012/10/072012/10/28 2012/11/18 2012/12/09 2012/12/30 2/24 ? 3/2 C o n su m ed e le ct ri ci ty p er h ea t u n it [ k W h /G J ] Variable water flow control Cooling tower fun Chilled... Takase,T.; Takada,O; Shima,K.; Moriya, M.; Shimoda,Y. 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 339 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract The scope of the HIGH-COMBI project is the development of high solar fraction systems by innovative combination of optimized solar heating, cooling and storage technologies as well as control strategies, in order to contribute and assist the further deployment of the solar energy market. Within this project, six demonstration plants were installed in four European countries (Greece, Italy, Spain and Austria). The purpose of this article is to assess the result achieved in the technical field of the project and to present the technical aspects of the six innovative demonstration systems realised during the project period. Vassiliki N. Drosou; Panagiotis D. Tsekouras; Th.I. Oikonomou; Panos I. Kosmopoulos; Constantine S. Karytsas 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 340 E-Print Network [OSTI] bonding trends for the three coinage metal silicide diatoms. Â© 1995 American Institute of Physics. I. INTRODUCTION As is the case for the other coinage metal silicides, cur- rent research on goldÂ­silicides has-cooled gold silicides J. J. Scherer,a) J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, A. O'Keefe,b) and R. J. Saykally Department Cohen, Ronald C. Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 341 E-Print Network [OSTI] Heating Water Suuply Chilled Water Return Heating Water Return To User New System ESL-IC-08-10-57 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 2 attract attention due..., R6 450 1, 1 ESL-IC-08-10-57 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 3 (one office building and one building with hotel rooms and leisure facilities) since November... Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E. 342 E-Print Network [OSTI] ?? This report is a dissertation proposal that focuses on the energy balance within an internal combustion engine with a unique coolant-based waste heat recovery… (more) Armstead, John Randall 2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 343 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Various aspects of the high-temperature heat exchanger conceptual designs for the gas turbine (HTGR-GT) and process heat (HTGR-PH) plants are discussed. Topics include technology background, heat exchanger types, surface geometry, thermal sizing, performance, material selection, mechanical design, fabrication, and the systems-related impact of installation and integration of the units in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. The impact of future technology developments, such as the utilization of nonmetallic materials and advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction, is also discussed. McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.; Van Hagan, T.H.; King, J.H.; Spring, A.H. 1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z 344 SciTech Connect (OSTI) A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines. Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W. 1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z 345 E-Print Network [OSTI] ][Ro]/[Ro] = 0.12). Heat transfer in a stationary pin-fin channel can be enhanced up to 3.8 times that of a smooth channel. Rotation enhances the heat transferred from the pin-fin channels 1.5 times that of the stationary pin-fin channels. Overall, rotation... Wright, Lesley Mae 2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z 346 E-Print Network [OSTI] We report the laser cooling of a single$^{40}\\text{Ca}^+$ion in a Penning trap to the motional ground state in one dimension. Cooling is performed in the strong binding limit on the 729-nm electric quadrupole$S_{1/2}\\leftrightarrow D_{5/2}$transition, broadened by a quench laser coupling the$D_{5/2}$and$P_{3/2}$levels. We find the final phonon number to be$\\bar{n}=0.014\\pm0.009$. We measure the heating rate of the trap to be very low with$\\dot{\\bar{n}}=2.5\\pm 0.3\\textrm{s}^{-1}$and a scaled spectral noise density of$\\omega S_{E}(\\omega)\\sim1.6^{-8}\\textrm{V}^2\\textrm{m}^{-2}\\textrm{Hz}^{-1}\\textrm{s}^{-1}$, which is consistent with the large ion-electrode distance. We perform Rabi oscillations on the sideband-cooled ion and observe a coherence time of$0.7\\pm 0.1\\textrm{ms}$, noting that the practical performance is currently limited by the intensity noise of the probe laser. J. F. Goodwin; G. Stutter; R. C. Thompson; D. M. Segal 2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z 347 E-Print Network [OSTI] We have used deprojected radial density and temperature profiles of a sample of 16 nearby CF clusters observed with XMM-Newton to test whether the effervescent heating model can satisfactorily explain the dynamics of CF clusters. For each cluster we derived the required extra heating as a function of cluster-centric distance for various values of the unknown parameters$\\dot M$(mass deposition rate) and$f_c$(conduction efficiency). We fitted the extra heating curve using the AGN effervescent heating function and derived the AGN parameters$L$(the time-averaged luminosity) and$r_0$(the scale radius where the bubbles start rising in the ICM). While we do not find any solution with the effervescent heating model for only one object, we do show that AGN and conduction heating are not cooperating effectively for half of the objects in our sample. For most of the clusters we find that, when a comparison is possible, the derived AGN scale radius$r_0$and the observed AGN jet extension have the same order of magnitude. The AGN luminosities required to balance radiative losses are substantially lowered if the fact that the AGN deposits energy within a finite volume is taken into account. For the Virgo cluster, we find that the AGN power derived from the effervescent heating model is in good agreement with the observed jet power. Rocco Piffaretti; Jelle Kaastra 2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z 348 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) (2) Advanced Light Source Division Lawrence Berkeley National Lab... animal radiative heat loss occurs in the infrared range, we feel research in this area will yield useful... 349 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) We... Engineer- ing." low distribution temperature is key One explanation for the reduced heat loss is twin pipes Source: Mosegaard, Klaus - Institut for Informatik og Matematisk... 350 E-Print Network [OSTI] to thermal ly protect a gas turb ine blade f r om the hot gases w i th in a gas turbine engine by inject ion of a coo l ing f lu id th rough discrete holes i n the surface of the blade. Tests were conducted on a flat p late us ing the f i lm cool ing... surface w i th coo l ing a ir c i rculated w i th in the hol low core of the turb ine b lade. External cool ing employs co ld a ir inject ion th rough holes on the outer surface of the turb ine blade produc ing a f i lm of a i r that protects... Madsen, Eric Perry 2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z 351 Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE] 3 3 Residential Boiler Efficiencies (1) Gas-Fired Boilers Oil-Fired Boilers Average shipped in 1985 (2): 74% AFUE Average shipped in 1985 (2): 79% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 81% AFUE Best Available in 1981: 86% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 96% AFUE Best Available in 2007: 89% AFUE Note(s): Source(s): 1) Federal appliance standards effective Jan. 1, 1992, require a minimum of 80% AFUE (except gas-fired steam boiler, which must have a 75% AFUE or higher). 2) Includes furnaces. GAMA, Consumer's Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Residential Heating and Water Heating Equipment, Aug. 2005, p. 88 and 106 for best- available AFUE; and GAMA for 1985 average AFUEs; GAMA Tax Credit Eligible Equipment: Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers 95% AFUE or Greater, May 2007; and GAMA Consumer's Directory of Certified Efficiency Ratings for Heating and Water Heating Equipment, May 2007 352 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Water source heat pump system is a green air-conditioning system which has high efficiency, energy saving, and environmental protection, but inappropriate design of the system type of water intake will impact on ... Jibo Long; Siyi Huang 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 353 E-Print Network [OSTI] for thermal comfort. Energy and Buildings 2002;34:593-9.IEA. Technology Roadmap. Energy-efficient Buildings: HeatingH, Arens E, Webster T. Energy Savings from Extended Air Pasut, Wilmer; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed; Zhai, Yongchao 2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 354 SciTech Connect (OSTI) A typical house loses 25 to 30% of its heat through windows, and a house with large windows may lose as much as 50%. Numerous movable-insulation systems that will cut the heat loss through windows in half are described. Chapters are: The Energy-Responsive Dwelling, Past to Present; Window Heat Losses and Gains; Enhanced Glazing Systems; Choosing a Window-Insulation Design for Your Home; Pop-In Shutters; Thermal Curtains - Blankets that Fold; Thermal Shades - Blankets that Roll; Thermal Shutters and Folding Screens; Insulation Between Glazing and Interior Louvers; Exterior Hinged and Sliding Shutters; Sun-Shading Screens; Exterior Roll Shutters; Shutters for Skylights; Shutters for Clerestory Windows; Interior Greenhouse Insulation Systems; Exterior Insulation for Greenhouses; Movable Insulation to Assist Passive Space Heating; and Movable Insulation to Assist Solar Water Heaters. Appendices include the following: insulated shade and shutter construction; the economics of window insulation; movable insulation products, hardware, and components; further technical information; and design sources. (MCW) Langdon, W.K. 1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 355 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) ......Pre-heating is an attractive, energy-efficient alternative for satisfying the first...to accomplish. This energy might, for example...scheme require different energies to achieve the same...is what powers your car. Consider two isolated...... I. G. McCarthy; A. Babul; R. G. Bower; M. L. Balogh 2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z 356 E-Print Network [OSTI] Home Heating Anderson [21 Oil Price Electric Share Gas ShareBaughman and Joskow [3] Oil Price Gas Price Lin, Hirst,and Cohn [10] Gas Price Oil Price Hartman and Hollyer [8] ( Wood, D.J. 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 357 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Solar cooling is emerging as one of the most interesting applications in the harnessing of solar energy for alternative uses. Current devices can effectively control the climates of small buildings while addressing the issues associated with the excessive thermal energy captured during the summer months. This article presents an exergy analysis of buildings with solar thermal systems used for Domestic Hot Water (DHW) production and heating and cooling support. The cooling system analyzed is a LiCl–H2O thermally driven heat pump with integral energy storage that uses outdoor swimming pools as heat sink. All subsystems were integrated into the model and considered as a single energy system, and data from installations in three different locations were used. The influences of the heating and cooling demand ratios and the dead state and house temperatures were analyzed. Further, the use of dissipated energy was analyzed, demonstrating that the proposed method facilitates the realistic study of these systems and provides useful analytical tools for improving the overall exergy performance. The energy delivered for heating, cooling and DHW production strongly influences global performance, suggesting that the appropriate sizing of each system is a priority. D. Borge; A. Colmenar; M. Castro; S. Martín; E. Sancristobal 2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 358 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The heat transfer coefficient during gas cooling process of supercritical CO{sub 2} without lubricating oil in horizontal macro-tubes has experimentally investigated. Investigation has done on two stainless steel circular tubes having inside-diameter of 4.55 mm and 7.75 mm and carried out for CO{sub 2} mass fluxes of 200-600 kg/m{sup 2} s, inlet fluid pressures of 7.5-10.0 MPa, and the inlet fluid temperatures of 90-100 C. The experimental results indicate that the gas cooling pressure, the inner tube diameter, the mass flux and the temperature of CO{sub 2} have significant effects on the heat transfer coefficient, especially near pseudo-critical region. The heat transfer coefficient decreases as the cooling pressure increases otherwise increases as mass flux increases. At any temperatures, smaller inner tube diameter shows higher heat transfer coefficient. In comparison between present experimental data and existing correlations from references, most of supercritical heat transfer correlations show large deviations with this present experimental data. Therefore, based on experimental data obtained in this present work, a new correlation is proposed to predict more accurate heat transfer coefficient of supercritical CO{sub 2} in horizontal macro-tubes under cooling conditions. The majority of the experimental values are within 13% of the values predicted by the new correlation. (author) Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Son, Chang-Hyo [Department of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineering, College of Engineering, Pukyong National University, San 100, Yongdang-dong, Nam-gu, Pusan 608-739 (Korea) 2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z 359 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank. Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B 1980-04-11T23:59:59.000Z 360 E-Print Network [OSTI] ) and cured ground pork (CGP) at 75ºC. The effect of the heating rate on HR, germination and outgrowth of C. perfringens spores in CGP was determined by increasing the temperature from 20 to 75ºC at a rate of 4, 8, and 12ºC/h prior to heating and holding at 75... Marquez Gonzalez, Mayra 2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 361 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Identifying the building parameters that significantly impact energy performance is an important step for enabling the reduction of the heating and cooling energy loads of apartment buildings in the design stage. Implementing passive design techniques for these buildings is not a simple task in most dense cities; their energy performance usually depends on uncertainties in the local climate and many building parameters, such as window size, zone height, and features of materials. For this paper, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the most significant parameters for buildings in hot-humid climates by considering the design of an existing apartment building in Izmir, Turkey. The Monte Carlo method is selected for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses with the Latin hypercube sampling (LHC) technique. The results show that the sensitivity of parameters in apartment buildings varies based on the purpose of the energy loads and locations in the building, such as the ground, intermediate, and top floors. In addition, the total window area, the heat transfer coefficient (U) and the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of the glazing based on the orientation have the most considerable influence on the energy performance of apartment buildings in hot-humid climates. Yusuf Y?ld?z; Zeynep Durmu? Arsan 2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 362 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) on the initiation of flashover in a compartment fire Summary: to the wall Qw;r radiative heat loss from the hot layer to the wall gsx exchange factor between the hot layer... with... 363 E-Print Network [OSTI] of the change in outdoor conditions [3, 4]. In 2010, building energy consumption accounted for 41% of the total activities in buildings. One area directly affected by climate change is the energy consumption for heating on future energy uses. There would be a net increase in source energy consumption by the 2080s for climate Chen, Qingyan "Yan" 364 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) ......dissipation at the rising cost of ship operational time...penetrations for measurements of geothermal gradients at closely...paves the way at no extra cost for the determination...imposing heat flow as an energy constraint in transient...typical measurement of geothermal gradient in the ocean...... Tien-Chang Lee; A. D. Duchkov; S. G. Morozov 2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z 365 E-Print Network [OSTI] Physical conditions of the interstellar medium in galaxies are closely linked to the ambient radiation field and the heating of dust grains. In order to characterize dust properties in galaxies over a wide range of physical conditions, we present here the radial surface brightness profiles of the entire sample of 61 galaxies from Key Insights into Nearby Galaxies: Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). The main goal of our work is the characterization of the grain emissivities, dust temperatures, and interstellar radiation fields responsible for heating the dust. After fitting the dust and stellar radial profiles with exponential functions, we fit the far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) in each annular region with single-temperature modified black bodies using both variable (MBBV) and fixed (MBBF) emissivity indices beta, as well as with physically motivated dust models. Results show that while most SED parameters decrease with radius, the emissivity index beta also decreases with radius in... Hunt, L K; Bianchi, S; Gordon, K D; Aniano, G; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Helou, G; Hinz, J L; Kennicutt, R C; Roussel, H; Wilson, C D; Bolatto, A; Boquien, M; Croxall, K V; Galametz, M; de Paz, A Gil; Koda, J; Munoz-Mateos, J C; Sandstrom, K M; Sauvage, M; Vigroux, L; Zibetti, S 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 366 Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE] Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower... 367 SciTech Connect (OSTI) An experimental activity was performed to observe and study the effects of graphite dispersion and deposition on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The small-scale RCCS experimental facility (16.5 x 16.5 x 30.4 cm) used for this activity represents half of the reactor cavity with an electrically heated vessel. Water flowing through five vertical pipes removes the heat produced in the vessel and releases it into the environment by mixing with cold water in a large tank. The particle image velocimetry technique was used to study the velocity field of the air inside the cavity. A set of 52 thermocouples was installed in the facility to monitor the temperature profiles of the vessel, pipe walls, and air. Ten grams of a fine graphite powder (average particle size 2 m) was injected into the cavity through a spraying nozzle placed at the bottom of the vessel. The temperatures and air velocity field were recorded and compared with the measurements obtained before the graphite dispersion, showing a decrease of the temperature surfaces that was related to an increase in their emissivity. The results contribute to the understanding of RCCS capability in an accident scenario. Rodolfo Vaghetto; Luigi Capone; Yassin A. Hassan 2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z 368 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract In this paper natural refrigerant propylene (R1270) has been proposed for transcritical cascade refrigeration system and analyzed. Propylene is used in the low temperature (LT) cycle and carbon dioxide is used in the high temperature (HT) cycle of the cascade transcritical refrigeration system. The proposed transcritical cascade cycle can be used for simultaneous cooling and heating applications. Thermal performance of the cascade cycle is evaluated for different combinations of design and operating variables and optimum performance parameters such as Topt, \\{COPmax\\} and mass flow of propylene and CO2 have been predicted. Design parameters include the evaporator temperature of LT cycle (TE), gas cooler outlet temperature (TC) and cascade heat exchanger temperature difference (DT). The results of the analysis show better thermal performance of CO2–propylene transcritical cycle than subcritical cascade cycle and also better than N2O–CO2 transcritical cycle. A methodology to obtain relevant performance diagrams and regression correlations to serve as a guideline for the design and optimization of transcritical CO2–propylene cascade system has been developed. Alok Manas Dubey; Suresh Kumar; Ghanshyam Das Agrawal 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 369 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with 370 Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE] 1 1 Main Residential Heating Equipment as of 1987, 1993, 1997, 2001, and 2005 (Percent of Total Households) Equipment Type 1987 1993 1997 2001 2005 Natural Gas 55% 53% 53% 55% 52% Central Warm-Air Furnace 35% 36% 38% 42% 40% Steam or Hot-Water System 10% 9% 7% 7% 7% Floor/Wall/Pipeless Furnace 6% 4% 4% 3% 2% Room Heater/Other 4% 3% 4% 3% 3% Electricity 20% 26% 29% 29% 30% Central Warm-Air Furnace 8% 10% 11% 12% 14% Heat Pump 5% 8% 10% 10% 8% Built-In Electric Units 6% 7% 7% 6% 5% Other 1% 1% 2% 2% 1% Fuel Oil 12% 11% 9% 7% 7% Steam or Hot-Water System 7% 6% 5% 4% 4% Central Warm-Air Furnace 4% 5% 4% 3% 3% Other 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% Other 13% 11% 9% 8% 10% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Note(s): Source(s): Other equipment includes wood, LPG, kerosene, other fuels, and none. EIA, A Look at Residential Consumption in 2005, June 2008, Table HC2-4; EIA, A Look at Residential Energy Consumption in 2001, Apr. 2004, 'Table HC3- 371 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. Not Available 1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z 372 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) In situ measurements associated with the passage of a kata cold front over the United Kingdom on 29 November 2011 are used to initialize a Lagrangian parcel model for the purpose of calculating rates of diabatic heating and cooling associated with ... C. Dearden; P. J. Connolly; G. Lloyd; J. Crosier; K. N. Bower; T. W. Choularton; G. Vaughan 2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z 373 E-Print Network [OSTI] J. Phys. Chsm. 1960, 84, 2685-2688 2685 adsorption after heating to 300.0 "C then cooling to 60 in a solution. First, the per- turbation is induced in a very short time-on the order of 6-10 ns-with a nitrogen-pumped Zare, Richard N. 374 E-Print Network [OSTI] ± 10.5 1 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [± 12.4]± 4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [± 12.2]Primary Energy Space Heating Space Cooling Figure 2: Higher space conditioning end-use energy consumption Blum, Helcio 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 375 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract LDAC (liquid desiccant air-conditioning system) is promising for reducing the energy consumption, and improving the indoor air quality. In this paper, the operation performance of LDAC with internally cooled/heated dehumidifier/regenerator was simulated and optimized. The cooling tower and solar collectors were employed as the cooling/heating source. Four nested iteration loops were developed and solved for system modeling. A typical commercial building in Hong Kong was selected as a case study, which air-conditioning load was obtained by Energy-plus. Results show that with the increase of solar collector area, the electricity consumption of AC (air-conditioning systems) system reduced by 11–35% in original system, but only a part of dehumidification demand was handled with liquid desiccant ventilation, which led to a low chiller COP (coefficient of performance). By adding a cooling coil for the solution entering dehumidifier, the electricity saving effectively increased to 22–47%, while the heat demand for regeneration also increased by 17%. So, a heat exchanger between water leaving regenerator and solution leaving dehumidifier was introduced. With the lower thermal requirement (reduced by 20%) and higher solar fraction (increased from 30 to 40%), the saving further increased to 29–49%, and the required collector area obviously reduced by 50–60% for the similar energy saving purpose. Ronghui Qi; Lin Lu 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 376 E-Print Network [OSTI] The thermal performance of high heat flux components in a fusion reactor could be enhanced significantly by the use of nanofluid coolants, suspensions of a liquid with low concentrations of solid nanoparticles. However, before they are considered viable for fusion, the long-term behaviour of nanofluids must be investigated. This paper reports an experiment which is being prepared to provide data on nanofluid stability, settling and erosion in a HyperVapotron device. Procedures are demonstrated for nanofluid synthesis and quality assessment, and the fluid sample analysis methods are described. The end results from this long-running experiment are expected to allow an initial assessment of the suitability of nanofluids as coolants in a fusion reactor. Barrett, T R; Flinders, K; Sergis, A; Hardalupas, Y 2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 377 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract During the operation of solar power towers there are occasions, commonly in the summer season, where some of the heliostats have to stop focusing at the central receiver, located at the top of the tower, because the maximum temperature that the receiver can withstand has been reached. The highest demands of cooling for air conditioning take place at these same occasions. In the present paper, we have analyzed the possibility of focusing the exceeding heliostats to the receiver increasing the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid over the nominal value and using the extra heat as a source of an absorption chiller. The chilled water would be used to cool buildings and offices, using a district cooling network. Using the extra heat of the solar power tower plant would greatly reduce the electricity usage. In this work we have analyzed the case of a circular field of heliostats focusing at a circular receiver, such as the case of Gemasolar plant. We have quantified the thermal power that can be obtained from the unused heliostats, the cooling capacity of the absorption system as well as the heat losses through the insulated pipes that distribute the chilled water to the buildings of the network. C. Marugán-Cruz; S. Sánchez-Delgado; M.R. Rodríguez-Sánchez; M. Venegas 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 378 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This paper presents a thermal model that describes the performance of solar absorption HVAC systems. The model considers the collector array, the building cooling and heating loads, the absorption chiller and the high temperature storage. Heat losses from the storage tank and piping are included in the model. All of the results presented in the paper are for an array of flat plate solar collectors with black chrome (selective surface) absorber plates. The collector efficiency equation is used to calculate the useful heat output from the array. The storage is modeled as a non-stratified tank with polyurethane foam insulation. The system is assumed to operate continuously providing air conditioning during the cooling season, space heating during the winter and hot water throughout the year. The amount of heat required to drive the chiller is determined from the coefficient of performance of the absorption cycle. Results are presented for a typical COP of 0.7. The cooling capacity of the chiller is a function of storage (generator) temperature. The nominal value is 190 F (88 C) and the range of values considered is 180 F (82 C) to 210 F (99 C). Typical building cooling and heating loads are determined as a function of ambient conditions. Performance results are presented for Sacramento, CA and Washington, D.C. The model described in the paper makes use of National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) data and results are presented for these two locations. The uncertainties in the NSRDB are estimated to be in a range of 6% to 9%. This is a significant improvement over previously available data. The model makes it possible to predict the performance of solar HVAC systems and calculate quantities such as solar fraction, storage temperature, heat losses and parasitic power for every hour of the period for which data are available. Bergquam, J.B.; Brezner, J.M. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; [Bergquam Energy Systems, Sacramento, CA (United States) 1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z 379 Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE] 8 8 Major Residential HVAC Equipment Lifetimes, Ages, and Replacement Picture Equipment Type Central Air Conditioners 8 - 14 11 8 5,354 Heat Pumps 9 - 15 12 8 1,260 Furnaces Electric 10 - 20 15 11 N.A. Gas-Fired 12 - 17 15 11 2,601 Oil-Fired 15 - 19 17 N.A. 149 Gas-Fired Boilers (1) 17 - 24 20 17 204 Note(s): Source(s): Lifetimes based on use by the first owner of the product, and do not necessarily indicate that the product stops working after this period. A replaced unit may be discarded or used elsewhere. 1) 2005 average stock age is for gas- and oil-fired steam and hot water boilers. Appliance Magazine, U.S. Appliance Industry: Market Share, Life Expectancy & Replacement Market, and Saturation Levels, January 2010, p. 10 for service and average lifetimes, and units to be replaced; ASHRAE, 1999 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Applications, Table 3, p. 35.3 for boilers service lifetimes; and 380 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Econometricians frequently propose parametric models which are contingent on an underlying assumption of rational economic agents maximizing their utility. Accurate estimation of the parameters of these models depends on using data disaggregated to the level of the actual agents, usually individual consumers or firms. Using data at some other level of aggregation introduces bias into the inferences made from the data. Unfortunately, properly disaggregated data is often unavailable, or at least, much more costly to obtain than aggregate data. Research on consumer choice of home heating equipment has long depended on state-level cross-sectional data. Only recently have investigators been able to build up and successfully use data on consumer attributes and choices at the household level. A study estimated for the Electric Power Research Institute REEPS model is currently one of the best of these. This paper examines the degree of bias that would be introduced in that study if only average data across SMSAs or states were used at several points in the investigation. We examine the market shares and elasticities estimated from that model using only the mean values of the exogenous variables, and find severe errors to be possible. However, if the models were calibrated on only aggregate data originally, we find that proper treatment allows market shares and elasticities to be found with little error relative to the disaggregate models. 22 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs. Wood, D.J.; Ruderman, H.; McMahon, J.E. 1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 381 E-Print Network [OSTI] /cm2 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 TFC [ K ] C O P COPEn at tmem = 0.016 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.016 cm COPEn at tmem = 0.017 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.017 cm COPEn at tmem = 0.018 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.018 cm PFC = 3... + QFC s 7,ammonia = s ( 'Ammonia' , P = P7 , h =h7 ) s 7,water = s ( 'Water' , P = P7 , h =h7 ) s 7 = x7 ? s 7,ammonia + ( 1 ? x7 ) ? s 7,water h 19,ammonia = h ( 'Ammonia' , T =T19 , P = P19 ) h 19,water = h ( 'Water' , T =T19... Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I. 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 382 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract The European roadmap toward the development of generation IV concepts addresses the safety and reliability assessment of the special system designed for decay heat removal of a gas-cooled fast reactor demonstrator (GFRD). The envisaged system includes the combination of both active and passive means to accomplish the fundamental safety function. Failure probabilities are calculated on various system configurations, according to either pressurized or depressurized accident events under investigation, and integrated with probabilities of occurrence of corresponding hardware components and natural circulation performance assessment. The analysis suggests the improvement of measures against common cause failures (CCF), in terms of an appropriate diversification among the redundant systems, to reduce the system failure risk. Particular emphasis is placed upon passive system reliability assessment, being recognized to be still an open issue, and the approach based on the functional reliability is adopted to address the point. Results highlight natural circulation as a challenging factor for the decay heat removal safety function accomplishment by means of passive devices. With the models presented here, the simplifying assumptions and the limited scenarios considered according to the level of definition of the design, where many systems are not yet established, one can conclude that attention has to be paid to the functional aspects of the passive system, i.e. the ones not pertaining to the “hardware” of the system. In this article the results of the analysis are discussed, where the effects of the analytical assumptions, design options, accident managements on the reliability are examined. The design diversity of the components undergoing \\{CCFs\\} can be effective for the improvement and some accident management measures are also possible by making use of the long grace period in GFRD. Luciano Burgazzi 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 383 SciTech Connect (OSTI) A novel, silicon crystal monochromator has been designed and tested for use on undulator and focused wiggler beamlines at third-generation synchrotron sources. The crystal utilizes a thin, partially transmitting diffracting element fabricated within a liquid-nitrogen cooled, monolithic block of silicon. This report summarizes the results from performance tests conducted at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) using a focused wiggler beam and at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) on an undulator beamline. These experiments indicate that a cryogenic crystal can handle the very high power and power density x-ray beams of modem synchrotrons with sub-arcsec thermal broadening of the rocking curve. The peak power density absorbed on the surface of the crystal at the ESRF exceeded go W/mm{sup 2} with an absorbed power of 166 W, this takes into account the spreading of the beam due to the Bragg angle of 11.4{degrees}. At the APS, the peak heat flux incident on the crystal was 1.5 W/mA/mm{sup 2} with a power of 6.1 W/mA for a 2.0 H x 2.5 V mm{sup 2} beam at an undulator gap of 11.1 mm and stored current up to 96 mA. Rogers, C.S.; Mills, D.M.; Lee, W.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T. 1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z 384 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract As an efficient measure for rational use of energy, the combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system plays an increasingly important role in commercial buildings in Japan. In this study, aiming at examining the influences of building type and climate condition on the introduction of CCHP systems, four representative commercial building categories (hotel, hospital, store and office) located in six major climate zones in Japan are compared and evaluated. In order to have a comprehensive understanding about the performances of the assumed CCHP systems, besides simple assessment from energy, economic and environmental aspects, a multi-criteria evaluation method has been employed for the final determination. According to the assessment results, the CCHP systems in hotels and hospitals enjoy better overall performances than those in stores and offices. On the other hand, the potentials of energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction of the CCHP systems in the mild climate zones are smaller than that in other climate zones. In addition, the performances of CCHP systems in stores and offices located in Kagoshima are superior to those in other cities; while, CCHP systems in hospitals and hotels located in Sapporo illustrate better overall performance. Qiong Wu; Hongbo Ren; Weijun Gao; Jianxing Ren 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 385 E-Print Network [OSTI] associated space cool- ing is essentially cost free. FIGURE B In hot and humid climates, both air conditioning and humidity control are required. The thermal out- put of a cogeneration unit provides the heat neces- sary to power an absorption chiller... absorption chiller/heaters are in operation within the U.S.; 10,000 tons are oper- ating in the Gulf Coast, a hot and humid climate area. Cogeneration saw a resurgence in the early 1980s, but its growth was limited mostly to in- dustrial plants... Phillips, J. 1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 386 Open Energy Info (EERE) Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a 387 SciTech Connect (OSTI) A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR) None 1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z 388 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) ...of desert solar energy farm with 30 percent conversion...85 percent of the solar farm energy now reflected back...Washington, D.C. 20550. Wind Power Martin Wolf (19...counting the cost of the offshore platforms, would thus...15 billion. If these wind generators were placed... John I. Yellott 1974-08-09T23:59:59.000Z 389 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) ...diameter of the turbine is about 60 meters. The Putnam wind generator installed...than 15,000 wind generat-ing...the cost of the offshore platforms, would...billion. If these wind generators were...15,000 wind turbines, and their cost... John I. Yellott 1974-08-09T23:59:59.000Z 390 SciTech Connect (OSTI) We report a microsecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near edge structure study using synchrotron radiation to dynamically detect structural phase transitions in Fe undergoing rapid heating along a quasi-isochoric path. Within a few ms, we observed two structural phase transitions, which transform the ambient bcc phase of Fe into the fcc phase, and then into the liquid phase. This example illustrates the opportunities offered by energy dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the study of matter under extreme dynamic conditions. Advanced simulations are compared to these data. Marini, C.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Occelli, F.; Torchio, R.; Recoules, V.; Loubeyre, P. [CEA, Bruyeres le Chatel, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France) 2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z 391 Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE] Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid 392 E-Print Network [OSTI] cooling or entropy injection (and/or redistribution) plays a central role in mediating the thermal in excess of observationally estab- lished limits. On the other hand, the simplest entropy-injection models consider models that marry radiative cooling with entropy injection, and confront model predictions Balogh, Michael L. 393 SciTech Connect (OSTI) External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium as a key severe accident management strategy can be achieved by flooding the reactor cavity during a severe accident. In this accident mitigation strategy, the decay heat removal capability depends on whether the imposed heat flux exceeds critical heat flux (CHF). To provide sufficient cooling for high-power reactors such as APR1400, there have been some R and D efforts to use the reactor vessel with micro-porous coating and nano-fluids boiling-induced coating. The dispersion stability of graphene-oxide nano-fluid in the chemical conditions of flooding water that includes boric acid, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was checked in terms of surface charge or zeta potential before the CHF experiments. Results showed that graphene-oxide nano-fluids were very stable under ERVC environment. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slide test section. The radius of the curvature is 0.1 m. The dimension of each part in the facility simulated the APR-1400. The heater was designed to produce the different heat flux. The magnitude of heat flux follows the one of the APR-1400 when the severe accident occurred. All tests were conducted under inlet subcooling 10 K. Graphene-oxide nano-fluids (concentration: 10 -4 V%) enhanced CHF limits up to about 20% at mass flux 50 kg/m{sup 2}s and 100 kg/m{sup 2}s in comparison with the results of the distilled water at same test condition. (authors) Park, S. D.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Bang, I. C. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology UNIST, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulasn Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of) 2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z 394 DOE Patents [OSTI] A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water. Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA) 1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 395 E-Print Network [OSTI] ??With over 40% of total energy use in the United States coming from buildings, it is clear that future conservation strategies must dedicate a significant… (more) Kirchhoff, Jason Paul 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 396 SciTech Connect (OSTI) This report describes the second year of study of aqueous-based working fluids that allow for air-cooled absorption chiller operation. The successful development of such fluids will eliminate the need for cooling towers in gas-fired chiller equipment for residential and unitary markets and possibly allow for building heating with absorber heat. Based on experimental results, a single primary candidate working fluid was selected for further study. The fluid was found to exhibit a potential absorber temperature increase of 10 C (18 F) or more. Apparatus for the determination of specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and absorber-film heat-transfer coefficient was constructed. The equilibrium vapor pressure and specific heat capacity of the primary candidate fluid were measured as a function of temperature and concentration. Langeliers, J. 1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z 397 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The report describes the third year of study of aqueous-based working fluids that will allow air-cooled absorption chiller operation. The successful development of such fluids will eliminate the need for cooling towers in gas-fired chiller equipment for residential and unitary markets and possibly allow for building heating with absorber heat. The thermophysical property measurements were completed and the vapor pressure and specific heat data were used to compute the enthalpy of LB621-H2O solutions. Solution film heat transfer coefficients were measured in the test sorber apparatus and a dramatic increase in film heat transfer was observed in the presence of heat transfer additives. Measured equilibrium and film heat transfer data were used in the single-stage absorption cycle computer model to analyze the potential performance of LB621-H2O; the analysis confirmed the superiority of LB621-H2O as a single-stage working fluid. In addition, thermal stability and corrosion rate tests demonstrated that LB621-H2O is stable and non-corrosive in a single-stage absorption chiller environment. Langeliers, J.; Chandler, T.; Rockenfeller, U. 1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z 398 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract This paper presents a methodology of exergy analysis for ammonia-lithium nitrate and ammonia-sodium thiocyanate absorption refrigeration cycle which applies a novel air-cooled type non-adiabatic absorber to improve both the coefficient of performance and exegetic efficiency of the system under air cooling condition. A modified entropy calculation method for NH3/NaSCN and NH3/LiNO3 solutions is presented in this literature and different results are obtained comparing to previous research. In addition to the variation of solution temperature and pressure from specific working state to the reference state, the variation of solution concentration, which was always neglected by previous researchers in ammonia/salt solution exergy calculation, has been taken into account while analyzing the least potential of ammonia/salt solution for doing useful work, and a corresponding approach for specific exergy calculation is presented. The effects of generator temperature, absorber outlet temperature, absorber efficiency and other system parameters on system exergetic efficiency have been discussed in this study. Analysis results indicate that relatively high system performance can be obtained by air-cooled type ammonia/salt absorption refrigeration cycles when non-adiabatic absorbers are applied in these systems. Dehua Cai; Guogeng He; Qiqi Tian; Weier Tang 2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 399 Open Energy Info (EERE) Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically 400 DOE Patents [OSTI] A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39). Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL) 2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 401 SciTech Connect (OSTI) We analyzed a data set of thermally induced changes in fractured rock permeability during a four-year heating (up to 200 C) and subsequent four-year cooling of a large volume, partially saturated and highly fractured volcanic tuff at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test, in Nevada, USA. Permeability estimates were derived from about 700 pneumatic (air-injection) tests, taken periodically at 44 packed-off borehole intervals during the heating and cooling cycle from November 1997 through November 2005. We analyzed air-permeability data by numerical modeling of thermally induced stress and moisture movements and their impact on air permeability within the highly fractured rock. Our analysis shows that changes in air permeability during the initial four-year heating period, which were limited to about one order of magnitude, were caused by the combined effects of thermal-mechanically-induced stress on fracture aperture and thermal-hydrologically-induced changes in fracture moisture content. At the end of the subsequent four-year cooling period, air-permeability decreases (to as low as 0.2 of initial) and increases (to as high as 1.8 of initial) were observed. By comparison to the calculated thermo-hydro-elastic model results, we identified these remaining increases or decreases in air permeability as irreversible changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). In this paper, we discuss the possibility that such fracture asperity shortening and associated decrease in fracture permeability might be enhanced by dissolution of highly stressed surface asperities over years of elevated stress and temperature. Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Min, K.-B.; Elsworth, D.; Tsang, Y. 2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z 402 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The following is a general description of the Burns and Roe study for Dover, Delaware. The study assesses the feasibility of district heating in Dover, Delaware, and develops a conceptual district heating system. The system would use the McKee Run Station, and a new boiler plant as the heat source, and the area surrounding the plant and the legislative areas as the heat load. The study assesses the available heat load for the city, determines the available heat from the McKee Run Station, and develops a conceptual distribution network and system implementation plan. The study analyzes the environmental impacts, institutional issues, and project economics of the conceptual system. 24 figs., 26 tabs. Not Available 1988-04-11T23:59:59.000Z 403 DOE Patents [OSTI] A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge. Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD) 2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 404 E-Print Network [OSTI] . Steady state heat transfer experiments for three channel cross sections, ribbed curved wall-to-smooth flat wall heat flux ratio of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and infinity, and mass flow rates corresponding to Reynolds numbers between 10 000 and 70 000... Spence, Rodney Brian 2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z 405 E-Print Network [OSTI] The steady-state air-to-air heat pump model presented in this thesis was developed from the first principles. The main objective was to develop a heat pump model that can be used as a part of larger simulation models, and ... Zakula, Tea 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 406 E-Print Network [OSTI] A serious problem of scale and other solid material settling in heat transfer equipment was threatening to shut down our ethylene plant. All evidence pointed to the cooling tower as the source of the contamination. Visual inspection of the cooling... Brenner, W. 1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 407 E-Print Network [OSTI] Heat-bath algorithmic cooling (AC) of spins is a theoretically powerful effective cooling approach, that (ideally) cools spins with low polarization exponentially better than cooling by reversible entropy manipulations alone. Here, we investigate the limitations and prospects of AC. For non-ideal and semioptimal AC, we study the impact of finite relaxation times of reset and computation spins on the achievable effective cooling. We derive, via simulations, the attainable cooling levels for given ratios of relaxation times using two semioptimal practicable algorithms. We expect this analysis to be valuable for the planning of future experiments. For ideal and optimal AC, we make use of lower bounds on the number of required reset steps, based on entropy considerations, to present important consequences of using AC as a tool for improving signal-to-noise ratio in liquid-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We discuss the potential use of AC for noninvasive clinical diagnosis and drug monitoring, where it may have significantly lower specific absorption rate (SAR) with respect to currently used methods. Gilles Brassard; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein 2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z 408 DOE Patents [OSTI] A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs. Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E. 1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z 409 DOE Patents [OSTI] A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL) 1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 410 DOE Patents [OSTI] A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig. Forsberg, C.W. 1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z 411 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) Abstract Three dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled module that contains prismatic Li-ion cells next to a special kind of aluminum pin fin heat sink whose heights of pin fins increase linearly through the width of the channel in air flow direction was studied for thermal management of Lithium-ion battery pack. The effects of pin fins arrangements, discharge rates, inlet air flow velocities, and inlet air temperatures on the battery were investigated. The results showed that despite of heat sinks with uniform pin fin heights that increase the standard deviation of the temperature field, using this kind of pin fin heat sink compare to the heat sink without pin fins not only decreases the bulk temperature inside the battery, but also decreases the standard deviation of the temperature field inside the battery as well. Increasing the inlet air temperature leads to decreasing the standard deviation of the temperature field while increases the maximum temperature of the battery. Furthermore, increasing the inlet air velocity first increases the standard deviation of the temperature field till reaches to the maximum point, and after that decreases. Also, increasing the inlet air velocity leads to decrease in the maximum temperature of the battery. Shahabeddin K. Mohammadian; Yuwen Zhang 2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 412 Open Energy Info (EERE) Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can 413 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The report describes the first year of study of aqueous-based working fluids that allow for air-cooled absorption chiller operation. The successful development of such fluids will eliminate the need for cooling towers in gas-fired chiller equipment for residential and unitary markets and possibly allow for building heating with absorbed heat. Several candidate fluids were investigated experimentally, and three were found to exhibit significant potential increases in absorber temperature of 13 to 27 F. Two candidates were retained for further investigation next year. A computer model for a single-stage absorption cycle was developed. The model will predict the cycle performance when additional fluid data from a test sorber are available. Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J. 1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z 414 DOE Patents [OSTI] A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere. Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA) 1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 415 Science Journals Connector (OSTI) In the present study, first and second laws of thermodynamics have been used to analyse the performance of an experimental absorption heat transformer for water purification. Irreversibilities, coefficients of performance (COP) and exergy coefficients of performance (ECOP) were determined as function of the mass flow of hot water supplied to the generator and as function of the overall thermal specific energy consumption (OSTEC) parameter defined in this paper. The results showed that the system irreversibilities increase meanwhile the coefficients of performance and the exergy coefficient of performance decrease with an increment of the mass flow of hot water supplied to the generator. Also it was shown that the system performance is better when the production of purified water increases due to the increment of the heat recycled to the generator and evaporator. Armando Huicochea; Wilfrido Rivera; Hiram Martínez; Javier Siqueiros; Erasmo Cadenas 2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 416 Open Energy Info (EERE) Water Cooling Water Cooling Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Other uses include cooling the barrels of machine guns, cooling of 417 E-Print Network [OSTI] on Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. SICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling Bisognano, J. 2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 418 E-Print Network [OSTI] .066 513 32 1381 0.33 IN 0.043 0.025 96 6 837 0.20 GP 0.16 0.093 801 50 837 0.20 AR - - 1121 70 1464 0.35 System Simulation The house had a direct expansion (DX) cooling system with heat pump both in EPlus and in DOE-2. This system controlled only... the cooling electricity consumption in all loading conditions in all models. The decreases in cooling electricity consumption with ground coupling were higher in EPlus GCS (38%- 100%) than in DOE-2 GCW (19%-95%) and in EPlus GCW (15%-91%). The highest... Andolsun, S.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. 419 SciTech Connect (OSTI) The National Security and Resources Study Center at LASL provides the basis for a general model used in this simulation. The NSRSC is a 59,000 ft/sup 2/ library and conference facility. A simplified model of the solar heating system is used. The adaptive optimal control technique is described and applied and the results are discussed. (MHR) Farris, D.R.; Melsa, J.L. 1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 420 E-Print Network [OSTI] energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility... Meckler, G. 1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 421 E-Print Network [OSTI] Ground-based 2.8--4.1$\\mu$m slit spectra of the nuclei of seven ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) that are classified optically as LINERs and have cool far-infrared colors are presented. All the nuclei show 3.3$\\mu$m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, with equivalent widths that are systematically lower than those in starburst galaxies. Strong 3.1$\\mu$m H$_{2}$O ice absorption, with optical depth greater than 0.6, is also detected in five nuclei, and 3.4$\\mu$m carbonaceous dust absorption is detected clearly in one of the five nuclei. It is quantitatively demonstrated that the large optical depths of the H$_{2}$O ice absorption in the five sources, and the 3.4$\\mu$m absorption in one source, are incompatible with a geometry in which the energy sources are spatially mixed with dust and molecular gas, as is expected for a typical starburst, but instead require that a large amount of nuclear dust (including ice-covered grains) and molecular gas be distributed in a screen in front of the 3--4$\\mu$m continuum-emitting sources. This geometrical requirement can naturally be met if the energy sources are more centrally concentrated than the nuclear dust and molecular gas. The low equivalent widths of the PAH emission compared to starbursts and the central concentration of the nuclear energy sources in these five ULIRGs are best explained by the presence of energetically important active galactic nuclei deeply buried in dust and molecular gas. Masatoshi Imanishi; Philip R. Maloney 2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z 422 E-Print Network [OSTI] the demand for cooling energy, urban trees indirectly reducesurfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improvethe energy savings and GHG benefits of cool roofs and tree Akbari, Hashem 2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 423 E-Print Network [OSTI] The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics. Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M. 2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 424 E-Print Network [OSTI] The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics. Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon 2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z 425 Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)] Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration... 426 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that combines air temperature and relative... 427 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures. 428 DOE Patents [OSTI] A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626) 1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 429 DOE Patents [OSTI] A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626) 1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 430 DOE Patents [OSTI] A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626) 1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 431 DOE Patents [OSTI] A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626) 1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 432 Open Energy Info (EERE) Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the 433 E-Print Network [OSTI] Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Daniel Alonso; Gerardo Adesso 2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z 434 E-Print Network [OSTI] of the EUROSUN 2008, 1st International Conference on Solar Heating, Cooling and Buildings, Lisbon, Portugal, 7 Â­ 10 October 2008. First Steps in the Cross-Comparison of Solar Resource Spatial Products in Europe M in complex climate conditions of mountains, along some coastal zones and in areas where solar radiation Boyer, Edmond 435 DOE Patents [OSTI] A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA) 1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 436 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Bands Campaign (RHUBC) D. Turner and E. Mlawer RHUBC Breakout Session 2008 ARM Science Team Meeting 13 March, 2008 Norfolk, Virginia Motivation * Radiative heating/cooling in the mid-troposphere modulate the vertical motions of the atmosphere - This heating/cooling occurs primarily in water vapor absorption bands that are opaque at the surface * Approximately 40% of the OLR comes from the far-IR * Until recently, the observational tools were not available to evaluate the accuracy of the far-IR radiative transfer models - Spectrally resolved far-IR radiances, accurate PWV * Need to validate both clear sky (WV) absorption and cirrus scattering properties in these normally opaque bands Scientific Objectives * Conduct clear sky radiative closure studies in order to reduce uncertainties 437 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) production and cooling energy savings from installation of a production and cooling energy savings from installation of a building-integrated photovoltaic roof on an office building Title Electricity production and cooling energy savings from installation of a building-integrated photovoltaic roof on an office building Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Craig P. Wray, William W. Delp, Peter Ly, Hashem Akbari, and Ronnen M. Levinson Journal Energy and Buildings Volume 56 Pagination 210 - 220 ISSN 0378-7788 Keywords Advanced Technology Demonstration, building design, Building heat transfer, cool roof, energy efficiency, Energy Performance of Buildings, energy savings, Energy Usage, energy use, Heat Island Abstract Reflective roofs can reduce demand for air conditioning and warming of the atmosphere. Roofs can also host photovoltaic (PV) modules that convert sunlight to electricity. In this study we assess the effects of installing a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) roof on an office building in Yuma, AZ. The system consists of thin film PV laminated to a white membrane, which lies above a layer of insulation. The solar absorptance of the roof decreased to 0.38 from 0.75 after installation of the BIPV, lowering summertime daily mean roof upper surface temperatures by about 5 Â°C. Summertime daily heat influx through the roof deck fell to Â±0.1 kWh/m2from 0.3-1.0 kWh/m2. However, summertime daily heat flux from the ventilated attic into the conditioned space was minimally affected by the BIPV, suggesting that the roof was decoupled from the conditioned space. Daily PV energy production was about 25% of building electrical energy use in the summer. For this building the primary benefit of the BIPV appeared to be its capacity to generate electricity and not its ability to reduce heat flows into the building. Building energy simulations were used to estimate the cooling energy savings and heating energy penalties for more typical buildings. 438 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to establish an Acid Rain Program to reduce the adverse effects of acidic deposition. The Act specifically stipulated that CEMS (continuous emissions monitoring systems) be used to measure the stack emissions under this program. Along with these rules, comes the task of the Stack Tester (Reference Method) to routinely perform RATA (Relative Accuracy Test Audit) tests on the installed CEMS. This paper presents a laboratory and field test sequence to evaluate the signal attenuation through the gas sample conditioning, water condensation removal process, using laminar flow impinger heat exchangers. This method is compared to the EPA CFR 40, Part 60, Appendix A, Method 6, glass impinger train, commonly used by RATA stack testers. CFR 40, Part 75 revisions as of the CAAA 1990, requires more stringent certification and CEMS performance standards. These standards are summarized and related to gas absorption in both the thermoelectric cooler heat exchanger and the Method 6 glass impinger train system. As an incentive to reduce the frequency of RATA tests required per year, emitters are encouraged to achieve relative accuracies of 7.5% or less compared to the reference method. This incentive requires better reference method test apparatus definition. This paper will explore these alternatives and provide test data for comparison to the currently available apparatus. Also discussed is the theory of Electronic Gas Sample Coolers and their practical application to the removal of water from stack gas. Baldwin, T. [Baldwin Environmental, Inc., Reno, NV (United States) 1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z 439 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating. Budney, G.S.; Childs, F. 1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 440 Open Energy Info (EERE) Technologies Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Power Plant Cooling Technologies Cooling Technologies Cooling tower at Steamboat Springs geothermal power plant in Steamboat Springs, NV. Power generation facilities that rely on thermal sources as their energy inputs such as Coal, Natural Gas, Geothermal, Concentrates Solar Power, and Nuclear require cooling technologies to reject the heat that is created. The second law of thermodynamics states: "No process can convert heat absorbed from a reservoir at one temperature directly into work without also rejecting heat to a cooler reservoir. That is, no heat engine is 100% efficient"[1] In the context of power generation from thermal energy, this means that any heat that is created must be rejected. Heat is most commonly rejected in Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "absorption cooling heating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta). While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta, they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set. We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. 441 DOE Patents [OSTI] A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled. Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James 2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z 442 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures. 443 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures. 444 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures. 445 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures. 446 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures. 447 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings. Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL] [ORNL 2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 448 E-Print Network [OSTI] of Radiative Heat Transfer, the P-3 Approximation”, AIAAMedia”, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 109, No. 3 (1987),Media”, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B, Fundamentals, Vol. Yuen, W W 2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 449 E-Print Network [OSTI] A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath. Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff 2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z 450 SciTech Connect (OSTI) Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling. Blaskiewicz, M. 2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z 451 Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search) cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Title Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Levinson, Ronnen M., and Hashem Akbari Journal Energy Efficiency Volume 3 Pagination 53-109 Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 1570-646X Keywords cool roof, Heat Island Abstract Cool roofs-roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission-lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes-new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980)-were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from$0.126/m2 in West Virginia to $1.14/m2 in Arizona ($0.356/m2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m2 in New York to 11.7 g/m2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m2 in California to 26.1 g/m2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 Î¼g/m2 in Alaska to 105 Î¼g/m2 in Alabama (61.2 Î¼g/m2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2.58 billion square meters of commercial building conditioned roof area in the USA would yield an annual cooling energy saving of 10.4 TWh; an annual heating energy penalty of 133 million therms; and an annual energy cost saving of \$735 million. It would also offer an annual CO2 reduction of 6.23 Mt, offsetting the annual CO2 emissions of 1.20 million typical cars or 25.4 typical peak power plants; an annual NOx reduction of 9.93 kt, offsetting the annual NOx emissions of 0.57 million cars or 65.7 peak power plants; an annual SO2 reduction of 25.6 kt, offsetting the annual SO2 emissions of 815 peak power plants; and an annual Hg reduction of 126 kg.

452

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of heat exchanger UA-values (adsorber/desorber, evaporator, and condenser) is investigated for an adsorption chiller, with consideration given to the thermal capacitance of the adsorber/desorber by means of a lumped-parameter cycle simulation model developed by the authors and co-workers for the single-stage silica gel-water adsorption chiller. The closed-cycle-type chiller, for use in air conditioning, is driven by low-grade waste heat (85 C [185 F]) and cooled by water at 31 C (88 F) and operates on relatively short cycle times (420 seconds adsorption/desorption; 30 second adsorber/desorber sensible cooling and heating). The results showed cycle performance to be considerably affected by the thermal capacitance and UA-value of the adsorber/desorber, which is attributed to the severe sensible cooling/heating requirements resulting from batched cycle operation. The model is also sensitive to the evaporator UA-value--but to a lesser extent. The condenser UA-value is the least sensitive parameter due to the working pair adsorption behavior in the temperature range defined for desorption and condensation.

Boelman, E.C.; Saha, B.B.; Kashiwagi, Takao [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy transfer to acoustic phonons is the dominant low-temperature cooling channel of electrons in a crystal. For cold neutral graphene we find that the weak cooling power of its acoustic modes relative to their heat capacity leads to a power-law decay of the electronic temperature when far from equilibrium. For heavily doped graphene a high electronic temperature is shown to initially decrease linearly with time at a rate proportional to n3/2 with n being the electronic density. The temperature at which cooling via optical phonon emission begins to dominate depends on graphene carrier density.

R. Bistritzer and A. H. MacDonald

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

454

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many advanced'' absorption cycles have been proposed during the current century. Of the hundreds of absorption cycles which have been patented throughout the world, all commercially manufactured products for air conditioning buildings have been variations of just two basic absorption cycles: single-effect and condenser-coupled double-effect cycles. The relatively low cooling coefficients of performance (COPs) inherent in single-effect and double-effect cycles limits the economic applicability of absorption air conditioners (chillers) in the United States. A triple-effect absorption chiller cycle is discussed. This cycle uses two condensers and two absorbers to achieve the triple effect.'' Depending on the absorption fluids selected, this triple-effect cycle is predicted to improve cooling COPs by 18% to 60% compared with the equivalent double-effect cycle. This performance improvement is obtained without increasing the total amount of heat-transfer surface area needed for the heat exchangers. A comparison between the calculated performances of a double-effect cycle and a triple-effect cycle (both using ammonia-water (NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O) as the absorption fluid pair) is presented. The triple-effect cycle is predicted to have an 18% higher cooling COP (1.41 compared with 1.2 for a double-effect), lower pressure (47.70 atm (701 psi) instead of 68.05 atm (1000 psi)), significantly reduced pumping power (less than one-half that of the double-effect cycle), and potentially lower construction cost (33% less total heat exchange needed). Practical implications for this triple-effect cycle are discussed. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

DeVault, R.C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

Schultz, Mark D.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

456

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller and predicts its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shutoff period. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified in this study. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steady-state value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation. The evaluation of the residual capacity in the shut-off period will yield more realistic estimates of chiller COP for a chiller satisfying dynamic space cooling load.

Anand, D.K.; Allen, R.W.; Kumar, B.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller and predicts its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shutoff period. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified in this study. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steadystate value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation. The evaluation of the residual capacity in the shut-off period will yield more realistic estimates of chiller COP for a chiller satisfying dynamic space cooling load.

Anand, D.K.; Allen, R.W.; Kumar, B.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

Matson, J.

459

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for district heating was examined in terms of a total (regional) system and two subsystems of overlapping scales. The basis of the economic analysis of district heating was that the utility's electric and gas customers would not be economically burdened by the implementation of district heating, and that any incremental costs due to district heating (e.g. district heating capital and operating costs, replacement electric power, abandonment of unamortized gas mains) would be charged to district heating customers.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development in the field of refrigeration and cooling systems based on absorption cycles has attained its own internal dynamic in the last decade. A major obstacle for developing model is the lack of available component specifications. These specifications are commonly proprietary of the chiller's manufacturers and normally the available information is not sufficient. This work presented a double-effect parallel-flow-type steam absorption chiller model based on thermodynamic and energy equations. The chiller studied is 1250 RT (Refrigeration Tons) using lithium bromide -water as working pair. The mathematical equations that govern the operation of the steam absorption chiller are developed and from the available design data the values of the overall heat transfer coefficient multiplied by the heat exchanger surface area and the characteristics of each component of the absorption chiller at the design point are calculated. For thermo physical and thermodynamic properties for lithium bromide-water solution set of computationally efficient formulations are used. The model gives the required information about temperature concentration and flow rate at each state point of the system. The model calculates the heat load at each component as well as the performance of the system.

Mojahid Sid Ahmed Mohammed Salih Ahmed; Syed Ihtsham Ul-Haq Gilani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As one of the most attractive reactor types, The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is designed to be passively safe with the incorporation of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). In this paper, a RELAP5-3D simulation model is set up based...

Wu, Huali

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

462

between model and test results * Developed innovative air-cooled heat sink concept - Heat transfer area doubled - Pressure loss decreased by 50% - Colder air directed to...

463

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate radiation-pressure cavity-cooling of a mechanical mode of a micromirror starting from cryogenic temperatures. To achieve that, a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity (F\\approx 2200) was actively stabilized inside a continuous-flow 4He cryostat. We observed optical cooling of the fundamental mode of a 50mu x 50 mu x 5.4 mu singly-clamped micromirror at \\omega_m=3.5 MHz from 35 K to approx. 290 mK. This corresponds to a thermal occupation factor of \\approx 1x10^4. The cooling performance is only limited by the mechanical quality and by the optical finesse of the system. Heating effects, e.g. due to absorption of photons in the micromirror, could not be observed. These results represent a next step towards cavity-cooling a mechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state.

Simon Groeblacher; Sylvain Gigan; Hannes R. Boehm; Anton Zeilinger; Markus Aspelmeyer

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

464

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Description This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. Duration 2:17 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Credit Energy Department Video MR. : Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is or what it's made of, but your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. Think about it this way: In the summertime, we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter clothes reflect rather than absorb the heat of the sun. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is

465

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The proposed solar thermal based combined power and cooling cycle can be operated from low grade energy such as heat and well suited for domestic and industrial needs. The hybridization of vapour absorption refrigeration (VAR) and Kalina cycle system (KCS) results power in addition to cooling. The proposed plant has two turbines with super heater and reheater to recover more heat from the solar thermal collectors. The refrigerant vapour from the high pressure turbine is reheated for low pressure turbine which gives 9.3 kW of extra power. The total power and cooling are 14.05 kW and 73.58 kW respectively at 0.42 absorber concentration and 99% of turbine concentration and 150 °C of solar collector temperature. The invention also highlights the flexibility in the operation of system on only power mode or on only cooling mode. Thermodynamic analysis has been carried out with a focus on separator temperature and turbine concentration.

R. Shankar; T. Srinivas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 CX-003216: Categorical Exclusion Determination Air-Cooled...

467

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test J.mechanical analysis of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test –scale heater test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. Int J Rock

Rutqvist, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

469

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......generator, and an electric-heated absorption...tion; and (d) an electric-heated absorption...arsenic electrodeless discharge lamp and a deuterium arc background corrector...of 20 mm/min. An electric-heated absorption......

Dennis H. Cox

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Review of Thermally Activated Technologies, July 2004 Use...

471