National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for absorption condensation adsorption

  1. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1993-04-27

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  2. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  3. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies of CO adsorption on titania thin films and gold clusters supported on titania 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Kevin Rodney

    1999-01-01

    absorptions at 2180cm?¹ and 2110cm?¹. The 2180cm?¹ peak is assigned to CO adsorbed on Ti?? sites The absorption at 2110cm?¹ appears to have at least two component peaks that may be from CO adsorbed on top of gold clusters and CO adsorbed at Au-TiO? interface...

  4. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  5. Effects of Dissolved Carbonate on Arsenate Adsorption and Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    kinetics, pseudo-equilibrium adsorption/titration experiments, extended X-ray absorption fine structure(V) adsorption. As(V) adsorption kinetics [4 g L-1, [As(V)]0 ) 1.5 mM and I ) 0.01 M NaCl] showed carbonate metalloid in oxic-reduced terrestrial/ aquatic environments derived from indigenous sources (e

  6. Condensing vs. Non-Condensing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    new construction * More expensive * More maintenance * Newer designs not as well proven * More parts to break * Condensate disposal * Retrofits are complex * Orphaned WH THANK YOU...

  7. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence...

  8. Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its...

  9. Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarkisian, Paul H. (Watertown, MA); Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.

  10. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    Based Performance Analysis of a Solar Absorption Cooling andExperimental Investigation of a Solar Adsorption ChillerKreith, Jan F. Kreider. "Solar Cooling." Principles of Solar

  11. Methanol adsorption on graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption energies and orientation of methanol on graphene are determined from first-principles density functional calculations. We employ the well-tested vdW-DF method that seamlessly includes dispersion interactions with all of the more close-ranged interactions that result in bonds like the covalent and hydrogen bonds. The adsorption of a single methanol molecule and small methanol clusters on graphene are studied at various coverages. Adsorption in clusters or at high coverages (less than a monolayer) is found to be preferable, with the methanol C-O axis approximately parallel to the plane of graphene. The adsorption energies calculated with vdW-DF are compared with previous DFT-D and MP2-based calculations for single methanol adsorption on flakes of graphene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For the high coverage adsorption energies we also find reasonably good agreement with previous desorption measurements.

  12. Deformation of Silica Aerogel During Fluid Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Herman; James Day; John Beamish

    2005-06-30

    Aerogels are very compliant materials - even small stresses can lead to large deformations. In this paper we present measurements of the linear deformation of high porosity aerogels during adsorption of low surface tension fluids, performed using a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT). We show that the degree of deformation of the aerogel during capillary condensation scales with the surface tension, and extract the bulk modulus of the gel from the data. Furthermore we suggest limits on safe temperatures for filling and emptying low density aerogels with helium.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Re-Condensation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatia, P.; Kozman, T.

    2004-01-01

    of Condensate = %CR [%] Return Steam Flow Rate = SFR [lbs/hr] Installation Labor Rate = LR [$] Length of Condensate = L [ft] Pipe Cost to install condensate = Ccp [$] pipes Condensate Load to be = CL....00044 × (P) 2 + 0.154 × (P) + 1.767 Equation (1) SFR = TS × (%CR) × (%FS) Equation (2) Ccp = [62.838 × LN (SFR) + 107.14] × [1 + 0.5 × ((LR ? 60) / 60)] × L Equation (3) Use: LR = 30 if unknown & Internal Labor...

  15. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Shiaguo (Champaign, IL); Lu, Yonggi (Urbana, IL); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud (Champaign, IL)

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  16. Thermodynamic formalism of water uptakes on solid porous adsorbents for adsorption cooling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Baichuan; Chakraborty, Anutosh, E-mail: AChakraborty@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-05-19

    This Letter presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the amount of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks, and silica gel for the development of an advanced adsorption chiller. This formalism is developed from the rigor of the partition distribution function of each water vapor adsorptive site on adsorbents and the condensation approximation of adsorptive water molecules and is validated with experimental data. An interesting and useful finding has been established that the proposed model is thermodynamically connected with the pore structures of adsorbent materials, and the water vapor uptake highly depends on the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero surface coverage and the adsorptive sites of the adsorbent materials. Employing the proposed model, the thermodynamic trends of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents can be estimated.

  17. Polystyrene/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends in the Presence of Cyclohexane: Selective Solvent Washing or Equilibrium Adsorption?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and inverse gas chromatography, coupled adsorption and DNA separation,9,10 more recent investigations have also focused on adsorption at so-called "soft" surfaces, where the substrate is an organic material such as a polymer or lipid membrane.11

  18. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  19. A hybrid absorption-adsorption method to efficiently capture carbon |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonforsupernovae2 Publications6 Smart Energyfor GasApolymerization

  20. Hybrid absorption-adsorption carbon capture | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat Pumps AnAbout Energy.govHonorsAbout

  1. Effect of hydrocarbon adsorption on the wettability of rare earth oxide ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Daniel J.; Miljkovic, Nenad; Sack, Jean; Queeney, John; Wang, Evelyn N., E-mail: enwang@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Enright, Ryan [Thermal Management Research Group, Efficient Energy Transfer (etaET) Department, Bell Labs Ireland, Dublin 15 (Ireland)

    2014-07-07

    Vapor condensation is routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat, with dropwise condensation exhibiting a 5???7x heat transfer improvement compared to filmwise condensation. However, state-of-the-art techniques to promote dropwise condensation rely on functional hydrophobic coatings, which are often not robust and therefore undesirable for industrial implementation. Natural surface contamination due to hydrocarbon adsorption, particularly on noble metals, has been explored as an alternative approach to realize stable dropwise condensing surfaces. While noble metals are prohibitively expensive, the recent discovery of robust rare earth oxide (REO) hydrophobicity has generated interest for dropwise condensation applications due to material costs approaching 1% of gold; however, the underlying mechanism of REO hydrophobicity remains under debate. In this work, we show through careful experiments and modeling that REO hydrophobicity occurs due to the same hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism seen previously on noble metals. To investigate adsorption dynamics, we studied holmia and ceria REOs, along with control samples of gold and silica, via X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic time-resolved contact angle measurements. The contact angle and surface carbon percent started at ?0 on in-situ argon-plasma-cleaned samples and increased asymptotically over time after exposure to laboratory air, with the rare earth oxides displaying hydrophobic (>90°) advancing contact angle behavior at long times (>4 days). The results indicate that REOs are in fact hydrophilic when clean and become hydrophobic due to hydrocarbon adsorption. Furthermore, this study provides insight into how REOs can be used to promote stable dropwise condensation, which is important for the development of enhanced phase change surfaces.

  2. Ammonia Process by Pressure Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Felix Jegede

    2010-12-27

    The overall objective of the project is to design, develop and demonstrate a technically feasible and commercially viable system to produce ammonia along with recovery of the products by adsorption separation methods and significantly decrease the energy requirement in ammonia production. This is achieved through a significantly more efficient ammonia psa recovery system. The new ammonia recovery system receives the reactor effluents and achieves complete ammonia recovery, (which completely eliminates the energy intensive refrigeration and condensation system currently used in ammonia production). It also recovers the unused reactants and recycles them back to the reactor, free of potential reactor contaminants, and without the need for re-compression and re-heat of recycle stream thereby further saving more energy. The result is a significantly lower energy consumption, along with capital cost savings.

  3. Nucleation and condensation model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, H.; Lyman, J.; Breshears, D.; Zerkle, D.; Wilson, C.; Hewitt, C.; Gallegos, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is a final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to bring to maturity a theoretical and experimental capability of the Laboratory to perform basic research in nucleation and condensation of water vapor. This report provides a general description of this capability and summarizes specific work in two areas: development and use of a combustive flow facility (CFF) to measure water monomer depletion in a supersonic nozzle and nucleation pulse experiments for investigation of transport effects on water droplet growth dynamics. The later work was performed in collaboration with Dr. Wehrner Strey in Goettingen, Germany. Preliminary water absorption data from the CFF experiment are presented. The nucleation pulse data is described along with an analysis that shows under the condition of the experiment the growth rate of water droplets is limited by monomer diffusion.

  4. Evidence for a disorder driven phase transition in the condensation of 4He in aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabien Bonnet; Thierry Lambert; Benjamin Cross; Laurent Guyon; Florence Despetis; Laurent Puech; Pierre-Etienne Wolf

    2008-02-21

    We report on thermodynamic and optical measurements of the condensation process of $^4$He in three silica aerogels of different microstructures. For the two base-catalysed aerogels, the temperature dependence of the shape of adsorption isotherms and of the morphology of the condensation process show evidence of a disorder driven transition, in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. This transition is not observed for a neutral-catalysed aerogel, which we interpret as due to a larger disorder in this case.

  5. Condensation Energy of a Spacetime Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clovis Jacinto de Matos; Pavol Valko

    2010-12-17

    Starting from an analogy between the Planck-Einstein scale and the dual length scales in Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, and assuming that space-time is a condensate of neutral fermionic particles with Planck mass, we derive the baryonic mass of the universe. In that theoretical framework baryonic matter appears to be associated with the condensation energy gained by spacetime in the transition from its normal (symetric) to its (less symetric) superconducting-like phase. It is shown however that the critical transition temperature cannot be the Planck temperature. Thus leaving open the enigma of the microscopic description of spacetime at quantum level.

  6. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  7. Electrohydrodynamically enhanced condensation heat transfer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wawzyniak, Markus

    1993-01-01

    In a condenser the thickness of the liquid condensate film covering the cooled surface constitutes a resistance to the heat transfer. By establishing a non uniform electric field in the vicinity of the condensation surface the extraction of liquid...

  8. Leptogenesis via Higgs condensate relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, L; Pearce, L; Kusenko, A

    2015-01-01

    decays of the Higgs condensate, and we present a detailedthe time-dependent Higgs condensate and the lepton- number-we include the effects of Higgs condensate decay, with both

  9. Random sequential adsorption of tetramers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micha? Cie?la

    2013-06-12

    Adsorption of tetramer built of four identical spheres was studied numerically using the Random Sequential Adsorption (RSA) algorithm. Tetramers were adsorbed on a two dimensional, flat and homogeneous surface. Two different models of the adsorbate were investigated: a rhomboid and a square one; monomer centres were put on vertices of rhomboids and squares, respectively. Numerical simulations allow to establish the maximal random coverage ratio as well as the Available Surface Function (ASF), which is crucial for determining kinetics of the adsorption process. These results were compared with data obtained experimentally for KfrA plasmid adsorption. Additionally, the density autocorrelation function was measured.

  10. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

    1983-01-01

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

  11. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  12. Mechanism of dropwise condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umur, Aydin

    1963-01-01

    From a study of surface phenomena, information is obtained about conditions under which net condensation can occur. An experimental examination of the surface, using an optical method capable of detecting thin films of ...

  13. Ghost condensate busting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilic, Neven; Tupper, Gary B; Viollier, Raoul D E-mail: gary.tupper@uct.ac.za

    2008-09-15

    Applying the Thomas-Fermi approximation to renormalizable field theories, we construct ghost condensation models that are free of the instabilities associated with violations of the null-energy condition.

  14. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  15. S9 -Kinetics & Mechanism of Metal Sorption/Release on Natural Materials ADSORPTION MECHANISMS OF PB ON AMORPHOUS SILICA: AN XAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    S9 - Kinetics & Mechanism of Metal Sorption/Release on Natural Materials ADSORPTION MECHANISMS metals in soil and aquatic systems, fundamental knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the adsorption the sorption behavior and mechanisms of Pb on amorphous silica using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS

  16. The adsorption behavior of octafluoropropane at the water/gas interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebel, Friederike; Paulus, Michael; Nase, Julia Bieder, Steffen; Kiesel, Irena; Tolan, Metin

    2014-12-14

    We studied the adsorption behavior of the gas octafluoropropane at the water/gas interface as a function of different pressures. In a custom-made measurement cell, the gas pressure was varied in a range between 1 bar and close to the condensation pressure of octafluoropropane. The electron density profiles of the adsorption layers show that the layer thickness increases with pressure. The evolution of the layer electron density indicates that the bulk electron density is reached if a layer consisting of more than one monolayer of octafluoropropane is adsorbed on the water surface.

  17. Quantum Condensed Matter | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

  18. Quantum Condensed Matter | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

  19. Economical Condensing Turbines? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Turbines? by J.E.Dean, P.E. Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown 1 and extraction/condensing. ? Letdown turbines reduce the pressure... of the incoming steam to one or more pressures and generate power very efficiently, assuming that all the letdown steam has a use. Two caveats: ? Letdown turbines produce power based upon steam requirements and not based upon power requirements, and ? If all...

  20. Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirsner, W.

    2000-01-01

    mer-- i.e. fast moving steam picking up a slug of condensate and hurling it downstream against an elbow or a valve. Condensation Induced Waterham mer can be 100 times more powerful than this type of waterhammer. Because it does not require flowing... to seek relief from the Owner. A compromise was negotiated after the first week- steam would be de-energized at midnight before each workday, asbestos abators would start work at 4:00 a.m. and finish by noontime at which time steam would be restored...

  1. The Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

    2010-02-01

    We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

  2. Condensate removal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maddox, James W. (Newport News, VA); Berger, David D. (Alexandria, VA)

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  3. Water Adsorption in Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furukawa, H; Gandara, F; Zhang, YB; Jiang, JC; Queen, WL; Hudson, MR; Yaghi, OM

    2014-03-19

    Water adsorption in porous materials is important for many applications such as dehumidification, thermal batteries, and delivery of drinking water in remote areas. In this study, we have identified three criteria for achieving high performing porous materials for water adsorption. These criteria deal with condensation pressure of water in the pores, uptake capacity, and recyclability and water stability of the material. In search of an excellently performing porous material, we have studied and compared the water adsorption properties of 23 materials, 20 of which are metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Among the MOFs are 10 zirconium(IV) MOFs with a subset of these, MOF-801-SC (single crystal form), -802, -805, -806, -808, -812, and -841 reported for the first time. MOF-801-P (microcrystalline powder form) was reported earlier and studied here for its water adsorption properties. MOF-812 was only made and structurally characterized but not examined for water adsorption because it is a byproduct of MOF-841 synthesis. All the new zirconium MOFs are made from the Zr6O4(OH)(4)(-CO2)(n) secondary building units (n = 6, 8, 10, or 12) and variously shaped carboxyl organic linkers to make extended porous frameworks. The permanent porosity of all 23 materials was confirmed and their water adsorption measured to reveal that MOF-801-P and MOF-841 are the highest performers based on the three criteria stated above; they are water stable, do not lose capacity after five adsorption/desorption cycles, and are easily regenerated at room temperature. An X-ray single-crystal study and a powder neutron diffraction study reveal the position of the water adsorption sites in MOF-801 and highlight the importance of the intermolecular interaction between adsorbed water molecules within the pores.

  4. Surface structural ion adsorption modeling of competitive binding of oxyanions by metal (hydr)oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-02-01

    An important challenge in surface complexation models (SCM) is to connect the molecular microscopic reality to macroscopic adsorption phenomena. This study elucidates the primary factor controlling the adsorption process by analyzing the adsorption and competition of PO{sub 4}, AsO{sub 4}, and SeO{sub 3}. The authors show that the structure of the surface-complex acting in the dominant electrostatic field can be ascertained as the primary controlling adsorption factor. The surface species of arsenate are identical with those of phosphate and the adsorption behavior is very similar. On the basis of the selenite adsorption, The authors show that the commonly used 1pK models are incapable to incorporate in the adsorption modeling the correct bidentate binding mechanism found by spectroscopy. The use of the bidentate mechanism leads to a proton-oxyanion ratio and corresponding pH dependence that are too large. The inappropriate intrinsic charge attribution to the primary surface groups and the condensation of the inner sphere surface complex to a point charge are responsible for this behavior of commonly used 2pK models. Both key factors are differently defined in the charge distributed multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) model and are based in this model on a surface structural approach. The CD-MUSIC model can successfully describe the macroscopic adsorption phenomena using the surface speciation and binding mechanisms as found by spectroscopy. The model is also able to predict the anion competition well. The charge distribution in the interface is in agreement with the observed structure of surface complexes.

  5. Methane adsorption on Devonian shales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Fan-Chang

    1992-01-01

    METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis by FAN-CHANG LI Submitted to thc Office of Graclua4e Sturiics of texas AgiM Ulllvel'sliy in pari, ial fulfilhuent of t, hc requirements I'or t, hc degree of ii IAS'I'Elf OF SCIL'NCE December... 1992 Major Subject, : Chemical Engineering METHANE ADSORPTION ON DEVONIAN SHALES A Thesis l&y I'AN-CHANC LI Approved as to style and contcut by: A. T. 'vtratson (Chair of Commitl. ee) John C. Slattery (Member) Bruce . Hcrhcrt (Memhcr...

  6. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  7. Evidence for a disorder induced phase transition in the condensation of 4He in aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thierry Lambert; Florence Despetis; Laurent Puech; Pierre-Etienne Wolf

    2006-12-27

    We report on thermodynamic and optical measurements of the condensation process of $^4$He in two silica aerogels of same porosity 95%, but different microstructures resulting from different pH during synthesis. For a base-catalyzed aerogel, the temperature dependence of the shape of adsorption isotherms and of the morphology of the condensation process show evidence of a disorder induced transition,in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. This transition is not observed for a neutral-catalyzed aerogel, which we interpret as due to a larger disorder in this case.

  8. Tritium Specific Adsorption Simulation Utilizing the OSPREY Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica Rutledge; Lawrence Tavlarides; Ronghong Lin; Austin Ladshaw

    2013-09-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University, and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. This report is discusses the development of a tritium specific adsorption model. Using the OSPREY model and integrating it with a fundamental level isotherm model developed under and experimental data provided by the NEUP grant, the tritium specific adsorption model was developed.

  9. Condensates in Relativistic Scalar Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guy D. Moore

    2015-11-02

    Scalar field theory with large infrared initial occupancy develops very large deep-infrared occupancy, which locally resembles a Bose-Einstein condensate. We study the structure and spatial coherence of this condensate. The O(N) symmetric theory with N>1 is qualitatively different than N=1. We explain the thermodynamical reason why, for N>1, the condensate locally carries nearly maximal conserved charge density. We also show how this property impedes the condensate's decay, and we show that it prevents the condensate from ever becoming fully spatially homogeneous. For N condensate can carry topological defects, but these do not appear to control the large-k tail in its power spectrum, which is the same for N=8 where there are no topological defects.

  10. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

  11. Materials/Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDSMaterials andMaterials/Condensed Matter Print

  12. Condensed Matter and Magnet Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    helimagnets and the development of a cryogen-free apparatus for spherical neutron polarimetry." Read more... Cutting-edge condensed matter physics research, high magnetic field...

  13. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francois Gelis

    2010-09-06

    In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.

  14. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiencies than conventional boilers by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases.

  15. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santala, Teuvo J. (Attleboro, MA)

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  16. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  17. Formaldehyde Absorption toward W51

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Bennett, C.L.; Petuchowski, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    to Astrophysical Journal Formaldehyde Absorption toward W51Number DE-AC03-76SF00098. FORMALDEHYDE ABSORPTION TOWARD W51We have measured formaldehyde (H2CO) absorption toward the

  18. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  19. Adsorption Thermodynamics and Intrinsic Activation Parameters...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adsorption Thermodynamics and Intrinsic Activation Parameters for Monomolecular Cracking of n-Alkanes on Bronsted Acid Sites in Zeolites Previous Next List Amber Janda, Bess...

  20. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  1. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  2. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  3. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  4. Photopyroelectric deconvolution of bulk and surface optical-absorption and nonradiative energy conversion efficiency spectra in Ti:A1203 crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    for quantitatively. When dealing with relatively highly absorbing condensed phases, bulk absorptions usually dominate and surface process- ing (cutting and polishing) optimization. In this work the earlier monolithic PPES model

  5. Effects of adsorption and capillarity on injection in vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sta. Maria, R.B.; Horne, R.N.

    1996-04-10

    One major motivation for the study of the effects of adsorption in geothermal reservoirs is the phenomenon known as {open_quotes}The Geysers Paradox{close_quotes}. Data from The Geysers field suggest that some water must be stored in the reservoir in a condensed phase even though the prevailing reservoir pressure and temperature dictate superheated conditions. Physical adsorption of steam onto rocks and the thermodynamics of curved interfaces prevailing in the pore spaces of the rock matrix can explain the apparent paradox. These mechanisms make it possible for water and steam to coexist in conditions we normally refer to as {open_quotes}superheated{close_quotes} based on our concept of flat interface thermodynamics (e.g., the Steam Table).

  6. Strategies in Optimizing Condensate Return 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.

    2003-01-01

    good drainage. ? Install receiver vents of the proper size. Receiver vent lines that are too small restrict the loss of flash steam. This in turn results in hotter condensate return temperatures and potential problems with cavitation of electric...

  7. Condensate System Troubleshooting and Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    the amount of alkalinity in boiler feedwater, and thus, the amount of carbon dioxide generated by alkalinity breakdown. 3. Condensate polishing, that is, using ion exchange resin to remove and filter hardness and corrosion products, is an effective... for this decision is the individual plant's trea ment performance and operating history. Another benefit of filming amines noted some users is an improvement in heat transfer, due to the film promoting nuc ate condensation. by e An alternative to filming...

  8. Gas-Adsorption Processes - An Update 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, G. E., II

    1984-01-01

    Gas-adsorption processes are commonly used in the petroleum, natural-gas, petrochemical and other industries. It is important to be aware of those process situations which favor the use of adsorption, and although no hard and fast rules can be given...

  9. Thermodynamics of Iodide Adsorption at the Instantaneous Air...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermodynamics of Iodide Adsorption at the Instantaneous Air-Water Interface. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermodynamics of Iodide Adsorption at the Instantaneous...

  10. Stabilizing Topological Phases in Graphene via Random Adsorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stabilizing Topological Phases in Graphene via Random Adsorption Prev Next Title: Stabilizing Topological Phases in Graphene via Random Adsorption Authors: Jiang, Hua ; Qiao,...

  11. Transition metals on the (0001) surface of graphite: Fundamental aspects of adsorption, diffusion, and morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appy, David [Ames Laboratory; Lei, Huaping [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory; Tringides, Michael C [Ames Laboratory; Liu, Da-Jiang [Ames Laboratory; Evans, James W [Ames Laboratory; Thiel, Patricia A [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01

    In this article, we review basic information about the interaction of transition metal atoms with the (0 0 0 1) surface of graphite, especially fundamental phenomena related to growth. Those phenomena involve adatom-surface bonding, diffusion, morphology of metal clusters, interactions with steps and sputter-induced defects, condensation, and desorption. General traits emerge which have not been summarized previously. Some of these features are rather surprising when compared with metal-on-metal adsorption and growth. Opportunities for future work are pointed out.

  12. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  13. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  14. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of dual-phase titanate/titania Nanoparticles and their adsorption and photocatalytic Performances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu Hua; Gong, Dangguo; Tang, Yuxin; Ho, Jeffery Weng Chye; Tay, Yee Yan; Lau, Wei Siew; Wijaya, Olivia; Lim, Jiexiang; Chen, Zhong, E-mail: aszchen@ntu.edu.sg

    2014-06-01

    Dual phase titanate/titania nanoparticles undergo phase transformation gradually with the increase of solvothermal synthesis temperature from 100 °C to 200 °C, and eventually are fully transformed into anatase TiO{sub 2}. The crystal structure change results in the changes of optical absorption, sensitizer/dopant formation and surface area of the materials which finally affect the overall dye removal ability. Reactions under dark and light have been conducted to distinguish the contributions of surface adsorption from photocatalytic degradation. The sample synthesized at 160 °C (S160) shows the best performances for both adsorption under dark and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The adsorption mechanism for S160 is determined as monolayer adsorption based on the adsorption isotherm test under dark condition, and an impressive adsorption capacity of 162.19 mg/g is achieved. For the photocatalytic application, this sample at 0.1 g/L loading is also able to degrade 20 ppm MB within 6 hours under the visible light (>420 nm) condition. - Graphical abstract: The effect of solvothermal synthesis temperature on the formation and dye removal performance of dual phase titanate/titania nanoparticles was unveiled and optimized. - Highlights: • Low temperature one-pot solvothermal synthesis of dual-phase photocatalysts. • Correlation of the synthesis temperature is made with the phase composition. • Adsorption isotherm, kinetics, photocatalytic degradation were studied. • Synthesis at 160 °C yields the best material for adsorption of MB in dark. • The same sample also shows the best visible light degradation of MB.

  15. Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1 Per Uvdal,2 and Peter Jakob1,a 1 the adsorption of methanol on the clean Ru 0001 surface at T 80 K. Thereby, clear evidence for intact adsorption upon adsorption of methanol on Ru 0001 , even at low temperatures, as well as partial recombinative

  16. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Steam sterilizers are heated by steam that condenses and...

  17. Leptogenesis via neutrino production during Higgs condensate relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, L; Yang, L; Kusenko, A; Peloso, M

    2015-01-01

    of the time-dependent condensate, the vacuum state caneffective when the Higgs condensate decays rapidly and attime-dependent scalar condensate to the lepton (and baryon)

  18. Return Condensate to the Boiler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Return Condensate to the Boiler Return Condensate to the Boiler This tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems...

  19. Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)

    2009-01-01

    Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were compared. Heat transfer ...

  20. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V. [Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  1. Adsorption characteristics of siloxanes in landfill gas by the adsorption equilibrium test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Sangchul; Namkoong, Wan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong-Hee; Park, Jin-Kyu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Namhoon, E-mail: nhlee@anyang.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang 5-Dong, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Equilibrium test was attempted to evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxane. • L2 had higher removal efficiency in carbon compared to noncarbon adsorbents. • Total adsorption capacity of siloxane was 300 mg/g by coal activated carbon. • Adsorption characteristics rely on size of siloxane molecule and adsorbent pore. • Conversion of siloxane was caused by adsorption of noncarbon adsorbents. - Abstract: Due to the increase in energy cost by constantly high oil prices and the obligation to reduce greenhouse effect gases, landfill gas is frequently used as an alternative energy source for producing heat and electricity. Most of landfill gas utility facilities, however, are experiencing problems controlling siloxanes from landfill gas as their catalytic oxidizers are becoming fouled by silicon dioxide dust. To evaluate adsorption characteristics of siloxanes, an adsorption equilibrium test was conducted and parameters in the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were analyzed. Coconut activated carbon (CA1), coal activated carbon (CA2), impregnated activated carbon (CA3), silicagel (NCA1), and activated alumina (NCA2) were used for the adsorption of the mixed siloxane which contained hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). L2 had higher removal efficiency in noncarbon adsorbents compared to carbon adsorbents. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm demonstrated that coconut based CA1 and CA3 provided higher adsorption capacity on L2. And CA2 and NCA1 provided higher adsorption capacity on D4 and D5. Based on the experimental results, L2, D4, and D5 were converted by adsorption and desorption in noncarbon adsorbents. Adsorption affinity of siloxane is considered to be affect by the pore size distribution of the adsorbents and by the molecular size of each siloxane.

  2. Tripol condensate polishing - operational experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swainsbury, D. [Mission Energy Management Australia, Victoria (Australia)

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a brief outline of the Mission Energy Management Australia Company who operate and maintain the Loy Yang B Power Station in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia. Details of the plant configuration, the water/steam circuit and cycle chemistry are discussed. The arrangement of the TRIPOL Condensate Polishing Plant and it`s operational modes are examined. Results of the first twelve months operation of the TRIPOL plant are detailed. Levels of crud removal during early commissioning phases employing the pre-filter are presented. Typical parameters achieved during a simulated condenser leak and an operational run beyond the ammonia break point are also documented.

  3. Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Vijayakumar, M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Martin, P F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-09

    The adsorption behavior of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives was examined on a set of microporous metal organic framework (MOF) sorbents and another set of hierarchical mesoporous MOFs. The microporous M-DOBDC (M = Ni, Co) showed a saturation uptake capacity for R12 of over 4 mmol/g at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous MOF MIL-101 showed an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching over 14 mmol/g at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption were found to generally correlate with the polarizability of the refrigerant with R12 > R22 > R13 > R14 > methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting MOFs for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling and refrigeration applications.

  4. Adsorption and transport of pyrithiobac in soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matocha, Christopher John

    1996-01-01

    adsorbents (Gonzales bentonite, Georgia kaolinite, goethite, and Michigan peat) and four soils (Houston Black c, Hidalgo sl, Orelia scl, and Ships sic) having a wide range of physical and chemical properties. Adsorption isotherms were developed...

  5. Oral Drug Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamashita, Shinji

    2006-10-26

    Stability 0 20 40 60 80 100 25 10 5 1 0.5 size? r 0 (?m) Fr action absor b ed in hum an (% ) Peff =5.0 Peff =3.0 Peff =1.0 Peff =0.5 Peff =0.1 Solubility? Cs = 1.0 (?g/ml) Effect of micronization on intestinal absorption of poorly soluble drugs Peff... ?? permeability to human intestine? (cm/sec x 10 -4 ) 8 Effect of Solubility on intestinal absorption of poorly soluble drugs Cs (?g/ml) 0 5 10 15 50 Fr action absor b ed in hum an (% ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Peff =5.0 Peff =3.0 Peff =1.0 Peff =0.5 Peff =0.1 r 0 = 1...

  6. Oil removal from water via adsorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, William Edward

    1973-01-01

    WILLIAM EDWARD JACOBS 1974 OIL REMOVAL FROM WATER VIA ADSORPTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD JACOBS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1973 Major Subject: Civil Engineering OIL REMOVAL FROM WATER VIA ADSORPTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD JACOBS Approved as to style and content by: C airman of Committee ea o Department m er Member Memb December 1973 ABSTRACT Oil...

  7. Forced-convection condensation inside tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied analytically. The von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied to the condensate flow, pressure drops were calculated using the Lockhart- Martinelli ...

  8. Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport by Ananth P. Chikkatur Submitted to the Department of Physics in partial fulfillment Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

  9. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taekoon Lee

    2015-03-27

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  10. Vortices in condensate mixtures Christophe Josserand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vortices in condensate mixtures Christophe Josserand Laboratoire de Mod´elisation en M Statistique de l'Ecole normale sup´erieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris C´edex 05, France In a condensate made of this observation. Thus if the two condensates are in slow relative translation one over the other, the composite

  11. Understanding Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Carbon Nanotube Arrays: Molecular Simulation and Adsorption Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jayant K.

    such as unused oil fields and coal mines. In addition to storage, separating carbon dioxide from other gaseous and inner surface adsorption fill interstitial region fill inner region. However, at higher distances, d > 0.5 nm, the sequence changes the following: inner surface adsorption + partial outer surface

  12. Absorption Features in Spectra of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suleimanov, V.; Hambaryan, V.; Neuhaeuser, R.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Pavlov, G. G.; Adelsberg, M. van; Werner, K.

    2011-09-21

    The X-ray spectra of some magnetized isolated neutron stars (NSs) show absorption features with equivalent widths (EWs) of 50-200 eV, whose nature is not yet well known.To explain the prominent absorption features in the soft X-ray spectra of the highly magnetized (B{approx}10{sup 14} G) X-ray dim isolated NSs (XDINSs), we theoretically investigate different NS local surface models, including naked condensed iron surfaces and partially ionized hydrogen model atmospheres, with semi-infinite and thin atmospheres above the condensed surface. We also developed a code for computing light curves and integral emergent spectra of magnetized neutron stars with various temperature and magnetic field distributions over the NS surface. We compare the general properties of the computed and observed light curves and integral spectra for XDINS RBS 1223 and conclude that the observations can be explained by a thin hydrogen atmosphere above the condensed iron surface, while the presence of a strong toroidal magnetic field component on the XDINS surface is unlikely.We suggest that the harmonically spaced absorption features in the soft X-ray spectrum of the central compact object (CCO) 1E 1207.4-5209 (hereafter 1E 1207) correspond to peaks in the energy dependence of the free-free opacity in a quantizing magnetic field, known as quantum oscillations. To explore observable properties of these quantum oscillations, we calculate models of hydrogen NS atmospheres with B{approx}10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} G(i.e., electron cyclotron energy E{sub c,e}{approx}0.1-1 keV) and T{sub eff} = 1-3 MK. Such conditions are thought to be typical for 1E 1207. We show that observable features at the electron cyclotron harmonics with EWs {approx_equal}100-200 eV can arise due to these quantum oscillations.

  13. Method and apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Drost, Kevin; Vishwanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2004-06-08

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. In another aspect, the apparatus or methods utilize heat exchange channels of varying lengths that have volumes controlled to provide equal heat fluxes. Methods of fuel cell startup are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  14. Apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  15. Method for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  16. Absorption in dielectric models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Churchill, R J

    2015-01-01

    We develop a classical microscopic model of a dielectric. The model features nonlinear interaction terms between polarizable dipoles and lattice vibrations. The lattice vibrations are found to act as a pseudo-reservoir, giving broadband absorption of electromagnetic radiation without the addition of damping terms in the dynamics. The effective permittivity is calculated using a perturbative iteration method and is found to have the form associated with real dielectrics. Spatial dispersion is naturally included in the model and we also calculate the wavevector dependence of the permittivity.

  17. Structural Changes in Self-Catalyzed Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on 1,4-Phenylene Diisocyanide Modified Au(111)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kestell, John; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Cheng, Lanxia; Garvey, Michael; Bennett, Dennis W.; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2015-07-23

    The self-accelerated adsorption of CO on 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI)-derived oligomers on Au(111) is explored by reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. PDI incorporates gold adatoms from the Au(111) surface to form one-dimensional —(Au–PDI)n— chains that can also connect between gold nanoparticles on mica to form a conductive pathway between them. CO adsorption occurs in two stages; it first adsorbs adjacent to the oligomers that move to optimize CO adsorption. Further CO exposure induces PDI decoordination to form Au–PDI adatom complexes thereby causing the conductivity of a PDI-linked gold nanoparticle array on mica to decrease to act as a chemicallymore »drive molecular switch. This simple system enables the adsorption process to be explored in detail. DFT calculations reveal that both the —(Au–PDI)n— oligomer chain and the Au–PDI adatom complex are stabilized by coadsorbed CO. A kinetic “foot-in-the-door” model is proposed in which fluctuations in PDI coordination allow CO to diffuse into the gap between gold adatoms to prevent the PDI from reattaching, thereby allowing additional CO to adsorb, to provide kinetic model for allosteric CO adsorption on PDI-covered gold.« less

  18. Adsorption of gases on carbon molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Vijayalakshmi, S. (Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Ganesh, K.S. (Hindustan Petroleum Corp. Ltd., Bombay (India))

    1994-12-01

    Adsorption on carbon molecular sieves (CMS) prepared by coke deposition has become an interesting area of adsorption due to its microporous nature and favorable separation factor on size and shape selectivity basis for many gaseous systems. In the present work CMS was synthesized from coconut shell through three major steps, namely, carbonization, activation, and coke deposition by hydrocarbon cracking. The crushed, washed, and sieved granules of coconut shell (particle size 2--3 mm) were pretreated with sodium silicate solution and oven-dried at 150 C to create the inorganic sites necessary for coke deposition. Carbonization and activation of the dried granules were carried out at 800 C, for 30 min each. The activated char thus produced was subjected to hydrocarbon cracking at 600 C for periods varying from 30 to 180 min. The product samples were characterized in terms of adsorption isotherm, kinetic adsorption curve, surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and characteristic energy for adsorption by using O[sub 2], N[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], C[sub 3]H[sub 6], and CH[sub 4].

  19. Chiral condensate in neutron matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kaiser; W. Weise

    2008-08-06

    A recent chiral perturbation theory calculation of the in-medium quark condensate $$ is extended to the isospin-asymmetric case of pure neutron matter. In contrast to the behavior in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter we find only small deviations from the linear density approximation. This feature originates primarily from the reduced weight factors (e.g. 1/6 for the dominant contributions) of the $2\\pi$-exchange mechanisms in pure neutron matter. Our result suggests therefore that the tendencies for chiral symmetry restoration are actually favored in systems with large neutron excess (e.g. neutron stars). We also analyze the behavior of the density-dependent quark condensate $(\\rho_n)$ in the chiral limit $m_\\pi\\to 0$.

  20. Polymer Bose--Einstein Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Castellanos; G. Chacon-Acosta

    2013-01-22

    In this work we analyze a non--interacting one dimensional polymer Bose--Einstein condensate in an harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose--Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for $\\lambda^{2}$ up to $ \\lesssim 10 ^{-16}$m$^2$. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  1. Holographic Superconductors with Various Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary T. Horowitz; Matthew M. Roberts

    2008-11-04

    We extend earlier treatments of holographic superconductors by studying cases where operators of different dimension condense in both 2+1 and 3+1 superconductors. We also compute a correlation length. We find surprising regularities in quantities such as $\\omega_g/T_c$ where $\\omega_g$ is the gap in the frequency dependent conductivity. In special cases, new bound states arise corresponding to vector normal modes of the dual near-extremal black holes.

  2. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis

    2012-11-26

    We review the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, that describes the gluon content of a high energy hadron or nucleus, in the saturation regime. The emphasis is put on applications to high energy heavy ion collisions. After describing initial state factorization, we discuss the Glasma phase, that precedes the formation of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. We end this review with a presentation of recent developments in the study of the isotropization and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma.

  3. Extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David (Fairfield, CT); McGuire, James (Pasadena, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

  4. Adsorption behavior of copper and zinc in soils: Influence of pH on adsorption characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Msaky, J.J. ); Calvet, R. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors studied adsorption of copper and zinc on three different soils: a brown silty soil, an Oxisol, and a Podzol. They determined the amounts adsorbed and the shapes of adsorption isotherms as a function of the pH of the adsorbing medium at a constant ionic strength. The adsorbed amount-pH relationship depended strongly on the natures of the metallic cation and of the soil. The pH greatly influenced the characteristics of adsorption isotherms. They based interpretation on the variations with the pH of both adsorbent affinity for the metal in relation to the surface electric charge and chemical speciation in solution. The adsorption mechanism in the Oxisol probably involves monohydroxylated cations but is more determined by bivalent cations in the brown silty soil and the Podzol. From a general point of view, adsorption of copper and zinc cannot be represented with a single adsorption constant, but should be described by adsorption isotherms obtained at various pH values.

  5. Nano-Scale Elastic Properties Due to Montmorillonite Water Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebrahimi, Davoud

    Smectites are an important group of clay minerals that experience swelling upon water adsorption. This paper uses molecular dynamics with the CLAYFF force field to simulate isothermal isobaric water adsorption of interlayer ...

  6. Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Wednesday, 29 March 2006 00:00 Turning a...

  7. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  8. Factors affecting the adsorption of xenon on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underhill, D.W.; DiCello, D.C.; Scaglia, L.A.; Watson, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    The presence of water vapor was found to interfere strongly with the dynamic adsorption of /sup 133/Xe on coconut-base activated charcoal. The percent loss in the xenon adsorption coefficient was similar to values reported earlier for the adsorption of krypton on humidified charcoal. Attempts to increase the adsorption of xenon by (a) using a petroleum-based adsorbent with an extremely high surface area and (b) by impregnation of the adsorbent with iodine were not successful.

  9. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-06-15

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

  10. Understanding H isotope adsorption and absorption of Al-alloys using modeling and experiments (LDRD: #165724)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Donald K.; Zhou, Xiaowang; Karnesky, Richard A.; Kolasinski, Robert; Foster, Michael E.; Thurmer, Konrad; Chao, Paul; Epperly, Ethan Nicholas; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan M.; Sills, Ryan B.

    2015-09-01

    Current austenitic stainless steel storage reservoirs for hydrogen isotopes (e.g. deuterium and tritium) have performance and operational life-limiting interactions (e.g. embrittlement) with H-isotopes. Aluminum alloys (e.g.AA2219), alternatively, have very low H-isotope solubilities, suggesting high resistance towards aging vulnerabilities. This report summarizes the work performed during the life of the Lab Directed Research and Development in the Nuclear Weapons investment area (165724), and provides invaluable modeling and experimental insights into the interactions of H isotopes with surfaces and bulk AlCu-alloys. The modeling work establishes and builds a multi-scale framework which includes: a density functional theory informed bond-order potential for classical molecular dynamics (MD), and subsequent use of MD simulations to inform defect level dislocation dynamics models. Furthermore, low energy ion scattering and thermal desorption spectroscopy experiments are performed to validate these models and add greater physical understanding to them.

  11. Novel metal oxide nanocomposites for oxygen storage, sulfur dioxide adsorption and hydrogen sulfide absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeney, Jason T. (Jason Thomas), 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly stringent regulations on automotive emissions have resulted in the need for improved pollution control technology. To reduce mobile emissions, researchers have investigated alternatives such as lean-bum engines ...

  12. Cesium Adsorption on Clay Minerals: An EXAFS Spectroscopic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    Cesium Adsorption on Clay Minerals: An EXAFS Spectroscopic Investigation B E N J A M I N C . B O, Arizona 85721-0038 Cesium adsorption on the clay minerals vermiculite and montmorilloniteisdescribedasafunctionofsurfacecoverage using extended X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Cesium (Cs) possessed

  13. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  14. Axions: Bose Einstein Condensate or Classical Field?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacha Davidson

    2014-12-20

    The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligeable.

  15. Adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons on zeolites: the eects of the zeolite framework on adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    Adsorption of unsaturated hydrocarbons on zeolites: the eects of the zeolite framework industrially important reactions, namely the polymerization and hydrocarbon cracking processes [9 as a starting point for a more comprehensive study on hydrocarbon cracking and ethylene epoxidation reactions

  16. Adsorption modeling for off-gas treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladshaw, A.; Sharma, K.; Yiacoumi, S.; Tsouris, C. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0459 (United States); De Paoli, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6181 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Off-gas generated from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel contains a mixture of several radioactive gases including {sup 129}I{sub 2}, {sup 85}Kr, HTO, and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Over the past few decades, various separation and recovery processes have been studied for capturing these gases. Adsorption data for gaseous mixtures of species can be difficult to determine experimentally. Therefore, procedures capable of predicting the adsorption behavior of mixtures need to be developed from the individual isotherms of each of the pure species. A particular isotherm model of interest for the pure species is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption isotherm. This model contains an adjustable number of parameters and will therefore describe a wide range of adsorption isotherms for a variety of components. A code has been developed in C++ to perform the non-linear regression analysis necessary for the determination of the isotherm parameters, as well as the least number of parameters needed to describe an entire set of data. (authors)

  17. The effect of entropy on macroions adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felipe Jimenez-Angeles; Marcelo Lozada-Cassou

    2003-03-25

    We study macroion adsorption on planar surfaces, through a simple model. The importance of entropy in the interfacial phenomena is stressed. Our results are in qualitative agreement with available computer simulations and experimental results on charge reversal and self-assembling at interfaces.

  18. Can Spacetime be a Condensate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. L. Hu

    2005-05-21

    We explore further the proposal that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of some fundamental theories of the microscopic structure of spacetime and matter, i.e., spacetime described by a differentiable manifold is an emergent entity and the metric or connection forms are collective variables valid only at the low energy, long wavelength limit of such micro-theories. In this view it is more relevant to find ways to deduce the microscopic ingredients of spacetime and matter from their macroscopic attributes than to find ways to quantize general relativity because it would only give us the equivalent of phonon physics, not the equivalents of atoms or quantum electrodyanmics. It may turn out that spacetime is merely a representation of collective state of matter in some limiting regime of interactions, which is the view expressed by Sakharov. In this talk, working within the conceptual framework of geometro-hydrodynamics, we suggest a new way to look at the nature of spacetime inspired by Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) physics. We ask the question whether spacetime could be a condensate, even without the knowledge of what the `atom of spacetime' is. We begin with a summary of the main themes for this new interpretation of cosmology and spacetime physics, and the `bottom-up' approach to quantum gravity. We then describe the `Bosenova' experiment of controlled collapse of a BEC and our cosmology-inspired interpretation of its results. We discuss the meaning of a condensate in different context. We explore how far this idea can sustain, its advantages and pitfalls, and its implications on the basic tenets of physics and existing programs of quantum gravity.

  19. Alleviation of effective permeability reduction of gas-condensate due to condensate buildup near wellbore 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carballo Salas, Jose Gilberto

    2006-04-12

    When the reservoir pressure is decreased below dew point pressure of the gas near the wellbore, gas-condensate wells start to decrease production because condensate is separated from the gas around the wellbore causing a decrease in gas relative...

  20. Analysis of condensate banking dynamics in a gas condensate reservoir under different injection schemes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia

    2002-01-01

    condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...

  1. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  2. ,"Pennsylvania Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  3. ,"Nebraska Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  4. ,"Federal Offshore, Pacific (California) Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  5. Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

  6. ,"Michigan Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  7. ,"Kentucky Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  8. ,"Wyoming Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  9. ,"Arkansas Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  10. ,"Alabama Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  11. ,"Miscellaneous Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  12. ,"California Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  13. ,"Mississippi Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  14. ,"Colorado Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  15. ,"Louisiana Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  16. ,"Montana Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  17. ,"Oklahoma Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  18. ,"Florida Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  19. Considerations When Selecting a Condensing Economizer | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer Steam System Survey Guide Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition...

  20. Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2007-01-08

    Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

  1. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Institut d'Electronique et de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe de Physique, Cite scientifique, avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B. [Institut d'Electronique et de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe de Physique, Cite scientifique, avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  2. The Condensate from Torus Knots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gorsky; A. Milekhin; N. Sopenko

    2015-06-22

    We discuss recently formulated instanton-torus knot duality in $\\Omega$-deformed 5D SQED on $\\mathbb{R}^4 \\times S^1$ focusing at the microscopic aspects of the condensate formation in the instanton ensemble. Using the chain of dualities and geometric transitions we embed the SQED with a surface defect into the $SU(2)$ SQCD with $N_f=4$ and identify the numbers $(n,m)$ of the torus $T_{n,m}$ knot as instanton charge and electric charge. The HOMFLY torus knot invariants in the fundamental representation provide entropic factor in the condensate of the massless flavor counting the degeneracy of the instanton--W-boson web with instanton and electric numbers $(n,m)$ but different spin and flavor content. Using the inverse geometrical transition we explain how our approach is related to the evaluation of the HOMFLY invariants in terms of Wilson loop in 3d CS theory. The reduction to 4D theory is briefly considered and some analogy with baryon vertex is conjectured.

  3. Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing interference between two Bose condensates [1]. They were created by cooling atoms the condensates expand for 40 milliseconds and overlap (see figure). This demonstrates that Bose condensed atoms

  4. The adsorption of water on Cu2O and Al2O3 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xingyi; Herranz, Tirma; Weis, Christoph; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-06-27

    The initial stages of water condensation, approximately 6 molecular layers, on two oxide surfaces, Cu{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, have been investigated by using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at relative humidity values (RH) from 0 to >90%. Water adsorbs first dissociatively on oxygen vacancies producing adsorbed hydroxyl groups in a stoichiometric reaction: O{sub lattic} + vacancies + H{sub 2}O = 2OH. The reaction is completed at {approx}1% RH and is followed by adsorption of molecular water. The thickness of the water film grows with increasing RH. The first monolayer is completed at {approx}15% RH on both oxides and is followed by a second layer at 35-40% RH. At 90% RH, about 6 layers of H{sub 2}O film have been formed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  5. Quark condensate in two-flavor QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas DeGrand; Zhaofeng Liu; Stefan Schaefer

    2006-11-03

    We compute the condensate in QCD with two flavors of dynamical fermions using numerical simulation. The simulations use overlap fermions, and the condensate is extracted by fitting the distribution of low lying eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in sectors of fixed topological charge to the predictions of Random Matrix Theory.

  6. Parallel Condensing System As A Heat Sink For Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhtar, S. Z.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional heat sink technologies of use the condenser/cooling tower arrangement or an air cooled condenser for condensing exhaust steam from steam turbines. Each of these two systems have certain advantages as well as disadvantages. This paper...

  7. Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Dynamics in A Chaotic Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, Roxanne Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Smith, Bose-Einstein Condensates in Dilute Gases (CambridgeDipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Dynamics in A ChaoticDipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Dynamics in A Chaotic

  8. Quark condensate for various heavy flavors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri Antonov; Jose Emilio F. T. Ribeiro

    2012-10-04

    The quark condensate is calculated within the world-line effective-action formalism, by using for the Wilson loop an ansatz provided by the stochastic vacuum model. Starting with the relation between the quark and the gluon condensates in the heavy-quark limit, we diminish the current quark mass down to the value of the inverse vacuum correlation length, finding in this way a 64%-decrease in the absolute value of the quark condensate. In particular, we find that the conventional formula for the heavy-quark condensate cannot be applied to the c-quark, and that the corrections to this formula can reach 23% even in the case of the b-quark. We also demonstrate that, for an exponential parametrization of the two-point correlation function of gluonic field strengths, the quark condensate does not depend on the non-confining non-perturbative interactions of the stochastic background Yang-Mills fields.

  9. Light front distribution of the chiral condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Chang; Craig D. Roberts; Sebastian M. Schmidt

    2013-09-19

    The pseudoscalar projection of the pion's Poincare'-covariant Bethe-Salpeter amplitude onto the light-front may be understood to provide the probability distribution of the chiral condensate within the pion. Unlike the parton distribution amplitudes usually considered and as befitting a collective effect, this condensate distribution receives contributions from all Fock space components of the pion's light-front wave-function. We compute this condensate distribution using the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) framework and show the result to be a model-independent feature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Our analysis establishes that this condensate is concentrated in the neighbourhood of the boundaries of the distribution's domain of support. It thereby confirms the dominant role played by many-particle Fock states within the pion's light-front wave function in generating the chiral condensate on the light-front and verifies that light-front longitudinal zero modes do not play a material role in that process.

  10. Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat...

  11. Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured...

  12. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Uninsulated steam distribution and condensate return lines are a constant source of wasted energy. The table shows typical...

  13. Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 * August 2004 Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Inspect the condensate traps and determine if they are operating properly. * Review your condensate removal...

  14. Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Authors: Qu, Xiaopeng 1 ;...

  15. Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's...

  16. Return Condensate to the Boiler, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Actions Reduce operating costs through maximizing the return of hot condensate to the boiler. Consider the following actions: If a condensate return system is absent,...

  17. Multisite adsorption of cadmium on goethite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1996-11-10

    Recently a new general ion adsorption model has been developed for ion binding to mineral surfaces (Hiemstra and van Riemsdijk, 1996). The model uses the Pauling concept of charge distribution (CD) and is an extension of the multi-site complexation (MUSIC) approach. In the CD-MUSIC model the charge of an adsorbing ion that forms an inner sphere complex is distributed over its ligands, which are present in two different electrostatic planes. In this paper the authors have applied the CD-MUSIC model to the adsorption of metal cations, using an extended data set for cadmium adsorbing on goethite. The adsorption of cadmium and the cadmium-proton exchange ratio were measured as function of metal ion concentration, pH, and ionic strength. The data could be described well, taking into account the surface heterogeneity resulting from the presence of two different crystal planes (the dominant 110 face and the minor 021 face). The surface species used in the model are consistent with recent EXAFS data. In accordance with the EXAFS results, high-affinity complexes at the 021 face were used in the model.

  18. Adsorptive separation of propylene-propane mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaervelin, H.; Fair, J.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1993-10-01

    The separation of propylene-propane mixtures is of great commercial importance and is carried out by fractional distillation. It is claimed to be the most energy-intensive distillation practiced in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to describe experimental work that suggests a practical alternative to distillation for separating the C[sub 3] hydrocarbons: adsorption. As studied, the process involves three adsorptive steps: initial separation with molecular sieves with heavy dilution with an inert gas; separation of propylene and propane separately from the inert gas, using activated carbon; and drying of the product streams with any of several available desiccants. The research information presented here deals with the initial step and includes both equilibrium and kinetic data. Isotherms are provided for propylene and propane adsorbed on three zeolites, activated alumina, silica gel, and coconut-based activated carbon. Breakthrough data are provided for both adsorption and regeneration steps for the zeolites, which were found to be superior to the other adsorbents for breakthrough separations. A flow diagram for the complete proposed process is included.

  19. Adsorption of soft particles at fluid interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Lucio Isa; Eric R. Dufresne

    2015-07-14

    Soft particles can be better emulsifiers than hard particles because they stretch at fluid interfaces. This deformation can increase adsorption energies by orders of magnitude relative to rigid particles. The deformation of a particle at an interface is governed by a competition of bulk elasticity and surface tension. When particles are partially wet by the two liquids, deformation is localized within a material-dependent distance $L$ from the contact line. At the contact line, the particle morphology is given by a balance of surface tensions. When the particle radius $R \\ll L$, the particle adopts a lenticular shape identical to that of an adsorbed fluid droplet. Particle deformations can be elastic or plastic, depending on the relative values of the Young modulus, $E$, and yield stress, $\\sigma_p$. When surface tensions favour complete spreading of the particles at the interface, plastic deformation can lead to unusual fried-egg morphologies. When deformable particles have surface properties that are very similar to one liquid phase, adsorption can be extremely sensitive to small changes of their affinity for the other liquid phase. These findings have implications for the adsorption of microgel particles at fluid interfaces and the performance of stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsions.

  20. Helium adsorption in silica aerogel near the liquid-vapor critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Herman; James Day; John Beamish

    2005-05-18

    We have investigated the adsorption and desorption of helium near its liquid-vapor critical point in silica aerogels with porosities between 95% and 98%. We used a capacitive measurement technique which allowed us to probe the helium density inside the aerogel directly, even though the samples were surrounded by bulk helium. The aerogel's very low thermal conductivity resulted in long equilibration times so we monitored the pressure and the helium density, both inside the aerogel and in the surrounding bulk, and waited at each point until all had stabilized. Our measurements were made at temperatures far from the critical point, where a well defined liquid-vapor interface exists, and at temperatures up to the bulk critical point. Hysteresis between adsorption and desorption isotherms persisted to temperatures close to the liquid-vapor critical point and there was no sign of an equilibrium liquid-vapor transition once the hysteresis disappeared. Many features of our isotherms can be described in terms of capillary condensation, although this picture becomes less applicable as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached and it is unclear how it can be applied to aerogels, whose tenuous structure includes a wide range of length scales.

  1. Charcoal-methanol adsorption refrigerator powered by a compound parabolic concentrating solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headley, O.StC.; Kothdiwala, A.F.; McDoom, I.A. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago))

    1994-08-01

    A compound parabolic concentrating solar collector (CPC) of concentration ratio 3.9 and aperture area 2.0 m[sup 2] was used to power an intermittent solid adsorption refrigerator and ice maker using activated charcoal (carbon) as the adsorbing medium and methanol as the working fluid. The copper tube receiver of the CPC was packed with 2.5 kg of imported adsorbent 207E3, which was only utilized when the performance of activated charcoal (ACJ1, produced from local coconut shells) was found to be inferior to the imported adsorbent. Up to 1 kg of ice at an evaporator temperature of [minus]6[degrees]C was produced, with the net solar coefficient of performance (COP) being of the order of 0.02. Maximum receiver/adsorbent temperature recorded was 154[degrees]C on a day when the insolation was 26.8 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]. Temperatures in excess of 150[degrees]C are undesirable since they favour the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether, a noncondensable gas which inhibits both condensation and adsorption. The major advantage of this system is its ability to produce ice even on overcast days (insolation [approximately] 10 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]).

  2. Bose-Einstein Condensate general relativistic stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. H. Chavanis; T. Harko

    2011-08-19

    We analyze the possibility that due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate. To study the condensate we use the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with arbitrary non-linearity. By introducing the Madelung representation of the wave function, we formulate the dynamics of the system in terms of the continuity equation and of the hydrodynamic Euler equations. The non-relativistic and Newtonian Bose-Einstein gravitational condensate can be described as a gas, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state. In the case of a condensate with quartic non-linearity, the equation of state is polytropic with index one. In the framework of the Thomas-Fermi approximation the structure of the Newtonian gravitational condensate is described by the Lane-Emden equation, which can be exactly solved. The case of the rotating condensate is also discussed. General relativistic configurations with quartic non-linearity are studied numerically with both non-relativistic and relativistic equations of state, and the maximum mass of the stable configuration is determined. Condensates with particle masses of the order of two neutron masses (Cooper pair) and scattering length of the order of 10-20 fm have maximum masses of the order of 2 M_sun, maximum central density of the order of 0.1-0.3 10^16 g/cm^3 and minimum radii in the range of 10-20 km. In this way we obtain a large class of stable astrophysical objects, whose basic astrophysical parameters (mass and radius) sensitively depend on the mass of the condensed particle, and on the scattering length. We also propose that the recently observed neutron stars with masses in the range of 2-2.4 M_sun are Bose-Einstein Condensate stars.

  3. CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

    2010-10-07

    Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

  4. QCD condensates in ADS/QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacopo Bechi

    2009-09-25

    This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate.

  5. Deconfinement phase transition and the quark condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian S. Fischer

    2009-07-27

    We study the dual quark condensate as a signal for the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of QCD. This order parameter for center symmetry has been defined recently by Bilgici et al. within the framework of lattice QCD. In this work we determine the ordinary and the dual quark condensate with functional methods using a formulation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the quark propagator on a torus. The temperature dependence of these condensates serves to investigate the interplay between the chiral and deconfinement transitions of quenched QCD.

  6. The Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larry McLerran

    2008-04-10

    These two lectures concern the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma. These are forms of matter which might be studied in high energy hadronic collisions. The Color Glass Condensate is high energy density gluonic matter. It constitutes the part of a hadron wavefunction important for high energy processes. The Glasma is matter produced from the collision of two high energy hadrons. Both types of matter are associated with coherent fields. The Color Glass Condensate is static and related to a hadron wavefunction where the glasma is transient and evolves quickly after a collision. I present the properties of such matter, and some aspects of what is known of their properties.

  7. Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, R.; Miyashita, W.; Yoneyama, K.; Okuda, Y. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid {sup 4}He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

  8. Removal of carbonyl sulfide using activated carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, M.L.; Rosenberk, R.S. [University of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Wastewater treatment plant odors are caused by compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptans, and carbonyl sulfide (COS). One of the most efficient odor control processes is activated carbon adsorption; however, very few studies have been conducted on COS adsorption. COS is not only an odor causing compound but is also listed in the Clean Air Act as a hazardous air pollutant. Objectives of this study were to determine the following: (1) the adsorption capacity of 3 different carbons for COS removal; (2) the impact of relative humidity (RH) on COS adsorption; (3) the extent of competitive adsorption of COS in the presence of H{sub 2}S; and (4) whether ammonia injection would increase COS adsorption capacity. Vapor phase react (VPR; reactivated), BPL (bituminous coal-based), and Centaur (physically modified to enhance H{sub 2}S adsorption) carbons manufactured by Calgon Carbon Corp. were tested in three laboratory-scale columns. It was found that the adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon for COS was higher than the other two carbons, regardless of RH. As humidity increased, the percentage of decrease in adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon, however, was greater than the other two carbons. The carbon adsorption capacity for COS decreased in proportion to the percentage of H{sub 2}S in the gas stream. More adsorption sites appear to be available to H{sub 2}S, a smaller molecule. Ammonia, which has been found to increase H{sub 2}S adsorption capacity, did not increase the capacity for COS.

  9. Carbon Capture Turned Upside Down: High-Temperature Adsorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture Turned Upside Down: High-Temperature Adsorption & Low-Temperature Desorption (HALD) Previous Next List Joos, Lennart; Lejaeghere, Kurt; Huck, Johanna M.; Van...

  10. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson 12 MGMT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES aerogel; iodine...

  11. Selective gas adsorption and unique phase transition properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selective gas adsorption and unique phase transition properties in a stable magnesium metal-organic framework constructed from infinite metal chains Citation Details In-Document...

  12. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-Document Search Title: Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products,...

  13. COMPUTER MODELING OF NUCLIDE ADSORPTION ON GEOLOGIC MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    11899 G COMPUTER MODELING OF NUCLIDE ADSORPTION ON GEOLOGICdefined as the amount of nuclide adsorbed per gram of claydivided by the amount of nuclide per milliliter of solution,

  14. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyoo-Chul Park; Philseok Kim; Neil He; Joanna Aizenberg

    2015-01-14

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared to superhydrophobic surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and innovative design of bumps can be applied to lead enhanced performance in various phase change applications including water harvesting.

  15. Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$ in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for $\\mu_I>{m_\\pi}/{2}$ under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with $T$ is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with $T$ at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We thus argue that in QCD the critical temperature extracting from a dual observable may have nothing to do with the quark confinement-deconfinement transition if the quark mass is very small.

  16. Dropwise Condensation on Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface- enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro- ...

  17. Condensation heat transfer on nanoengineered surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Adam Taylor

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a series of three related studies with the aim of developing a surface that promotes robust dropwise condensation. Due to their remarkably low droplet adhesion, superhydrophobic surfaces were investigated ...

  18. Advanced materials for enhanced condensation heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Adam Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of three classes advanced materials for promoting dropwise condensation: 1. robust hydrophobic functionalizations 2. superhydrophobic textures 3. lubricant-imbibed textures We first define ...

  19. Hierarchical superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for condensation applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Ken, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Many existing industrial systems, including thermal desalination plants and air conditioning systems, involve the process of condensation and are heavily dependent on this process for achieving adequate levels of energy ...

  20. Condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Condensation is a phase change phenomenon often encountered in nature, as well as used in industry for applications including power generation, thermal management, desalination, and environmental control. For the past eight ...

  1. Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao Zhang; Qing Miao

    2015-07-26

    The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$ in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for $\\mu_I>{m_\\pi}/{2}$ under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with $T$ is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with $T$ at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We thus argue that in QCD the critical temperature extracting from a dual observable may have nothing to do with the quark confinement-deconfinement transition if the quark mass is very small.

  2. Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction of purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly...

  3. Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to examine if space cooling energy savings can be achieved from shading of residential air conditioning (AC) condenser units. The investigation consisted of before...

  4. Quantum reflection of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquini, Thomas A., Jr

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in atom optics have brought Bose-Einstein condensates within 1 pm of solid surfaces where the atom-surface interactions can no longer be ignored. At long- range, the atom-surface interaction is described ...

  5. Cold condensation of dust in the ISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouillé, Gaël; Krasnokutski, Serge A; Krebsz, Melinda; Henning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The condensation of complex silicates with pyroxene and olivine composition at conditions prevailing in molecular clouds has been experimentally studied. For this purpose, molecular species comprising refractory elements were forced to accrete on cold substrates representing the cold surfaces of surviving dust grains in the interstellar medium. The efficient formation of amorphous and homogeneous magnesium iron silicates at temperatures of about 12 K has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The gaseous precursors of such condensation processes in the interstellar medium are formed by erosion of dust grains in supernova shock waves. In the laboratory, we have evaporated glassy silicate dust analogs and embedded the released species in neon ice matrices that have been studied spectroscopically to identify the molecular precursors of the condensing solid silicates. A sound coincidence between the 10 micron band of the interstellar silicates and the 10 micron band of the low-temperature siliceous condensates can be...

  6. Initial Conditions from Color Glass Condensate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guangyao

    2013-08-06

    Nuclei at very high energy, characterized by a saturation scale, can be described by an e?ective theory of Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) called Color Glass Condensates. The earliest phase of the collision of two nuclei is ...

  7. Modeling and Optimization of Superhydrophobic Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding water droplets via coalescence-induced ...

  8. ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR AND SYMMETRY OF CONDENSATE SOLUTIONS IN ELECTROWEAK THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spirn, Daniel

    ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR AND SYMMETRY OF CONDENSATE SOLUTIONS IN ELECTROWEAK THEORY ROBIN MING CHEN, YUJIN GUO, AND DANIEL SPIRN ABSTRACT. We study condensate solutions of a nonlinear elliptic equation of condensate solutions are discussed, based on which the refined asymptotic behavior of condensate solutions

  9. Gluon Condensate in Pion Superfluid beyond Mean Field Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin Jiang; Pengfei Zhuang

    2011-03-04

    We study gluon condensate in a pion superfluid, through calculating the equation of state of the system in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. While in mean field approximation the growing pion condensate leads to an increasing gluon condensate, meson fluctuations reduce the gluon condensate and the broken scalar symmetry can be smoothly restored at finite isospin density.

  10. Infinite statistics condensate as a model of dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2013-11-01

    In some models, dark matter is considered as a condensate bosonic system. In this paper, we prove that condensation is also possible for particles that obey infinite statistics and derive the critical condensation temperature. We argue that a condensed state of a gas of very weakly interacting particles obeying infinite statistics could be considered as a consistent model of dark matter.

  11. Transient absorption spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcgrane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Whitley, Von H; Bolome, Cindy A; Moore, D S

    2010-01-01

    Transient absorption spectra from 390-890 nm of laser shocked RDX, PETN, sapphire, and polyvinylnitrate (PVN) at sub-nanosecond time scales are reported. RDX shows a nearly linear increase in absorption with time after shock at {approx}23 GPa. PETN is similar, but with smaller total absorption. A broad visible absorption in sapphire begins nearly immediately upon shock loading but does not build over time. PVN exhibits thin film interference in the absorption spectra along with increased absorption with time. The absorptions in RDX and PETN are suggested to originate in chemical reactions happening on picosecond time scales at these shock stresses, although further diagnostics are required to prove this interpretation.

  12. Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chikkatur, Ananth P.

    2006-02-22

    In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose- Einstein condensates. The second set

  13. The interplay between the condensate and instantons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Vercauteren; Henri Verschelde

    2011-02-10

    Using the Local Composite Operator formalism, we analytically study the dimension two gluon condensate in the presence of instantons. We first use the dilute gas approximation and partially solve the infrared problem of instanton physics. In order to find quantitative results, however, we turn to an instanton liquid model, where we find a two-component picture of the condensate: one component comes from instantons, a second component is non-perturbatively generated by quantum fluctuations around the instantons.

  14. Condensate polishers add operating reliability and flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layman, C.M.; Bennett, L.L.

    2008-08-15

    Many of today's advanced steam generators favour either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated treatment chemistry programme, both of which require strict maintenance of an ultra-pure boiler fedwater ro condensate system. Those requirements are many times at odds with the lower-quality water sources, such as greywater, available for plant makeup and cooling water. Adding a condensate polisher can be a simple, cost-effective solution. 4 figs.

  15. Comprehensive Savings in Condensate Return Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viola, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    SAVINGS IN CONDENSATE RETURN SYSTEMS Eugene 1. Viola Market Specialist Swagelok Solon, Ohio ABSTRACT Every steam system is plagued by problems from malfunctioning steam traps. Effects of such problems can easily lead to downtime, loss of production... and reliably monitor the performance of condensate collection and, in turn, improves the overall efficiency of the entire steam distribution system. Overall efficiency in steam systems not only reduces energy usage but also significantly diminishes long...

  16. Adsorption of Hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134 and HFC-134A on X and Y Zeolites: Effect of Ion-Exchange on Selectivity and Heat of Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siperstein, Flor R.

    Adsorption of Hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134 and HFC-134A on X and Y Zeolites: Effect of Ion-Exchange on Selectivity and Heat of Adsorption Scott Savitz, Flor R. Siperstein, Robert Huber, Stephen M. Tieri, Raymond J Adsorption isotherms and heats of adsorption were measured for HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) and HFC

  17. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  18. Mechanism of Preferential Adsorption of SO2 into Two Microporous Paddle Wheel Frameworks M(bdc)(ted)(0.5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Kui; Canepa, Pieremanuele; Gong, Qihan; Liu, Jian; Johnson, Daniel H.; Dyevoich, Allison A.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Thonhauser, Timo; Li, Jing; Chabal, Y. J.

    2013-12-02

    The adsorption of a corrosive gas, SO¬2, into microporous pillared paddle-wheel frameworks M(bdc)(ted)0.5 [M = Ni, , Zn; bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; ted=triethylenediamine] is studied by volumetric adsorption measurements and a combination of in-situ infrared spectroscopy and ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The uptake of SO2 in M(bdc)(ted)0.5 at room temperature is quite significant, 9.966 mol kg-1(63.8%) at room temperature/1.132 bar, which represents the highest SO2 uptake so far observed. Two different adsorption species are identified by infrared spectroscopy: one is typical physisorbed SO2 species, charac-terized by a modest red shift of S-O stretching bands (36 cm-1 for ?as and 7 cm-1 for ?s); the other characterized by adsorption bands at 1242 and 1105cm-1 and by a much higher (~150?C) temperature to completely remove. Theoretical calculations including van der Waals interactions (based on vdW-DF) indicate that the adsorption geometry of SO2 involves one molecule bonding of its sulfur atom to the oxygen atom of the paddle-wheel building unit and its two oxygen atoms to the C-H groups of the organic linkers by formation of hydrogen bonds. Such a configuration results in a large distortion of benzene rings, which is consistent with the experimentally observed shift of the ring deformation mode. The simulated frequency shift of the SO2 stretching bands by vdW-DF is in excellent agreement with spectroscopically measured value of physisorbed SO2. The IR absorptions at 1242 and 1105 cm-1 also suggest a stronger adsorption configuration, previously observed in SO4-like species involving two oxygen atoms of the paddle wheel building units. The adsorption configurations of SO2 into M(bdc)(ted)0.5 derived by infrared spectroscopy and vdW-DF calculations provide the understanding necessary to develop industrial processes for SO2 removal using microporous paddle-wheel frameworks materials.

  19. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V.; Sommer, J.-U.; Gerasimchuk, V. S.

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  20. Mechanisms of Selenate Adsorption on Iron Oxides and Hydroxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Mechanisms of Selenate Adsorption on Iron Oxides and Hydroxides D . P E A K * A N D D . L . S P A R are important sorbents for SeO4 2- in soils and sediments, but the mechanism of selenate adsorption on iron- bonding mechanisms on hematite, goethite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). It was learned that selenate

  1. Adsorption of Polypropylene and Polyethylene on Liquid Chromatographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Adsorption of Polypropylene and Polyethylene on Liquid Chromatographic Column Packings T. Macko1 tested as column packings for adsorption of isotactic polypropylene and linear polyethylene from dilute solutions. It was found that polyethylene is fully or partially retained from thermodynamically good sol

  2. ccsd00004163, Free Energy Formalism for Particle Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd­00004163, version 1 ­ 4 Feb 2005 Free Energy Formalism for Particle Adsorption Pierre Gosselin a free energy formalism to the study of the equilibrium properties of neutral and charged particles adsorption onto two parallel adsorbing surfaces. Another advantage of the free energy formalism lays

  3. Lithium-Mediated Benzene Adsorption on Graphene and Graphene Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hod, Oded

    Lithium-Mediated Benzene Adsorption on Graphene and Graphene Nanoribbons Dana Krepel and Oded Hod Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel ABSTRACT: The anchoring of benzene molecules-metallic due to charge transfer from the adatom to the electronic system. Upon benzene adsorption, the lithium

  4. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID)

    2008-05-06

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  5. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-10-05

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  6. Oxygen Atom Adsorption on and Diffusion into Nb(110) and Nb(100) from First Principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tafen, De Nyago; Gao, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the dynamics of oxidation of Nb, we examine the adsorption, absorption, and diffusion of an oxygen atom on, in, and into Nb(110) and Nb(100) surfaces, respectively, using density functional theory. Our calculations predict that the oxygen atom adsorbs on the threefold site on Nb(110) and the fourfold hollow site on Nb(100), and the adsorption energy is -5.08 and -5.18 eV respectively. We find the long and short bridge sites to be transition states for O diffusion on Nb(110), while the on top site is a rank-2 saddle point. In the subsurface region, the oxygen atom prefers the octahedral site, as in bulk niobium. Our results also show that the O atom is more stable on Nb(110) subsurface than on Nb(100) subsurface. The diffusion of oxygen atoms into niobium surfaces passes through transition states where the oxygen atom is coordinated to four niobium atoms. The diffusion barriers of the oxygen atom into Nb(110) and Nb(100) are 1.81 and 2.05 eV, respectively. Analysis of the electronic density of states reveals the emergence of well localized electronic states below the lowest states of clean Nb surfaces due to d-p orbital hybridization.

  7. CO{sub 2} adsorption: Experimental investigation with kinetics verification and CFD reactor model validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breault, Ronald W, [U.S. DOE; Huckaby, Ernest D. [U.S. DOE; Shadle, Lawrence J [U.S. DOE; Spenik, James L. [REM Engineering PLLC

    2013-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory is investigating a new process for CO{sub 2} capture from large sources such as utility power generation facilities as an alternative to liquid amine based absorption processes. Many, but not all of these advanced dry processes are based upon sorbents composed of supported polyamines. In this analysis, experiments have been conducted in a small facility at different temperatures and compared to CFD reactor predictions using kinetics obtained from TGA tests. This particular investigation compares the predicted performance and the experimental performance of one of these new class of sorbents in a fluidized bed reactor. In the experiment, the sorbent absorbs CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas in a riser reactor, separates the carbonated particles from the de-carbonated flue gas in a cyclone and then regenerates the sorbent, creating a concentrated stream of pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. In this work, experimental measurements of adsorption are compared to predictions from a 3-dimensional non-isothermal reacting multiphase flow model. The effects of the gas flow rate and reactor temperature are explored. It is shown that the time duration for CO{sub 2} adsorption decreased for an increase in the gas flow. The details of the experimental facility and the model as well as the comparative analysis between the data and the simulation results are discussed.

  8. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  9. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  10. Microlensing induced absorption line variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    2002-12-02

    Gravitational microlensing has proven to be a powerful probe of both the structure at the heart of quasars and the mass function of compact objects in foreground lenses. This paper examines the potential of gravitational microlensing in probing the scale of structure in absorbing material within the lensing galaxy. We find that, in this high optical depth regime, significant variations in the equivalent width of absorption features can be induced, although the details of these are dependent upon the scale of structure of the absorbing material. The paper concludes with an examination of the absorption line variability observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS1830-211, demonstrating how this may indicate the presence of small scale structure in the cold molecular gas present within the lensing galaxy.

  11. Adsorption of fulvic acid on goethite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filius, J.D.; Lumsdon, D.G.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsduk, W.H. van

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of fulvic acid by goethite was determined experimentally as a function of concentration, pH, and ionic strength. The data were described with the CD-MUSIC model of Hiemstra and Van Riemsdijk (1996), which allows the distribution of charge of the bound fulvate molecule over a surface region. Simultaneously, the concentration, pH, and salt dependency of the binding of fulvic acid can be described. Using the same parameters, the basic charging behavior of the goethite in the absence of fulvic acid could be described well. The surface species used in the model indicate that inner sphere coordination of carboxylic groups of the fulvate molecule is important at low pH, whereas at high pH the outer sphere coordination with reactive groups of the fulvate molecule with high proton affinity is important.

  12. Numerical estimation of adsorption energy distributions from adsorption isotherm data with the expectation-maximization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley, B.J.; Guiochon, G. |

    1993-08-01

    The expectation-maximization (EM) method of parameter estimation is used to calculate adsorption energy distributions of molecular probes from their adsorption isotherms. EM does not require prior knowledge of the distribution function or the isotherm, requires no smoothing of the isotherm data, and converges with high stability towards the maximum-likelihood estimate. The method is therefore robust and accurate at high iteration numbers. The EM algorithm is tested with simulated energy distributions corresponding to unimodal Gaussian, bimodal Gaussian, Poisson distributions, and the distributions resulting from Misra isotherms. Theoretical isotherms are generated from these distributions using the Langmuir model, and then chromatographic band profiles are computed using the ideal model of chromatography. Noise is then introduced in the theoretical band profiles comparable to those observed experimentally. The isotherm is then calculated using the elution-by-characteristic points method. The energy distribution given by the EM method is compared to the original one. Results are contrasted to those obtained with the House and Jaycock algorithm HILDA, and shown to be superior in terms of robustness, accuracy, and information theory. The effect of undersampling of the high-pressure/low-energy region of the adsorption is reported and discussed for the EM algorithm, as well as the effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the degree of heterogeneity that may be estimated experimentally.

  13. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kane, James (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  14. Moisture absorption in hybrid composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dan Laro

    1983-01-01

    Moisture Analysis for Steady State Boundary Conditions", Journal of Com osite Materials, Vol. 15, March 1981, pp. 142-152. 7. Weitsman, Y. , Priorate Communication, Texas A&M University, January 1983. 8. Wirth, Patricia E. and Rodin, Ervin Y. , "A... of Department) December 1983 111. ABSTRACT Moisture Absorption in Hybrid Composites (December 1983) Dan Laro Clark, B. S. Aerospace Engineering Texas A&M University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Y. Weitsman Dr. W. J. Horn This thesis presents...

  15. Light-gas effect on steam condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.H.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Herranz, L.E. [Centro de Investigcaiones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    In a postulated reactor accident, the loss of coolant results in a release of high-temperature steam into the containment. Under these circumstances steam condensation onto containment walls provides an effective mechanism of energy removal. However, the presence of noncondensable gas is known to degrade the heat transfer. It has also been found that the introduction of a light noncondensable gas has little effect until sufficient quantities are present to disrupt the buoyancy forces. Our investigation shows the dramatic effect of high concentrations of light gas decreasing steam condensation rates under anticipated accident conditions for AP600, with helium as the simulant for hydrogen.

  16. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  17. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  18. $?$-particle condensate states in $^{16}$O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Ohkubo; Y. Hirabayashi

    2011-02-09

    The existence of a rotational band with the $\\alpha$+$^{12}$C($0_2^+$) cluster structure, in which three $\\alpha$ particles in $^{12}$C($0_2^+$) are locally condensed, is demonstrated near the four-$\\alpha$ threshold of $^{16}$O in agreement with experiment. This is achieved by studying structure and scattering for the $\\alpha$+$^{12}$C($0_2^+$) system in a unified way. A drastic reduction (quenching) of the moment of the inertia of the $0^+$ state at 15.1 MeV just above the four-$\\alpha$ threshold in $^{16}$O suggests that it could be a candidate for the superfluid state in $\\alpha$-particle condensation.

  19. Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Blaschke

    2014-07-28

    It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 $M_\\odot$.

  20. Finite-temperature phase diagram of a polarized Fermi condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    at zero temperature on the molecular Bose­Einstein condensate side. On this basis, we argue investigation of the crossover from a Bose­Einstein condensate (BEC) of diatomic molecules to the Bardeen

  1. Novel ground states of Bose-condensed gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abo-Shaeer, Jamil R

    2005-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) provide a novel tool for the study of macroscopic quantum phenomena and condensed matter systems. Two of the recent frontiers, quantized vortices and ultracold molecules, are the subject of ...

  2. Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroger, Detlev Gustav

    1966-01-01

    The object of this work is to investigate theoretically and experimentally the following two phases of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapore, a. Heat transfer during film condensation of pure saturated ...

  3. Feasibility of waterflooding Soku E7000 gas-condensate reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajayi, Arashi

    2002-01-01

    We performed a simple 3D compositional reservoir simulation study to examine the possibility of waterflooding the Soku E7 gas-condensate reservoir. This study shows that water injection results in higher condensate recovery than natural depletion...

  4. Film condensation of liquid metals -- precision of measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Stanley James

    1969-01-01

    Major differences exist in results published by investigators of film condensation of liquid metal vapors. In particular, the reported dependence of the condensation coefficient on pressure has raised questions about both ...

  5. Transient direct-contact condensation on liquid droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, direct-contact condensation on subcooled liquid droplets is studied in two parts. In the first part, simple design correlations for the condensation in a steady environment are developed based upon a conduction model. These correlations include the convective heat-transfer coefficient, condensation rate, total condensation, and the droplet-thermalization time. In the second part of the paper, the effect of a time-dependent saturation temperature on the condensation process is investigated. A rapid decrease in saturation temperature is typical of condensation environments in which the steam-supply rate is limited and condensation-induced depressurization becomes important. Design correlations are developed for condensation in an environment in which the saturation temperature decreases linearly with time. These correlations are graphically compared to the design correlations of the first part through a quasi-steady approach. The error associated with this approach is quantified as a function of the rate of change of the saturation temperature.

  6. Energy Conservation-As it Applies to Condensate Return Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sneary, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Valuable heat energy in condensate is wasted when it is vented to the atmosphere in the form of flash steam at many condensate pumping stations. This heat energy may be recovered and put to use if the pumping station can ...

  7. Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers and Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Someah, K.

    1991-01-01

    The on-line Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems (ATCS) for condensers and heat exchangers provide a positive means for automatic cleaning on a continuous basis, while the exchanger or condenser remains "on stream" and at ...

  8. Atmospheric Condensation Potential of Windows in Hot, Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Diasty, R.; Budaiwi, I.

    1992-01-01

    condensation rate has been obtained by utilizing a simplified transient uni-dimensional finite difference model. The results show that this model has enhanced the assessment of the potential for atmospheric condensation on windows in hot, humid climates...

  9. Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers & Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Someah, K.

    1993-01-01

    Condenser tube fouling contributes up to 50% of the total condenser tube heat transfer resistance. This fouling results in reduced heat exchanger performance, reduced production, increased operational cost, increased back pressure, increased tube...

  10. Evolutionary games of condensates in coupled birth-death processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knebel, Johannes; Krueger, Torben; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Condensation phenomena arise through a collective behaviour of particles. They are observed in both classical and quantum systems, ranging from the formation of traffic jams in mass transport models to the macroscopic occupation of the energetic ground state in ultra-cold bosonic gases (Bose-Einstein condensation). Recently, it has been shown that a driven and dissipative system of bosons may form multiple condensates. Which states become the condensates has, however, remained elusive thus far. The dynamics of this condensation are described by coupled birth-death processes, which also occur in evolutionary game theory. Here, we apply concepts from evolutionary game theory to explain the formation of multiple condensates in such driven-dissipative bosonic systems. We show that vanishing of relative entropy production determines their selection. The condensation proceeds exponentially fast, but the system never comes to rest. Instead, the occupation numbers of condensates may oscillate, as we demonstrate for a...

  11. Subluminal to superluminal propagation of an optical pulse in an f-deformed Bose- Einstein condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Haghshenasfard; M. H. Naderi; M. Soltanolkotabi

    2008-01-16

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation of a weak optical probe pulse in an f-deformed Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC) of a gas with the -type three- level atoms in the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) regime. We use an f- deformed generalization of an effective two- level quantum model of the three- level configuration in which the Gardiner phonon operators for BEC are deformed by an operator- valued function, f(n), of the particle- number operator n. With making use of the quantum approach of the angular momentum theory we obtain the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the system up to first order approximation. We consider the collisions between the atoms as a special kind of f- deformation. The collision rate k is regarded as the deformation parameter and light propagation in the deformed BEC is analyzed. In particular, we show that the absorptive and dispersive properties of the deformed condensate can be controlled effectively by changing the deformation parameter k and the total number of atoms. We find that by increasing the value of k the group velocity of the probe pulse changes, through deformed condensate, from subluminal to superluminal.

  12. Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

  13. Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Photon Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    1998-06-10

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a Bose "condensation" type of phenomenon at about 3 degrees K corresponding to a peak intensity at a wave length of about 0.4cm. This could give a mechanism for the observed Cosmic Background Radiation, and also explain some curious features.

  14. Di-Antiquarks condensation in Color Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabio L. Braghin

    2006-11-30

    Some consequences of a classical vector field (chromo-electromagnetic field) coupled to quarks, which undergo to superfluid and/or superconductive states with diquark / diantiquark condensation, are investigated. For this, one scalar field exchange is considered in the lines investigated by Pisarski and Rischke \\cite{PISARSKI-RISCHKE} in the mean field approach. Some effects and possible consequences are discussed.

  15. Boson stars from a gauge condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Dzhunushaliev; K. Myrzakulov; R. Myrzakulov

    2006-12-28

    The boson star filled with two interacting scalar fields is investigated. The scalar fields can be considered as a gauge condensate formed by SU(3) gauge field quantized in a non-perturbative manner. The corresponding solution is regular everywhere, has a finite energy and can be considered as a quantum SU(3) version of the Bartnik - McKinnon particle-like solution.

  16. Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyeye, Adedeji Ayoola

    2004-09-30

    This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production...

  17. Proof of Concept: Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    North Dakota project. The solid circle is the mean value, the horizontal line is the 50th percentile Price High Price #12;Research Applications · One commercially available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter. · Available since 2002 · Sold over 100 Units, Mostly Labs · Price is Approximately $70

  18. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  19. Molecular interactions with ice: Molecular embedding, adsorption, detection, and release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, K. D.; Langlois, Grant G.; Li, Wenxin; Sibener, S. J.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2014-11-14

    The interaction of atomic and molecular species with water and ice is of fundamental importance for chemistry. In a previous series of publications, we demonstrated that translational energy activates the embedding of Xe and Kr atoms in the near surface region of ice surfaces. In this paper, we show that inert molecular species may be absorbed in a similar fashion. We also revisit Xe embedding, and further probe the nature of the absorption into the selvedge. CF{sub 4} molecules with high translational energies (?3 eV) were observed to embed in amorphous solid water. Just as with Xe, the initial adsorption rate is strongly activated by translational energy, but the CF{sub 4} embedding probability is much less than for Xe. In addition, a larger molecule, SF{sub 6}, did not embed at the same translational energies that both CF{sub 4} and Xe embedded. The embedding rate for a given energy thus goes in the order Xe > CF{sub 4} > SF{sub 6}. We do not have as much data for Kr, but it appears to have a rate that is between that of Xe and CF{sub 4}. Tentatively, this order suggests that for Xe and CF{sub 4}, which have similar van der Waals radii, the momentum is the key factor in determining whether the incident atom or molecule can penetrate deeply enough below the surface to embed. The more massive SF{sub 6} molecule also has a larger van der Waals radius, which appears to prevent it from stably embedding in the selvedge. We also determined that the maximum depth of embedding is less than the equivalent of four layers of hexagonal ice, while some of the atoms just below the ice surface can escape before ice desorption begins. These results show that energetic ballistic embedding in ice is a general phenomenon, and represents a significant new channel by which incident species can be trapped under conditions where they would otherwise not be bound stably as surface adsorbates. These findings have implications for many fields including environmental science, trace gas collection and release, and the chemical composition of astrophysical icy bodies in space.

  20. An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    , Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 POTENTIAL INSTALLAnON DESIGNS -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Steam Trap (Figure A). -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Level Pot (Figure B). -Steam Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Condensate Level Control... (Figure C). -Condensate Outlet Control Valve and Level Override (Figure D). -Condensate Outlet Control Valve for Drainage and Set Point Control (Figure E). -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Condensate PumplTrap Drainage (Figure F). An in...

  1. Mean evaporation and condensation coefficients based on energy dependent condensation probability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Maurice Bond and Henning Struchtrup* Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, P. Ward, Phys. Rev. E 59, 419 (1999)]. It is shown that mean condensation and evaporation coefficients

  2. Colliding and moving Bose-Einstein condensates : studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chikkatur, Ananth P., 1975-

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. The second set of experiments were performed using ...

  3. Coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop in an extended NJL model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao Zhang; Yu-Xin Liu

    2007-05-09

    The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with a Polyakov loop is extended to finite isospin chemical potential case, which is characterized by simultaneous coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop. The pion condensate, chiral condensate and the Polyakov loop as functions of temperature and isospin chemical potential are investigated by minimizing the thermodynamic potential of the system. The resulting $(T,\\mu_I)$ phase diagram is studied with emphasis on the critical point and Polyakov loop dynamics. The tricritical point for the pion superfluidity phase transition is confirmed and the phase transition for isospin symmetry restoration in high isospin chemical potential region perfectly coincides with the crossover phase transition for Polyakov loop. These results are in agreement with the Lattice QCD data.

  4. Methyl arsenic adsorption and desorption behavior on iron oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lafferty, Brandon James

    2005-08-29

    been conducted regarding interactions of the methyl-arsenic forms. The objective of this study was to compare the adsorption and desorption behavior of methylarsonate (MMAsV), methylarsonous acid (MMAsIII), dimethylarsinate (DMAsV), dimethylarsinous...

  5. Adsorption-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yungang; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Gao, Fei; Lv, H. F.; Xiao, Haiyan J.

    2009-09-21

    Magnetic properties and electronic structures of graphene with Cl, S, and P adsorption have been investigated using ab initio calculations. The adsorption of Cl leads to Fermi level shifting to valence band, which results in metallic graphene. A band gap of 0.6 eV emerges in a S-absorbed graphene, leading to the semiconducting graphene. The unpaired electrons in the absorbed P atom is polarized and thus, exhibits a magnetic moment of 0.86 ?B, while no magnetic moment has been observed after Cl and S adsorption. This demonstrates that the magnetic properties and conductive behavior of graphene can be modified via atom adsorption. Specially, P-absorbed graphene may be useful for spintronic applications, such as tunneling magnetoresistance.

  6. Treatment of arsenic-contaminated water using akaganeite adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadena C., Fernando (Las Cruces, NM); Johnson, Michael D. (Las Cruces, NM)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method and composition using akaganeite, an iron oxide, as an ion adsorption medium for the removal of arsenic from water and affixing it onto carrier media so that it can be used in filtration systems.

  7. Adsorption of Carbon, Silicon, and Germanium Adatoms on Graphene Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahyadi, Erica

    2012-01-01

    tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene. Nature 459: 820-23 (Can silicon behave like graphene? A first-principles study.IVA group atoms adsorption on graphene. J. Appl. Phys. 107,

  8. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID)

    2011-10-25

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  9. Nucleic base-directed adsorption of colloids and polyelectrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrot, Marianne S. (Marianne Simon)

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this work has been the advancement of selective adsorption techniques by use of new interactions and development of new approaches to the directed assembly of colloidal species. The ability to ...

  10. Design and fabrication of evaporators for thermo-adsorptive batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farnham, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Current heating and cooling within electric vehicles places a significant demand on the battery, greatly reducing their potential driving range. An Advanced Thermo- Adsorptive Battery (ATB) reduces this load by storing ...

  11. Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Turning a material from an insulator to a metal, or vice versa, by light irradiation, exposure to electric or...

  12. REVIEW ARTICLE FOCUS BoseEinstein condensation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    REVIEW ARTICLE FOCUS Bose­Einstein condensation in magnetic insulators The Bose­Einstein condensate-mail: thierry.giamarchi@physics.unige.ch; c.ruegg@ucl.ac.uk; olegt@jhu.edu Not long after Bose and Einstein . It is thus natural to ask whether these bosons can undergo Bose­ Einstein condensation and become superfluid

  13. Coherent spinor dynamics in a spin-1 Bose condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES Coherent spinor dynamics in a spin-1 Bose condensate MING-SHIEN CHANG, QISHU QIN, WENXIAN, for example, a Bose­Einstein condensate or a degenerate Fermi gas, the phase space accessible to low of coherent spin-changing collisions in a gas of spin-1 bosons. Starting with condensates occupying two spin

  14. A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    , SPE-~~~ SPE 21428 A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance A of depletion performance of gas condensate reservoirs report the existence of a A variable cell model for simulating gas relatively high, near-constant, oil saturation in condensate reeervoir performance has been

  15. How to make a bilayer exciton condensate flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES How to make a bilayer exciton condensate flow JUNG-JUNG SU* AND A. H. MACDONALD Department@physics.utexas.edu. Published online: 24 August 2008; doi:10.1038/nphys1055 Among the many examples of Bose condensation considered in physics, electron­hole-pair (exciton) condensation has maintained special interest because

  16. Stability of Equilibria with a Condensate Marco Merkli y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability of Equilibria with a Condensate #3; Marco Merkli y Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics Bose gas with a condensate, interacting with a small system (quantum dot) which can trap #12;nitely many Bosons. Due to spontaneous symmetry breaking in the presence of the condensate, the system has

  17. Separation of the unsaponifiable matter from cottonseed oil by adsorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeitoun, Mohamed Ali

    1955-01-01

    identified as ergosterol. Landenberg, Fernholz and Wallis (21) separated mixtures of cholesterol, P -sitosterol, stigmasterol and ergosterol, in the form of their colored eaters of azobenzenemonocarbox- ilic acid, by adsorption on anhydrous aluminium... oxide. All the results they obtained were in accordance with the theory that the number of double bonds was responsible for the degree of adsorption. They concluded tnat with aluminium oxide their method of separation was only applicable to sterols...

  18. Adsorption analysis of ammonia in an aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arman, B.; Panchal, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    An analysis is carried out to determine the effects of the diffusional resistance on the rate of the adsorption of ammonia in an aqueous solution. A performance prediction model is developed to calculate the local rate of heat and mass transfer, including physical and thermodynamic property calculations of the mixture. An algorithm is developed for calculating the interfacial conditions. The local heat- and mass-transfer calculation is then incorporated into the performance prediction method for adsorption for a given geometry.

  19. Proton adsorption onto alumina: extension of multisite complexation (MUSIC) theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagashima, K.; Blum, F.D.

    1999-09-01

    The adsorption isotherm of protons onto a commercial {gamma}-alumina sample was determined in aqueous nitric acid with sodium nitrate as a background electrolyte. Three discrete regions could be discerned in the log-log plots of the proton isotherm determined at the solution pH 5 to 2. The multisite complexation (MUSIC) model was modified to analyze the simultaneous adsorption of protons onto various kinds of surface species.

  20. Adsorption on tunable bilayer graphene: A model approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alisultanov, Z. Z., E-mail: zaur0102@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    The problem of the adsorption of atoms on the surface of tunable bilayer graphene is considered within the context of Anderson's model. Analytical expressions for the densities of states of bilayer graphene and an adatom are derived, and the charge exchange between adatoms and bilayer graphene is studied. The charge of adatoms of some elements is estimated. The change induced in the density of states of tunable bilayer graphene by the adsorption of atoms is explored.

  1. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  2. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, N.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer`s classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation.

  3. Irreversible adsorption/desorption of Naphthalene to lula sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kan, A.T.; Fu, Gongmin; Tomson, M.B. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This paper is to investigate the adsorption/desorption irreversibility of a neutral organic hydrocarbon to a well-characterized sediment. In multiple batch adsorption/desorption experiments, the maximum concentration of naphthalene that resist desorption has been measured to be around 10{plus_minus}2 {mu}g/g for the sediments investigated in this study. The maximum concentration observed in this study is not in contradiction to the concentration that resist desorption in many literature reported field observations. When this maximum concentration is satisfied, the adsorption/desorption of naphthalene appears to be linear and reversible. The fraction of the adsorbed mass that becomes irreversibly sorbed varied with the initial naphthalene mass that is available for adsorption. Irreversible adsorption/desorption is not readily observable in high solid/solution ratio batch experiments as well as in soil column flow through experiments. The observed data is very unique that none of the existing theoretical model can be used to explain the data. Therefore, a new mechanism that causes irreversible adsorption/desorption is proposed and will be discussed.

  4. Density functional theory study of transition metal porphine adsorption on gold surface and electric field induced conformation changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batista, Victor S. (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Chandross, Michael Evan; Leung, Kevin; Sporviero, Eduardo (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Schultz, Peter Andrew; Rempe, Susan B.

    2005-06-01

    We apply density functional theory (DFT) and the DFT+U technique to study the adsorption of transition metal porphine molecules on atomistically flat Au(111) surfaces. DFT calculations using the Perdew?Burke?Ernzerhof exchange correlation functional correctly predict the palladium porphine (PdP) low-spin ground state. PdP is found to adsorb preferentially on gold in a flat geometry, not in an edgewise geometry, in qualitative agreement with experiments on substituted porphyrins. It exhibits no covalent bonding to Au(111), and the binding energy is a small fraction of an electronvolt. The DFT+U technique, parametrized to B3LYP-predicted spin state ordering of the Mn d-electrons, is found to be crucial for reproducing the correct magnetic moment and geometry of the isolated manganese porphine (MnP) molecule. Adsorption of Mn(II)P on Au(111) substantially alters the Mn ion spin state. Its interaction with the gold substrate is stronger and more site-specific than that of PdP. The binding can be partially reversed by applying an electric potential, which leads to significant changes in the electronic and magnetic properties of adsorbed MnP and 0.1 {angstrom} changes in the Mn-nitrogen distances within the porphine macrocycle. We conjecture that this DFT+U approach may be a useful general method for modeling first-row transition metal ion complexes in a condensed-matter setting.

  5. Statistics of polymer adsorption under shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gui-Li He; René Messina; Hartmut Löwen

    2009-10-09

    Using non-equilibrium Brownian dynamics computer simulations, we have investigated the steady state statistics of a polymer chain under three different shear environments: i) linear shear flow in the bulk (no walls), ii) shear vorticity normal to the adsorbing wall, iii) shear gradient normal to the adsorbing wall. The statistical distribution of the chain end-to-end distance and its orientational angles are calculated within our monomer-resolved computer simulations. Over a wide range of shear rates, this distribution can be mapped onto a simple theoretical finite-extensible-nonlinear-elastic dumbbell model with fitted anisotropic effective spring constants. The tails of the angular distribution functions are consistent with scaling predictions borrowed from the bulk dumbbell model. Finally, the frequency of the characteristic periodic tumbling motion has been investigated by simulation as well and was found to be sublinear with the shear rate for the three set-ups, which extends earlier results done in experiments and simulations for free and tethered polymer molecules without adsorption.

  6. Effect of hydrocarbon adsorption on the wettability of rare earth oxide ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preston, Daniel John

    Vapor condensation is routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat, with dropwise condensation exhibiting a 5???7x heat transfer improvement compared to filmwise condensation. However, state-of-the-art techniques ...

  7. Influence of current mass on the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinji Maedan

    2009-12-18

    It is known that, in the chiral limit, spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate occurs in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite density within a mean-field approximation. We study here how an introduction of current quark mass affects the ground state with the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate. Numerical calculations show that, even if the current quark mass is introduced, the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate can take place. In order to obtain the ground state, the thermodynamic potential is calculated with a mean-field approximation. The influence of finite current mass on the thermodynamic potential consists of following two parts. One is a part coming from the field energy of the condensate, which favors inhomogeneous chiral condensate. The other is a part coming from the Dirac sea and the Fermi sea, which favors homogeneous chiral condensate. We also find that when the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate occurs, the baryon number density becomes spatially inhomogeneous.

  8. Olefin recovery via chemical absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barchas, R.

    1998-06-01

    The recovery of fight olefins in petrochemical plants has generally been accomplished through cryogenic distillation, a process which is very capital and energy intensive. In an effort to simplify the recovery process and reduce its cost, BP Chemicals has developed a chemical absorption technology based on an aqueous silver nitrate solution. Stone & Webster is now marketing, licensing, and engineering the technology. The process is commercially ready for recovering olefins from olefin derivative plant vent gases, such as vents from polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene oxide, and synthetic ethanol units. The process can also be used to debottleneck C{sub 2} or C{sub 3} splinters, or to improve olefin product purity. This paper presents the olefin recovery imp technology, discusses its applications, and presents economics for the recovery of ethylene and propylene.

  9. Condensation induced water hammer driven sterilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kullberg, Craig M.

    2004-05-11

    A method and apparatus (10) for treating a fluid or materials therein with acoustic energy has a vessel (14) for receiving the fluid with inner walls shaped to focus acoustic energy to a target zone within the vessel. One or more nozzles (26) are directed into the vessel (14) for injecting a condensable vapor, such as steam, into the vessel (14). The system may include a steam source (18) for providing steam as the condensable vapor from an industrial waste heat source. Steam drums (88) are disposed between the steam source (18) and nozzles (26) to equalize and distribute the vapor pressure. A cooling source (30) provides a secondary fluid for maintaining the liquid in the vessel (14) in subcooled conditions. A heating jacket (32) surrounds the vessel (14) to heat the walls of the vessel (14) and prevent biological growth thereon. A pressurizer (33) may operate the system at elevated pressures.

  10. Silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new microporous crystalline molecular sieve material having the formula Cs.sub.3 TiSi.sub.3 O.sub.95.cndot.3H.sub.2 O and its hydrothermally condensed phase, Cs.sub.2 TiSi.sub.6 O.sub.15, are disclosed. The microporous material can adsorb divalent ions of radionuclides or other industrial metals such as chromium, nickel, lead, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, barium, and mercury, from aqueous or hydrocarbon solutions. The adsorbed metal ions can be leached out for recovery purposes or the microporous material can be hydrothermally condensed to a radiation resistant, structurally and chemically stable phase which can serve as a storage waste form for radionuclides.

  11. Collecting and Using Condensate on Site 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glawe, D.

    2013-01-01

    o n – D e c e m b e r 1 8 , 2 0 1 3 D i a n a D . G l a w e , P h D , P E , L E E D A P E n g i n e e r i n g S c i e n c e D e p a r t m e n t Collecting & using condensate on site ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean Air... the other way around too…… saving energy saves water) ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 On site water sources • Condensate • Rainwater • Cooling...

  12. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  13. Fast transport of Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Torrontegui; Xi Chen; M. Modugno; S. Schmidt; A. Ruschhaupt; J. G. Muga

    2011-03-13

    We propose an inverse method to accelerate without final excitation the adiabatic transport of a Bose Einstein condensate. The method, applicable to arbitrary potential traps, is based on a partial extension of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants, and provides transport protocols that satisfy exactly the no-excitation conditions without constraints or approximations. This inverse method is complemented by optimizing the trap trajectory with respect to different physical criteria and by studying the effect of noise.

  14. Pion condensation in a dense neutrino gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroaki Abuki; Tomas Brauner; Harmen J. Warringa

    2009-08-26

    We argue that using an equilibrated gas of neutrinos it is possible to probe the phase diagram of QCD for finite isospin and small baryon chemical potentials. We discuss this region of the phase diagram in detail and demonstrate that for large enough neutrino densities a Bose-Einstein condensate of positively charged pions arises. Moreover, we show that for nonzero neutrino density the degeneracy in the lifetimes and masses of the charged pions is lifted.

  15. Time Reversal of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Toulouse III, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2008-08-15

    Using Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the time reversibility of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in kicked optical lattices, showing that in the regime of quantum chaos, the dynamics can be inverted from explosion to collapse. The accuracy of time reversal decreases with the increase of atom interactions in BEC, until it is completely lost. Surprisingly, quantum chaos helps to restore time reversibility. These predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups.

  16. Particle size effect of hydride formation and surface hydrogen absorption of nanosized palladium catalysts : L{sub 3} edge vs K edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tew, M. W.; Miller, J. T.; van Bokhoven, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    The particle size effect on the formation of palladium hydride and on surface hydrogen adsorption was studied at room temperature using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Pd K and L{sub 3} edges. Hydride formation was indirectly observed by lattice expansion in Pd K edge XANES spectra and by EXAFS analysis. Hydride formation was directly detected in the L{sub 3} edge spectra. A characteristic spectral feature caused by the formation of a Pd-H antibonding state showed strong particle size dependence. The L{sub 3} edge spectra were reproduced using full multiple scattering analysis and density of state calculations, and the contributions of bulk absorbed and surface hydrogen to the XANES spectra could be distinguished. The ratio of hydrogen on the surface versus that in the bulk increased with decreasing particle size, and smaller particles dissolved less hydrogen.

  17. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Sedrakian

    2001-01-03

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into separate branches is due to the finite momentum of the condensate, the isospin asymmetry, or the finite quasiparticle lifetime. The coupling of the isospin singlet and triplet paired states leads to further twofold splitting of each of these branches. We solve the gap equation numerically in the isospin singlet channel in the case where the pairing in the isospin triplet channel is neglected and find nontrivial solutions with finite total momentum of the pairs. The corresponding phase assumes a periodic spatial structure which carries a isospin density wave at constant total number of particles. The phase transition from the BCS to the inhomogeneous superconducting phase is found to be first order and occurs when the density asymmetry is increased above 0.25. The transition from the inhomogeneous superconducting to the unpaired normal state is second order. The maximal values of the critical total momentum (in units of the Fermi momentum) and the critical density asymmetry at which condensate disappears are $P_c/p_F = 0.3$ and $\\alpha_c = 0.41$. The possible spatial forms of the ground state of the inhomogeneous superconducting phase are briefly discussed.

  18. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adi Armoni; Biagio Lucini; Agostino Patella; Claudio Pica

    2008-09-29

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms in $1/N$ are needed for describing the data for the symmetric and antisymmetric representation at $N$=3. Possible lessons for the unquenched case are discussed.

  19. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  20. Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling Cummins...

  1. Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated with a CHP System at a Distributed Data Center - Presentation by Exergy Partners Corp., June 2011 Advanced Low Temperature...

  2. Direct and quantitative absorptive spectroscopy of nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok

    2012-01-01

    Photonic nanostructures exhibit unique optical properties that are attractive in many different applications. However, measuring the optical properties of individual nanostructures, in particular the absorptive properties, ...

  3. On the physical adsorption of vapors by microporous carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R.H. (Univ. of Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Inst. of Surface Science and Technology); Rand, B. (Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Division of Ceramics)

    1995-01-01

    The physical adsorption of nonpolar and polar vapors by active carbons is discussed in relation to pore structure and pore wall chemistry. For nonpolar vapors the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation is used to derive micropore volumes (W[sub 0]), average adsorption energies (E[sub 0]), and micropore widths (L) for a number of systems. These parameters are used to interpret the adsorption behavior of nitrogen which, because it is a relatively small molecule, is frequently used at 77 K to probe porosity and surface area. Results are presented for three carbons from differing precursors, namely, coal, coconut shells, and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) to illustrate the applicability of the technique. For the latter carbon increases in micropore size, induced by activation in carbon dioxide, and reductions in accessible pore volume caused by heat treatment in argon are also characterized and related to structural changes. The approach is then extended to the adsorption of larger hydrogen vapors, where the resulting W[sub 0] values may require correction for molecular packing effects which occur in the lower relative pressure regions of the isotherms, i.e., during the filling of ultramicropores. These packing effects are shown to limit the use of the Polanyi characteristic curve for correlating isotherm data for several vapors, of differing molecular size, by one adsorbent. Data for the adsorption of water, which is a strongly polar liquid, have been interpreted using the Dubinin-Serpinsky equation.

  4. ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE Pt(111) CRYSTAL SURFACES. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN TREATMENTS AND DEUTERIUM PREADSORPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salmeron, M.

    2012-01-01

    ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE .Pt(111)ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE Pt(lll)adsorption characteristics of butane and pentane on the (

  5. High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bicknell, Geoff

    High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 1/114 Emission and Absorption 1 Motivation and the jet. #12;High Energy Astrophysics: Emission and Absorption 2/114 HST optical image of 3C273 Note the very strong cen- tral point source and the less luminous jet. Objects such as 3C273 radiate as much

  6. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  7. Cross section for charmonium absorption by nucleons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ko, Che Ming; Lin, ZW.

    2002-01-01

    The cross section for J/psi absorption by nucleons is studied using a gauged SU(4) hadronic Lagrangian but with empirical particle masses, which has been used previously to study the cross sections for J/psi absorption by pion and rho meson...

  8. INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING IN YOUNG CHILDREN A STATDIE:"IT BY THE CEJde slnt:t! the Surgeon GenerJi's Statement. "~edicJI Aspects of Childhood Lead POisoning," was issued:ld absorption Jnd lead poisoning. Such JCtivities for children will continue to be necessary until sources

  9. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests conducted to ascertain the effects of changing pH showed that at pH values of 6.5 and 7.5, no significant differences existed in Tc-adsorption performance for three of the carbons, but the fourth carbon performed better at pH 7.5. When the pH was increased to 8.5, a slight decline in performance was observed for all carbons. Tests conducted to ascertain the temperature effect on Tc-99 adsorption indicated that at 21 ºC, 27 ºC, and 32 ºC there were no significant differences in Tc-99 adsorption for three of the carbons. The fourth carbon showed a noticeable decline in Tc-99 adsorption performance with increasing temperature. The presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the source water did not significantly affect Tc-99 adsorption on either of two carbons tested. Technetium-99 adsorption differed by less than 15% with or without VOCs present in the test water, indicating that Tc-99 adsorption would not be significantly affected if VOCs were removed from the water prior to contact with carbon.

  10. Absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Ghawas, H.A.; Ruiz-Ibanez, G.; Sandall, O.C. (Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (US))

    1988-01-01

    The absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was studied over a range of temperatures and MDEA concentrations. MDEA is commonly used for selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of carbon dioxide. However, sulfur in the form of COS may also be present and it is necessary that estimates of absorption rates of this compound be made. The objective of this study is to determine the physiochemical properties needed to predict COS absorption rates in aqueous MDEA. Free gas solubility and the diffusivity of COS in MDEA solutions were measured over the temperature range 15 to 40{sup 0}C for MDEA concentrations up to 30 weight per cent using the nitrous oxide analogy method. Solubilities were measured volumetrically in an equilibrium cell and diffusivities were measured using a laminar liquid jet absorber. The kinetics of the reaction between COS and MDEA were studied by measuring absorption rates in a single wetted-sphere absorber.

  11. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  12. A solvable non-directed model of polymer adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas R. Beaton; Gerasim K. Iliev

    2015-06-22

    Prudent walks are self-avoiding walks which cannot step towards an already occupied vertex. We introduce a new model of adsorbing prudent walks on the square lattice, which start on an impenetrable surface and accrue a fugacity $a$ with each step along the surface. These are different to other exactly solved models of polymer adsorption, like Dyck paths, Motzkin paths and partially-directed walks, in that they are not trivially directed - they are able to step in all lattice directions. We calculate the generating functions, free energies and surface densities for this model and observe a first-order adsorption transition at the critical value of the surface interaction.

  13. Adsorption of silver dimer on graphene - A DFT study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Gagandeep, E-mail: gaganj1981@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India and Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran, Mohali-140307, Punjab (India); Gupta, Shuchi [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India and University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh -160014 (India); Rani, Pooja; Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We performed a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study of the adsorption of silver dimer (Ag{sub 2}) on graphene using SIESTA (Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations with Thousands of Atoms) package, in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The adsorption energy, geometry, and charge transfer of Ag2-graphene system are calculated. The minimum energy configuration for a silver dimer is parallel to the graphene sheet with its two atoms directly above the centre of carbon-carbon bond. The negligible charge transfer between the dimer and the surface is also indicative of a weak bond. The methodology demonstrated in this paper may be applied to larger silver clusters on graphene sheet.

  14. Study of char gasification in a reaction/adsorption apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sotirchos, S.V.; Crowley, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    The reaction of an activated carbon (coconut char) with CO/sub 2/ was studied in a reaction/adsorption apparatus which allows successive reactivity and physical adsorption measurements to be made on the same solid sample. Reaction and surface area evolution data were obtained in the temperature range from 800 to 900/sup 0/C. All reaction rate trajectories obtained in this study showed a maximum in the reaction rate, 2-3 times higher than the initial rate, at about 85% conversion. There was no correlation between these results and the evolution of the internal surface area although the reaction appeared to take place initially in the kinetically controlled regime.

  15. Minimizing Nonspecific Adsorption in Protein Biosensors that Utilize Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    Minimizing Nonspecific Adsorption in Protein Biosensors that Utilize Electrochemical Impedance. These results suggest that nonspecific adsorption does not in general limit the utility of biosensors based. Electrochemical biosensors based on amperometry have been widely employed for glucose detection, including

  16. An Advanced Solar-Powered Rotary Solid Adsorption Refrigerator with High Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, A.; Gu, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, according to practical consideration, a new solar powered rotary solid adsorption refrigerator system adopting activated carbon fibre + ethanol as its adsorption pair has been designed with higher performance. ...

  17. Bottom-up model of adsorption and transport in multiscale porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    We develop a model of transport in multiscale porous media which accounts for adsorption in the different porosity scales. This model employs statistical mechanics to upscale molecular simulation and describe adsorption ...

  18. Adsorption of inorganic contaminants in ponded effluents from coal-fired power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dzombak, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this study were [1] to conduct some experimental tests of the surface precipitation adsorption model, and [2] to work on the development of a simple yet widely applicable approach to modelling adsorption ...

  19. Quantum Chemical Study of Arsenic (III, V) Adsorption on Mn-Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    sites under simulated acidic pH conditions. Therefore, we propose that As(V) adsorption inhibits As(III) oxidation by blocking adsorption sites. Under simulated acidic pH conditions, Mn(IV) sites exhibited

  20. Bose Einstein Condensation as Dark Energy and Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masako Nishiyama; Masa-aki Morita; Masahiro Morikawa

    2004-03-24

    We study a cosmological model in which the boson dark matter gradually condensates into dark energy. Negative pressure associated with the condensate yields the accelerated expansion of the Universe and the rapid collapse of the smallest scale fluctuations into many black holes, which become the seeds of the first galaxies. The cycle of gradual sedimentation and rapid collapse of condensate repeats many times and self-regularizes the ratio of dark energy and dark matter to be order one.

  1. Hyperon bulk viscosity in the presence of antikaon condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2009-10-31

    We investigate the hyperon bulk viscosity due to the non-leptonic process $n + p \\rightleftharpoons p + \\Lambda $ in $K^-$ condensed matter and its effect on the r-mode instability in neutron stars. We find that the hyperon bulk viscosity coefficient in the presence of antikaon condensate is suppressed compared with the case without the condensate. The suppressed hyperon bulk viscosity in the superconducting phase is still an efficient mechanism to damp the r-mode instability in neutron stars.

  2. A two-component picture of the condensate with instantons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Vercauteren; Henri Verschelde

    2011-01-26

    We study the interplay between the condensate and instantons in non-Abelian gauge theory. Therefore we use the formalism of Local Composite Operators, with which the vacuum expectation value of this condensate can be analytically computed. We first use the dilute gas approximation and partially solve the infrared problem of instanton physics. In order to find quantitative results, however, we turn to an instanton liquid model, where we find how the different contributions to the condensate add up.

  3. Thermally Activated Dynamics of the Capillary Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Restagno; L. Bocquet; T. Biben; E. Charlaix

    1999-08-10

    This paper is devoted to the thermally activated dynamics of the capillary condensation. We present a simple model which enables us to identify the critical nucleus involved in the transition mechanism. This simple model is then applied to calculate the nucleation barrier from which we can obtain informations on the nucleation time. We present a simple estimation of the nucleation barrier in slab geometry both in the two dimensional case and in the three dimensional case. We extend the model in the case of rough surfaces which is closer to the experimental case and allows comparison with experimental datas.

  4. Process Considerations in Surface Condenser Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Terranova, A.; Capel, A. C. P.

    1999-01-01

    and the lifetime costs incurred are orders of magnitude greater than the purchase price of the unit As with most heat exchangers, two separate groups are involved in the specification and design of surface condensers: the process engineers and the equipment... can be a larger and heavier unit and one that may be more prone to fouling. The choice of cheaper material may result in both a more expensive unit and much higher life time costs. Allowable tubeside pressure drop can have a controlling influence...

  5. Fermion mass generation without a condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkitesh Ayyar

    2014-12-05

    We study a lattice field theory model containing two flavors of massless staggered fermions with an onsite four-fermion interaction. The symmetry of the model forbids non-zero fermion bilinear order parameters that can generate a fermion mass. At weak couplings, we expect a massless fermion phase. At strong couplings, we can argue for the existence of massive fermions without the formation of any fermion bilinear condensate. Using Monte Carlo calculations in three space-time dimensions, we find evidence for a direct second order phase transition between the two phases.

  6. Condensation of Anyons in Frustrated Quantum Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian D. Batista; Rolando D. Somma

    2012-08-12

    We derive the exact ground space of a family of spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains with uniaxial exchange anisotropy (XXZ) and interactions between nearest and next-nearest-neighbor spins. The Hamiltonian family, H(Q), is parametrized by a single variable Q. By using a generalized Jordan-Wigner transformation that maps spins into anyons, we show that the exact ground states of H(Q) correspond to a condensation of anyons with statistical phase phi=-4Q. We also provide matrix-product state representations of some ground states that allow for the efficient computation of spin-spin correlation functions.

  7. Localized Domains of Disoriented Chiral Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. K. Nandi; T. K. Nayak; B. Mohanty; D. P. Mahapatra; Y. P. Viyogi

    1999-03-12

    A new method to search for localized domains of disoriented chiral condensates (DCC) has been proposed by utilising the (eta-phi) phase space distributions of charged particles and photons. Using the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) analysis technique, it has been found that the presence of DCC domains broadens the distribution of wavelet coefficients in comparison to that of normal events. Strength contours have been derived from the differences in rms deviations of these distributions by taking into account the size of DCC domains and the probability of DCC production in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. This technique can be suitably adopted to experiments measuring multiplicities of charged particles and photons.

  8. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time:...

  9. ,"New Mexico Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2014,"0...

  10. ,"New Mexico Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06302009"...

  11. New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  12. Return Condensate to the Boiler - Steam Tip Sheet #8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    systems, wallboard production facilities, greenhouses, food processing plants, pulp and paper mills, textile plants, and hospitals. Condensing economiz- ers require site-specific...

  14. Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Geothermal energy has been a viable energy source...

  15. ,"U.S. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2013,"06302009" ,"Release...

  16. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  17. ,"North Dakota Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  18. Theory of decoherence in Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B J Dalton

    2007-02-03

    A full treatment of decoherence and dephasing effects in BEC interferometry has been developed based on using quantum correlation functions for treating interferometric effects. The BEC is described via a phase space distribution functional of the Wigner type for the condensate modes and the positive P type for the non-condensate modes. Ito equations for stochastic condensate and non-condensate field functions replace the functional Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution functional and stochastic averages of field function products determine the quantum correlation functions.

  19. ,"Lower 48 States Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  20. ,"North Louisiana Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  1. ,"New York Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  2. ,"Louisiana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  3. ,"California Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  4. ,"TX, RRC District 10 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  5. ,"Federal Offshore U.S. Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  6. ,"Kansas Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  7. ,"TX, RRC District 10 Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  8. ,"TX, RRC District 1 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  9. ,"LA, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  10. ,"Texas Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  11. ,"Oklahoma Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  12. ,"Colorado Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  13. ,"Indiana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  14. ,"TX, RRC District 5 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  15. ,"CA, San Joaquin Basin Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  16. ,"TX, RRC District 3 Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  17. ,"TX, RRC District 8A Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  18. ,"Kentucky Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  19. ,"Ohio Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio...

  20. ,"Nebraska Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  1. ,"Ohio Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  2. Holographic 1/Nc correction from the chiral condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Chanyong Park; Sunyoung Shin

    2010-10-06

    We investigate a gravity solution containing the gravitational backreaction of the massive scalar field dual to the chiral condensate, which corresponds to $1/N_c$ correction. In general, condensation changes the vacuum structure, so the present dual geometry is appropriate to describe the chiral condensate vacuum in the gauge theory side. After constructing the dual geometry numerically and applying the hard wall model we study the effect of the $1/N_c$ correction on the lightest meson spectra, which improves the values for lightest meson masses into the observations. In addition, we investigate the chiral condensate dependence the binding energy of heavy quarkonium.

  3. ,"Pennsylvania Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  4. ,"NM, East Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  5. ,"Montana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  6. ,"CA, San Joaquin Basin Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  7. ,"LA, South Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  8. ,"Utah Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah...

  9. ,"TX, RRC District 4 Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  10. ,"CA, Coastal Region Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  11. ,"LA, State Offshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  12. ,"NM, West Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  13. ,"Michigan Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  14. ,"Mississippi Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  15. ,"CA, Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  16. ,"Alaska Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  17. ,"CA, State Offshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  18. ,"LA, South Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  19. ,"Florida Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  20. ,"Miscellaneous Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  1. ,"NM, West Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  2. ,"NM, East Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  3. ,"Illinois Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  4. ,"TX, RRC District 7B Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  5. The two flavour Schwinger model: scaling of the scalar condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kei-ichi Nagai; Nils Christian; Karl Jansen; Beatrix Pollakowski

    2007-11-15

    We investigate the continuum limit scaling of the scalar condensate in the $N_f=2$ Schwinger model on the lattice. We employ maximally twisted mass Wilson fermions and overlap fermions. We compute the scalar condensate by taking the trace of the propagator (direct method) and by utilizing the integrated Ward-Takahashi identity. While the scalar condensate comes out consistent using these two methods for a given kind of lattice fermions, we find --quite surprisingly-- large discrepancies for the scalar condensate between twisted mass and overlap fermions. These discrepancies are only resolved when using the point split current for twisted mass fermions.

  6. ,"North Louisiana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  7. ,"Lower 48 States Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  8. ,"Kansas Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  9. ,"TX, RRC District 3 Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  10. ,"CA, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  11. ,"CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  12. ,"CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  13. ,"TX, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  14. ,"North Dakota Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  15. ,"West Virginia Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  16. ,"Texas Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  17. ,"Wyoming Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  18. ,"West Virginia Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West...

  19. ,"Alabama Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  20. ,"TX, State Offshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  1. ,"TX, RRC District 4 Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  2. ,"Utah Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  3. ,"TX, RRC District 9 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  4. ,"TX, RRC District 8 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  5. ,"TX, RRC District 2 Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  6. ,"TX, RRC District 6 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  7. ,"Arkansas Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  8. ,"TX, RRC District 2 Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  9. ,"Alaska Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  10. ,"TX, RRC District 7C Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  11. Systems Reiter, George 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems Reiter, George 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND...

  12. Theory of nitride oxide adsorption on transition metal (111) surfaces: a first-principles investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    In this work, we report a density functional theory study of nitric oxide (NO) adsorption on close of NO adsorption on TM(111) surfaces in the submonolayer regime. 1. Introduction The catalytic reduction of NOxTheory of nitride oxide adsorption on transition metal (111) surfaces: a first

  13. Surface Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Excess Densities of n-Butane in Silicalite-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Surface Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Excess Densities of n-Butane in Silicalite-1 Isabella 27, 2008. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 13, 2008 We present isotherms for the adsorption of n-butane have thus studied, as a representative example, the adsorption properties of one hy- drocarbon, n-butane

  14. Water adsorption on alpha-Fe2O3(0001) at near ambient conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Physical Chemistry Water adsorption on at n e a rR U N N I N G H E A D : Water adsorption on a-Fe O (0001) *investigated hydroxylation and water adsorption on a-Fe O (

  15. Individual and competitive adsorption of phosphate and arsenate on goethite in artificial seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    Individual and competitive adsorption of phosphate and arsenate on goethite in artificial seawater and arsenate adsorption on goethite was studied in single batch experiments at 25 jC upon the addition of Ca2 predicts the phosphate and arsenate adsorption behaviours in the PO4 ­SO4 ­goethite and AsO4 ­Ca­goethite

  16. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Sulfate Adsorption/Desorption on Goethite Using Pressure-Jump Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics and Mechanisms of Sulfate Adsorption/Desorption on Goethite Using Pressure-Jump Relaxation Peng Chu Zhang* and Donald L. Sparks ABSTRACT Sulfate adsorption/desorption on goethite (Fe indicated that adsorption decreased with increased pH of the goethite suspension. The triple-layer model fit

  17. WARMWASSER ERNEUERBARE ENERGIEN KLIMA RAUMHEIZUNG Adsorption Heat-Pumps for domestic heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1 #12;WARMWASSER ERNEUERBARE ENERGIEN KLIMA RAUMHEIZUNG Adsorption Heat-Pumps for domestic heating module Gas adsorption heat pump #12;5 Zeolite ­ a natural mineral [1] von www.vaillant.de [2] www is not suitable for being a source of an zeolite adsorption heat pump #12;14 > Low temperature level of the source

  18. Fragmentation, domain formation and atom number fluctuations of a two-species Boseâ??Einstein condensate in an optical lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Uttam; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2012-01-01

    atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) exhibit notablyspecies Bose–Einstein condensate in an optical lattice Uttamspecies Bose–Einstein condensate to an optical lattice in a

  19. The effect of condensate dropout on pressure transient analysis of a high-pressure gas condensate well 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briens, Frederic Jean-Louis

    1986-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF CONDENSATE DROPOUT ON PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF A HIGH-PRESSURE GAS CONDENSATE NELL A thesis FREDERIC JEAN-LOUIS BRIENS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillement of the requirements i...'or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject : Petr oleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF CONDENSATE DROPOUT ON PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF A HIGH-PRESSURE GAS CONDENSATE WELL A thesis by FREDERIC JEAN-LOUiS SRIENS Approved as to style...

  20. Composite Surface for Blocking Bacterial Adsorption on Protein Biochips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    for electronic detection of pathogenic organisms is investigated. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bio). Listeria monocy- togenes, a gram-positive, rod-shaped, food-borne pathogen, is the target addressed. A necessary characteristic of a protein biochip is that adsorption of microorganisms, other than the target

  1. Mechanical effect of adsorption Carbon sequestration and swelling of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Mechanical effect of adsorption Carbon sequestration and swelling of coal Laurent BROCHARD on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (2005)) Pressure,psi Time, year Pressure 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Rate Université Paris-Est. Laboratoire Navier (UMR CNRS 8205). Ecole des Ponts ParisTech CONTEXT - CARBON

  2. Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide onto Activated Carbon Fibers: Effect of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    about 95-97% of the hydrogen sulfide, emissions from Claus units are now becoming a source of H2S with other gases such as COS, CS2, and CO2 at various concentrations. Now Claus plants are required to reduce H2S emissions from the tail gas (7). Adsorption/oxidation by carbonaceous surfaces

  3. Hydrogen adsorption in thin films of Prussian blue analogue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ding, Vivian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Junhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Currier, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurement was used to investigate the kinetics of the molecular hydrogen adsorption into thin films of prussian blue analogues - Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} at ambient conditions. Although the equilibrium adsorption seems to be independent of the thickness, the adsorption rate substantially decreases with the thickness of the films. In addition, the reversibility of H{sub 2} adsorption into the Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} films was investigated. The results indicate that the Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} maily interacts with H{sub 2} molecules physically. The highest H{sub 2} uptake by the Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} films is obtained when the gas phase is stagnant inside the testing cell. However, the unusual high H{sub 2} uptake obtained from the QCM-D measurement makes us question how reliable this analytic methodology is.

  4. Role of adsorption in catalysis: applications of NMR relaxometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arias Vecino, Pablo

    2015-06-09

    , the performance of the diesel oxidation Chapter 1 Introduction 9 catalyst (DOC) to reduce CO and hydrocarbon emissions is affected by the presence of NOx from the exhaust engine, due to competitive adsorption (Al-Harbi et al., 2012). 1.1.3.1 Volcano plots...

  5. Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

  6. Adsorption and desorption hysteresis of PAHs in surface sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, G.; Kan, A.T.; Tomson, M. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this research is to investigate the desorption reversibility of two PAHs (naphthalene and phenanthrene) from sediment materials. Batch adsorption and desorption experiments were designed to minimize the contribution of experimental artifacts. The sorbent was sediment obtained from Johnson Ranch (Lula, OK) that contained 92% sand, 6% silt, 2% clay, and 0.27% organic matter. Batch adsorption and desorption experiments with radiolabeled chemicals were conducted at various pH levels and ionic strengths, solute concentrations ranging over several orders of magnitude, and equilibrium times up to five months. These models pollutants appear to be readily adsorbed by sediment, but a portion of the bound pollutants resists desorption. The adsorption is rapid and predictable using published K[sub oc] and K[sub ow] relationships. From 30 to 50% of the adsorbed amount resists desorption. The resistant fraction can be desorbed in water only at rates one to three orders of magnitude slower than previous observations or theories. It is hypothesized that some multistep chemical or mechanical effects promote soil aggregation and/or entrapment of pollutants in the soil organic matter during adsorption.

  7. Oxygen adsorption on graphite and nanotubes P. Giannozzi,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannozzi, Paolo

    Oxygen adsorption on graphite and nanotubes P. Giannozzi,a) R. Car, and G. Scoles Chemistry Department and Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Received 29 in molecular form,6 with an estimated binding energy E 0.19 eV. This would be consistent with the well

  8. Zinc Adsorption Effects on Arsenite Oxidation Kinetics at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Zinc Adsorption Effects on Arsenite Oxidation Kinetics at the Birnessite-Water Interface L A U R(III) oxidation. Accordingly, the effects of adsorbed and nonadsorbed Zn on arsenite (As(III)) oxidation kinetics Arsenic often occurs in aquatic/terrestrial environments because of anthropogenic inputs (e.g., use

  9. Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal M. Vandamme1 , L. Brochard2 , B. Lecampion3.07.014 #12;Abstract Enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) consists in injecting carbon dioxide in coal gets adsorbed at the surface of the coal pores, which causes the coal to swell. This swelling

  10. Bragg spectroscopy of a Bose-Einstein condensate The first evidence for Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases was obtained by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bragg spectroscopy of a Bose-Einstein condensate The first evidence for Bose-Einstein condensation distribution of the expanding condensate was the released interaction energy (mean-field energy) resulting potential. Since the size of a trapped condensate with repulsive interactions is larger than the trap ground

  11. gradient, df/dz, across the condensate. Such a gradient may be imprinted by a condensate velocity, because df=dz mv=h, where

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganichev, Sergey

    gradient, df/dz, across the condensate. Such a gradient may be imprinted by a condensate velocity,13 , which accounts for far fewer atoms than the number contained in the initial repulsive condensate. Apparently, most of the atoms from the collapsing condensate are lost, while only a small fraction remain

  12. Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    generally been overlooked by the process industry. This paper will address the application of the lithium bromide-water cycle in various energy saving modes. A waste heat powered absorption chiller producing chilled water can reduce energy consumption in a...

  13. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Occhionero, A.J. (American Gas Cooling Center, Arlington, VA (United States)); Hughes, P.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Reid, E.A. (Columbia Gas Distribution Co., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Absorption Heat Pumping- Have You Tried It? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a thermal powered absorption heat pump is not a new or revolutionary idea. It has been successfully demonstrated in the lab and prototypes have been installed in the field. Units have been successfully applied in a number...

  15. DNA Concentration By UV Spectrophotometry Measure Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    DNA Concentration By UV Spectrophotometry Measure Absorption: 1. Dilute DNA to 0.5 to 50 µg/ml in TE buffer or dH2O. Plan to use a quartz cuvette or a UV-transparent plastic (disposable) cuvette (1 2. Measure absorption at 260 nm (A260). Start by zeroing instrument with TE buffer or dH2O alone

  16. Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    predicted the occurrence of Bose­Einstein condensation (BEC) in an ideal gas of non-interacting bosonic of the polariton Bose­Einstein condensation (BEC) transition is expected to be up to room temperature. The leakage@nii.ac.jp; yyamamoto@stanford.edu Published online: 1 August 2008; doi:10.1038/nphys1034 Einstein's 1925 paper

  17. ENERGY SERIES "CFD Modeling and its Application in Steam Condenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    SEMINAR: ENERGY SERIES "CFD Modeling and its Application in Steam Condenser Performance Improvement will discuss the application of CFD to steam condensers, an area where both of the above mentioned limitations of computational fluid dynamics, having applied these techniques extensively in the design large heat exchangers

  18. Emergent gravitational dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenzo Sindoni; Florian Girelli; Stefano Liberati

    2009-09-29

    We discuss a toy model for an emergent non-relativistic gravitational theory. Within a certain class of Bose-Einstein condensates, it is possible to show that, in a suitable regime, a modified version of non-relativistic Newtonian gravity does effectively describes the low energy dynamics of the coupled system condensate/quasi-particles.

  19. Design and construction of rigs for studying surface condensation and creating anodized metal oxide surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Wei-Yang

    2011-01-01

    This thesis details the design and construction of a rig for studying surface condensation and a rig for creating anodized metal oxides (AMOs). The condensation rig characterizes condensation for different surfaces; this ...

  20. Heat transfer rates for filmwise, dropwise, and superhydrophobic condensation on silicon substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hery, Travis M

    2011-01-01

    Condensation, a two-phase heat transfer processes, is commonly utilized in industrial systems. Condensation heat transfer can be optimized by using surfaces in which dropwise condensation (DWC) occurs, and even further ...

  1. A numerical analysis of condenser performance of a seawater desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Hassan, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the numerical analysis of three type condensers for desalination of seawater system. The condensers that were analyzed were a finned tube condenser that was built in Malaysia desalination plant, a ...

  2. Relationship between Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Satellite Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    ` Relationship between Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Satellite Retrievals of Cloud Droplet is the relationship between below cloud base cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and satellite retrievals of cloud droplet cloud effective radius; however, satellites can not measure cloud condensation nuclei (CCN

  3. Spectroscopic study of low-temperature hydrogen absorption in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectroscopic study of low-temperature hydrogen absorption in palladium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spectroscopic study of low-temperature hydrogen absorption in...

  4. Effects of hydrogen/deuterium absorption on the magnetic properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of hydrogendeuterium absorption on the magnetic properties of CoPd multilayers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of hydrogendeuterium absorption on the...

  5. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.L.

    1993-10-19

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank. 3 figures.

  6. Affleck-Dine condensate, late thermalization and the gravitino problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouzbeh Allahverdi; Anupam Mazumdar

    2008-06-24

    In this clarifying note we discuss the late decay of an Affleck-Dine condensate by providing a no-go theorem that attributes to conserved global charges which are identified by the net particle number in fields which are included in the flat direction(s). For a rotating condensate, this implies that: (1) the net baryon/lepton number density stored in the condensate is always conserved, and (2) the total particle number density in the condensate cannot decrease. This reiterates that, irrespective of possible non-perturbative particle production due to $D$-terms in a multiple flat direction case, the prime decay mode of an Affleck-Dine condensate will be perturbative as originally envisaged. As a result, cosmological consequences of flat directions such as delayed thermalization as a novel solution to the gravitino overproduction problem will remain virtually intact.

  7. Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thayer, III, William J. (Kent, WA)

    1991-01-01

    A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

  8. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank.

  9. Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ling

    2008-10-10

    that have been used for absorption in the visible and UV regions. 7 The most intuitive technique to measure absorption of water is the conventional transmission type measurement. Hulburt et. al. used a long path length tube of distilled pure water... deflection spectroscopy [26]. Because the optical absorption of water in the visible and UV regions is very low (less than 0.01 m-1 at its minimum), accurate measurements are difficult. Careful examination of measurement results shows...

  10. Chalcogenide nanowires by evaporation-condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2005-02-02

    Chalcogenide (arsenic sulfide) nanowires have been successfully synthesized from As2S3 under near-equilibrium conditions via evaporation-condensation process in evacuated glass ampoules. The as-synthesized nanowires were pure, nearly stoichiometric, and amorphous. The nanowires had diameters ranging from 40 to 140 nm and lengths up to a few millimeters. Distinct joints of the crisscrossing nanowires indicate potential for forming structural networks. They have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine their structure, composition, and morphology. Selected area diffraction (SAD) in the TEM and XRD confirmed their amorphous nature. The As-S nanowires could make an ideal system for understanding the carrier transport and photonic properties in nanoscale for this family of materials (IV-V compounds). Chalcogenide nanowires show promise for integrated nanoelectronics and biophotonics.

  11. Nonlinear interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tacla, Alexandre B. [Center for Quantum Information and Control, MSC 07-4220, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Boixo, Sergio [Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Datta, Animesh [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Shaji, Anil [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, College of Engineering Trivandrum Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695016 (India); Caves, Carlton M. [Center for Quantum Information and Control, MSC 07-4220, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    We analyze a proposed experiment [Boixo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 040403 (2008)] for achieving sensitivity scaling better than 1/N in a nonlinear Ramsey interferometer that uses a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of N atoms. We present numerical simulations that confirm the analytical predictions for the effect of the spreading of the BEC ground-state wave function on the ideal 1/N{sup 3/2} scaling. Numerical integration of the coupled, time-dependent, two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equations allows us to study the several simplifying assumptions made in the initial analytic study of the proposal and to explore when they can be justified. In particular, we find that the two modes share the same spatial wave function for a length of time that is sufficient to run the metrology scheme.

  12. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Adamson, D. J.; King, W. D.

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  13. Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better resolve differences between the adsorption abilities of the resins and to develop estimates of uranium loading on the resins. By determining the quantity of uranium that each resin can adsorb and the time required to reach various levels of loading, resin lifetime in the treatment system can be estimated.

  14. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  15. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.; Parent, Y.; Hassani, A.V.

    1999-07-20

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions, and the geometric properties of the contact medium. 39 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Parent, Yves (Golden, CO); Hassani, A. Vahab (Golden, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions. and the geometric properties of the contact medium.

  17. Off-gas Adsorption Model and Simulation - OSPREY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica J Rutledge

    2013-10-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes is expected to provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. To support this capability, a modeling effort focused on the off-gas treatment system of a used nuclear fuel recycling facility is in progress. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of offgas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas composition, sorbent and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data can be obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. In addition to concentration data, the model predicts temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. A description of the OSPREY model, results from krypton adsorption modeling and plans for modeling the behavior of iodine, xenon, and tritium will be discussed.

  18. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous systems onto spent oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darwish, N.A.; Halhouli, K.A.; Al-Dhoon, N.M. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    1996-03-01

    To evaluate its ability to remove phenol from aqueous solution, Jordanian {open_quotes}spent{close_quotes} oil shale, an abundant natural resource, has been used in an experimental adsorption study. Equilibrium of the system has been determined at three temperatures: 30, 40, and 55{degrees}C. The resulting experimental equilibrium isotherms are well represented by Frendlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The relevant parameters for these isotherms, as regressed from the experimental equilibrium data, are presented. Effects of solution pH (in the range of 3-11), in addition to effects of three inorganic salts (Kl, KCl, and NaCl), on the equilibrium isotherms were also investigated. The effects of pH in the presence of KI and NaCl were also investigated for a possible interaction between salts and solution pH. The initial concentration of phenol in the aqueous system studied ranges from 10 to 200 ppm. Experimental results show that while an acidic solution has no effect on the adsorption capacity of spent oil shale to phenol, a highly basic solution reduces its adsorbability. No sound effect was observed for the inorganic salts studied on the adsorption of phenol on spent oil shale. The experimental results show that there is no interaction between the pH of solution and the presence of salts. In spite of its ability to remove phenol, spent oil shale showed a very low equilibrium capacity (of an order of magnitude of 1 mg/g). Should the adsorption capacity of the shale be improved (by different treatment processes, such as grafting, surface conditioning), results of this study will find a direct practical implication in serving as {open_quotes}raw{close_quotes} reference data for comparison purposes.

  19. Kinetics of Mercury(II) Adsorption and Desorption on Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics of Mercury(II) Adsorption and Desorption on Soil Y U J U N Y I N , H E R B E R T E . A L L of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 D O N A L D L . S P A R K S Department of Plant and Soil Sciences kinetics of Hg(II) on four soils at pH 6 were investigated to discern the mechanisms controlling

  20. Density functional study of hydrogen adsorption on beryllium (0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allouche, A. [Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, CNRS and Universite de Provence, Campus Scientifique de Saint Jerome, service 242, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2008-08-15

    Beryllium, tungsten, and carbon are planned as wall materials for the future international tokamak. Although beryllium is not situated in a region submitted to the most dramatic plasma-wall interaction, its reactivity toward hydrogen atom impinging is of fundamental importance. This paper is devoted to theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on the beryllium (0001) surface based on the first-principles discrete Fourier transform method. Comparison is proposed to former theoretical works and to thermal-desorption spectroscopy.

  1. Particle-scale CO2 adsorption kinetics modeling considering three reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Dong-Myung; Sun, Xin

    2013-09-01

    In the presence of water (H2O), dry and wet adsorptions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and physical adsorption of H2O happen concurrently in a sorbent particle. The three reactions depend on each other and have a complicated, but important, effect on CO2 capturing via a solid sorbent. In this study, transport phenomena in the sorbent were modeled, including the tree reactions, and a numerical solving procedure for the model also was explained. The reaction variable distribution in the sorbent and their average values were calculated, and simulation results were compared with experimental data to validate the proposed model. Some differences, caused by thermodynamic parameters, were observed between them. However, the developed model reasonably simulated the adsorption behaviors of a sorbent. The weight gained by each adsorbed species, CO2 and H2O, is difficult to determine experimentally. It is known that more CO2 can be captured in the presence of water. Still, it is not yet known quantitatively how much more CO2 the sorbent can capture, nor is it known how much dry and wet adsorptions separately account for CO2 capture. This study addresses those questions by modeling CO2 adsorption in a particle and simulating the adsorption process using the model. As adsorption temperature changed into several values, the adsorbed amount of each species was calculated. The captured CO2 in the sorbent particle was compared quantitatively between dry and wet conditions. As the adsorption temperature decreased, wet adsorption increased. However, dry adsorption was reduced.

  2. Electromagnetic triangle anomaly and neutral pion condensation in QCD vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Gaoqing

    2015-01-01

    We study the QCD vacuum structure under the influence of an electromagnetic field with a nonzero second Lorentz invariant $I_2=\\vec{E}\\cdot{\\vec B}$. We show that the presence of $I_2$ can induce neutral pion ($\\pi^0$) condensation in the QCD vacuum through the electromagnetic triangle anomaly. Within the frameworks of chiral perturbation theory at leading small-momenta expansion as well as the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model at leading $1/N_c$ expansion, we quantify the dependence of the $\\pi^0$ condensate on $I_2$. The stability of the $\\pi^0$-condensed vacuum against the Schwinger charged pair production due to electric field is also discussed.

  3. Dual-phase reactor plant with partitioned isolation condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy plant housing a boiling-water reactor utilizes an isolation condenser in which a single chamber is partitioned into a distributor plenum and a collector plenum. Steam accumulates in the distributor plenum and is conveyed to the collector plenum through an annular manifold that includes tubes extending through a condenser pool. The tubes provide for a transfer of heat from the steam, forming a condensate. The chamber has a disk-shaped base, a cylindrical sidewall, and a semispherical top. This geometry results in a compact design that exhibits significant performance and cost advantages over prior designs.

  4. Amplification of Fluctuations in a Spinor Bose Einstein Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. Leslie; J. Guzman; M. Vengalattore; J. D. Sau; M. L. Cohen; D. M. Stamper-Kurn

    2008-06-10

    Dynamical instabilities due to spin-mixing collisions in a $^{87}$Rb F=1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate are used as an amplifier of quantum spin fluctuations. We demonstrate the spectrum of this amplifier to be tunable, in quantitative agreement with mean-field calculations. We quantify the microscopic spin fluctuations of the initially paramagnetic condensate by applying this amplifier and measuring the resulting macroscopic magnetization. The magnitude of these fluctuations is consistent with predictions of a beyond-mean-field theory. The spinor-condensate-based spin amplifier is thus shown to be nearly quantum-limited at a gain as high as 30 dB.

  5. Nucleon sigma term and quark condensate in nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Tsushima; K. Saito; A. W. Thomas; A. Valcarce

    2006-10-10

    We study the bound nucleon sigma term and the quark condensate in nuclear matter. In the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model the nuclear correction to the sigma term is small and negative, i.e., it decelerates the decrease of the quark condensate in nuclear matter. However, the quark condensate in nuclear matter is controlled primarily by the scalar-isoscalar $\\sigma$ field. Compared to the leading term, it moderates the decrease more than that of the nuclear sigma term alone at densities around and larger than the normal nuclear matter density.

  6. Condensate fraction of cold gases in a nonuniform external potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Krutitsky, K. V.

    2011-09-15

    Exact calculation of the condensate fraction in multidimensional inhomogeneous interacting Bose systems in a confining potential of arbitrary shape is a difficult computational problem. We have developed an iterative procedure which allows us to calculate the condensate fraction as well as the corresponding eigenfunction of the one-body density matrix. We successfully validate this procedure in diffusion Monte Carlo simulations of a Bose gas in an optical lattice at zero temperature. We also discuss the relation between different criteria used for testing coherence in cold Bose systems, such as the fraction of particles that are superfluid, condensed, or in the zero-momentum state.

  7. Neutral hydrogen absorption towards Fast Radio Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fender, Rob

    2015-01-01

    If Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are truly at astronomical, in particular cosmological, distances, they represent one of the most exciting discoveries in astrophysics of the past decade. However, the distance to FRBs has, to date, been estimated purely from their excess dispersion, and has not been corroborated by any independent means. In this paper we discuss the possibility of detecting neutral hydrogen absorption against FRBs both from spiral arms within our own galaxy, or from intervening extragalactic HI clouds. In either case a firm lower limit on the distance to the FRB would be established. Absorption against galactic spiral arms may already be detectable for bright low-latitude bursts with existing facilities, and should certainly be so by the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Absorption against extragalactic HI clouds, which would confirm the cosmological distances of FRBs, should also be detectable with the SKA, and maybe also Arecibo. Quantitatively, we estimate that SKA1-MID should be able to detect extr...

  8. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  9. Calorimetric studies of small-molecule adsorption to carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glab, Kristin Lena

    2009-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was developed as a technique for qualitatively comparing the heat of absorption of small molecules to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In agreement with other studies, it was ...

  10. Multi-plasmon absorption in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinko Jablan; Darrick E. Chang

    2015-01-21

    We show that graphene possesses a strong nonlinear optical response in the form of multi-plasmon absorption, with exciting implications in classical and quantum nonlinear optics. Specifically, we predict that graphene nano-ribbons can be used as saturable absorbers with low saturation intensity in the far-infrared and terahertz spectrum. Moreover, we predict that two-plasmon absorption and extreme localization of plasmon fields in graphene nano-disks can lead to a plasmon blockade effect, in which a single quantized plasmon strongly suppresses the possibility of exciting a second plasmon.

  11. Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 1. Adsorption capacity and kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Z.; Peldszus, S.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). NSERC Chair in Water Treatment

    2009-03-01

    The adsorption of two representative PhACs (naproxen and carbamazepine) and one EDC (nonylphenol) were evaluated on two granular activated carbons (GAC) namely coal-based Calgon Filtrasorb 400 and coconut shell-based PICA CTIF TE. The primary objective was to investigate preloading effects by natural organic matter (NOM) on adsorption capacity and kinetics under conditions and concentrations (i.e., ng/L) relevant for drinking water treatment. Isotherms demonstrated that all compounds were significantly negatively impacted by NOM fouling. Adsorption capacity reduction was most severe for the acidic naproxen, followed by the neutral carbamazepine and then the more hydrophobic nonylphenol. The GAC with the wider pore size distribution had considerably greater NOM loading, resulting in lower adsorption capacity. Different patterns for the change in Freundlich KF and 1/n with time revealed different competitive mechanisms for the different compounds. Mass transport coefficients determined by short fixed-bed (SFB) tests with virgin and preloaded GAC demonstrated that film diffusion primarily controls mass transfer on virgin and preloaded carbon. Naproxen suffered the greatest deteriorative effect on kinetic parameters due to preloading, followed by carbamazepine, and then nonylphenol. A type of surface NOM/biofilm, which appeared to add an additional mass transfer resistance layer and thus reduce film diffusion, was observed. In addition, electrostatic interactions between NOM/biofilm and the investigated compounds are proposed to contribute to the reduction of film diffusion. A companion paper building on this work describes treatability studies in pilot-scale GAC adsorbers and the effectiveness of a selected fixed-bed model. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Scattering off the Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mäntysaari, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework, which describes quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at high energy, is applied to various scattering processes. Higher order corrections to the CGC evolution equations, known as the BK and JIMWLK equations, are also considered. It is shown that the leading order CGC calculations describe the experimental data from electron-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS), proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. The initial condition for the BK evolution equation is obtained by performing a fit to deep inelastic scattering data. The fit result is used as an input to calculations of single particle spectra and nuclear suppression in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, which are shown to be in agreement with RHIC and LHC measurements. In particular, the importance of a proper description of the nuclear geometry consistently with the DIS data fits is emphasized, as it results in a nuclear suppression factor $R_{pA}$ which is consistent with the available exp...

  13. Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville

    2015-02-18

    We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.

  14. Condensate-free superfluidity induced by frustrated proximity effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of superfluidity in He4 and Landau's phenomenological theory, the relationship between Bose condensation and superfluidity has been intensely debated. He4 is known by now to be both superfluid and condensed at low temperature, and more generally, in dimension D \\geq 2, all superfluid bosonic models realized in experiments are condensed in their ground state. Recent examples include ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in an optical lattice or effective bosons describing magnetic excitations in quantum magnets. In this paper, it is shown that a 2D gas of bosons which is superfluid but not condensed at T=0 can be achieved by populating a layer through a frustrated proximity effect from a superfluid reservoir. This bosonic fluid is characterized by specific scaling laws and incommensurate correlations. This leads to several predictions for the quantum antiferromagnet BaCuSi2O6 (Han purple) in a magnetic field, a good candidate to realize this novel state of matter.

  15. Bose-Einstein condensates of polaritons: Vortices and superfluidity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bose-Einstein condensates of polaritons: Vortices and superfluidity May 10, 2011 at 3:00PM36-428 Benoit Deveaud-Pldran Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne abstract: The...

  16. The Effect of vapor subcooling on film condensation of metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedorovich, Eugene D.

    1968-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the interfacial "vapor-condensate" temperature distribution, which includes the effect of subcooling (supersaturation) in the vapor. Experimental data from previous investigators for ...

  17. Electric-Field-Enhanced Condensation on Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon has been shown to enhance ...

  18. Condenser performance test and back-pressure improvement: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piskorowski, J.; Beckett, G.; Bell, R.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes condenser performance test and analyses experiences. The testing was performed by Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) on the Petersburg Unit 3 condenser. The initial testing revealed a performance deficiency. Modifications were made to the condenser, air in-leakage was reduced and the vacuum pumps were brought back to their original design capacity. Testing was reperformed after these activities and although a significant performance improvement was achieved deficiencies were still evident. Heat Exchanger Systems, Inc. (HES) was retained as consultants during this testing program. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) Central Electricity Research Laboratory (CERL) acting as a subcontractor to HES were retained to perform an analysis of the Petersburg Unit 3 condenser using their EPOC computer code. The results of this analysis are also contained in this document. 3 refs., 48 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  20. Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation with Lithium-7 atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Yichao

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents our work on developing and improving the techniques of trapping and cooling an ultra-cold cloud of Lithium-7 atoms and the realization of the Bose- Einstein condensate as a first step to study quantum ...

  1. Boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar-Cohen Avram

    1971-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure, with water and Freon- 113 as the working fluids, is described. The operating characteristics of a boiling system, ...

  2. Dropwise Condensation of Low Surface Tension Fluids on Omniphobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rykaczewski, Konrad

    Compared to the significant body of work devoted to surface engineering for promoting dropwise condensation heat transfer of steam, much less attention has been dedicated to fluids with lower interfacial tension. A vast ...

  3. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's...

  4. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  5. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  6. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  7. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  8. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  9. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  10. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  11. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  12. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  13. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  14. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  15. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  16. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  17. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  18. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  19. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  20. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  1. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  2. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  3. Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...

  4. Internal Josephson oscillations for distinct momenta Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Lih-King [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 8502, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Troppenz, T.; Morais Smith, C. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    The internal Josephson oscillations between an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a molecular one are studied for atoms in a square optical lattice subjected to a staggered gauge field. The system is described by a Bose-Hubbard model with complex and anisotropic hopping parameters that are different for each species, i.e., atoms and molecules. When the flux per plaquette for each species is small, the system oscillates between two conventional zero-momentum condensates. However, there is a regime of parameters in which Josephson oscillations between a vortex-carrying atomic condensate (finite momentum BEC) and a conventional zero-momentum molecular condensate may be realized. The experimental observation of the oscillations between these qualitatively distinct BEC's is possible with state-of-the-art Ramsey interference techniques.

  5. An investigation of the numerical treatment of condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasson, Joseph

    The simulation of complete condensation continues to challenge the numerical methods currently used for multi-phase flow modeling; especially at low pressures, the change of phase process from a two-phase mixture to liquid ...

  6. Refrigerant forced-convection condensation inside horizontal tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Soonhoon

    1968-01-01

    Condensing heat transfer rates inside a horizontal tube were investigated -for large quality changes across the tube. The proposed correlation is a modification of the work of Rohsenow, Webber and Ling [29]. The result of ...

  7. Emergent Properties of the Bose-Einstein-Hubbard Condensate in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Emergent Properties of the Bose-Einstein-Hubbard Condensate in UO2(+x) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emergent Properties of the Bose-Einstein-Hubbard...

  8. Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's...

  9. Possible Bose-condensate Behavior in a Quantum Phase Originating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Possible Bose-condensate Behavior in a Quantum Phase Originating in a Collective Excitation in the Chemically and Optically Doped Mott-Hubbard System UO2+x Citation Details...

  10. Controlling phase separation of binary Bose-Einstein condensates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resonance We investigate controlled phase separation of a binary Bose-Einstein condensate in the proximity of a mixed-spin-channel Feshbach resonance in the |F1,msub F+1>...

  11. Interlayer Coherence and Superconducting Condensate in the c...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interlayer Coherence and Superconducting Condensate in the c-Axis Response of Optimally Doped Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 High-Tc Superconductor Using Infrared Spectroscopy Citation Details...

  12. The effects of surface instabilities on laminar film condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstmann, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Heat transfer rates for laminar film condensation of Freon-1l3 were measured on the underside of horizontal surfaces, inclined surfaces, and vertical surfaces. Several distinct regimes of flow were observed. On the underside ...

  13. NUMERICAL SIM ULATION OF CONDENSATION ON A CAPILLARY GROOVED STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    decade [5, 6]. In a conventional heat pipe, evaporation and condensation take place at the interface vaporization in laser drilling processes [9, 10], solidi¢cation in continuous casting [11], and bubble growth

  14. Effects of interaction in Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Kaiwen

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses a series of studies that investigate the effects of interaction - essentially the s-wave scattering - in the various properties of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). The phonon wavefunction in a BEC was ...

  15. Energy Savings By Recovery of Condensate From Steam Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, W. S.; Zhi, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The recovery and utilization of condensate has a remarkable energy saving effect if the following are properly done: 1) Determination of a correct and reasonable recovery plan; 2) Selection of bleed valve with good performance; 3) Solving...

  16. Bose-Einstein condensation as an alternative to inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Saurya

    2015-01-01

    It was recently shown that gravitons with a very small mass should have formed a Bose-Einstein condensate in the very early Universe, whose density and quantum potential can account for the dark matter and dark energy in the Universe respectively. Here we show that the condensation can also naturally explain the observed large scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. Furthermore gravitons continue to fall into their ground state within the condensate at every epoch, accounting for the observed flatness of space at cosmological distances scales. Finally, we argue that the density perturbations due to quantum fluctuations within the condensate give rise to a scale invariant spectrum. This therefore provides a viable alternative to inflation, which is not associated with the well-known problems associated with the latter.

  17. Refrigerant forced-convection condensation inside horizontal tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Soonhoon

    1970-01-01

    High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied theoretically. The heat transfer coefficients were calculated by the momentum and heat transfer analogy. The Von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied ...

  18. Assessing possible dynamical effects of condensate in high resolution climate simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Assessing possible dynamical effects of condensate in high resolution climate simulations J. T, condensed water species can add significant mass to an atmospheric column. This mass can create positive the pressure induced by condensates. A simple parameterization of this condensate loading as a function

  19. Sound at non-zero temperature: collisionless and hydrodynamic excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Einstein condensate Collective excitations are the fingerprints of a system and reveal many of its dynamic properties. We extended earlier work on collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate by studying them-Einstein condensation temperature. The temperature dependencies of the frequency and damping rates of condensate

  20. The Condensate Equation for non-homogeneous Andre F. Verbeure1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Condensate Equation for non-homogeneous Bosons Andr´e F. Verbeure1 Institute for Theoretical)-condensation. This phe- nomenon is accompanied with spontaneous breaking of the translation symmetry down of the condensate equation for these systems. We discuss model applications. KEY WORDS: Bose- Einstein condensation