National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for aa bond rate

  1. FITCH RATES ENERGY NORTHWEST, WA'S ELECTRIC REV RFDG BONDS 'AA...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    debt (4.1 billion). KEY RATING DRIVERS BONNEVILLE'S OBLIGATION SECURES BONDS: The rating on the Energy Northwest bonds reflects the credit quality of Bonneville and its...

  2. AA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AA... &%:::::I::::::( :: I :: I ::: I ::: fp1

  3. Deflagration Rates and Molecular Bonding Trends of Statically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Bonding Trends of Statically Compressed Secondary Explosives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deflagration Rates and Molecular Bonding Trends of Statically ...

  4. Deflagration Rates and Molecular Bonding Trends of Statically Compressed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Secondary Explosives (Conference) | SciTech Connect Deflagration Rates and Molecular Bonding Trends of Statically Compressed Secondary Explosives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deflagration Rates and Molecular Bonding Trends of Statically Compressed Secondary Explosives We discuss our measurements of the chemical reaction propagation rate as a function of pressure. Materials investigated have included CL-20, HMX, TATB, and RDX crystalline powders, LX-04, Comp B, and nitromethane.

  5. CITY, Aa.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    c I..:.. : - I) ",A;' ,: /iL;L#d -___-___-_--~~~--~-- CITY, Aa. ;:.--w-e- ____ )kk- ________ STAT%d$ ___ Current: -----------------------__- if Yee, date contacted __ TYPE OF OPERATION ~~---~~--~---__-- IJ Research & Development I n Facility Type I 0 Production scale testing a Pilat scale 0 Bench Scale Process i Theoretical Studies Sample SC Analysis * ~~oy~~~"4 Io.*l--t r-J Manufacturing 0 University 0 Research Organization 0 Government Sponsored Facility 0 Other

  6. Constitutive response of two plastic-bonded explosive binder materials as a function of temperature and strain-rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cady, C. M.; Blumenthal, W. R.; Gray, G. T. , III; Idar, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, interest has been shown concerning the mechanical response of plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) and propellants to enable the development of predictive materials models describing the mechanical behavior of these composites. Accordingly, detailed information about the constitutive response is crucial. Compression measurements were conducted on two explosive formulation binders, extruded Estane{trademark} 5703 (hereafter referred to as Estane) and plasticized Estane as a function of temperature from -60 C to +23 C using a specially-designed split Hopkinson pressure bar (strain rate of {approx} 2800 s{sup -1}) and quasi-stattically (strain rates from {approx} 0.001 to 1 s{sup -1}) using a hydraulic load frame. The mechanical response of the Estane was found to exhibit a stronger dependency on strain rate and temperature and higher flow strength for similar test conditions of the materials tested. Plasticized Estane was less sensitively dependent on strain rate and temperature. The visco-elastic recovery of both binders is seen to dominate the mechanical behavior at temperatures above the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). The binders exhibited increasing elastic loading moduli, E, with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature, which is similar to other polymeric materials. There is a pronounced shift in the apparent T{sub g} to higher temperatures as the strain rate is increased. At low strain rates the binders exhibit a yield behavior followed by a drop in the flow stress which may or may not recover. At high strain rates the load drop does not occur and the flow stresses level out. A discussion of the Hopkinson bar technique as applied to polymeric or low impedance materials is described in detail.

  7. New Issue: Moody's assigns Aa1 ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    revenue bonds. Rating outlooks are stable. Global Credit Research - 09 Apr 2015 Approximately 8.1 billion of debt securities affected BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION, OR Electric...

  8. New Issue: Moody's assigns Aa1 ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015-C revenue bonds. Rating outlooks are stable. Global Credit Research - 23 Sep 2015 Approximately 110 million of debt securities affected BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION, OR...

  9. An Investigation of Enhanced Formability in AA5182-O Al During High-Rate Fre-Forming at Room-Temperature: Quantification of Deformation History

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Soulami, Ayoub; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Davies, Richard W.; Smith, Mark T.

    2014-03-01

    Following the two prior publication of PNNL Pulse-Pressure research in the Journal of Materials Processing Technology, this manuscript continues to describe PNNL’s advances in getting a better understanding of sheet metal formability under high strain-rate conditions. Specifically, using a combination of numerical modeling and novel experiments, we quantitatively demonstrate the deformation history associated with enhanced formability (~2.5X) in Al under room temperature forming.

  10. AA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    is included, but an estimated 3.0 quadrillion Btu of renewable Note 8; and Table A8. * Geothermal Energy and Other: Section 2, energy used by other sectors is not included....

  11. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds A Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) is a bond that enables qualified state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money at attractive rates to fund energy conservation projects (it is important to note that QECBs are not grants). A QECB is among the lowest-cost public financing tools because the U.S. Department of the Treasury subsidizes the issuer's borrowing costs. Like Build America Bonds, QECBs are

  12. IMPROVED BONDING METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padgett, E.V. Jr.; Warf, D.H.

    1964-04-28

    An improved process of bonding aluminum to aluminum without fusion by ultrasonic vibrations plus pressure is described. The surfaces to be bonded are coated with an aqueous solution of alkali metal stearate prior to assembling for bonding. (AEC) O H19504 Present information is reviewed on steady state proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells in mammals. Data are cited from metabolic tracer studies, autoradiographic studies, cytologic studies, studies of hematopoietic response to radiation injuries, and computer analyses of blood cell production. A 3-step model for erythropoiesis and a model for granulocyte kinetics are presented. New approaches to the study of lymphocytopoiesis described include extracorporeal blood irradiation to deplete lymphocytic tissue without direct injury to the formative tissues as a means to study the stressed system, function control, and rates of proliferation. It is pointed out that present knowledge indicates that lymphocytes comprise a mixed family, with diverse life spans, functions, and migration patterns with apparent aimless recycling from modes to lymph to blood to nodes that has not yet been quantitated. Areas of future research are postulated. (70 references.) (C.H.)

  13. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    18, 2012 Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance from the U.S. Department of Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized bonds that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of energy conservation projects at very attractive borrowing rates over long contract terms. In June 2012, the U.S. Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)

  14. Multilayer roll bonded aluminium foil: processing, microstructure and flow stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, C.Y.; Nielsen, P.; Hansen, N

    2004-08-02

    Bulk aluminium has been produced by warm-rolling followed by cold-rolling of commercial purity (99% purity) aluminium foil. The bonding appeared perfect from observation with the naked eye, light and transmission electron microscopy. By comparison with bulk aluminium of similar purity (AA1200) rolled to a similar strain (90%RA), the roll-bonded metal showed a much higher density of high-angle grain boundaries, similar strength and improved thermal stability. This study has implications for a number of applications in relation to the processing of aluminium. Roll bonding is of interest as a method for grain size refinement; oxide-containing materials have increased strength, enhanced work-hardening behaviour, and exhibit alterations in recrystallisation behaviour. The behaviour of the hard oxide film is of interest in aluminium processing, and has been investigated by characterising the size and distribution of oxide particles in the roll-bonded samples.

  15. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides

  16. Bonding thermoplastic polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallow, Thomas I. (Fremont, CA); Hunter, Marion C. (Livermore, CA); Krafcik, Karen Lee (Livermore, CA); Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Domeier, Linda A. (Danville, CA)

    2008-06-24

    We demonstrate a new method for joining patterned thermoplastic parts into layered structures. The method takes advantage of case-II permeant diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. It is capable of producing bonds characterized by cohesive failure while preserving the fidelity of patterned features in the bonding surfaces. This approach is uniquely suited to production of microfluidic multilayer structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometer length scales. The bond enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows and requires no specialized equipment.

  17. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With tax credit bonds, generally the borrower who issues the bond pays back only the principal of the bond, and the bondholder receives federal tax credits in lieu of the traditional bond interest...

  18. Bonded semiconductor substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, Jr.; Harry A. , Zahler; James M.

    2010-07-13

    Ge/Si and other nonsilicon film heterostructures are formed by hydrogen-induced exfoliation of the Ge film which is wafer bonded to a cheaper substrate, such as Si. A thin, single-crystal layer of Ge is transferred to Si substrate. The bond at the interface of the Ge/Si heterostructures is covalent to ensure good thermal contact, mechanical strength, and to enable the formation of an ohmic contact between the Si substrate and Ge layers. To accomplish this type of bond, hydrophobic wafer bonding is used, because as the invention demonstrates the hydrogen-surface-terminating species that facilitate van der Waals bonding evolves at temperatures above 600.degree. C. into covalent bonding in hydrophobically bound Ge/Si layer transferred systems.

  19. Microstructure and properties of AA 2090 weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunwoo, A.J.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The effects of welding on AA 2090 are examined along with the metallurgical changes associated with welding and aging. The results of the study show that the GTA and EB weldment properties are controlled by the precipitate size and distribution. There is a trade-off between strength and elongation. In the as-welded condition, solid solution strengthening is the primary strengthening mechanism present. As a result, the weldment strengths are less than 200 MPa, but the elongations are greater than 4%. In the post-weld aged condition, an inhomogeneous distribution of solutes results in an inhomogeneous distribution of precipitates, causing strain localization. Although the weldment strengths increase, the weldment elongations decrease precipitously. The peak strengths of EB and GTA weldments are obtained aging at 160{degree}C for 32 hours with 75% joint efficiency and at 190{degree}C for 16 hours with 65% joint efficiency, respectively. Aging at 230{degree}C leads to coarsening of precipitates as well as the intermetallic constituents; the weldment strengths deteriorate rapidly, but the elongations improve. The best overall weldment properties are obtained in the solution heat treated and aged conditions, and are associated with a homogeneous distribution of strengthening precipitates. 13 refs.

  20. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  1. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the...

  2. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in both in technological and biological processes that are often governed by careful control over the physical and chemical properties of metal-oxygen bonds. For example,...

  3. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an in-depth description of qualified energy conservation bonds, including process and mechanics, case studies, utilization trends, barriers, and regulatory and legal issues. Author: Energy Programs Consortium

  4. Bonding aerogels with polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, F.M.; Hoffman, D.M.

    1989-11-01

    Aerogels, porous silica glasses with ultra-fine cell size (30nm), are made by a solution gelation (sol-gel) process. The resulting gel is critical point dried to densities from 0.15--0.60 g/cc. This material is machinable, homogeneous, transparent, coatable and bondable. To bond aerogel an adhesive should have long cure time, no attack on the aerogel structure, and high strength. Several epoxies and urethanes were examined to determine if they satisfied these conditions. Bond strengths above 13 psi were found with double bubble and DP-110 epoxies and XI-208/ODA-1000 and Castall U-2630 urethanes. Hardman Kalex Tough Stuff'' A-85 hardness urethane gave 18 psi bond strength. Hardman A-85, Tuff-Stuff'' was selected for further evaluation because it produced bond strengths comparable to the adherend cohesive strength. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  6. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  7. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redmond, Robert W. (Brookline, MA); Kochevar, Irene E. (Charlestown, MA)

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  8. Diffusion Bonding Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffusion Bonding Characterization - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  9. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The joining technique requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process.

  10. Bond Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bond Program Jump to: navigation, search This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBondProgram&oldid5427...

  11. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond Webinars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a listing of past qualified energy conservation bond webinars and associated files. Author: U.S. Department of Energy

  12. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Bionta, R.M.

    1995-01-17

    The joining technique is disclosed that requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process. 5 figures.

  13. Solder extrusion pressure bonding process and bonded products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beavis, L.C.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1992-06-16

    Disclosed is a process for production of soldered joints which are highly reliable and capable of surviving 10,000 thermal cycles between about [minus]40 C and 110 C. Process involves interposing a thin layer of a metal solder composition between the metal surfaces of members to be bonded and applying heat and up to about 1000 psi compression pressure to the superposed members, in the presence of a reducing atmosphere, to extrude the major amount of the solder composition, contaminants including fluxing gases and air, from between the members being bonded, to form a very thin, strong intermetallic bonding layer having a thermal expansion tolerant with that of the bonded members.

  14. Method of bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saller, deceased, Henry A. (late of Columbus, OH); Hodge, Edwin S. (Columbus, OH); Paprocki, Stanley J. (Columbus, OH); Dayton, Russell W. (Columbus, OH)

    1987-12-01

    1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

  15. Smart interfacial bonding alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Q. Hwang; J. C. Hamilton; J. E. Houston

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to explore the use of the newly discovered strain-stabilized 2-D interfacial alloys as smart interface bonding alloys (SIBA). These materials will be used as templates for the heteroepitaxial growth of metallic thin films. SIBA are formed by two metallic components which mix at an interface to relieve strain and prevent dislocations from forming in subsequent thin film growth. The composition of the SIBA is determined locally by the amount of strain, and therefore can react smartly to areas of the highest strain to relieve dislocations. In this way, SIBA can be used to tailor the dislocation structure of thin films. This project included growth, characterization and modeling of films grown using SIBA templates. Characterization will include atomic imaging of the dislocations structure, measurement of the mechanical properties of the film using interface force microscopy (IFM) and the nanoindenter, and measurement of the electronic structure of the SIBA with synchrotron photoemission. Resistance of films to sulfidation and oxidation will also be examined. The Paragon parallel processing computer will be used to calculate the structure of the SIBA and thin films in order to develop ability to predict and tailor SIBA and thin film behavior. This work will lead to the possible development of a new class of thin film materials with properties tailored by varying the composition of the SIBA, serving as a buffer layer to relieve the strain between the substrate and the thin film. Such films will have improved mechanical and corrosion resistance allowing application as protective barriers for weapons applications. They will also exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity and reduced electromigration making them particularly suitable for application as interconnects and other electronic needs.

  16. Deflagration Rates and Molecular Bonding Trends of Statically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We find that pressure induced splitting of symmetric stretch NOsub 2 vibrations can signal the onset of increasingly more rapid combustion reactions. Authors: Zaug,...

  17. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  18. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  19. Clean Energy Revenue Bond Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The bonds are exempt from taxation by the state, and any type of renewable energy system and most energy efficiency measures, including energy recovery and combined heat and power (CHP) systems,...

  20. Public Bonding Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bonding Options Public Bonding Options Traditionally, state and local governments (as well as certain other nonprofit organizations such as universities and hospitals) have had the ability to issue debt, in the form of bonds, to finance construction and/or improvements to public infrastructure. Bonds issued by state and local governments-often referred to as municipal or public bonds-can also be used, under certain circumstances for private activities. Public bonds vary by tax liability, as well

  1. Special purpose revenue bonds: boon or bane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taussig, R.A.

    1985-02-21

    Utilities are looking with increasing interest at the advantages offered by industrial development bonds (IDBs), a financing tool made available to investor-owned utilities through provision of federal law. IDBs are not without problems, however, particularly if regulatory agencies account for them improperly in rate cases. Regulatory agencies should allow returns based on the funds-used rather than the total-funds approach or the tariffs will not compensate investors adequately. The author examines both the risks to be avoided and the benefits when using IDBs.

  2. Low Temperature Material Bonding Techniq Ue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-08-06

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  3. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    describe bonding in organometallics are at frequently at odds with classical coordination chemistry, in that they invoke a covalent bond between the metal and the carbon-based...

  4. Method to improve commercial bonded SOI material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey John (Barrington, RI); Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY)

    2000-07-11

    A method of improving the bonding characteristics of a previously bonded silicon on insulator (SOI) structure is provided. The improvement in the bonding characteristics is achieved in the present invention by, optionally, forming an oxide cap layer on the silicon surface of the bonded SOI structure and then annealing either the uncapped or oxide capped structure in a slightly oxidizing ambient at temperatures greater than 1200.degree. C. Also provided herein is a method for detecting the bonding characteristics of previously bonded SOI structures. According to this aspect of the present invention, a pico-second laser pulse technique is employed to determine the bonding imperfections of previously bonded SOI structures.

  5. Local Option- Industrial Facilities and Development Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Utah Industrial Facilities and Development Act, counties, municipalities, and state universities in Utah may issue Industrial Revenue Bonds (IRBs) or Industrial Development Bonds (IDBs)...

  6. Rate Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  7. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs) Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New ...

  8. Microsoft Word - News Release -- Rating Agencies affirms BPA...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bond sale will save BPA rate payers millions of dollars Portland, Ore. - The three major credit rating agencies affirmed the ratings on BPA- backed debt last week, paving the way...

  9. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  10. T.A.; Coomer, C.L.; Campbell, S.L.; Wereszczak, A.A.; Cunningham...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S.L.; Wereszczak, A.A.; Cunningham, J.P.; Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Lin, H.T. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ECONOMICS; EVALUATION; FEEDBACK;...

  11. DOE/Grand Junction Office Bluewater LTSP July 1997 Doc. No. S00012AA, Page iii

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    DOE/Grand Junction Office Bluewater LTSP July 1997 Doc. No. S00012AA, Page iii Contents Page 1.0 Introduction .........................................................................................................................................1 1.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................................1 1.2 Legal and Regulatory Requirements

  12. Non-bonded ultrasonic transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eoff, J.M.

    1984-07-06

    A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

  13. Bonded polyimide fuel cell package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan; Graff, Robert T.; Bettencourt, Kerry

    2010-06-08

    Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

  14. Federal oversight of alternative bond systems under SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beier, A.E.; McElfish, J.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) requires mine operators to post reclamation bonds before mining begins. The Federal Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) has approved alternative bond systems in seven states. These systems, rather than requiring bond amounts at the full cost of reclamation, require operators to submit only a flat rate, acreage specific bond. Additional reclamation costs should be covered by a supplemental fund composed generally of permit fees, taxes, or penalties. In many cases, alternative bond systems fail to ensure that funds will be available to reclaim coal mined land in the event of operator default, as required by SMCRA. OSMRE needs to take a more active role in oversight of existing state alternative bond systems to ensure that reclamation occurs.

  15. Hi Bond Tapes Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hi Bond Tapes Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hi-Bond Tapes Ltd Place: Northamptonshire, England, United Kingdom Zip: NN17 5TS Product: Northamptonshire-based supplier of...

  16. INFORMATION REGARDING PERFORMANCE AND PAYMENT BONDS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PAYMENT BOND A payment bond assures payments as required by law to all persons supplying labor or material in the prosecution of the work provided for in the Subcontract. A...

  17. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  18. Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on Sept. 22, 2010, provides information on qualified energy conservation bonds. Examples include New York and Colorado.

  19. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Wednesday, 28 May 2014 00:00 Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic

  20. Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides information on Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative (CE+BFI). CE+BFI brings together public infrastructure finance agencies, clean energy public fund managers and institutional investors across the country to explore how to raise capital at scale for clean energy development through bond financing. Author: Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative

  1. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  2. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  3. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  4. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  5. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  6. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  7. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bonds, are vital as industrial or bioinorganic catalysts and as precursors for nanomaterial synthesis. The work at the ALS also provides conclusive evidence for a new form of...

  8. Green Infrastructure Bonds | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    allowing the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism to issue Green Infrastructure Bonds to secture low-cost financing for clean energy installations,...

  9. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in discussions of...

  10. Metal-bonded graphite foam composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Klett, James W

    2015-04-28

    A metal-bonded graphite foam composite includes a ductile metal continuous phase and a dispersed phase that includes graphite foam particles.

  11. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  12. Finance & Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...

  13. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a presentation overview of qualified energy conservation bond and new clean renewable energy bonds, including characteristics, mechanics, allocated volume, and other information. Author: U.S. Department of Energy

  14. Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond October 26, 2011 - 4:56pm Addthis John Shanklin, biochemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Ed Whittle, research assistant in Shanklin's lab, with a fatty acid molecule model and plant seeds and casings in the foreground. | Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory John Shanklin, biochemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Ed Whittle, research assistant

  15. Identification of products containing {single_bond}COOH, {single_bond}OH, and {single_bond}C{double_bond}O in atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, J.; Flagan, R.C.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1998-08-15

    Atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons by hydroxyl radicals and ozone leads to products containing {single_bond}COOH, {single_bond}OH, and {single_bond}C{double_bond}O functional groups. The high polarity of such compounds precludes direct GC-MS analysis. In addition, many such compounds often exist in a single sample at trace levels. An analytical method has been developed to identify compounds containing one or more functional groups of carbonyl, carboxy, and hydroxy in atmospheric samples. In the method, {single_bond}C{double_bond}O groups are derivatized using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxy amine(PFBHA), and {single_bond}COOH and {single_bond}OH groups are derivatized using a silylation reagent N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The derivatives are easily resolved by a GC column. The chemical ionization mass spectra of these derivatives exhibit several pseudomolecular ions, allowing unambiguous determination of molecular weights. Functional group identification is accomplished by monitoring the ions in the electron ionization mass spectra that are characteristic of each functional group derivative: m/z 181 for carbonyl and m/z 73 and 75 for carboxyl and hydroxy groups. The method is used to identify products in laboratory studies of ozone oxidation of {alpha}-pinene and {Delta}{sup 3}-carene.

  16. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2015-06-07

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics–quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid—alcohols—has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  17. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  18. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aytug, Tolga

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  19. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T. (St. Charles, MO); Driemeyer, Daniel E. (Manchester, MO); Davis, John W. (Ballwin, MO)

    2000-07-18

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by sintering a stack of individual copper and tungsten powder blend layers having progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in successive powder blend layers in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  20. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond...

  1. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Hydrogen bonds are...

  2. Local Option- Energy Efficiency Project Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On March 2015, the Arkansas legislature passed SB 896 or the “Local Government Energy Efficiency Project Bond Act” which provides enabling legislation for a municipality or a county to issue energy...

  3. Nearly Equivalent Inter- and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at High Pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nearly Equivalent Inter- and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene at High Pressure ...

  4. Method for forming or bonding a liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prevender, Thomas S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A process and means for forming or bonding a liner to a shell or element wherein the liner is filled with or immersed in water and a portion of the water is frozen.

  5. Cement Bond Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    casing and cement and between cement and borehole wall. Most cement-bond logs are a measurement only of the amplitude of the early arriving casing signal. Although a small...

  6. Method of bonding metals to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.

    1991-04-23

    A ceramic or glass having a thin layer of silver, gold or alloys thereof at the surface thereof is disclosed. A first metal is bonded to the thin layer and a second metal is bonded to the first metal. The first metal is selected from the class consisting of In, Ga, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cd, Pb, Tl and alloys thereof, and the second metal is selected from the class consisting of Cu, Al, Pb, Au and alloys thereof. 3 figures.

  7. Method of bonding metals to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    A ceramic or glass having a thin layer of silver, gold or alloys thereof at the surface thereof. A first metal is bonded to the thin layer and a second metal is bonded to the first metal. The first metal is selected from the class consisting of In, Ga, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cd, Pb, Tl and alloys thereof, and the second metal is selected from the class consisting of Cu, Al, Pb, An and alloys thereof.

  8. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance from the U.S. Department of Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) ...

  9. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building ...

  10. Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm Place: Georgia Phone Number: (229) 426-5400 Website: fitzutilities.com Outage...

  11. Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer Exchange Call on...

  12. An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothrici...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction ...

  13. Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron ...

  14. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Grantees on Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program grantees regarding Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs)

  15. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Case Workshops Other Power Rates-Related Workshops July 1, 2004 - Rates and Finances Workshop (updated June 25, 2004) (financial and rate forecasts and scenarios for FY...

  16. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond State-by-State Summary Tables

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a list of qualified energy conservation bond state summary tables. Author: Energy Programs Consortium

  17. R. J. smltll. Jr., Chlof, Operotloo~ 8rcloc.b, Roduotim Dirihn, 3aa Tork

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ;. R. J. smltll. Jr., Chlof, Operotloo~ 8rcloc.b, Roduotim Dirihn, 3aa Tork sniBOLr POtLKcnb .x ~\. +y$iiiu 3 ., . . .:;. . . . .,.~ . Jo:. ~...:.', ..';;:: ._ ,, y'.... ;.. .:: .~ :. chUlmiagtolephono oonmrutlm m Jaml~,l~1bahsnO.Rngher and L. Knasol, plsoao ship vim air Eqmns 6 oaoh fi-foot logtha from Billet ~0. 6509 mad. t&l oi 6 uah Ffoot lagtho from Billotm Em. 6235, 6533, or 6@+ of Who 84thhhu nt+l, to i . F'~.DEo lbipfihha rodark ai? in'tim b u&at cbioago bytha wrnlxq of Jum 19.

  18. Bonded ultrasonic transducer and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dixon, R.D.; Roe, L.H.; Migliori, A.

    1995-11-14

    An ultrasonic transducer is formed as a diffusion bonded assembly of piezoelectric crystal, backing material, and, optionally, a ceramic wear surface. The mating surfaces of each component are silver films that are diffusion bonded together under the application of pressure and heat. Each mating surface may also be coated with a reactive metal, such as hafnium, to increase the adhesion of the silver films to the component surfaces. Only thin silver films are deposited, e.g., a thickness of about 0.00635 mm, to form a substantially non-compliant bond between surfaces. The resulting transducer assembly is substantially free of self-resonances over normal operating ranges for taking resonant ultrasound measurements. 12 figs.

  19. Method of bonding metals to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A method of forming a composite by providing a ceramic capable of having zero electrical resistance and complete diamagnetism at superconducting temperatures, bonding a thin layer of Ag, Au or alloys thereof with the ceramic. Thereafter, there is bonded a first metal to the ceramic surface at a temperature less than about 400.degree. C., and then a second metal is bonded to the first metal at a temperature less than about 400.degree. C. to form a composite wherein the first metal is selected from the class consisting of In, Ga, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ti and alloys thereof and wherein the second metal is selected from the class consisting of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn and alloys thereof.

  20. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T. (St. Charles, MO); Driemeyer, Daniel E. (Manchester, MO)

    1999-11-23

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  1. Bonded ultrasonic transducer and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Roe, Lawrence H. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1995-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer is formed as a diffusion bonded assembly of piezoelectric crystal, backing material, and, optionally, a ceramic wear surface. The mating surfaces of each component are silver films that are diffusion bonded together under the application of pressure and heat. Each mating surface may also be coated with a reactive metal, such as hafnium, to increase the adhesion of the silver films to the component surfaces. Only thin silver films are deposited, e.g., a thickness of about 0.00635 mm, to form a substantially non-compliant bond between surfaces. The resulting transducer assembly is substantially free of self-resonances over normal operating ranges for taking resonant ultrasound measurements.

  2. Epoxy bond and stop etch fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Jerry A. (Sandia Park, NM); Weckwerth, Mark V. (Pleasanton, CA); Baca, Wes E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A class of epoxy bond and stop etch (EBASE) microelectronic fabrication techniques is disclosed. The essence of such techniques is to grow circuit components on top of a stop etch layer grown on a first substrate. The first substrate and a host substrate are then bonded together so that the circuit components are attached to the host substrate by the bonding agent. The first substrate is then removed, e.g., by a chemical or physical etching process to which the stop etch layer is resistant. EBASE fabrication methods allow access to regions of a device structure which are usually blocked by the presence of a substrate, and are of particular utility in the fabrication of ultrafast electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits.

  3. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. II. Recoupled pair bond dyads in carbon and sulfur difluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunning, Thom H. Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Xu, Lu T.

    2015-01-21

    Formation of a bond between a second ligand and a molecule with a recoupled pair bond results in a recoupled pair bond dyad. We examine the recoupled pair bond dyads in the a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2}, which are formed by the addition of a fluorine atom to the a{sup 4}?{sup ?} states of CF and SF, both of which possess recoupled pair bonds. The two dyads are very different. In SF{sub 2}, the second FS–F bond is very strong (D{sub e} = 106.3 kcal/mol), the bond length is much shorter than that in the SF(a{sup 4}?{sup ?}) state (1.666 Ĺ versus 1.882 Ĺ), and the three atoms are nearly collinear (?{sub e} = 162.7°) with only a small barrier to linearity (0.4 kcal/mol). In CF{sub 2}, the second FC–F bond is also very strong (D{sub e} = 149.5 kcal/mol), but the bond is only slightly shorter than that in the CF(a{sup 4}?{sup ?}) state (1.314 Ĺ versus 1.327 Ĺ), and the molecule is strongly bent (?{sub e} = 119.0°) with an 80.5 kcal/mol barrier to linearity. The a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2} illustrate the fundamental differences between recoupled pair bond dyads formed from 2s and 3p lone pairs.

  4. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  5. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  6. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  7. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fathi, Zakaryae (Cary, NC); Wei, Jianghua (Raleigh, NC)

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  8. Bonded Radii and the Contraction of the Electron Density of the Oxygen Atom by Bonded Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

    2013-02-21

    The bonded radii for more than 550 bonded pairs of atoms, comprising more than 50 crystals, determined from experimental and theoretical electron density distributions, are compared with the effective ionic, ri(M), and crystal radii, rc(M), for metal atoms, M, bonded to O atoms. At odds with the fixed ionic radius of 1.40 Ĺ, assumed for the O atom in the compilation of the ionic radii, the bonded radius for the atom, rb(O), is not fixed but displays a relatively wide range of values as the O atom is progressively polarized by the M-O bonded interactions: as such, rb(O) decreases systematically from 1.40 Ĺ (the Pauling radius of the oxide anion) as bond lengths decrease when bonded to an electropositive atom like sodium, to 0.64 Ĺ (Bragg’s atomic radius of the O atom) when bonded to an electronegative atom like nitrogen. Both rb(M) and rb(O) increase in tandum with the increasing coordination number of the M atom. The bonded radii of the M atoms are highly correlated with both ri(M) and rc(M), but they both depart systematically from rb(M) and become smaller as the electronegativity of the M atom increases and the M-O bond length decreases. The well-developed correlations between both sets of radii and rb(M) testifies to the relative precision of both sets of radii and the fact that both sets are highly correlated the M-O bond 1 lengths. On the other hand, the progressive departure of rb(O) from the fixed ionic radius of the O atom with the increasing electronegativity of the bonded M atom indicates that any compilation of sets of ionic radii, assuming that the radius for the oxygen atom is fixed in value, is problematical and impacts on the accuracy of the resulting sets of ionic and crystal radii thus compiled. The assumption of a fixed O atom radius not only results in a negative ionic radii for several atoms, but it also results in values of rb(M) that are much as ~ 0.6 Ĺ larger than the ri(M) and rc(M) values, respectively, particularly for the more electronegative M atoms. On the other hand, the ionic radii are in closer agreement with rb(M) for the more electropositive atoms. Notwithstanding that ionic radii are typically smaller than bonded radii, particularly for the more electronegative atoms, they have been used with considerable success in understanding and rationalizing problems and properties in crystal chemistry primarily because both ionic and crystal radii are highly correlated on a one-to-one basis with both the bonded radii and the associated M-O bond lengths. The lack of agreement between the effective ionic and crystal radii and the bonded radii for the more shared bonded interactions is ascribed to the progressive increase in the polarization of the O atom by the bonded atoms with a concomitant decrease in its radius, a factor that was neglected in the compilation of ionic and crystal radii for fluorides, oxides, sulfides and nitrides. This accounts for ionic radii for these materials being smaller than the bonded radii for the more electronegative atoms.

  9. Non-bonded piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eoff, James M.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

  10. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  11. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" call slides and discussion summary, December 1, 2011. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Financing Small Business Upgrades

  12. Determining the Crystal Structure of the aa-CoA Synthase Npht7: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-533

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunin, V.

    2015-02-01

    Attempt to obtain crystals of diffractable quality from protein sample provided by OPX and solve the structure of the aa-CoA synthase enzyme.

  13. Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  14. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power...

  15. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-11-01

    The thermal performance and reliability of sintered-silver is being evaluated for power electronics packaging applications. This will be experimentally accomplished by the synthesis of large-area bonded interfaces between metalized substrates that will be subsequently subjected to thermal cycles. A finite element model of crack initiation and propagation in these bonded interfaces will allow for the interpretation of degradation rates by a crack-velocity (V)-stress intensity factor (K) analysis. The experiment is outlined, and the modeling approach is discussed.

  16. IMPACT OF CAPILLARY AND BOND NUMBERS ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2002-09-30

    Recovery and recovery rate of oil, gas and condensates depend crucially on their relative permeability. Relative permeability in turn depends on the pore structure, wettability and flooding conditions, which can be represented by a set of dimensionless groups including capillary and bond numbers. The effect of flooding conditions on drainage relative permeabilities is not well understood and is the overall goal of this project. This project has three specific objectives: to improve the centrifuge relative permeability method, to measure capillary and bond number effects experimentally, and to develop a pore network model for multiphase flows. A centrifuge has been built that can accommodate high pressure core holders and x-ray saturation monitoring. The centrifuge core holders can operate at a pore pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and an overburden pressure of 17 MPa (2500 psi). The effect of capillary number on residual saturation and relative permeability in drainage flow has been measured. A pore network model has been developed to study the effect of capillary numbers and viscosity ratio on drainage relative permeability. Capillary and Reynolds number dependence of gas-condensate flow has been studied during well testing. A method has been developed to estimate relative permeability parameters from gas-condensate well test data.

  17. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T (Clinton, TN) [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  18. Bond order potential module for LAMMPS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    pair_bop is a module for performing energy calculations using the Bond Order Potential (BOP) for use in the parallel molecular dynamics code LAMMPS. The bop pair style computes BOP based upon quantum mechanical incorporating both sigma and pi bondings. By analytically deriving the BOP pair bop from quantum mechanical theory its transferability to different phases can approach that of quantum mechanical methods. This potential is extremely effective at modeling 111-V and II-VI compounds such asmore » GaAs and CdTe. This potential is similar to the original BOP developed by Pettifor and later updated by Murdock et al. and Ward et al.« less

  19. IMAGING THE DISK AND JET OF THE CLASSICAL T TAURI STAR AA TAU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Andrew W.; Grady, Carol A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hornbeck, Jeremy; Russell, Ray W.; Sitko, Michael L.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the classical T Tauri star AA Tau have interpreted the UX-Orionis-like photo-polarimetric variability as being due to a warp in the inner disk caused by an inclined stellar magnetic dipole field. We test that these effects are macroscopically observable in the inclination and alignment of the disk. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/STIS coronagraphic imagery to measure the V magnitude of the star for both STIS coronagraphic observations, compare these data with optical photometry in the literature, and find that, unlike other classical T Tauri stars observed in the same HST program, the disk is most robustly detected in scattered light at stellar optical minimum light. We measure the outer disk radius, 1.''15 {+-} 0.''10, major-axis position angle, and disk inclination and find that the inner disk, as reported in the literature, is both misinclined and misaligned with respect to the outer disk. AA Tau drives a faint jet, detected in both STIS observations and in follow-on Goddard Fabry-Perot imagery, which is also misaligned with respect to the projection of the outer disk minor axis and is poorly collimated near the star, but which can be traced 21'' from the star in data from 2005. The measured outer disk inclination, 71 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign , is out of the range of inclinations suggested for stars with UX-Orionis-like variability when no grain growth has occurred in the disk. The faintness of the disk, small disk size, and detection of the star despite the high inclination all indicate that the dust disk must have experienced grain growth and settling toward the disk midplane, which we verify by comparing the observed disk with model imagery from the literature.

  20. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  1. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  2. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  3. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  4. Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands Activated by (C5Me5)2Yb Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between ...

  5. Measurement of Moisture Outgassing of the Plastic-Bonded TATB...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of Moisture Outgassing of the Plastic-Bonded TATB Explosive LX-17 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of Moisture Outgassing of the Plastic-Bonded...

  6. Pre-plated reactive diffusion-bonded battery electrode plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A high strength, metallic fiber battery plaque is made using reactive diffusion bonding techniques, where a substantial amount of the fibers are bonded together by an iron-nickel alloy.

  7. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  8. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  9. Microchannel cooling of face down bonded chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1993-06-08

    Microchannel cooling is applied to flip-chip bonded integrated circuits, in a manner which maintains the advantages of flip-chip bonds, while overcoming the difficulties encountered in cooling the chips. The technique is suited to either multi chip integrated circuit boards in a plane, or to stacks of circuit boards in a three dimensional interconnect structure. Integrated circuit chips are mounted on a circuit board using flip-chip or control collapse bonds. A microchannel structure is essentially permanently coupled with the back of the chip. A coolant delivery manifold delivers coolant to the microchannel structure, and a seal consisting of a compressible elastomer is provided between the coolant delivery manifold and the microchannel structure. The integrated circuit chip and microchannel structure are connected together to form a replaceable integrated circuit module which can be easily decoupled from the coolant delivery manifold and the circuit board. The coolant supply manifolds may be disposed between the circuit boards in a stack and coupled to supplies of coolant through a side of the stack.

  10. Microchannel cooling of face down bonded chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Microchannel cooling is applied to flip-chip bonded integrated circuits, in a manner which maintains the advantages of flip-chip bonds, while overcoming the difficulties encountered in cooling the chips. The technique is suited to either multichip integrated circuit boards in a plane, or to stacks of circuit boards in a three dimensional interconnect structure. Integrated circuit chips are mounted on a circuit board using flip-chip or control collapse bonds. A microchannel structure is essentially permanently coupled with the back of the chip. A coolant delivery manifold delivers coolant to the microchannel structure, and a seal consisting of a compressible elastomer is provided between the coolant delivery manifold and the microchannel structure. The integrated circuit chip and microchannel structure are connected together to form a replaceable integrated circuit module which can be easily decoupled from the coolant delivery manifold and the circuit board. The coolant supply manifolds may be disposed between the circuit boards in a stack and coupled to supplies of coolant through a side of the stack.

  11. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional

  12. New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds New clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) are tax credit bonds, the proceeds of which are used for capital expenditures incurred by governmental bodies (including states and municipalities), public power providers, or cooperative electric companies for a "qualified renewable energy facility." CREBs have been authorized since 2005. New CREBs replaced CREBs in 2008; the 2008 legislation reduced the amount of the credit to

  13. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the

  14. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds: Updates from the Field

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on March 28, 2011, focuses on qualified energy conservation bond updates, including issuance trends and performance contracting.

  15. GUIDANCE FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT GRANTEES ON Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EECBG PROGRAM NOTICE 10-018 EFFECTIVE DATE: July 27, 2010 SUBJECT: GUIDANCE FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT GRANTEES ON QUALIFIED ENERGY CONSERVATION BONDS AND NEW CLEAN RENEWABLE ENERGY BONDS. PURPOSE To provide guidance to the Department of Energy's (Department or DOE) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) grantees regarding Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs). SCOPE The provisions of this guidance

  16. PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...

  17. Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-11-06

    An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

  18. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  19. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  20. CO AND H{sub 2} ABSORPTION IN THE AA TAURI CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    France, Kevin; Burgh, Eric B.; Schindhelm, Eric; Brown, Alexander; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Yang, Hao; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Abgrall, Herve; Roueff, Evelyne; Brown, Joanna M.

    2012-01-01

    The direct study of molecular gas in inner protoplanetary disks is complicated by uncertainties in the spatial distribution of the gas, the time variability of the source, and the comparison of observations across a wide range of wavelengths. Some of these challenges can be mitigated with far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. Using new observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, we measure column densities and rovibrational temperatures for CO and H{sub 2} observed on the line of sight through the AA Tauri circumstellar disk. CO A - X absorption bands are observed against the far-UV continuum. The CO absorption is characterized by log{sub 10}(N({sup 12}CO)) = 17.5 {+-} 0.5 cm{sup -2} and T{sub rot}(CO) = 500{sup +500}{sub -200} K, although this rotational temperature may underestimate the local kinetic temperature of the CO-bearing gas. We also detect {sup 13}CO in absorption with an isotopic ratio of {approx}20. We do not observe H{sub 2} absorption against the continuum; however, hot H{sub 2} (v > 0) is detected in absorption against the Ly{alpha} emission line. We measure the column densities in eight individual rovibrational states, determining a total log{sub 10}(N(H{sub 2})) = 17.9{sup +0.6}{sub -0.3} cm{sup -2} with a thermal temperature of T(H{sub 2}) = 2500{sup +800}{sub -700} K. The high temperature of the molecules, the relatively small H{sub 2} column density, and the high inclination of the AA Tauri disk suggest that the absorbing gas resides in an inner disk atmosphere. If the H{sub 2} and CO are cospatial within a molecular layer {approx}0.6 AU thick, this region is characterized by {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} with an observed (CO/H{sub 2}) ratio of {approx}0.4. We also find evidence for a departure from a purely thermal H{sub 2} distribution, suggesting that excitation by continuum photons and H{sub 2} formation may be altering the level populations in the molecular gas.

  1. Chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Jeong, Seung Y. (Westmont, IL); Lohan, Dirk (Chicago, IL); Elizabeth, Anne (Chicago, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic formed by chemically reacting a monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and a sparsely soluble oxide, with a sparsely soluble silicate in an aqueous solution. The monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and sparsely soluble oxide are both in powder form and combined in a stochiometric molar ratio range of (0.5-1.5):1 to form a binder powder. Similarly, the sparsely soluble silicate is also in powder form and mixed with the binder powder to form a mixture. Water is added to the mixture to form a slurry. The water comprises 50% by weight of the powder mixture in said slurry. The slurry is allowed to harden. The resulting chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic exhibits high flexural strength, high compression strength, low porosity and permeability to water, has a definable and bio-compatible chemical composition, and is readily and easily colored to almost any desired shade or hue.

  2. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  3. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

  4. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  5. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  6. Hydrogen-bond driven loop-closure kinetics in unfolded polypeptide chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daidone, Isabella [University of Heidelberg; Neuweiler, H [University of Heidelberg; Doose, S [University of Heidelberg; Sauer, M [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of the length dependence of end-to-end loop-closure kinetics in unfolded polypeptide chains provides an understanding of early steps in protein folding. Here, loop-closure in poly-glycine-serine peptides is investigated by combining single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy with molecular dynamics simulation. For chains containing more than 10 peptide bonds loop-closing rate constants on the 20-100 nanosecond time range exhibit a power-law length dependence. However, this scaling breaks down for shorter peptides, which exhibit slower kinetics arising from a perturbation induced by the dye reporter system used in the experimental setup. The loop-closure kinetics in the longer peptides is found to be determined by the formation of intra-peptide hydrogen bonds and transient beta-sheet structure, that accelerate the search for contacts among residues distant in sequence relative to the case of a polypeptide chain in which hydrogen bonds cannot form. Hydrogen-bond-driven polypeptide-chain collapse in unfolded peptides under physiological conditions found here is not only consistent with hierarchical models of protein folding, that highlights the importance of secondary structure formation early in the folding process, but is also shown to speed up the search for productive folding events.

  7. Wafer bonded epitaxial templates for silicon heterostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A. (So. Pasadena, CA); Zahler, James M. (Pasadena, CA); Morral, Anna Fontcubera I (Paris, FR)

    2008-03-11

    A heterostructure device layer is epitaxially grown on a virtual substrate, such as an InP/InGaAs/InP double heterostructure. A device substrate and a handle substrate form the virtual substrate. The device substrate is bonded to the handle substrate and is composed of a material suitable for fabrication of optoelectronic devices. The handle substrate is composed of a material suitable for providing mechanical support. The mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates is improved and the device substrate is thinned to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. An upper portion of the device film exfoliated from the device substrate is removed to provide a smoother and less defect prone surface for an optoelectronic device. A heterostructure is epitaxially grown on the smoothed surface in which an optoelectronic device may be fabricated.

  8. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  9. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  10. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  11. An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biosynthesis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Natural products containing phosphorus-carbon bonds have found widespread use in medicine and agriculture. One such compound, phosphinothricin tripeptide, contains the unusual amino acid phosphinothricin attached to two alanine

  12. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  13. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  14. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  15. An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biosynthesis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Natural products containing phosphorus-carbon bonds have found widespread use in medicine and agriculture. One such compound, phosphinothricin tripeptide, contains the unusual amino acid phosphinothricin attached to two alanine

  16. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  17. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  18. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  19. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  20. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  1. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia | Department of Energy Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Summarizes how the City of Philadelphia leveraged $6.25 million in qualified energy conservation bonds to upgrade the energy efficiency of city buildings. Author: Lawrence Berkeley

  2. Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) This webinar, held on Sept. 22, 2010, provides information on Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds. Transcript PDF icon Presentation More Documents & Publications Aggregating QECB Allocations and Using QECBs to Support the Private Sector: A Case Study on Massachusetts Making it Easier to Complete Clean Energy Projects with Qualified Energy

  3. Tax-Exempt Bond Financing for Nonprofit Organizations and Industries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tax-Exempt Bond Financing for Nonprofit Organizations and Industries Tax-Exempt Bond Financing for Nonprofit Organizations and Industries State-chartered bond authorities exist in every state. They include healthcare facility authorities, housing finance agencies, higher education facility authorities, and industrial development finance authorities. For those authorities, eligible projects include energy efficiency retrofits for existing facilities owned by eligible

  4. Microsoft Word - NMN292==CARES--2003 Refunding Bonds Official...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    service to eligible customers and to undertake certain other programs, such as fish and wildlife protection, mitigation and enhancement. The 2003 Bonds are special limited...

  5. Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene Oxide Catalyzed ...

  6. Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    power purchase agreement model to provide low-cost solar energy. Author: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to Provide...

  7. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly...

  8. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P ...

  9. Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding, call slides and discussion summary, March 28, 2013.

  10. Proton transfer through hydrogen bonds in two-dimensional water layers: A theoretical study based on ab initio and quantum-classical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu

    2015-01-28

    The dynamics of proton transfer (PT) through hydrogen bonds in a two-dimensional water layer confined between two graphene sheets at room temperature are investigated through ab initio and quantum-classical simulations. The excess proton is found to be mostly solvated as an Eigen cation where the hydronium ion donates three hydrogen bonds to the neighboring water molecules. In the solvation shell of the hydronium ion, the three coordinated water molecules with two donor hydrogen bonds are found to be properly presolvated to accept a proton. Although no hydrogen bond needs to be broken for transfer of a proton to such presolvated water molecules from the hydronium ion, the PT rate is still found to be not as fast as it is for one-dimensional chains. Here, the PT is slowed down as the probability of finding a water with two donor hydrogen bonds in the solvation shell of the hydronium ion is found to be only 25%-30%. The hydroxide ion is found to be solvated mainly as a complex anion where it accepts four H-bonds through its oxygen atom and the hydrogen atom of the hydroxide ion remains free all the time. Here, the presolvation of the hydroxide ion to accept a proton requires that one of its hydrogen bonds is broken and the proton comes from a neighboring water molecule with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds. The coordination number reduction by breaking of a hydrogen bond is a slow process, and also the population of water molecules with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds is only 20%-25% of the total number of water molecules. All these factors together tend to slow down the hydroxide ion migration rate in two-dimensional water layers compared to that in three-dimensional bulk water.

  11. Data:6f7cda2e-3572-486a-b3aa-4129977e9ead | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cda2e-3572-486a-b3aa-4129977e9ead No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1....

  12. Data:32b0abb8-a929-4537-b5ed-ab1155e4aa0b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    -b5ed-ab1155e4aa0b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  13. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curlee, Richard M. (Tijeras, NM); Tuthill, Clinton D. (Edgewood, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals.

  14. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curlee, R.M.; Tuthill, C.D.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-04-23

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals. 2 figures.

  15. Bond-bending isomerism of Au2I3-: Competition between covalent bonding and aurophilicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Wan -Lu; Liu, Hong -Tao; Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary V.; Piazza, Zachary A.; Huang, Dao -Ling; Chen, Teng -Teng; Su, Jing; Yang, Ping; Chen, Xin; et al

    2015-10-13

    We report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical investigation of the gaseous Au2I3– cluster, which is found to exhibit two types of isomers due to competition between Au–I covalent bonding and Au–Au aurophilic interactions. The covalent bonding favors a bent IAuIAuI– structure with an obtuse Au–I–Au angle (100.7°), while aurophilic interactions pull the two Au atoms much closer, leading to an acutely bent structure (72.0°) with an Au–Au distance of 3.08 Å. The two isomers are separated by a small barrier and are nearly degenerate with the obtuse isomer being slightly more stable. At low temperature, only the obtuse isomermore » is observed; distinct experimental evidence is observed for the co-existence of a combination of isomers with both acute and obtuse bending angles at room temperature. As a result, the two bond-bending isomers of Au2I3– reveal a unique example of one molecule being able to oscillate between different structures as a result of two competing chemical forces.« less

  16. Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ape028_devoto_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Reliability of Bonded Interfaces Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces Thermal Performance and Reliability

  17. BP-18 Rate Proceeding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  18. BP-12 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  19. BP-16 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  20. Before a Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  1. Rating Agency Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liabilities Financial Plan Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales...

  2. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  3. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, Jr., Thomas M. (P.O. Box 4231, Clearwater, FL 33518); Wells, Barbara J. (865 N. Village Dr., Apt. 101B, St. Petersburg, FL 33702)

    1987-01-01

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40.degree. to 365.degree. C. to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  4. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, T.M. Jr.; Wells, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40 to 365/sup 0/C to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  5. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms

  6. Wire bond vibration of forward pixel tracking detector of CMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atac, M.; Gobbi, B.; Kwan, S.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Spencer, E.; Sellberg, G.; Pavlicek, V.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    Wire bonds of the Forward Pixel (FPix) tracking detectors are oriented in the direction that maximizes Lorentz Forces relative to the 4 Tesla field of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Detector's magnet. The CMS Experiment is under construction at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. We were concerned about Lorentz Force oscillating the wires at their fundamental frequencies and possibly fracturing or breaking them at their heels, as happened with the CDF wire bonds. This paper reports a study to understand what conditions break such bonds.

  7. Pollution-abatement revenue bonds as a source of finance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, J.F.; Christofi, P.

    1980-01-31

    The use of pollution-abatement revenue bonds, or environmental improvement bonds, is a comparatively new development in electric-utility financing. It has proven to be a convenient and relatively low-cost source of funds for certain kinds of required capital investment. The authors conducted a study of the extent to which, and manner in which, these instruments have been utilized by utilities, examining and analyzing the contents of 363 pollution-abatement revenue bond issues that appeared from 1971 to 1978. The report on their findings and on the benefits of this form of financing for utilities is presented.

  8. Hydrogen-Bond Networks: Strengths of Different Types of Hydrogen Bonds and An Alternative to the Low Barrier Hydrogen-Bond Proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Yanping; O'Doherty, George A.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2013-11-27

    We report quantifying the strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds in hydrogen bond networks (HBNs) via measurement of the adiabatic electron detachment energy of the conjugate base of a small covalent polyol model compound (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) in the gas phase and the pKa of the corresponding acid in DMSO. The latter result reveals that the hydrogen bonds to the charged center and those that are one solvation shell further away (i.e., primary and secondary) provide 5.3 and 2.5 pKa units of stabilization per hydrogen bond in DMSO. Computations indicate that these energies increase to 8.4 and 3.9 pKa units in benzene and that the total stabilizations are 16 (DMSO) and 25 (benzene) pKa units. Calculations on a larger linear heptaol (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) reveal that the terminal hydroxyl groups each contribute 0.6 pKa units of stabilization in DMSO and 1.1 pKa units in benzene. All of these results taken together indicate that the presence of a charged center can provide a powerful energetic driving force for enzyme catalysis and conformational changes such as in protein folding due to multiple hydrogen bonds in a HBN.

  9. Bonded Bracket Assmebly for Frameless Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Todd; Jackson, Nick; Dupont, Luc; Moser, Jeff

    2013-01-30

    In February 2011 the US Department of Energy announced their new Sunshot Initiative. The Sunshot goal is to reduce the total cost of solar energy systems by about 75 percent before the end of the decade. The DOE estimated that a total installed cost of $$1 per watt for photovoltaic systems would be equivalent to 5-6˘/kilowatt hour (kWh) for energy available from the grid. The DOE also estimated that to meet the $1 per watt goal, PV module costs would need to be reduced to $ .50 per watt, balance of systems costs would need to be reduced to $.40 per watt, and power electronic costs would need to reach $.10 per watt. To address the BOS balance of systems cost component of the $1 per watt goal, the DOE announced a funding opportunity called (BOS-X) Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reductions. The DOE identified eight areas within the total BOS costs: 1) installation labor, 2) installation materials, 3) installation overhead and profit, 4) tracker, 5) permitting and commissioning, 6) site preparation, 7) land acquisition, 8) sales tax. The BOS-X funding announcement requested applications in four specific topics;Topic 1: Transformational Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Modules; Topic 2: Roof and Ground Mount Innovations; Topic 3: Transformational Photovoltaic System Designs; and Topic 4: Development of New Wind Load Codes for PV Systems.The application submitted by ARaymond Tinnerman reflected the requirements listed in Topic #2, Roof and Ground Mount Innovations. The goal of topic #2 was to develop technologies that would result in the extreme reduction of material and labor costs associated with applications that require physical connections and attachments to roof and ground mount structures. The topics researched in this project included component cost reduction, labor reduction, weight reduction, wiring innovations, and alternative material utilization. The project objectives included; 1) The development of an innovative quick snap bracket assembly that would be bonded to frameless PV modules for commercial rooftop installations; 2) The development of a composite pultruded rail to replace traditional racking materials; 3) In partnership with a roofing company, pilot the certification of a commercial roof to be solar panel compliant, eliminating the need for structural analysis and government oversight resulting in significantly decreased permitting costs; and 4) Reduce the sum of all cost impacts in topic #2 from a baseline total of $2.05/watt to $.34/watt.

  10. Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contains information from the TAP Webcast on June 24, 2009 on clean renewable energy bonds from Claire Kreycik on feed-in tariffs, an economic resource for developing renewable energy.

  11. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the...

  12. Aluminum for bonding Si-Ge alloys to graphite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eggemann, Robert V.

    1976-01-13

    Improved thermoelectric device and process, comprising the high-temperature, vacuum bonding of a graphite contact and silicon-germanium thermoelectric element by the use of a low void, aluminum, metallurgical shim with low electrical resistance sandwiched therebetween.

  13. IRS Announces New Tribal Economic Development Bond Allocation Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Treasury and the IRS published new guidance today allocating Tribal Economic Development Bonds (TEDBs) for Tribes that have projects that are in the final stages of going to the market to receive financing.

  14. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lindenberg, O.R. Monteiro, Z. Chang, R.W. Lee, and R.W. Falcone, "Bonding in liquid carbon studied by time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 057407 (2005...

  15. NMSLO Water Lease Damage Bond | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Lease Damage BondLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  16. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9.0.2. To examine how the molecules were bonded, the team first created a gaseous molecular beam of methylated uracil monomers and dimers, then ionized them with vacuum...

  17. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  18. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  19. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  20. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  1. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  2. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  3. Producing microchannels using graduated diffusion bonding of a stack of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    precision machined foils or sheets (laminates) to make a micro-channel reactor - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Producing microchannels using graduated diffusion bonding of a stack of precision machined foils or sheets (laminates) to make a micro-channel reactor A novel multi-step process for the diffusion bonding of laminates National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF

  4. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plucknett, K.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

    1999-05-18

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite. 2 figs.

  5. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  6. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  7. BN Bonded BN fiber article and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Robert S. (Youngstown, NY)

    1981-08-18

    A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising a bonding compound selected from boron oxide and boric acid and a structural fiber selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron nitride and partially nitrided boron oxide fibers, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the compound and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

  8. Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide Authors: Xu, Weiming ; Greenberg, Eran ; Rozenberg, Gregory Kh. ; Pasternak, Moshe P. ; Bykova, Elena ; Boffa-Ballaran, Tiziana ; Dubrovinsky, Leonid ; Prakapenka, Vitali ; Hanfland, Michael ; Vekilova, Olga Yu. ; Simak, Sergei I. ; Abrikosov, Igor A. [1] ; Link) [2] ;

  9. Disruption of Hydrogen Bonds between Major Histocompatibility Complex Class

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    II and the Peptide NTerminus Is Not Sufficient to Form a Human Leukocyte Antigen-DM Receptive State of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Disruption of Hydrogen Bonds between Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II and the Peptide NTerminus Is Not Sufficient to Form a Human Leukocyte Antigen-DM Receptive State of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Disruption of Hydrogen Bonds between Major

  10. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plucknett, Kevin (Sharnbrook, GB); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite.

  11. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Authors: Megiatto, J. D., Patterson, D., Sherman, B. D., Moore, T. A., Gust, D., and Moore, A. L. Title: Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Source: Chemical Communications Year: 2012 Volume: 48 Pages: 4558-4560 ABSTRACT: A straightforward

  12. Resonant bonding leads to low lattice thermal conductivity (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Resonant bonding leads to low lattice thermal conductivity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Resonant bonding leads to low lattice thermal conductivity Authors: Lee, S Y ; Esfarjani, Keivan ; Luo, T. ; Zhou, J ; Tian, Z ; Chen, Gang Publication Date: 2014-04-28 OSTI Identifier: 1161924 DOE Contract Number: SC0001299; FG02-09ER46577 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nature Communications; Journal Volume: 5; Related Information:

  13. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study The chemical bonding nature and its evolution upon electrochemical ...

  14. Bond-valence methods for pKa prediction. II. Bond-valence, electrostatic, molecular geometry, and solvation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Doud, Darrin

    2006-08-15

    In a previous contribution, we outlined a method for predicting (hydr)oxy-acid and oxide surface acidity constants based on three main factors: bond valence, Me?O bond ionicity, and molecular shape. Here electrostatics calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to qualitatively show that Me?O bond ionicity controls the extent to which the electrostatic work of proton removal departs from ideality, bond valence controls the extent of solvation of individual functional groups, and bond valence and molecular shape controls local dielectric response. These results are consistent with our model of acidity, but completely at odds with other methods of predicting acidity constants for use in multisite complexation models. In particular, our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of solvated monomers clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding between (hydr)oxo-groups and water molecules adjusts to obey the valence sum rule, rather than maintaining a fixed valence based on the coordination of the oxygen atom as predicted by the standard MUSIC model.

  15. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  16. Improving Entrainment Rate Parameterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Entrainment Rate Parameterization For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Parameterization of entrainment rate is critical for improving representation of cloud- and convection-related processes in climate models; however, much remains unclear. This work seeks to improve understanding and parameterization of entrainment rate by use of aircraft observations and large-eddy simulations of shallow cumulus clouds over

  17. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  18. Draft Tiered Rate Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Regional Dialogue Discussion Purposes Only Pre-Decisional Draft Tiered Rates Methodology March 7, 2008 Pre-decisional, Deliberative, For Discussion Purposes Only March 7,...

  19. Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for Power Electronics Packaging Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation discusses the thermal performance and reliability of bonded interfaces for power electronics packaging applications.

  20. Metal-bonded, carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sastri, Suri A. (Lexington, MA); Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Cooke, Richard A. (Framingham, MA); Litchfield, John K. (Bedford, MA); Smith, Mark B. (Ipswich, MA)

    1996-01-01

    Metal bonded carbon fiber-reinforced composites are disclosed in which the metal and the composite are strongly bound by (1) providing a matrix-depleted zone in the composite of sufficient depth to provide a binding site for the metal to be bonded and then (2) infiltrating the metal into the matrix-free zone to fill a substantial portion of the zone and also provide a surface layer of metal, thereby forming a strong bond between the composite and the metal. The invention also includes the metal-bound composite itself, as well as the provision of a coating over the metal for high-temperature performance or for joining to other such composites or to other substrates.

  1. Metal-bonded, carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sastri, S.A.; Pemsler, J.P.; Cooke, R.A.; Litchfield, J.K.; Smith, M.B.

    1996-03-05

    Metal bonded carbon fiber-reinforced composites are disclosed in which the metal and the composite are strongly bound by (1) providing a matrix-depleted zone in the composite of sufficient depth to provide a binding site for the metal to be bonded and then (2) infiltrating the metal into the matrix-free zone to fill a substantial portion of the zone and also provide a surface layer of metal, thereby forming a strong bond between the composite and the metal. The invention also includes the metal-bound composite itself, as well as the provision of a coating over the metal for high-temperature performance or for joining to other such composites or to other substrates. 2 figs.

  2. Rhodium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation via Heteroatom-Directed C-H Bond Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2010-05-13

    Once considered the 'holy grail' of organometallic chemistry, synthetically useful reactions employing C-H bond activation have increasingly been developed and applied to natural product and drug synthesis over the past decade. The ubiquity and relative low cost of hydrocarbons makes C-H bond functionalization an attractive alternative to classical C-C bond forming reactions such as cross-coupling, which require organohalides and organometallic reagents. In addition to providing an atom economical alternative to standard cross - coupling strategies, C-H bond functionalization also reduces the production of toxic by-products, thereby contributing to the growing field of reactions with decreased environmental impact. In the area of C-C bond forming reactions that proceed via a C-H activation mechanism, rhodium catalysts stand out for their functional group tolerance and wide range of synthetic utility. Over the course of the last decade, many Rh-catalyzed methods for heteroatom-directed C-H bond functionalization have been reported and will be the focus of this review. Material appearing in the literature prior to 2001 has been reviewed previously and will only be introduced as background when necessary. The synthesis of complex molecules from relatively simple precursors has long been a goal for many organic chemists. The ability to selectively functionalize a molecule with minimal pre-activation can streamline syntheses and expand the opportunities to explore the utility of complex molecules in areas ranging from the pharmaceutical industry to materials science. Indeed, the issue of selectivity is paramount in the development of all C-H bond functionalization methods. Several groups have developed elegant approaches towards achieving selectivity in molecules that possess many sterically and electronically similar C-H bonds. Many of these approaches are discussed in detail in the accompanying articles in this special issue of Chemical Reviews. One approach that has seen widespread success involves the use of a proximal heteroatom that serves as a directing group for the selective functionalization of a specific C-H bond. In a survey of examples of heteroatom-directed Rh catalysis, two mechanistically distinct reaction pathways are revealed. In one case, the heteroatom acts as a chelator to bind the Rh catalyst, facilitating reactivity at a proximal site. In this case, the formation of a five-membered metallacycle provides a favorable driving force in inducing reactivity at the desired location. In the other case, the heteroatom initially coordinates the Rh catalyst and then acts to stabilize the formation of a metal-carbon bond at a proximal site. A true test of the utility of a synthetic method is in its application to the synthesis of natural products or complex molecules. Several groups have demonstrated the applicability of C-H bond functionalization reactions towards complex molecule synthesis. Target-oriented synthesis provides a platform to test the effectiveness of a method in unique chemical and steric environments. In this respect, Rh-catalyzed methods for C-H bond functionalization stand out, with several syntheses being described in the literature that utilize C-H bond functionalization in a key step. These syntheses are highlighted following the discussion of the method they employ.

  3. On the competition between hydrogen abstraction versus C-O bond fission in initiating dimethyl ether combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francisco, J.

    1999-07-01

    There has been a growing interest in the potential use of dimethyl ether (DME) as a diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. There are two initiation steps involved in the combustion of DME, one involving C-O bond fission and the other involving hydrogen abstraction by molecular oxygen. The kinetics and thermodynamics of C-O bond fission were explored computationally in a previous paper. The present paper addresses the competing process--hydrogen abstraction by molecular oxygen. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations are used to study the structures and energetics of the reactants, products, and the transition state for the CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + O{sub 2} reaction. The calculations predict a barrier for hydrogen abstraction from CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} by O{sub 2} of 47.4 kcal/mol. This is lower than the barrier height for C-O bond fission previously calculated to be 81.1 kcal/mol. The results support values used in current models for the combustion of DME. Moreover, an examination of rates for C-O bond fission versus hydrogen abstraction by O{sub 2} suggests that the bimolecular process is the dominant pathway.

  4. Nearly Equivalent Inter- and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene at High Pressure (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Nearly Equivalent Inter- and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene at High Pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nearly Equivalent Inter- and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene at High Pressure Authors: Manaa, M R ; Fried, L E Publication Date: 2011-10-24 OSTI Identifier: 1226974 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-508473 DOE

  5. Methods and system for controlled laser-driven explosive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Hackel, Lloyd; Rankin, Jon

    2015-11-19

    A technique for bonding two dissimilar materials includes positioning a second material over a first material at an oblique angle and applying a tamping layer over the second martial. A laser beam is directed at the second material that generates a plasma at the location of impact on the second material. The plasma generates pressure that accelerates a portion of the second material to a very high velocity and towards the first material. The second material impacts the first material causing bonding of the two materials.

  6. Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 January 1, 2008 In General.-Title III of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (50 U.S.C. 435b) is amended by adding at the end the following new section: "SEC. 3002. SECURITY CLEARANCES; LIMITATIONS SEC. 1072. SECURITY CLEARANCES; LIMITATIONS. (a) In General.-Title III of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (50 U.S.C. 435b)

  7. 2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

  8. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meetings & Workshops Rate Case Parties Web Site WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  9. Process for protecting bonded components from plating shorts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Bonde, Wayne L. (Pleasanton, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method which protects the region between a component and the substrate onto which the components is bonded using an electrically insulating fillet of photoresist. The fillet protects the regions from subsequent plating with metal and therefore shorting the plated conductors which run down the sides of the component and onto the substrate.

  10. Bonded polyimide fuel cell package and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan; Graff, Robert T.; Bettencourt, Kerry

    2005-11-01

    Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

  11. Method of preparation of bonded polyimide fuel cell package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan (Livermore, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA); Bettencourt, Kerry (Dublin, CA)

    2011-04-26

    Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

  12. Mild Catalytic methods for Alkyl-Alkyl Bond Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicic, David A

    2009-08-10

    Overview of Research Goals and Accomplishments for the Period 07/01/06 – 06/30/07: Our overall research goal is to transform the rapidly emerging synthetic chemistry involving alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings into more of a mechanism-based field so that that new, rationally-designed catalysts can be performed under energy efficient conditions. Our specific objectives for the previous year were 1) to obtain a proper electronic description of an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and 2) to determine the effect of ligand structure on the rate, scope, selectivity, and functional group compatibility of C(sp3)-C(sp3) cross-coupling catalysis. We have completed both of these initial objectives and established a firm base for further studies. The specific significant achievements of the current grant period include: 1) we have performed magnetic and computational studies on (terpyridine)NiMe, an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross couplings, and have discovered that the unpaired electron resides heavily on the terpyridine ligand and that the proper electronic description of this nickel complex is a Ni(II)-methyl cation bound to a reduced terpyridine ligand; 2) we have for the first time shown that alkyl halide reduction by terpyridyl nickel catalysts is substantially ligand based; 3) we have shown by isotopic labeling studies that the active catalyst (terpyridine)NiMe is not produced via a mechanism that involves the formation of methyl radicals when (TMEDA)NiMe2 is used as the catalyst precursor; 4) we have performed an extensive ligand survey for the alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and have found that electronic factors only moderately influence reactivity in the terpyridine-based catalysis and that the most dramatic effects arise from steric and solubility factors; 5) we have found that the use of bis(dialkylphosphino)methanes as ligands for nickel does not produce active catalysts for cross-coupling but rather leads to bridging hydride complexes of varying geometries; 6) we have determined that the geometry of aforementioned bridging hydride complexes is largely determined by external forces such as hydrogen bonding interactions and crystal packing forces; 7) we have found that the rate of reductive elimination of alkane from a (pyridyl-2-pyrrolide)AuMe2 complex is severely inhibited due to the rigid geometry of the pyridyl-2-pyrrolide ligand; 8) we have prepared, structurally characterized, and explored the reactivity of 1-adamantylzinc reagents as model nucleophiles for sterically challenging alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions. The continued success of this work will lead to alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling catalysts with broad scope and selectivities. The work has potential to significantly impact science and technologies of interest to the DOE as the chemistry is focused on developing useful reactions using reagents that can be directly prepared from petroleum and natural gas feedstocks. Moreover, the developing synthetic chemistry can profoundly affect the way materials, fine chemicals, and drugs are made. Since the methodology we are developing can shorten existing synthetic protocols, proceed at room temperature, and operate under environmentally benign conditions, it can greatly reduce energy expenditures, especially considering the contribution of the chemical manufacturing field to the gross domestic product.

  13. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades. Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimring, Mark

    2012-07-18

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized bonds that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of energy conservation projects, including public building upgrades that reduce energy use by at least 20 percent, at very attractive borrowing rates and long terms. As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the City of Philadelphia received a $15 million QECB award from the U.S. Department of the Treasury (Treasury). The city leveraged $6.25 million of its QECB allocation to finance half of a $12.6 million initiative to upgrade the energy efficiency of City buildings. The upgrades to four city facilities are expected to deliver over $10 million of net savings, and are a major step towards achieving the city’s goal of reducing government energy consumption by 30 percent by 2015.

  14. Transition pathways in a many-body system: Application to hydrogen-bond breaking in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Csajka, F.S.; Chandler, D.

    1998-07-01

    We apply a stochastic method introduced by Dellago {ital et al.} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 1964 (1998)] to sample transition paths in high-dimensional systems. The method connects two endpoint regions (for example a reactant and a product region) by a set of space-time paths. This approach is an importance sampling for rare events that does not require prior knowledge of the location of dynamical bottlenecks. Transition paths are generated with a weight corresponding to a chain of Metropolis Monte Carlo steps. We derive Monte Carlo algorithms and apply the technique to the dynamics of hydrogen-bond breaking in liquid water. We obtain averages in a transition path ensemble for the structure and energy along the trajectory. While characterized by a rate constant, hydrogen-bond breaking in water occurs frequently enough to be studied by standard methods. The process therefore provides a useful test of path sampling methods. The comparison between path sampling and standard Monte Carlo demonstrate the feasibility of transition path sampling for a many-body system with a rough potential energy surface. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. [FIXED RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS]

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FIXED RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS] Draft Date: May 09, 2011 AMR-306688-v5 81-40475664 DATED AS OF [______], 20[__] AMONG THE HOLDERS IDENTIFIED HEREIN, THEIR SUCCESSORS AND PERMITTED ASSIGNS, AND THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, AS GUARANTOR, AND [_____________________________], AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT LOAN GUARANTEE AGREEMENT _____________________________ DOE FIPP Guarantee No. [______] ______________________________ AMR-306688-v5 - i - 81-40475664 CONTENTS Clause Page Section 1.

  16. Characterization of Fuel-Cladding Bond Strength Using Laser Shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; David L. Cottle; Barry H. Rabin

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes new laser-based capabilities for characterization of fuel-cladding bond strength in nuclear fuels, and presents preliminary results obtained from studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Two complementary experimental methods are employed, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging. Measurements are spatially localized, non-contacting and require minimum specimen preparation, and are therefore ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterization of nuclear fuel plates are described. The ability to measure layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of laser-shock induced debonds is demonstrated, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed.

  17. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. This program evaluates the bond strength of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with MCrAlY and Pt-Al bond coats utilizing diffraction and fluorescence methods.

  18. Wafer bonded virtual substrate and method for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A. (So. Pasadena, CA); Zahler, James M. (Pasadena, CA); Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i (Paris, FR)

    2007-07-03

    A method of forming a virtual substrate comprised of an optoelectronic device substrate and handle substrate comprises the steps of initiating bonding of the device substrate to the handle substrate, improving or increasing the mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates, and thinning the device substrate to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. The handle substrate is typically Si or other inexpensive common substrate material, while the optoelectronic device substrate is formed of more expensive and specialized electro-optic material. Using the methodology of the invention a wide variety of thin film electro-optic materials of high quality can be bonded to inexpensive substrates which serve as the mechanical support for an optoelectronic device layer fabricated in the thin film electro-optic material.

  19. Method for fabricating light weight carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Abbatiello, Leonard A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Jr., John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    Ultralight carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites of densities in the range of about 0.04 to 0.10 grams per cubic centimeter are fabricated by forming an aqueous slurry of carbonaceous fibers which include carbonized fibers and 0-50 weight percent fugitive fibers and a particulate thermosetting resin precursor. The slurry is brought into contact with a perforated mandrel and the water is drained from the slurry through the perforations at a controlled flow rate of about 0.03 to 0.30 liters per minutes per square inch of mandrel surface. The deposited billet of fibers and resin precursor is heated to cure the resin precursor to bind the fibers together, removed from the mandrel, and then the resin and fugitive fibers, if any, are carbonized.

  20. Method for producing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics and for stabilizing contaminants encapsulated therein utilizing reducing agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Jeong, Seung-Young (Westmont, IL)

    2000-01-01

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions are stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  1. Method for fabricating light weight carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    1987-06-17

    The invention is directed to the fabrication of ultralight carbon- bonded carbon fiber composites of densities in the range of about 0. 04 to 0.10 grams per cubic centimeter. The composites are fabricated by forming an aqueous slurry of carbonaceous fibers which include carbonized fibers and 0-50 weight percent fugitive fibers and a particulate thermosetting resin precursor. The slurry is brought into contact with a perforated mandrel and the water is drained from the slurry through the perforations at a controlled flow rate of about 0. 03 to 0.30 liters per minutes per square inch of a mandrel surface. The deposited billet of fibers and resin precursor is heated to cure the resin precursor to bind the fibers together, removed from the mandrel, and then the resin and fugitive fibers, if any, are carbonized.

  2. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  3. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rábago Rábago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff ‣ Fair to the utility and non-solar customers ‣ Fair compensation to the solar customer ‣ Decouple compensation from incentives ‣ Align public policy goals (decouple compensation from consumption) ‣ Intuitively sound and administratively simple 2 Historical Antecedents ‣ Externalities ‣ Price ≠ Cost ‣ Green Power ‣ Small Is Profitable (http://www.smallisprofitable.org/)

  4. [FLOATING RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS]

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FLOATING RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS] Draft Date: May 09, 2011 AMR-306979-v3A 81-40475664 DATED AS OF [______], 20[__] AMONG THE HOLDERS IDENTIFIED HEREIN, THEIR SUCCESSORS AND PERMITTED ASSIGNS, AND THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, AS GUARANTOR, AND [_____________________________] AS ADMINISTRATIVE AGENT LOAN GUARANTEE AGREEMENT _____________________________ DOE FIPP Guarantee No. [______] ______________________________ AMR-306979-v3A - i - 81-40475664 CONTENTS Clause Page Section 1.

  5. Cold bond agglomeration of waste oxides for recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Alessio, G.; Lu, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    Recycling of waste oxides has been an on-going challenge for integrated steel plants. The majority of these waste oxides are collected from the cleaning systems of ironmaking and steelmaking processes, and are usually in the form of fine particulates and slurries. In most cases, these waste materials are contaminated by oils and heavy metals and often require treatment at a considerable expense prior to landfill disposal. This contamination also limits the re-use or recycling potential of these oxides as secondary resources of reliable quality. However, recycling of some selected wastes in blast furnaces or steelmaking vessels is possible, but first requires agglomeration of the fine particulate by such methods as cold bond briquetting. Cold bond briquetting technology provides both mechanical compacting and bonding (with appropriate binders) of the particulates. This method of recycling has the potential to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The nature of the present study is cold bond briquetting of iron ore pellet fines with a molasses-cement-H{sub 2}O binder for recycling in a blast furnace. The inclusion of molasses is for its contribution to the green strength of briquettes. During the curing stage, significant gains in strength may be credited to molasses in the presence of cement. The interactions of cement (and its substitutes), water and molasses and their effects on the properties of the agglomerates during and after various curing conditions were investigated. Tensile strengths of briquettes made in the laboratory and subjected to experimental conditions which simulated the top part of a blast furnace shaft were also examined.

  6. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Herman E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  7. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

    1983-11-14

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  8. Oxford Area Community School District (Michigan) Bonds Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michigan’s Oxford Area Community School District entered into an energy savings performance contract and issued limited tax general obligation bonds to fund the up-front costs of almost $3 million of energy-related improvements. Case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements. Author: Merrian Borgeson and Mark Zimring

  9. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  10. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Few-Layer Graphene | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most remarkable physical properties of any material in terms of hardness, stiffness, thermal conductivity, transparency and chemical inertness1. Graphite, which is the most thermodynamically stable form of carbon at room temperature and at ambient

  11. Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Kelly Sokolowski

    2007-12-01

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH){sub max} for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for post atomization treatment, otherwise a necessary step for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Stability of these thin films was attributed to the reduction of each RE's respective oxide during processing; recognizing that fluoride compounds exhibit a slightly higher (negative) free energy driving force for formation. Formation of RE-type fluorides on the surface was evidenced through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Concurrent research with auger electron spectroscopy has been attempted to accurately quantify the depth of fluoride formation in order to grasp the extent of fluorination reactions with spherical and flake particulate. Gas fusion analysis on coated powders (dia. <45 {micro}m) from an optimized experiment indicated an as-atomized oxygen concentration of 343ppm, where typical, nonpassivated RE atomized alloys exhibit an average of 1800ppm oxygen. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on the same powder revealed a decreased rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 300 C, compared to similar uncoated powder.

  12. Cu-Cu direct bonding achieved by surface method at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utsumi, Jun [Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-8-1 Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8515 (Japan); Ichiyanagi, Yuko, E-mail: yuko@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    The metal bonding is a key technology in the processes for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and the semiconductor devices to improve functionality and higher density integration. Strong adhesion between surfaces at the atomic level is crucial; however, it is difficult to achieve close bonding in such a system. Cu films were deposited on Si substrates by vacuum deposition, and then, two Cu films were bonded directly by means of surface activated bonding (SAB) at room temperature. The two Cu films, with the surface roughness Ra about 1.3nm, were bonded by using SAB at room temperature, however, the bonding strength was very weak in this method. In order to improve the bonding strength between the Cu films, samples were annealed at low temperatures, between 323 and 473 K, in air. As the result, the Cu-Cu bonding strength was 10 times higher than that of the original samples without annealing.

  13. Gold-Stud Bump Bonding for HEP Applications (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Gold-Stud Bump Bonding for HEP Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gold-Stud Bump Bonding for HEP Applications Authors: Tripathi, S.M. ; UC, Davis ...

  14. Vacuum fusion bonded glass plates having microstructures thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  15. Bonding energies and long-range order in the trialuminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, C.J.; Specht, E.D.; Ice, G.E.; Zschack, P.; Schneibel, J.

    1990-01-01

    The degree of long-range order in the trialuminides is determined by X-ray powder diffraction techniques. Long-range order exists to their melting points. For the binary trialuminides Al{sub 3}Ti, Al{sub 73}Ti{sub 27}, and Al{sub 3}Sc, the degree of long-range order is nearly perfect and is a measure of the lack of mixing of the aluminum atoms onto the sublattice occupied by either Ti or Sc. A calculation of the bond energy between neighboring pairs of atoms from the ordering (melting) temperature is made following the Bragg-Williams mean field theory approach. These bond energies compare favorably with more sophisticated calculations. Bond energies are found to be larger than the energy difference between the crystal structure forms DO{sub 22}, Ll{sub 2}, and DO{sub 23}, and therefore, more relevant to understanding the mechanical and chemical behavior of the trialuminides. Ordering or melting temperatures of these intermetallics reflect the strong Al-metal near-neighbor pair potentials and may provide insights to their brittle properties. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Hydrogen-bond Specific Materials Modification in Group IV Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolk, Norman H.; Feldman, L. C.; Luepke, G.

    2015-09-14

    Executive summary Semiconductor dielectric crystals consist of two fundamental components: lattice atoms and electrons. The former component provides a crystalline structure that can be disrupted by various defects or the presence of an interface, or by transient oscillations known as phonons. The latter component produces an energetic structure that is responsible for the optical and electronic properties of the material, and can be perturbed by lattice defects or by photo-excitation. Over the period of this project, August 15, 1999 to March 31, 2015, a persistent theme has been the elucidation of the fundamental role of defects arising from the presence of radiation damage, impurities (in particular, hydrogen), localized strain or some combination of all three. As our research effort developed and evolved, we have experienced a few title changes, which reflected this evolution. Throughout the project, ultrafast lasers usually in a pump-probe configuration provided the ideal means to perturb and study semiconductor crystals by both forms of excitation, vibrational (phonon) and electronic (photon). Moreover, we have found in the course of this research that there are many interesting and relevant scientific questions that may be explored when phonon and photon excitations are controlled separately. Our early goals were to explore the dynamics of bond-selective vibrational excitation of hydrogen from point defects and impurities in crystalline and amorphous solids, initiating an investigation into the behavior of hydrogen isotopes utilizing a variety of ultrafast characterization techniques, principally transient bleaching spectroscopy to experimentally obtain vibrational lifetimes. The initiative could be divided into three related areas: (a) investigation of the change in electronic structure of solids due to the presence of hydrogen defect centers, (b) dynamical studies of hydrogen in materials and (c) characterization and stability of metastable hydrogen impurity states under transient compression. This research focused on the characterization of photon and ion stimulated hydrogen related defect and impurity reactions and migration in solid state matter, which requires a detailed understanding of the rates and pathways of vibrational energy flow, of the transfer channels and of the coupling mechanisms between local vibrational modes (LVMs) and phonon bath as well as the electronic system of the host material. It should be stressed that researchers at Vanderbilt and William and Mary represented a unique group with a research focus and capabilities for low temperature creation and investigation of such material systems. Later in the program, we carried out a vigorous research effort addressing the roles of defects, interfaces, and dopants on the optical and electronic characteristics of semiconductor crystals, using phonon generation by means of ultrafast coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) spectroscopy, nonlinear characterization using second harmonic generation (SHG), and ultrafast pump-and-probe reflectivity and absorption measurements. This program featured research efforts from hydrogen defects in silicon alone to other forms of defects such as interfaces and dopant layers, as well as other important semiconducting systems. Even so, the emphasis remains on phenomena and processes far from equilibrium, such as hot electron effects and travelling localized phonon waves. This program relates directly to the mission of the Department of Energy. Knowledge of the rates and pathways of vibrational energy flow in condensed matter is critical for understanding dynamical processes in solids including electronically, optically and thermally stimulated defect and impurity reactions and migration. The ability to directly probe these pathways and rates allows tests of theory and scaling laws at new levels of precision. Hydrogen embedded in model crystalline semiconductors and metal oxides is of particular interest, since the associated local mode can be excited cleanly, and is usually well-separated in energy from the phonon bath. These basic dynamical studies have provided new insights for example into the fundamental mechanisms that control proton diffusion in these oxides. This area of materials science has largely fulfilled its promise to identify degradation mechanisms in electronic and optoelectronic devices, and to advance solid oxide proton conductors for fuel cells, gas sensors and proton-exchange membrane applications. It also provides the basis for innovations in materials synthesis involving atomic-selective diffusion and desorption.

  17. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the performance and reliability of bonded interfaces for high-temperature packaging.

  18. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation | The Ames Laboratory Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation Chemists have synthesized a highly selective and highly efficient zirconium catalyst that makes new carbon-nitrogen bonds by adding a nitrogen-hydrogen bond to a carbon-carbon double bond. Nitrogen-containing chemicals are important as agrichemicals, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. These zirconium catalysts are expected to show greater tolerance to other functionality

  19. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation | The Ames Laboratory Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation Chemists have synthesized a highly selective and highly efficient zirconium catalyst that makes new carbon-nitrogen bonds by adding a nitrogen-hydrogen bond to a carbon-carbon double bond. Nitrogen-containing chemicals are important as agrichemicals, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. These zirconium catalysts are expected to show greater tolerance to other functionality

  20. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has completed at least 90 days on an established performance plan. Rating officials must take into account the SES member's accomplishments achieved during the performance cycle and the impact to the organization's performance. Rating officials must appraise executives realistically and fairly and avoid ratings inflation.

  1. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2014 | Release Date: February 23, 2016 | Next Release Date: January 2017 | Previous Data Years Year: 2013 2011 2010 2008 2002 Go Background and Methodology The data in the tables are based on primary data collected by EIA from plant owners and operators on the Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report" (EIA-923 Data) and supplement data and analysis of coal transportation costs released by EIA in June

  2. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting a specific power purchase. For more specific information see: 1996 Final Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules: Power Rates (PDF, 84 pages, 188 kb) Ancillary...

  3. Data:C4e362d6-e3b5-43b0-aa5b-f1271f576b1e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    b0-aa5b-f1271f576b1e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  4. APS TBC Performance on Directionally-Solidified Superalloy Substrates with HVOF NiCoCrAlYHfSi Bond Coatings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lance, Michael J.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Haynes, James A.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2015-09-04

    Directionally-solidified (DS) superalloy components with advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to lower the metal operating temperature have the potential to replace more expensive single crystal superalloys for large land-based turbines. In order to assess relative TBC performance, furnace cyclic testing was used with superalloys 1483, X4 and Hf-rich DS 247 substrates and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF)-NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings at 1100 °C with 1-h cycles in air with 10% H2O. With these coating and test conditions, there was no statistically-significant effect of substrate alloy on the average lifetime of the air plasma sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coatings onmore » small coupons. Using photo-stimulated luminescence piezospectroscopy maps at regular cycling intervals, the residual compressive stress in the α-Al2O3 scale underneath the YSZ top coating and on a bare bond coating was similar for all three substrates and delaminations occurred at roughly the same rate and frequency. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements collected from the bare bond coating surface revealed higher Ti interdiffusion occurring with the 1483 substrate, which contained the highest Ti content.« less

  5. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Rate Schedules One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate levels and these studies for each of Southeastern's four power marketing systems are updated annually. They demonstrate the adequacy of the rates for each system. Rates are considered to be adequate when revenues are sufficient to repay all costs associated with power

  6. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  7. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier1Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier1Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  8. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  9. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  10. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  11. ECCENTRIC ROLLING OF POWDER AND BONDING AGENT INTO SPHERICAL PELLETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patton, G. Jr.; Zirinsky, S.

    1961-06-01

    A machine is described for pelletizing powder and bonding agent into spherical pellets of high density and uniform size. In this device, the material to be compacted is added to a flat circular pan which is moved in a circular orbit in a horizontal plane about an axis displaced from that of the pan's central axis without rotating the pan about its central axis. This movement causes the material contained therein to roll around the outside wall of the container and build up pellets of uniform shape, size, and density.

  12. Fuel cell system with separating structure bonded to electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott (Albany, NY); Gudlavalleti, Sauri (Albany, NY); Quek, Shu Ching (Clifton Park, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Powers, James Daniel (Santa Monica, CA)

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell assembly comprises a separating structure configured for separating a first reactant and a second reactant wherein the separating structure has an opening therein. The fuel cell assembly further comprises a fuel cell comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and an electrolyte interposed between the first and second electrodes, and a passage configured to introduce the second reactant to the second electrode. The electrolyte is bonded to the separating structure with the first electrode being situated within the opening, and the second electrode being situated within the passage.

  13. MCrAlY bond coat with enhanced Yttrium layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jablonski, Paul D; Hawk, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-21

    One or more embodiments relates to an MCrAlY bond coat comprising an MCrAlY layer in contact with a Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. The MCrAlY layer is comprised of a .gamma.-M solid solution, a .beta.-MAl intermetallic phase, and Y-type intermetallics. The Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer is comprised of Yttrium atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms comprising the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 lattice. Both the MCrAlY layer and the Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer have a substantial absence of Y--Al oxides, providing advantage in the maintainability of the Yttrium reservoir within the MCrAlY bulk. The MCrAlY bond coat may be fabricated through application of a Y.sub.2O.sub.3 paste to an MCrAlY material, followed by heating in a non-oxidizing environment.

  14. Nitrogen-tuned bonding mechanism of Li and Ti adatom embedded graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sangho; Chung, Yong-Chae, E-mail: yongchae@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-09-15

    The effects of nitrogen defects on the bonding mechanism and resultant binding energy between the metal and graphene layer were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the graphitic N-doped graphene, Li adatom exhibited ionic bonding character, while Ti adatom showed features of covalent bonding similar to that of pristine graphene. However, in the cases of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures, partially covalent bonding characteristic occurred around N atoms in the process of binding with metals, and this particular bond formation enhanced the bond strength of metal on the graphene layer as much as it exceeded the cohesive energy of the metal bulk. Thus, Li and Ti metals are expected to be dispersed with atomic accuracy on the pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene layers. These results demonstrate that the bonding mechanism of metal–graphene complex can change according to the type of N defect, and this also affects the binding results. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nitrogen defects changed the bonding mechanism between metal and graphene. • Bonding character and binding results were investigated using DFT calculations. • Covalent bonding character occurred around pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene. • Pyridinic and pyrrolic N atoms are effective for metal dispersion on the graphene.

  15. 2007-2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates In BPAs 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Case (WP-07), BPA agreed that it would post reports about BPAs power...

  16. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 30.56% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  17. April - September 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 40.77% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  18. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The PDF documents above provide tables of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with the LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustments for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply...

  19. April - September 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 36.93% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  20. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.66% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply a...

  1. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.91% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  2. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 46% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  3. April - September 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 49.50% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  4. April - September 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 47.00% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  5. WP-02 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-02 Power Rate Case (Updated on May 7, 2004) In May of 2000, the BPA Administrator signed a Record of Decision (ROD) on the 2002 Final Power Rate Proposal for the October 2001...

  6. FPS-96R Rate Adjustment (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Firm Power Products and Services (FPS-96R) Rate Adjustment In August 1999, BPA proposed to correct errors in the Firm Power Products and Services rate schedule (FPS-96), and...

  7. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  8. Fuel Fabrication Capability WBS 01.02.01.05 - HIP Bonding Experiments Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, Patricia O'Donnell; Summa, Deborah Ann; Liu, Cheng; Tucker, Laura Arias; Chen, Ching-Fong; Aikin, Beverly; Aragon, Daniel Adrian; Beard, Timothy Vance; Montalvo, Joel Dwayne; Pena, Maria Isela; Dombrowski, David E.

    2015-06-10

    The goals of this project were to demonstrate reliable, reproducible solid state bonding of aluminum 6061 alloy plates together to encapsulate DU-10 wt% Mo surrogate fuel foils. This was done as part of the CONVERT Fuel Fabrication Capability effort in Process Baseline Development . Bonding was done using Hot Isotatic Pressing (HIP) of evacuated stainless steel cans (a.k.a HIP cans) containing fuel plate components and strongbacks. Gross macroscopic measurements of HIP cans prior to HIP and after HIP were used as part of this demonstration, and were used to determine the accuracy of a finitie element model of the HIP bonding process. The quality of the bonding was measured by controlled miniature bulge testing for Al-Al, Al-Zr, and Zr-DU bonds. A special objective was to determine if the HIP process consistently produces good quality bonding and to determine the best characterization techniques for technology transfer.

  9. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R. William (Ames, IA); Dennis, Kevin W. (Ames, IA); Lograsso, Barbara K. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  10. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-08-31

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  11. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  12. Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems One of the two major themes of the proposal was to study quantum coherence in stressed hydrogen bond networks. Our experiments on double wall carbon nanotubes and two versions of Nafion, together with earlier work on water confined in

  13. Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction A heterogeneous, inexpensive and environment-friendly carbon catalytic system was developed for the C-H bond arylation of benzene resulting in the

  14. Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems One of the two major themes of the proposal was to study quantum coherence in stressed hydrogen bond networks. Our experiments on double wall carbon nanotubes and two versions of Nafion, together with earlier work on water confined in

  15. The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding Chemical bonding at the active site of lysozyme is analyzed on the basis of a multipole model employing transferable multipole parameters from a database. Large B factors at low temperatures reflect frozen-in disorder, but therefore prevent a meaningful free

  16. Effect of Superalloy Substrate and Bond Coating on TBC Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A; Zhang, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Several different single-crystal superalloys were coated with different bond coatings to study the effect of composition on the cyclic oxidation lifetime of an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coating deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition from a commercial source. Three different superalloys were coated with a 7 {micro}m Pt layer that was diffused into the surface prior to YSZ deposition. One of the superalloys, N5, was coated with a low activity, Pt-modified aluminide coating and Pt-diffusion coatings with 3 and 7 {micro}m of Pt. Three coatings of each type were furnace cycled to failure in 1 h cycles at 1150 C to assess average coating lifetime. The 7 {micro}m Pt diffusion coating on N5 had an average YSZ coating lifetime >50% higher than a Pt-modified aluminide coating on N5. Without a YSZ coating, the Pt-modified aluminide coating on N5 showed the typical surface deformation during cycling, however, the deformation was greatly reduced when constrained by the YSZ coating. The 3 {micro}m Pt diffusion coating had a similar average lifetime as the Pt-modified aluminide coating but a much wider scatter. The Pt diffusion bond coating on superalloy X4 containing Ti exhibited the shortest YSZ coating lifetime, this alloy-coating combination also showed the worst alumina scale adhesion without a YSZ coating. The third generation superalloy N6 exhibited the longest coating lifetime with a 7 {micro}m Pt diffusion coating.

  17. The Bond Between CO and Cp?3U in Cp?3U(CO) involves Backbondingfrom...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The origin of the large difference between the stretching frequencies in free (2143 cm-1) ... Subject: 37; ADDUCTS; BONDING; ELECTRONS; ORIGIN; URANIUM uranium orbitals backbonding ...

  18. Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge for Bond Analysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Carbon Disclosure Project, this webinar will cover climate change and how its impacts can present significant risks for municipalities and municipal bond investors.

  19. Making it Easier to Complete Clean Energy Projects with Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on July 19, 2012, provides information on how to complete clean energy projects with qualified energy conservation bonds.

  20. Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Olander

    2005-08-24

    A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

  1. EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE prepared a EIS that evaluated the potential environmental impacts of treatment and management of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel.

  2. Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

  3. SN-03 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Related Link: SN-03 Power Rate Case May 1 & 13, 2003 - Debt and Liquidity Strategies workshops (on BPA Corporate web site) March 27, 2003 - SN CRAC Prescheduling...

  4. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Writing an Effective ISR (max 8000 characters including spaces) Before writing: * Read definitions of rating levels and critical element targets carefully * Review Strategic Plan ...

  5. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Documents & Publications Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Financing Small Business...

  6. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Atmospheric State, Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  8. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon pm036_lin_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement ID:23278) Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Propulsion Materials R&D Annual Progress Report

  9. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon pm036_lin_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement ID:23278) Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates Environmental Effects on Power Electronic Devices

  10. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W. (13237 W. 8th Ave., Golden, CO 80401); Brugger, Ronald P. (Lafayette, CO)

    1985-02-19

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  11. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Workforce/ Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, April 24, 2014.

  12. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  13. Structural Aspects of Hydrogen Bonding with Nitrate and Sulfate: Design Criteria for Polyalcohol Hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, Benjamin P.; Dixon, David A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Organic hosts for oxyanion complexation can be constructed by combining two or more hydrogen bonding sites. The deliberate design of architectures for such hosts requires knowledge of the optimal geometry for the hydrogen bonds formed between the host and the guest. Important structural parameters include the O--H distance, the O--H-D angle, the X-O--H angle, and the X-O--H-D dihedral angle (H-D=hydrogen bond donor, X=any atom). This information can be obtained through the analysis of hydrogen bonding observed in crystal structures and electronic structure calculations on simple gas-phase complexes. In this chapter, we present an analysis of hydrogen bonding structural parameters for alcohol hydrogen donors and the oxygen atom acceptors in nitrate and sulfate.

  14. Transition metal-catalyzed process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartwig, John F. (Durham, CT); Kawatsura, Motoi (Chatham, NJ); Loeber, Oliver (New Haven, CT)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds in a substrate, comprising: reacting an amine with a compound containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond in the presence a transition metal catalyst under reaction conditions effective to form a product having a covalent bond between the amine and a carbon atom of the former carbon-carbon double bond. The transition metal catalyst comprises a Group 8 metal and a ligand containing one or more 2-electron donor atoms. The present invention is also directed to enantioselective reactions of amine compounds with compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds, and a calorimetric assay to evaluate potential catalysts in these reactions.

  15. An analytical bond-order potential for carbon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xiaowang; Ward, Donald K.; Foster, Michael E.

    2015-05-27

    Carbon is the most widely studied material today because it exhibits special properties not seen in any other materials when in nano dimensions such as nanotube and graphene. Reduction of material defects created during synthesis has become critical to realize the full potential of carbon structures. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in principle, allow defect formation mechanisms to be studied with high fidelity, and can, therefore, help guide experiments for defect reduction. Such MD simulations must satisfy a set of stringent requirements. First, they must employ an interatomic potential formalism that is transferable to a variety of carbon structures. Second, themore » potential needs to be appropriately parameterized to capture the property trends of important carbon structures, in particular, diamond, graphite, graphene, and nanotubes. The potential must predict the crystalline growth of the correct phases during direct MD simulations of synthesis to achieve a predictive simulation of defect formation. An unlimited number of structures not included in the potential parameterization are encountered, thus the literature carbon potentials are often not sufficient for growth simulations. We have developed an analytical bond order potential for carbon, and have made it available through the public MD simulation package LAMMPS. We also demonstrate that our potential reasonably captures the property trends of important carbon phases. As a result, stringent MD simulations convincingly show that our potential accounts not only for the crystalline growth of graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes but also for the transformation of graphite to diamond at high pressure.« less

  16. Bonding and structure in dense multi-component molecular mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Ticknor, Christopher; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Hamel, Sebastien; Redmer, Ronald; Kress, Joel D.; Collins, Lee A.

    2015-10-30

    We have performed finite-temperature density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations on dense methane, ammonia, and water mixtures (CH4:NH3:H2O) for various compositions and temperatures (2000 K ? T ? 10000 K) that span a set of possible conditions in the interiors of ice-giant exoplanets. The equation-of-state, pair distribution functions, and bond autocorrelation functions (BACF) were used to probe the structure and dynamics of these complex fluids. In particular, an improvement to the choice of the cutoff in the BACF was developed that allowed analysis refinements for density and temperature effects. We note the relative changes in the nature of these systems engendered by variations in the concentration ratios. As a result, a basic tenet emerges from all these comparisons that varying the relative amounts of the three heavy components (C,N,O) can effect considerable changes in the nature of the fluid and may in turn have ramifications for the structure and composition of various planetary layers.

  17. An analytical bond-order potential for carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xiaowang; Ward, Donald K.; Foster, Michael E.

    2015-05-27

    Carbon is the most widely studied material today because it exhibits special properties not seen in any other materials when in nano dimensions such as nanotube and graphene. Reduction of material defects created during synthesis has become critical to realize the full potential of carbon structures. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in principle, allow defect formation mechanisms to be studied with high fidelity, and can, therefore, help guide experiments for defect reduction. Such MD simulations must satisfy a set of stringent requirements. First, they must employ an interatomic potential formalism that is transferable to a variety of carbon structures. Second, the potential needs to be appropriately parameterized to capture the property trends of important carbon structures, in particular, diamond, graphite, graphene, and nanotubes. The potential must predict the crystalline growth of the correct phases during direct MD simulations of synthesis to achieve a predictive simulation of defect formation. An unlimited number of structures not included in the potential parameterization are encountered, thus the literature carbon potentials are often not sufficient for growth simulations. We have developed an analytical bond order potential for carbon, and have made it available through the public MD simulation package LAMMPS. We also demonstrate that our potential reasonably captures the property trends of important carbon phases. As a result, stringent MD simulations convincingly show that our potential accounts not only for the crystalline growth of graphene, graphite, and carbon nanotubes but also for the transformation of graphite to diamond at high pressure.

  18. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  19. Bonding and structure in dense multi-component molecular mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Ticknor, Christopher; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Hamel, Sebastien; Redmer, Ronald; Kress, Joel D.; Collins, Lee A.

    2015-10-30

    We have performed finite-temperature density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations on dense methane, ammonia, and water mixtures (CH4:NH3:H2O) for various compositions and temperatures (2000 K ≤ T ≤ 10000 K) that span a set of possible conditions in the interiors of ice-giant exoplanets. The equation-of-state, pair distribution functions, and bond autocorrelation functions (BACF) were used to probe the structure and dynamics of these complex fluids. In particular, an improvement to the choice of the cutoff in the BACF was developed that allowed analysis refinements for density and temperature effects. We note the relative changes in the nature of these systemsmore » engendered by variations in the concentration ratios. As a result, a basic tenet emerges from all these comparisons that varying the relative amounts of the three heavy components (C,N,O) can effect considerable changes in the nature of the fluid and may in turn have ramifications for the structure and composition of various planetary layers.« less

  20. Method for bonding thin film thermocouples to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreider, Kenneth G. (Potomac, MD)

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for adhering a thin film metal thermocouple to a ceramic substrate used in an environment up to 700 degrees Centigrade, such as at a cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The method includes the steps of: depositing a thin layer of a reactive metal on a clean ceramic substrate; and depositing thin layers of platinum and a platinum-10% rhodium alloy forming the respective legs of the thermocouple on the reactive metal layer. The reactive metal layer serves as a bond coat between the thin noble metal thermocouple layers and the ceramic substrate. The thin layers of noble metal are in the range of 1-4 micrometers thick. Preferably, the ceramic substrate is selected from the group consisting of alumina and partially stabilized zirconia. Preferably, the thin layer of reactive metal is in the range of 0.015-0.030 micrometers (15-30 nanometers) thick. The preferred reactive metal is chromium. Other reactive metals may be titanium or zirconium. The thin layer of reactive metal may be deposited by sputtering in ultra high purity argon in a vacuum of approximately 2 milliTorr (0.3 Pascals).

  1. Analysis of the GSI A+p and A+A spallation, fission, and fragmentation measurements with the LANL CEMsk and LAQGSM codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, S. G.; Gudima, K. K.; Prael, R. E.; Sierk, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    The CEM2k and LAQGSM codes have been recently developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to simulate nuclear reactions induced by particles and nuclei for a number of applications. They have benchmarked our codes against most available measured data at projectile energies from 10 MeV/A to 800 GeV/A and have compared their results with predictions of other current models used by the nuclear community. Here, they present a brief description of their codes and show illustrative results obtained with CEM2k and LAQGSM for A+p and A+A spallation, fission, and fragmentation reactions measured recently at GSI compared with predictions by other models. Further necessary work is outlined.

  2. Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

    1998-04-23

    The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

  3. Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Barry H. Rabin

    2014-07-01

    12. Other advances in QNDE and related topics: Preferred Session Laser-ultrasonics Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces 41st Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference QNDE Conference July 20-25, 2014 Boise Centre 850 West Front Street Boise, Idaho 83702 James A. Smith, Jeffrey M. Lacy, Barry H. Rabin, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID ABSTRACT: The US National Nuclear Security Agency has a Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) which is assigned with reducing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium (HEU). A salient component of that initiative is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. An innovative fuel is being developed to replace HEU. The new LEU fuel is based on a monolithic fuel made from a U-Mo alloy foil encapsulated in Al-6061 cladding. In order to complete the fuel qualification process, the laser shock technique is being developed to characterize the clad-clad and fuel-clad interface strengths in fresh and irradiated fuel plates. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is being investigated to characterize interface strength in fuel plates. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves to characterize interfaces in nuclear fuel plates. However the deposition of laser energy into the containment layer on specimen’s surface is intractably complex. The shock wave energy is inferred from the velocity on the backside and the depth of the impression left on the surface from the high pressure plasma pulse created by the shock laser. To help quantify the stresses and strengths at the interface, a finite element model is being developed and validated by comparing numerical and experimental results for back face velocities and front face depressions with experimental results. This paper will report on initial efforts to develop a finite element model for laser shock.

  4. Splitting a C-O bond in dialkylethers withbis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Splitting a C-O bond in dialkylethers with bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl) ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Splitting a C-O bond in dialkylethers with ...

  5. BPA revises oversupply rate proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comments until May 22, 2013. The rate-setting process will end with the administrator making a decision based on the record developed in the case. BPA expects to issue a final...

  6. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at a Tier 2 rate 3) Combination of the two On Nov 1, 2009, customers made their elections for how they will serve their Above-RHWM Load during the FY 2012-2014 purchase...

  7. Significantly Shorter Fe-S Bond in Cytochrome P450-I is Consistent with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greater Reactivity Relative to Chloroperoxidase | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Significantly Shorter Fe-S Bond in Cytochrome P450-I is Consistent with Greater Reactivity Relative to Chloroperoxidase Monday, August 31, 2015 C-H bond activation is often considered the "holy grail" of inorganic chemists, as the ability to specifically activate C-H bonds would be one of the most used transformations in all of chemistry. Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are thiolate ligated heme

  8. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ion Batteries: A XANES Study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study The chemical bonding nature and its evolution upon electrochemical cycling in amorphous Si coated-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) anode has been investigated using comprehensive X-ray

  9. Title 43 CFR 3214 Personal and Surety Bonds | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    14 Personal and Surety Bonds Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 43 CFR 3214 Personal and...

  10. Steel bonded dense silicon nitride compositions and method for their fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Shell, T.E.

    1985-05-20

    A two-stage bonding technique for bonding high density silicon nitride and other ceramic materials to stainless steel and other hard metals, and multilayered ceramic-metal composites prepared by the technique are disclosed. The technique involves initially slurry coating a surface of the ceramic material at about 1500/sup 0/C in a vacuum with a refractory material and the stainless steel is then pressure bonded to the metallic coated surface by brazing it with nickel-copper-silver or nickel-copper-manganese alloys at a temperature in the range of about 850/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/C in a vacuum. The two-stage bonding technique minimizes the temperature-expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials.

  11. Useful for cleavage of organic C-S bonds Bacillus sphaericus microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane II, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A mutant Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC No. 53969 which has the property of sulfur removal and sulfur metabolism by selective cleavage of C-S bonds in organic carbonaceous materials.

  12. Mutant microorganisms useful for cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1992-01-01

    A mutant Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC No. 53968 which has the property of sulfur removal and sulfur metabolism by selective cleavage of C-S bonds in organic carbonaceous materials.

  13. Useful for cleavage of organic C-S bonds Bacillus sphaericus microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1993-03-30

    A mutant Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC No. 53969 which has the property of sulfur removal and sulfur metabolism by selective cleavage of C-S bonds in organic carbonaceous materials.

  14. Mutant microorganisms useful for cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A mutant Bacillus sphaericus strain ATC No. 53969 which has the property of sulfur removal and sulfur metabolism by selective cleavage of C-S bonds in organic carbonaceous materials.

  15. Eutectic bonding of a Ti sputter coated, carbon aerogel wafer to a Ni foil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; Kanna, R.L.

    1994-06-01

    The formation of high energy density, storage devices is achievable using composite material systems. Alternate layering of carbon aerogel wafers and Ni foils with rnicroporous separators is a prospective composite for capacitor applications. An inherent problem exists to form a physical bond between Ni and the porous carbon wafer. The bonding process must be limited to temperatures less than 1000{degrees}C, at which point the aerogel begins to degrade. The advantage of a low temperature eutectic in the Ni-Ti alloy system solves this problem. Ti, a carbide former, is readily adherent as a sputter deposited thin film onto the carbon wafer. A vacuum bonding process is then used to join the Ni foil and Ti coating through eutectic phase formation. The parameters required for successfld bonding are described along with a structural characterization of the Ni foil-carbon aerogel wafer interface.

  16. Steel bonded dense silicon nitride compositions and method for their fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Tracy, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A two-stage bonding technique for bonding high density silicon nitride and other ceramic materials to stainless steel and other hard metals, and multilayered ceramic-metal composites prepared by the technique are disclosed. The technique involves initially slurry coating a surface of the ceramic material at about 1500.degree. C. in a vacuum with a refractory material and the stainless steel is then pressure bonded to the metallic coated surface by brazing it with nickel-copper-silver or nickel-copper-manganese alloys at a temperature in the range of about 850.degree. to 950.degree. C. in a vacuum. The two-stage bonding technique minimizes the temperature-expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials.

  17. Significantly Shorter Fe-S Bond in Cytochrome P450-I is Consistent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analyzed at Beam Line 7-3 at SSRL. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies on multiple sets of samples revealed that the Fe-S bond in P450-I was in fact 0.09 ...

  18. Mode specificity in bond selective reactions F + HOD ? HF + OD and DF + OH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Hongwei; Guo, Hua

    2015-05-07

    The influence of vibrational excitations in the partially deuterated water (HOD) reactant on its bond selective reactions with F is investigated using a full-dimensional quantum wave packet method on an accurate global potential energy surface. Despite the decidedly early barrier of the F + H{sub 2}O reaction, reactant vibrational excitation in each local stretching mode of HOD is found to significantly enhance the reaction which breaks the excited bond. In the mean time, excitation of the HOD bending mode also enhances the reaction, but with much lower efficacy and weaker bond selectivity. Except for low collision energies, all vibrational modes are more effective in promoting the bond selective reactions than the translational energy. These results are compared with the predictions of the recently proposed sudden vector projection model.

  19. BPA Power Rates (pbl/main)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rates, please see the transmission rates web site. Inactive Rate Cases Integrated Business Review (IBR) Integrated Program Review (IPR) Quarterly Business Review (QBR) Content...

  20. Direct synthesis of sp-bonded carbon chains on graphite surface by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, A.; Rybachuk, M.; Lu, Q.-B.; Duley, W. W.

    2007-09-24

    Microscopic phase transformation from graphite to sp-bonded carbon chains (carbyne) and nanodiamond has been induced by femtosecond laser pulses on graphite surface. UV/surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectra displayed the local synthesis of carbyne in the melt zone while nanocrystalline diamond and trans-polyacetylene chains form in the edge area of gentle ablation. These results evidence possible direct 'writing' of variable chemical bonded carbons by femtosecond laser pulses for carbon-based applications.

  1. Hydrogen Bonding Under High-Pressure (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Hydrogen Bonding Under High-Pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Bonding Under High-Pressure Authors: Manaa, M R ; Fried, L E Publication Date: 2010-03-12 OSTI Identifier: 1090831 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-425764 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: Pacifichem 2010, Honolulu, HI, United States, Dec 18 - Dec 19, 2010 Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA

  2. First Structural Characterization of a Protactinium(V) Single Oxo Bond in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aqueous Media (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect First Structural Characterization of a Protactinium(V) Single Oxo Bond in Aqueous Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First Structural Characterization of a Protactinium(V) Single Oxo Bond in Aqueous Media No abstract prepared. Authors: Le Naour, C. ; Trubert, D. ; Di Giandomenico, M.V. ; Fillaux, C. ; Den Auwer, C. ; Moisy, P. ; Hennig, C. ; /Orsay, IPN /Rossendorf, Forschungszentrum /ESRF, Grenoble Publication Date: 2006-10-04

  3. Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems Ă— You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  4. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase Bacteria have evolved pathways to metabolize phosphonates as a nutrient source for phosphorus. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, 2-aminoethylphosphonate is catabolized to phosphonoacetate, which is converted to

  5. Non-Destructive Inspection of Adhesive Bonds in Metal-Metal Joints |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Inspection of Adhesive Bonds in Metal-Metal Joints Non-Destructive Inspection of Adhesive Bonds in Metal-Metal Joints 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm_15_moore.pdf More Documents & Publications FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 10. Nondestructive Evaluation FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 10.

  6. New Bond Helps Toledo, Ohio, Expand Financing Pool | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Bond Helps Toledo, Ohio, Expand Financing Pool New Bond Helps Toledo, Ohio, Expand Financing Pool The logo for Better Buildings Northwest Ohio, Toleco Lucas County Port Authority Program. The BetterBuildings Northwest Ohio (BBNWO) Program, in conjunction with the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation-a pioneering Energy Special Improvement District in Ohio that allows energy efficiency improvements to be funded and paid for through property special assessments-has received a

  7. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program: Case Study on Saint Louis County, MO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimring, Mark

    2011-06-23

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized debt instruments that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of qualified energy conservation projects. QECBs offer issuers very attractive borrowing rates and long terms, and can fund low-interest energy efficiency loans for home and commercial property owners. Saint Louis County, MO recently issued over $10 million of QECBs to finance the Saint Louis County SAVES residential energy efficiency loan program. The county's experience negotiating QECB regulations and restrictions can inform future issuers.

  8. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  9. DOE Guidance-Category Rating

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2010 MEMORANDUM FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DIRECTORS FROM: SARA"iJ. Boku1, DIRECToR OF HUMAN C~TAL MANAGEMENT SUBJECT: GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #10 CATEGORY RATING The purpose of this memorandum is to establish the Department of Energy's (DOE's) policy for the use of Category Rating. Authorities: Public Law 107-296; Title 5 USC 3319; 5 CFR, Part 337, Subpart C., Presidential Memorandum of May 11, 2010 This guidance is established in accordance with 5 USC 3319, which authorizes Federal Agencies to use

  10. Method of bonding functional surface materials to substrates and applications in microtechnology and anti-fouling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Xiangdong (West Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA); Liang, Liang (Richland, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A simple and effective method to bond a thin coating of poly(N-isopropylacylamide) (NIPAAm) on a glass surface by UV photopolymerization, and the use of such a coated surface in nano and micro technology applications. A silane coupling agent with a dithiocarbamate group is provided as a photosensitizer preferably, (N,N'-diethylamine) dithiocarbamoylpropyl-(trimethoxy) silane (DATMS). The thiocarbamate group of the sensitizer is then bonded to the glass surface by coupling the silane agent with the hydroxyl groups on the glass surface. The modified surface is then exposed to a solution of NIPAAm and a crosslinking agent which may be any organic molecule having an acrylamide group and at least two double bonds in its structure, such as N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide, and a polar solvent which may be any polar liquid which will dissolve the monomer and the crosslinking agent such as acetone, water, ethanol, or combinations thereof. By exposing the glass surface to a UV light, free radicals are generated in the thiocarbamate group which then bonds to the crosslinking agent and the NIPAAm. Upon bonding, the crosslinking agent and the NIPAAm polymerize to form a thin coating of PNIPAAm bonded to the glass. Depending upon the particular configuration of the glass, the properties of the PNIPAAm allow applications in micro and nano technology.

  11. Method of bonding functional surface materials to substrates and applications in microtechnology and antifouling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Xiangdong (West Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA); Liang, Liang (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    A simple and effective method to bond a thin coating of poly(N-isopropylacylamide) (NIPAAm) on a glass surface by UV photopolymerization, and the use of such a coated surface in nano and micro technology applications. A silane coupling agent with a dithiocarbamate group is provided as a photosensitizer, preferably, (N,N'-diethylamine)dithiocarbamoylpropyl-(trimethoxy)silane (DATMS). The thiocarbamate group of the sensitizer is then bonded to the glass surface by coupling the silane agent with the hydroxyl groups on the glass surface. The modified surface is then exposed to a solution of NIPAAm and a crosslinking agent which may be any organic molecule having an acrylamide group and at least two double bonds in its structure, such as N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, and a polar solvent which may be any polar liquid which will dissolve the monomer and the crosslinking agent such as acetone, water, ethanol, or combinations thereof. By exposing the glass surface to a UV light, free radicals are generated in the thiocarbamate group which then bonds to the crosslinking agent and the NIPAAm. Upon bonding, the crosslinking agent and the NIPAAm polymerize to form a thin coating of PNIPAAm bonded to the glass. Depending upon the particular configuration of the glass, the properties of the PNIPAAm allow applications in micro and nano technology.

  12. Rhodium mediated bond activation: from synthesis to catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Hung-An

    2012-03-06

    Recently, our lab has developed monoanionic tridentate ligand, To{sup R}, showing the corresponding coordination chemistry and catalyst reactivity of magnesium, zirconium, zinc and iridium complexes. This thesis details synthetic chemistry, structural study and catalytic reactivity of the To{sup R}-supported rhodium compounds. Tl[To{sup R}] has been proved to be a superior ligand transfer agent for synthesizing rhodium complexes. The salt metathesis route of Tl[To{sup M}] with [Rh({mu}-Cl)(CO)]{sub 2} and [Rh({mu}- Cl)(COE)]{sub 2} gives To{sup M}Rh(CO){sub 2} (2.2) and To{sup M}RhH({eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 8}H{sub 13}) (3.1) respectively while Tl[To{sup P}] with [Rh({mu}-Cl)(CO)]{sub 2} affords To{sup P}Rh(CO){sub 2} (2.3). 2.2 reacts with both strong and weak electrophiles, resulting in the oxazoline N-attacked and the metal center-attacked compounds correspondingly. Using one of the metal center-attacked electrophiles, 2.3 was demonstrated to give high diastereoselectivity. Parallel to COE allylic C-H activation complex 3.1, the propene and allylbenzene allylic C-H activation products have also been synthesized. The subsequent functionalization attempts have been examined by treating with Brřnsted acids, Lewis acids, electrophiles, nucleophiles, 1,3-dipolar reagents and reagents containing multiple bonds able to be inserted. Various related complexes have been obtained under these conditions, in which one of the azide insertion compounds reductively eliminates to give an allylic functionalization product stoichiometrically. 3.1 reacts with various primary alcohols to give the decarbonylation dihydride complex To{sup M}Rh(H){sub 2}CO (4.1). 4.1 shows catalytic reactivity for primary alcohol decarbonylation under a photolytic condition. Meanwhile, 2.2 has been found to be more reactive than 4.1 for catalytic alcohol decarbonylation under the same condition. Various complexes and primary alcohols have been investigated as well. The proposed mechanism is based on the stochiometric reactions of the possible metal and organic intermediates. Primary amines, hypothesized to undergo a similar reaction pathway, have been verified to give dehydrogenative coupling product, imines. In the end, the well-developed neutral tridentate Tpm coordinates to the rhodium bis(ethylene) dimer in the presence of TlPF{sub 6} to give the cationic complex, [TpmRh(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}][PF{sub 6}] (5.1). 5.1 serves as the first example of explicit determination of the solid state hapticity, evidenced by X-ray structure, among all the cationic Tpm{sup R}M(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup +} (Tpm{sup R} = Tpm, Tpm*, M = Rh, Ir) derivatives. The substitution chemistry of this compound has been studied by treating with soft and hard donors. The trimethylphosphine-sbustituted complex activates molecular hydrogen to give the dihydride compound.

  13. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  14. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  15. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul (Stony Brook, NY)

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  16. Evaluation Ratings Definitions (Excluding Utilization of Small...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Excluding Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ... Definitions (Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ...

  17. Nickel superoxide dismutase: structural and functional roles of His1 and its H-bonding network

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maroney, Michael J.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Ryan, Kelly C.; Guce, Abigail I.; Johnson, Olivia E.; Brunold, Thomas C.; Garman, Scott C.

    2015-01-21

    Crystal structures of nickel-dependent superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) reveal the presence of a H-bonding network formed between the NH group of the apical imidazole ligand from His1 and the Glu17 carboxylate from a neighboring subunit in the hexameric enzyme. This interaction is supported by another intrasubunit H-bond between Glu17 and Arg47. In this study, four mutant NiSOD proteins were produced to experimentally evaluate the roles of this H-bonding network and compare the results with prior predictions from density functional theory calculations. The X-ray crystal structure of H1A-NiSOD, which lacks the apical ligand entirely, reveals that in the absence of the Glu17-His1more » H-bond, the active site is disordered. Characterization of this variant using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that Ni(II) is bound in the expected N₂S₂ planar coordination site. Despite these structural perturbations, the H1A-NiSOD variant retains 4% of wild-type (WT) NiSOD activity. Three other mutations were designed to preserve the apical imidazole ligand but perturb the H-bonding network: R47A-NiSOD, which lacks the intramolecular H-bonding interaction; E17R/R47A-NiSOD, which retains the intramolecular H-bond but lacks the intermolecular Glu17-His1 H-bond; and E17A/R47ANiSOD, which lacks both H-bonding interactions. These variants were characterized by a combination of techniques, including XAS to probe the nickel site structure, kinetic studies employing pulse-radiolytic production of superoxide, and electron paramagnetic resonance to assess the Ni redox activity. The results indicate that in addition to the roles in redox tuning suggested on the basis of previous computational studies, the Glu17-His1 H-bond plays an important structural role in the proper folding of the “Ni-hook” motif that is a critical feature of the active site.« less

  18. Nickel superoxide dismutase: structural and functional roles of His1 and its H-bonding network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maroney, Michael J.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Ryan, Kelly C.; Guce, Abigail I.; Johnson, Olivia E.; Brunold, Thomas C.; Garman, Scott C.

    2015-01-21

    Crystal structures of nickel-dependent superoxide dismutases (NiSODs) reveal the presence of a H-bonding network formed between the NH group of the apical imidazole ligand from His1 and the Glu17 carboxylate from a neighboring subunit in the hexameric enzyme. This interaction is supported by another intrasubunit H-bond between Glu17 and Arg47. In this study, four mutant NiSOD proteins were produced to experimentally evaluate the roles of this H-bonding network and compare the results with prior predictions from density functional theory calculations. The X-ray crystal structure of H1A-NiSOD, which lacks the apical ligand entirely, reveals that in the absence of the Glu17-His1 H-bond, the active site is disordered. Characterization of this variant using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that Ni(II) is bound in the expected N?S? planar coordination site. Despite these structural perturbations, the H1A-NiSOD variant retains 4% of wild-type (WT) NiSOD activity. Three other mutations were designed to preserve the apical imidazole ligand but perturb the H-bonding network: R47A-NiSOD, which lacks the intramolecular H-bonding interaction; E17R/R47A-NiSOD, which retains the intramolecular H-bond but lacks the intermolecular Glu17-His1 H-bond; and E17A/R47ANiSOD, which lacks both H-bonding interactions. These variants were characterized by a combination of techniques, including XAS to probe the nickel site structure, kinetic studies employing pulse-radiolytic production of superoxide, and electron paramagnetic resonance to assess the Ni redox activity. The results indicate that in addition to the roles in redox tuning suggested on the basis of previous computational studies, the Glu17-His1 H-bond plays an important structural role in the proper folding of the “Ni-hook” motif that is a critical feature of the active site.

  19. Microstructural Examination to Aid in Understanding Friction Bonding Fabrication Technique for Monolithic Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen L. Shropshire

    2008-04-01

    Monolithic nuclear fuel is currently being developed for use in research reactors, and friction bonding (FB) is a technique being developed to help in this fuel’s fabrication. Since both FB and monolithic fuel are new concepts, research is needed to understand the impact of varying FB fabrication parameters on fuel plate characteristics. This thesis research provides insight into the FB process and its application to the monolithic fuel design by recognizing and understanding the microstructural effects of varying fabrication parameters (a) FB tool load, and (b) FB tool face alloy. These two fabrication parameters help drive material temperature during fabrication, and thus the material properties, bond strength, and possible formation of interface reaction layers. This study analyzed temperatures and tool loads measured during those FB processes and examined microstructural characteristics of materials and bonds in samples taken from the resulting fuel plates. This study shows that higher tool load increases aluminum plasticization and forging during FB, and that the tool face alloy helps determine the tool’s heat extraction efficacy. The study concludes that successful aluminum bonds can be attained in fuel plates using a wide range of FB tool loads. The range of tool loads yielding successful uranium-aluminum bonding was not established, but it was demonstrated that such bonding can be attained with FB tool load of 48,900 N (11,000 lbf) when using a FB tool faced with a tungsten alloy. This tool successfully performed FB, and with better results than tools faced with other materials. Results of this study correlate well with results reported for similar aluminum bonding techniques. This study’s results also provide support and validation for other nuclear fuel development studies and conclusions. Recommendations are offered for further research.

  20. Rates with tier problems | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8ae-37aa-409e-b8b1-53a18cf5bad1 Wheatland Electric Coop, Inc - Domestic Cooling & HeatingWater Heating Data:4481ef61-11a6-4191-9cfe-5e6c92c05564 Los Angeles Department of Water &...

  1. Characterization of an explosively bonded aluminum proton beam window for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, David A; Janney, Jim G; Parish, Chad M

    2014-01-01

    An effort is underway at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to change the design of the 1st Generation high-nickel alloy proton beam window (PBW) to one that utilizes aluminum for the window material. One of the key challenges to implementation of an aluminum PBW at the SNS was selection of an appropriate joining method to bond an aluminum window to the stainless steel bulk shielding of the PBW assembly. An explosively formed bond was selected as the most promising joining method for the aluminum PBW design. A testing campaign was conducted to evaluate the strength and efficacy of explosively formed bonds that were produced using two different interlayer materials: niobium and titanium. The characterization methods reported here include tensile testing, thermal-shock leak testing, optical microscopy, and advanced scanning electron microscopy. All tensile specimens examined failed in the aluminum interlayer and measured tensile strengths were all slightly greater than the native properties of the aluminum interlayer, while elongation values were all slightly lower. A leak developed in the test vessel with a niobium interlayer joint after repeated thermal-shock cycles, and was attributed to an extensive crack network that formed in a layer of niobium-rich intermetallics located on the bond interfaces of the niobium interlayer; the test vessel with a titanium interlayer did not develop a leak under the conditions tested. Due to the experience gained from these characterizations, the explosively formed bond with a titanium interlayer was selected for the aluminum PBW design at the SNS.

  2. Improved Characterization of Transmitted Wavefront Error on CADB Epoxy-Free Bonded Solid State Laser Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayramian, A

    2010-12-09

    Current state-of-the-art and next generation laser systems - such as those used in the NIF and LIFE experiments at LLNL - depend on ever larger optical elements. The need for wide aperture optics that are tolerant of high power has placed many demands on material growers for such diverse materials as crystalline sapphire, quartz, and laser host materials. For such materials, it is either prohibitively expensive or even physically impossible to fabricate monolithic pieces with the required size. In these cases, it is preferable to optically bond two or more elements together with a technique such as Chemically Activated Direct Bonding (CADB{copyright}). CADB is an epoxy-free bonding method that produces bulk-strength bonded samples with negligible optical loss and excellent environmental robustness. The authors have demonstrated CADB for a variety of different laser glasses and crystals. For this project, they will bond quartz samples together to determine the suitability of the resulting assemblies for large aperture high power laser optics. The assemblies will be evaluated in terms of their transmitted wavefront error, and other optical properties.

  3. Determination of Hydrogen Bond Structure in Water versus Aprotic Environments To Test the Relationship Between Length and Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigala, Paul A.; Ruben, Eliza A.; Liu, Corey W.; Piccoli, Paula M. B.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Martinez, Todd J.; Schultz, Arthur J.; Herschiag, Daniel

    2015-05-06

    Hydrogen bonds profoundly influence the architecture and activity of biological macromolecules. Deep appreciation of hydrogen bond contributions to biomolecular function thus requires a detailed understanding of hydrogen bond structure and energetics and the relationship between these properties. Hydrogen bond formation energies (Delta G(f)) are enormously more favorable in aprotic solvents than in water, and two classes of contributing factors have been proposed to explain this energetic difference, focusing respectively on the isolated and hydrogen-bonded species: (I) water stabilizes the dissociated donor and acceptor groups much better than aprotic solvents, thereby reducing the driving force for hydrogen bond formation; and (II) water lengthens hydrogen bonds compared to aprotic environments, thereby decreasing the potential energy within the hydrogen bond. Each model has been proposed to provide a dominant contribution to Delta G(f), but incisive tests that distinguish the importance of these contributions are lacking. Here we directly test the structural basis of model II. Neutron crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that O-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds in crystals, chloroform, acetone, and water have nearly identical lengths and very similar potential energy surfaces despite Delta G(f) differences >8 kcal/mol across these solvents. These results rule out a substantial contribution from solvent-dependent differences in hydrogen bond structure and potential energy after association (model II) and thus support the conclusion that differences in hydrogen bond Delta G(f) are predominantly determined by solvent interactions with the dissociated groups (model I). These findings advance our understanding of universal hydrogen-bonding interactions and have important implications for biology and engineering.

  4. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2011 CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Big Rivers and Henderson, KY System: CU October 1, 2011 CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate...

  5. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

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    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: electric load data Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  6. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

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    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: API Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry API...

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    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: EZFeed Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

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    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Illinois State University Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

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  1. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

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  2. Effect of oxygen on weld shape and crystallographic orientation of duplex stainless steel weld using advanced A-TIG (AA-TIG) welding method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ying, E-mail: yingzou@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ueji, Rintaro; Fujii, Hidetoshi

    2014-05-01

    The double-shielded advanced A-TIG (AA-TIG) welding method was adopted in this study for the welding of the SUS329J4L duplex stainless steel with the shielding gases of different oxygen content levels. The oxygen content in the shielding gas was controlled by altering the oxygen content in the outer layer gas, while the inner layer remained pure argon to suppress oxidation on the tungsten electrode. As a result, a deep weld penetration was obtained due to the dissolution of oxygen into the weld metals. Additionally, the microstructure of the weld metal was changed by the dissolution of oxygen. The austenite phase at the ferrite grain boundary followed a Kurdjumov–Sachs (K–S) orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix phase at any oxide content. On the other hand, the orientation relationship between the intragranular austenite phase and the ferrite matrix phase exhibited different patterns under different oxygen content levels. When there was little oxide in the fusion zone, only a limited part of the intragranular austenite phase and the ferrite matrix phase followed the K–S orientation relationship. With the increase of the oxide, the correspondence of the K–S relationship increased and fit very well in the 2.5% O{sub 2} shielded sample. The investigation of this phenomenon was carried out along with the nucleation mechanisms of the intragranular austenite phases. - Highlights: • Weld penetration increased with the increase of the oxygen content. • Average diameter and number density of oxide were changed by the oxygen content. • K-S relationship of Widmanstätten austenite/ferrite wasn’t varied by oxide. • Orientation relationship of intragranular austenite/ferrite was varied by oxide.

  3. Systems and methods for using a boehmite bond-coat with polyimide membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polishchuk, Kimberly Ann

    2013-03-05

    The subject matter disclosed herein relates to gas separation membranes and, more specifically, to polyimide gas separation membranes. In an embodiment, a gas separation membrane includes a porous substrate, a substantially continuous polyimide membrane layer, and one or more layers of boehmite nanoparticles disposed between the porous substrate and the polyimide membrane layer to form a bond-coat layer. The bond-coat layer is configured to improve the adhesion of the polyimide membrane layer to the porous substrate, and the polyimide membrane layer has a thickness approximately 100 nm or less.

  4. Measurement of Moisture Outgassing of the Plastic-Bonded TATB Explosive

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LX-17 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Measurement of Moisture Outgassing of the Plastic-Bonded TATB Explosive LX-17 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of Moisture Outgassing of the Plastic-Bonded TATB Explosive LX-17 Authors: Small, W ; Glascoe, E A ; Overturf, G E Publication Date: 2012-02-15 OSTI Identifier: 1093404 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-530535 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Thermochimica

  5. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store

  6. Sub-picosecond IR study of the reactive intermediate in an alkane C-H bond

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    activation reaction by CpRh(CO)2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Sub-picosecond IR study of the reactive intermediate in an alkane C-H bond activation reaction by CpRh(CO)2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sub-picosecond IR study of the reactive intermediate in an alkane C-H bond activation reaction by CpRh(CO)2 No abstract prepared. Authors: Asbury, John B. ; Ghosh, Hirendra N. ; Yeston, Jake S. ; Bergman, Robert G. ; Lian, Tianquan Publication Date:

  7. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2006-04-18

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  8. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Sangeeta, D (Cincinnati, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  9. LB CRAC Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Load-Based (LB) CRAC Power Rate Adjustment Workshop Materials Related Links: Power Rate Adjustments > Load-Based (LB) CRAC December 13, 2006 LB CRAC Workshop Materials (updated...

  10. utility rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    utility Utility Companies utility rate Utility Rates version 1 version 2 version 3 web service Smart meter After several months of development and testing, the next...

  11. Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Substituted $\\beta$-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younker, Jarod M; Beste, Ariana; Buchanan III, A C

    2011-01-01

    The biopolymer lignin is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) is representative of the dominant $\\beta$-O-4 ether linkage. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the Boltzmann-weighted carbon-oxygen and carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of substituted PPE. These values are important in order to understand lignin decomposition. Exclusion of all conformers that have distributions of less than 5\\% at 298 K impacts the BDE by less than 1 kcal mol$^{-1}$. We find that aliphatic hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents introduce only small changes to the BDEs (0-3 kcal mol$^{-1}$). Substitution on the phenyl ring at the $ortho$ position substantially lowers the C-O BDE, except in combination with the hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents, where the effect of methoxy substitution is reduced by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding between the aliphatic substituents and the ether oxygen in the PPE derivatives has a significant influence on the BDE. CCSD(T)-calculated BDEs and hydrogen bond strengths of $ortho$-substituted anisoles when compared with M06-2X values confirm that the latter method is sufficient to describe the molecules studied and provide an important benchmark for lignin model compounds.

  12. Method of bonding diamonds in a matrix and articles thus produced

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, G.W.

    1981-01-27

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  13. Cascaded die mountings with spring-loaded contact-bond options

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2005-08-16

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  14. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2007-06-19

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  15. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVoto, Douglas

    2015-06-10

    This is a technical review of the DOE VTO EDT project EDT063, Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging. A procedure for analyzing the reliability of sintered-silver through experimental thermal cycling and crack propagation modeling has been outlined and results have been presented.

  16. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, Thomas C. (Kingston, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

  17. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-07-28

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process. 4 figs.

  18. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process.

  19. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  20. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  1. Microstructural Characteristics of HIP-bonded Monolithic Nuclear Fuels with a Diffusion Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jan-Fong Jue; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Cynthia R. Breckenridge; Glenn A. Moore; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2014-05-01

    Due to the limitation of maximum uranium load achievable by dispersion fuel type, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is developing an advanced monolithic fuel to convert US high performance research reactors to low-enriched uranium. Hot-isostatic-press bonding was the single process down-selected to bond monolithic U-Mo fuel meat to aluminum alloy cladding. A diffusion barrier was applied to the U–Mo fuel meat by roll-bonding process to prevent extensive interaction between fuel meat and aluminum-alloy cladding. Microstructural characterization was performed on fresh fuel plates fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. Interfaces between fuel meat, cladding, and diffusion barrier, as well as U–10Mo fuel meat and Al–6061 cladding were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the interfaces contain many different phases while decomposition, second phases, and chemical banding were also observed in the fuel meat. The important attributes of the HIP-bonded monolithic fuel are • A typical Zr diffusion barrier of thickness 25 µm • Transverse cross section that exhibits relatively equiaxed grains with an average grain diameter of 10 µm • Chemical banding, in some areas more than 100 µm in length, that is very pronounced in longitudinal (i.e., rolling) direction with Mo concentration varying from 7–13 wt% • Decomposed areas containing plate-shaped low-Mo phase • A typical Zr/cladding interaction layer of thickness 1-2 µm • A visible UZr2 bearing layer of thickness 1-2 µm • Mo-rich precipitates (mainly Mo2Zr, forming a layer in some areas) followed by a Mo-depleted sub-layer between the visible UZr2-bearing layer and the U–Mo matrix • No excessive interaction between cladding and the uncoated fuel edge • Cladding-to-cladding bonding that exhibits no cracks or porosity with second phases high in Mg, Si, and O decorating the bond line. • Some of these attributes might be critical to the irradiation performance of monolithic U-10Mo nuclear fuel. There are several issues or concerns that warrant more detailed study, such as precipitation along cladding-to-cladding bond line, chemical banding, uncovered fuel-zone edge, and interaction layer between U–Mo fuel meat and zirconium. Future post-irradiation examination results will focus, among other things, on identifying in-reactor failure mechanisms and, eventually, directing further fresh fuel characterization efforts.

  2. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules » Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-1-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke On-System System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-2-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Central System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-3-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: None

  3. Anion Binding in Metal-Organic Frameworks Functionalized with Urea Hydrogen-Bonding Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2006-01-01

    A series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups has been synthesized and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to evaluate the efficacy of anion coordination by urea within the structural constraints of the MOFs. We found that urea-based functionalities may be used for anion binding within metal-organic frameworks when the tendency for urea{hor_ellipsis}urea self-association is decreased by strengthening the intramolecular CH{hor_ellipsis}O hydrogen bonding of N-phenyl substituents to the carbonyl oxygen atom. Theoretical calculations indicate that N,N'-bis(m-pyridyl)urea (BPU) and N,N'-bis(m-cyanophenyl)urea (BCPU) should have enhanced hydrogen-bonding donor abilities toward anions and decreased tendencies to self-associate into hydrogen-bonded tapes compared to other disubstituted ureas. Accordingly, BPU and BCPU were incorporated in MOFs as linkers through coordination of various Zn, Cu, and Ag transition metal salts, including Zn(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, ZnSO{sub 4}, Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Cu(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, AgNO{sub 3}, and AgSO{sub 3}CH{sub 3}. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that these linkers are versatile anion binders, capable of chelate hydrogen bonding to all of the oxoanions explored. Anion coordination by the urea functionalities was found to successfully compete with urea self-association in all cases except for that of charge-diffuse perchlorate.

  4. Bond Coating Performance of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Industrial Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Ian G; Pint, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are intended to work in conjunction with internal cooling schemes to reduce the metal temperature of critical hot gas path components in gas turbine engines. The thermal resistance is typically provided by a 100--250 {mu}m thick layer of ceramic (most usually zirconia stabilized with an addition of 7--8 wt% of yttria), and this is deposited on to an approximately 50 {mu} thick, metallic bond coating that is intended to anchor the ceramic to the metallic surface, to provide some degree of mechanical compliance, and to act as a reservoir of protective scale-forming elements (Al) to protect the underlying superalloy from high-temperature corrosion. A feature of importance to the durability of thermal barrier coatings is the early establishment of a continuous, protective oxide layer (preferably {alpha}-alumina) at the bond coating-ceramic interface. Because zirconia is permeable to oxygen, this oxide layer continues to grow during service. Some superalloys are inherently resistant to high-temperature oxidation, so a separate bond coating may not be needed in those cases. Thermal barrier coatings have been in service in aeroengines for a number of years, and the use of this technology for increasing the durability and/or efficiency of industrial gas turbines is currently of significant interest. The data presented were taken from an investigation of routes to optimize bond coating performance, and the focus of the paper is on the influences of reactive elements and Pt on the oxidation behaviour of NiAl-based alloys determined in studies using cast versions of bond coating compositions.

  5. Simple bond-order-type interatomic potential for an intermixed Fe-Cr-C system of metallic and covalent bondings in heat-resistant ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomohisa Nakamura, Kaoru; Yamada, Susumu; Ohnuma, Toshiharu

    2014-12-28

    It is known that M{sub 23}C{sub 6}(M?=?Cr/Fe) behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels affects the strength of the material at high temperature. The ability to garner direct information regarding the atomic motion using classical molecular dynamics simulations is useful for investigating the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels. For such classical molecular dynamics calculations, a suitable interatomic potential is needed. To satisfy this requirement, an empirical bond-order-type interatomic potential for Fe-Cr-C systems was developed because the three main elements to simulate the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels are Fe, Cr, and C. The angular-dependent term, which applies only in non-metallic systems, was determined based on the similarity between a Finnis-Sinclair-type embedded-atom-method interatomic potential and a Tersoff-type bond-order potential. The potential parameters were determined such that the material properties of Fe-Cr-C systems were reproduced. These properties include the energy and lattice constants of 89 crystal structures; the elastic constants of four realistic precipitates; the bulk moduli of B1, B2, and B3 crystals; the surface energies of B1 and B2 crystals; and the defect-formation energies and atomic configurations of 66 Fe-Cr-C complexes. Most of these material properties were found to be reproduced by our proposed empirical bond-order potentials. The formation energies and lattice constants of randomly mixed Fe-Cr alloys calculated using the interatomic potentials were comparable to those obtained through experiments and first-principles calculations. Furthermore, the energies and structures of interfaces between Cr carbide and ?-Fe as predicted through first-principles calculations were well reproduced using these interatomic potentials.

  6. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; Rose, Kristie L.; Tabb, David L.

    2013-04-08

    In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to predict fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of charged peptides. This model improves the accuracy of predictions by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely predicted for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the prediction problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.

  7. Method and system for evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a mating surface of a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siu, Bernard K. (Diamond Bar, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method of evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a substrate includes: a) impinging a plurality of light sources onto a substrate; b) detecting optical reflective signatures emanating from the substrate from the impinged light; c) determining location of a selected conductor bond on the substrate from the detected reflective signatures; d) determining a target site on the selected conductor bond from the detected reflective signatures; e) optically imparting an elastic wave at the target site through the selected conductor bond and into the substrate; f) optically detecting an elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate resulting from the optically imparting step; and g) determining integrity of adherence of the selected conductor bond to the substrate from the detected elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate. A system is disclosed which is capable of conducting the method.

  8. Method and system for evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a mating surface of a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telschow, K.L.; Siu, B.K.

    1996-07-09

    A method of evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a substrate includes: (a) impinging a plurality of light sources onto a substrate; (b) detecting optical reflective signatures emanating from the substrate from the impinged light; (c) determining location of a selected conductor bond on the substrate from the detected reflective signatures; (d) determining a target site on the selected conductor bond from the detected reflective signatures; (e) optically imparting an elastic wave at the target site through the selected conductor bond and into the substrate; (f) optically detecting an elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate resulting from the optically imparting step; and (g) determining integrity of adherence of the selected conductor bond to the substrate from the detected elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate. A system is disclosed which is capable of conducting the method. 13 figs.

  9. 2014-2015 Power Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration 905 N.E. 11th Avenue...

  10. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  11. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: American Clean Skies Foundation Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  12. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Rate Home > Groups > Groups > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds There are no feeds from external sites for this group. Groups Menu You must login in...

  13. Category:Utility Rates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rates Jump to: navigation, search Add a new Utility Rate This category currently contains no pages or media. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:Utility...

  14. Bond Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EN Official Statement 2004 NIFC Official Statement 2003 CARES Official Statement 2003 Lewis County PUD Official Statement 2003-F EN Official Statement 2003 Tacoma Official...

  15. Residential Solar Valuation Rates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Residential Solar Valuation Rates This presentation summarizes the information discussed by Rabago Energy during the Best Practices in the Design of Utility Solar Programs Webinar on Sept. 27, 2012. PDF icon utility_design_rabago_energy.pdf More Documents & Publications Austin Energy's Residential Solar Rate QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 1 QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 8

  16. MOF-based catalysts for selective hydrogenolysis of carbon–oxygen ether bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stavila, Vitalie; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Davis, Ryan W.; El Gabaly, Farid; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema; Allendorf, Mark D.

    2015-11-23

    We demonstrate that metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) can catalyze hydrogenolysis of aryl ether bonds under mild conditions. Mg-IRMOF-74(I) and Mg-IRMOF-74(II) are stable under reducing conditions and can cleave phenyl ethers containing ?-O-4, ?-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages to the corresponding hydrocarbons and phenols. Reaction occurs at 10 bar H2 and 120 °C without added base. DFT-optimized structures and charge transfer analysis suggest that the MOF orients the substrate near Mg2+ ions on the pore walls. Ti and Ni doping further increase conversions to as high as 82% with 96% selectivity for hydrogenolysis versus ring hydrogenation. Thus repeated cycling induces no loss of activity, making this a promising route for mild aryl-ether bond scission.

  17. RF sputtering for controlling dihydride and monohydride bond densities in amorphous silicon hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffery, F.R.; Shanks, H.R.

    1980-08-26

    A process is described for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicone produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous solicone hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  18. MOF-based catalysts for selective hydrogenolysis of carbon–oxygen ether bonds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stavila, Vitalie; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Davis, Ryan W.; El Gabaly, Farid; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema; Allendorf, Mark D.

    2015-11-23

    We demonstrate that metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) can catalyze hydrogenolysis of aryl ether bonds under mild conditions. Mg-IRMOF-74(I) and Mg-IRMOF-74(II) are stable under reducing conditions and can cleave phenyl ethers containing β-O-4, α-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages to the corresponding hydrocarbons and phenols. Reaction occurs at 10 bar H2 and 120 °C without added base. DFT-optimized structures and charge transfer analysis suggest that the MOF orients the substrate near Mg2+ ions on the pore walls. Ti and Ni doping further increase conversions to as high as 82% with 96% selectivity for hydrogenolysis versus ring hydrogenation. Thus repeated cycling induces no loss ofmore » activity, making this a promising route for mild aryl-ether bond scission.« less

  19. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, John R. (Golden, CO); Thomas, Terence M. (Arvada, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Lakewood, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  20. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Thomas, T.M.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1984-07-31

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  1. Olefin metathesis for effective polymer healing via dynamic exchange of strong carbon-carbon bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guan, Zhibin; Lu, Yixuan

    2015-09-15

    A method of preparing a malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material is provided. The method includes providing a polymeric or composite material comprising at least one alkene-containing polymer, combining the polymer with at least one homogeneous or heterogeneous transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst to form a polymeric or composite material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction on the polymer so as to form reversible carbon-carbon double bonds in the polymer. Also provided is a method of healing a fractured surface of a polymeric material. The method includes bringing a fractured surface of a first polymeric material into contact with a second polymeric material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction in the presence of a transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst such that the first polymeric material forms reversible carbon-carbon double bonds with the second polymeric material. Compositions comprising malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material are also provided.

  2. Development of Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn functionally gradient material produced by eutectic bonding method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirihara, S.; Takeda, M.; Tsujimoto, T. [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-07-15

    Although many materials which have a single function have been developed, future needs are anticipated to include materials which have various functions. A functionally gradient material (FGM) which has characteristics of two different materials is a promising candidate for multi-functional material. The present methods for production of FGM, however, are very complicated and costly. In this study the authors answer the serious problem of high production cost by fabricating the FGM by a eutectic bonding method. This fabrication method includes structural control of FGM by changing the cooling process. They describe Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn FGM obtained by the eutectic bonding method, and tell how the structure of its composition gradient part is changed by controlling the cooling process.

  3. Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect on

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Subsurface Alloys | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect on Platinum Subsurface Alloys Tuesday, July 31, 2012 The ability to design and control the activities of transition metal catalysts, which are scarce in nature and thus expensive, has been of great importance to the development of economical industrial and energy-saving processes. Over the years several methods have been suggested, especially for

  4. Entanglemet entropy of the bond order phase in graphene in magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arikawa, Mitsuhiro; Aoki, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2011-12-23

    The quantum Hall effect (QHE) in graphene has a peculiar edge mode at E = 0 that resides right within the n = 0 Landau level as protected by the chiral symmetry, in contrast that the usual edge states in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) reside between adjacent Landau levels. We investigate edge states of graphene with the Kekule bond order, which respect the chiral symmetry using the entanglement entropy.

  5. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  6. Fabrication and Design Aspects of High-Temperature Compact Diffusion Bonded Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mylavarapu, Sai K.; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Glosup, Richard E.; Unocic, Raymond R

    2012-01-01

    The very high temperature reactor (VHTR), using gas-cooled reactor technology, is one of the six reactor concepts selected by the Generation IV International Forum and is anticipated to be the reactor type for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP). In this type of reactor with an indirect power cycle system, a high-temperature and high integrity intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with high effectiveness is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to secondary fluid for electricity production, process heat, or hydrogen cogeneration. The current Technology Readiness Level status issued by NGNP to all components associated with the IHX for reactor core outlet temperatures of 750-800oC is 3 on a scale of 1 to 10 with 10 being the most ready. At present, there is no proven high-temperature IHX concept for VHTRs. Amongst the various potential IHX concepts available, diffusion bonded heat exchangers (henceforth called printed circuit heat exchangers, or PCHEs) appear promising for NGNP applications. The design and fabrication of this key component of NGNP is the primary focus of this paper. In the current study, two PCHEs were fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and will be experimentally investigated for their thermal-hydraulic performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The HTHF was primarily designed and constructed to test the thermal-hydraulic performance of PCHEs The test facility is primarily of Alloy 800H construction and is designed to facilitate experiments at temperatures and pressures up to 800oC and 3 MPa, respectively. The PCHE fabrication related processes, i.e., photochemical machining and diffusion bonding are briefly discussed for Alloy 617 plates. Diffusion bonding of Alloy 617 plates with and without a Ni interlayer is discussed. Furthermore, preliminary microstructural and mechanical characterization studies of representative diffusion bonded Alloy 617 specimens are presented.

  7. Modification of pK values caused by change in H-bond geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheiner, S.; Hillenbrand, E.A.

    1985-05-01

    The competition between various groups for a proton is studied by ab initio molecular orbital methods. It is found that reorientations of the two groups involved in a H-bond can reverse the equilibrium position of the proton shared between them. Specifically, the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups were modeled by H/sub 2/CO and HOH. In the H-bond between these two groups, association of the proton with the carbonyl is favored over the hydroxyl when the latter group is situated along a lone pair of the carbonyl oxygen. However, displacement of the water to the carbon-oxygen axis between the two carbonyl lone pairs reverses the situation and the hydroxyl is more stable. A similar reversal of stability is observed in the H-bond involving a Schiff base (modeled by CH/sub 2/NH) and amine (NH/sub 3/). These shifts in stability correspond to reversal of relative pK of the groups involved. A fundamental principle emerging from the calculations is that ion-dipole electrostatic interactions favor transfer of a proton to the group that is positioned as closely as possible to the negative end of the dipole moment vector of the other. The ideas developed here suggest a number of means by which conformational changes may be utilized to shift protons from residue to residue within a protein molecule such as an enzyme or bacteriorhodopsin.

  8. Anion Coordination in Metal-Organic Frameworks Functionalized with Urea Hydrogen-Bonding Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2005-12-15

    A series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups have been designed, synthesized, and structurally analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction to evaluate the efficacy of anion binding within the structural constraints of the MOFs. We found that urea-based functionalities may be used for anion binding within metal-organic frameworks when the tendency for urea???urea self-association is decreased by strengthening the intramolelcular CH???O hydrogen bonding of N-phenyl substituents to the carbonyl oxygen atom. Theoretical calculations indicate that N,N?-bis(m-pyridyl)urea (BPU) and N,N?-bis(m-cyanophenyl)urea (BCPU) should have enhanced hydrogen-bonding donor abilities toward anions and decreased tendencies to self-associate into hydrogen-bonded chains compared to other disubstituted ureas. Accordingly, BPU and BCPU were incorporated in MOFs as linkers through coordination of various Zn, Cu, and Ag transition metal salts, including Zn(ClO4)2, ZnSO4, Cu(NO3)2, Cu(CF3SO3)2, AgNO3 and AgSO3CH3. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that these linkers are versatile anion binders, capable of chelate hydrogen bonding to all of the oxoanions explored. Anion binding by the urea functionalities was found to successfully compete with urea self-association in all cases except for that of charge-diffuse perchlorate. This research was sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy, under contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725 with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (managed by UT-Battelle, LLC), and performed at Oak Ridge National laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (managed by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830). This research was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  9. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Carpick, R. W.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.

    2007-12-15

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO{sub 2} after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp{sup 2} fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp{sup 2} fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2{+-}2 vs 826{+-}186 mJ/m{sup 2}, respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2{+-}0.4 mJ/m{sup 2}, at the level of van der Waals' interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the surface chemistry and nanoscale friction. The proposed mechanism, supported by the detailed surface spectroscopic analysis, is the elimination of reactive (e.g., C*-), polar (e.g., C=O), and {pi}-bonded (C=C) surface groups, which are replaced by fully saturated, hydrogen-terminated surface bonds to produce an inert surface that interacts minimally with the contacting counterface.

  10. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Carpick, R. W.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

    2007-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO{sub 2} after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp{sup 2} fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp{sup 2} fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2 {+-} 2 vs 826 {+-} 186 mJ/m{sup 2}, respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2 {+-} 0.4 mJ/m{sup 2}, at the level of van der Waals interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the surface chemistry and nanoscale friction. The proposed mechanism, supported by the detailed surface spectroscopic analysis, is the elimination of reactive (e.g., C*-), polar (e.g., C-O), and {pi}-bonded (C-C) surface groups, which are replaced by fully saturated, hydrogen-terminated surface bonds to produce an inert surface that interacts minimally with the contacting counterface.

  11. Fabrication and Design Aspects of High-Temperature Compact Diffusion Bonded Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Richard N. Christensen; Raymond R. Unocic; Richard E. Glosup; Mike W. Patterson

    2012-08-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) using gas-cooled reactor technology is anticipated to be the reactor type for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). In this reactor concept with an indirect power cycle system, a high-temperature and high integrity Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) with high effectiveness is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation, hydrogen production, and/or industrial process heat applications. At present, there is no proven IHX concept for VHTRs. The current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) status issued by NGNP to all components associated with the IHX for reduced nominal reactor outlet temperatures of 750–800 degrees C is 3 on a 1–10 scale, with 10 indicating omplete technological maturity. Among the various potential IHX concepts available, diffusion bonded heat exchangers (henceforth called printed circuit heat exchangers, or PCHEs) appear promising for NGNP applications. The design and fabrication of this key component of NGNP with Alloy 617, a candidate high-temperature structural material for NGNP applications, are the primary focus of this paper. In the current study, diffusion bonding of Alloy 617 has been demonstrated, although the optimum diffusion bonding process parameters to engineer a quasi interface-free joint are yet to be determined. The PCHE fabrication related processes, i.e., photochemical etching and diffusion bonding are discussed for Alloy 617 plates. In addition, the authors’ experiences with these non-conventional machining and joining techniques are discussed. Two PCHEs are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and are being experimentally investigated for their thermal-hydraulic performance in a High-Temperature Helium Facility (HTHF). The HTHF is primarily of Alloy 800H construction and is designed to facilitate experiments at temperatures and pressures up to 800 degrees C and 3 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, some preliminary microstructural and mechanical property characterization studies of representative diffusion bonded Alloy 617 specimens are presented. The characterization studies are restricted and less severe from an NGNP perspective but provide sufficient confidence to ensure safe operation of the heat exchangers in the HTHF. The test results are used to determine the design operating conditions for the PCHEs fabricated.

  12. Method for producing components with internal architectures, such as micro-channel reactors, via diffusion bonding sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alman, David E.; Wilson, Rick D.; Davis, Daniel L.

    2011-03-08

    This invention relates to a method for producing components with internal architectures, and more particularly, this invention relates to a method for producing structures with microchannels via the use of diffusion bonding of stacked laminates. Specifically, the method involves weakly bonding a stack of laminates forming internal voids and channels with a first generally low uniaxial pressure and first temperature such that bonding at least between the asperites of opposing laminates occurs and pores are isolated in interfacial contact areas, followed by a second generally higher isostatic pressure and second temperature for final bonding. The method thereby allows fabrication of micro-channel devices such as heat exchangers, recuperators, heat-pumps, chemical separators, chemical reactors, fuel processing units, and combustors without limitation on the fin aspect ratio.

  13. Public Utilities Specialist (Rates) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Utilities Specialist (Rates) Public Utilities Specialist (Rates) Submitted by admin on Fri, 2016-01-08 00:16 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of Energy Agency SubElement Western Area Power Administration Locations Phoenix, Arizona Announcement Number WAPA-16-DE-70 Job Summary (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration, Desert Southwest Region, Power Marketing, Rates and Alternative Financing, Phoenix, AZ

  14. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validation Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods Validation The Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering group at NREL validates energy ratings methods by standards committees to establish an energy rating methodology. We are evaluating techniques to account for the impact on PV performance from variations in the spectral distribution of solar radiation. Two types of methods were evaluated for correcting the short-circuit current of PV modules for variations in the solar spectrum under clear skies: (1)

  15. A coordinatively saturated sulfate encapsulated in a metal-organic framework functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2005-10-14

    A functional coordination polymer decorated with urea hydrogen-bonding donor groups has been designed for optional binding of sulfate; self-assembly of a tripodal tri-urea linker with Ag2SO4 resulted in the formation of a 1D metal-organic framework that encapsulated SO42- anions via twelve complementary hydrogen bonds, which represents the highest coordination number observed for sulfate in a natural or synthetic host.

  16. A coordinatively saturated sulfate encapsulated in a metal-organic framework functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A; Hay, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A functional coordination polymer decorated with urea hydrogen-bonding donor groups has been designed for optimal binding of sulfate; self-assembly of a tripodal tris-urea linker with Ag2SO4 resulted in the formation of a 1D metal - organic framework that encapsulates SO42- anions via twelve complementary hydrogen bonds, which represents the highest coordination number observed for sulfate in a natural or synthetic host.

  17. MEMS packaging with etching and thinning of lid wafer to form lids and expose device wafer bond pads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chanchani, Rajen; Nordquist, Christopher; Olsson, Roy H; Peterson, Tracy C; Shul, Randy J; Ahlers, Catalina; Plut, Thomas A; Patrizi, Gary A

    2013-12-03

    In wafer-level packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices a lid wafer is bonded to a MEMS wafer in a predermined aligned relationship. Portions of the lid wafer are removed to separate the lid wafer into lid portions that respectively correspond in alignment with MEMS devices on the MEMS wafer, and to expose areas of the MEMS wafer that respectively contain sets of bond pads respectively coupled to the MEMS devices.

  18. OpenEI Community - utility rate

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    title"" >After several months of development and testing, the next generation web service for the utility rate database is finally here I encourage you to check out...

  19. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Availability:This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter...

  20. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  1. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  2. BPA issues final decision on oversupply rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is consistent with our multiple statutory responsibilities, is rooted in the basic principles of cost causation and fairness that underlie BPA's rate directives, and...

  3. Introducing the Attachments Energy Ratings Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Window Covering Manufacturers Association (WCMA) has launched the Attachments Energy Ratings Council (AERC).

  4. Floating Rate Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Publications Fixed Rate Agreement Federal Loan Guarantees for Projects that Manufacture Commercial Technology Renewable Energy Systems and Components: August 10, 2010...

  5. BPA proposes rate increase to bolster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    proposed a 9.6 percent average wholesale power rate increase to compensate for reduced revenue expectations from surplus power sales and to continue funding needed investments in...

  6. Characterization of Bond Strength of U-Mo Fuel Plates Using the Laser Shockwave Technique: Capabilities and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Smith; D. L. Cottle; B. H. Rabin

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to-date on the implementation of new laser-based capabilities for characterization of bond strength in nuclear fuel plates, and presents preliminary results obtained from fresh fuel studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Characterization involves application of two complementary experimental methods, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging, collectively referred to as the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST), that allows the integrity, physical properties and interfacial bond strength in fuel plates to be evaluated. Example characterization results are provided, including measurement of layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of generated debonds (including kissing bonds). LST provides spatially localized, non-contacting measurements with minimum specimen preparation, and is ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterizing nuclear fuel plates are described, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed, with emphasis on demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of these methods. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability to distinguish bond strength variations between different fuel plates. Although additional development work is necessary to validate and qualify the test methods, these results suggest LST is viable as a method to meet fuel qualification requirements to demonstrate acceptable bonding integrity.

  7. Lattice-Mismatched GaAs/InGaAs Two-Junction Solar Cells by Direct Wafer Bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanabe, K.; Aiken, D. J.; Wanlass, M. W.; Morral, A. F.; Atwater, H. A.

    2006-01-01

    Direct bonded interconnect between subcells of a lattice-mismatched III-V compound multijunction cell would enable dislocation-free active regions by confining the defect network needed for lattice mismatch accommodation to tunnel junction interfaces, while metamorphic growth inevitably results in less design flexibility and lower material quality than is desirable. The first direct-bond interconnected multijunction solar cell, a two-terminal monolithic GaAs/InGaAs two-junction solar cell, is reported and demonstrates viability of direct wafer bonding for solar cell applications. The tandem cell open-circuit voltage was approximately the sum of the subcell open-circuit voltages. This achievement shows direct bonding enables us to construct lattice-mismatched III-V multijunction solar cells and is extensible to an ultrahigh efficiency InGaP/GaAs/InGaAsP/InGaAs four-junction cell by bonding a GaAs-based lattice-matched InGaP/GaAs subcell and an InP-based lattice-matched InGaAsP/InGaAs subcell. The interfacial resistance experimentally obtained for bonded GaAs/InP smaller than 0.10 Ohm-cm{sup 2} would result in a negligible decrease in overall cell efficiency of {approx}0.02%, under 1-sun illumination.

  8. Sulfate Recognition by Persistent Crystalline Capsules with Rigidified Hydrogen Bonding Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Remy, Priscilla; Jiang, Deen; Bonnesen, Peter V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    electivity is a fundamental property of pervasive importance in chemistry and biology as reflected in phenomena as diverse as membrane transport, catalysis, sensing, adsorption, complexation, and crystallization. Although the key principles of complementarity and preorganization governing the binding interactions underlying such phenomena were delineated long ago, truly profound selectivity has proven elusive by design in part because synthetic molecular architectures are neither maximally complementary for binding target species nor sufficiently rigid. Even if a host molecule possesses a high degree of complementarity for a guest species, it all too often can distort its structure or even rearrange its conformation altogether to accommodate competing guests. One approach taken by researchers to overcome this challenge has been to devise extremely rigid molecules that bind species within complementary cavities. Although examples have been reported to demonstrate the principle, such cases are not generally of practical utility, because of inefficient synthesis and often poor kinetics. Alternatively, flexible building blocks can be employed, but then the challenge becomes one of locking them in place. Taking a cue from natural binding agents that derive their rigidity from a network of molecular interactions, especially hydrogen bonding, we present herein an example of a crystalline, self-assembled capsule that binds sulfate by a highly complementary array of rigidified hydrogen bonds (H-bonds). Although covalent or self-assembled capsules have been previously employed as anion hosts, they typically lack the strict combination of complementarity and rigidity required for high selectivity. Furthermore, the available structural data for these systems is either restricted to a limited number of anions of similar size and shape, or varies significantly from one anion to another, which hampers the rationalization of the observed selectivity. We have been employing crystalline host environments functionalized with anion-coordinating groups as a means to obtain maximal three-dimensional complementarity and rigidity. In the present study, we focused on the problem of sulfate recognition and separation, motivated by its high relevance to environmental remediation and nuclear waste cleanup.

  9. Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, D.

    1998-08-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting using extreme combinations of flaw scenarios (sizes and collocation) and excessive fatigue load spectrums, the performance parameters were arrived at in a conservative manner.

  10. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  11. Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Intermetallics: Structure-bonding-Property Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi-Kyung Han

    2006-05-01

    Our explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding-property relationships. Our work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe{sub 13-x}Si{sub x} system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides RE{sub 2-x}Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 14-y} and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi{sub 2}: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4}: Partially ordered structure of Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4} compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn{sub 39}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 81}: These layered structures are similar to icosahedral Mn-Al quasicrystalline compounds. Therefore, this compound may provide new insights into the formation, composition and structure of quasicrystalline materials.

  12. Rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics: Structure-bonding-property relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, M.K.

    2006-05-06

    The explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding property relationships. The work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe{sub 13-x}Si{sub x} system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides Re{sub 2-x}Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 14-y} and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi{sub 2}: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4}: Partially ordered structure of Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4} compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn{sub 39}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 81}: These layered structures are similar to icosahedral Mn-Al quasicrystalline compounds. Therefore, this compound may provide new insights into the formation, composition and structure of quasicrystalline materials.

  13. Wafer-Bonded Internal Back-Surface Reflectors for Enhanced TPV Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Wang; P.G. Murphy; P.W. O'Brien; D.A. Shiau; A.C. Anderson; Z.L. Liau; D.M. Depoy; G. Nichols

    2002-08-12

    This paper discusses recent efforts to realize GaInAsSb/GaSb TPV cells with an internal back-surface reflector (BSR). The cells are fabricated by wafer bonding the GaInAsSb/GaSb device layers to GaAs substrates with a dielectric/Au reflector, and subsequently removing the GaSb substrate. The internal BSR enhances optical absorption within the device while the dielectric layer provides electrical isolation. This approach is compatible with monolithic integration of series-connected TPV cells and can mitigate the requirements of filters used for front-surface spectral control.

  14. Unexpected formal insertion of CO2 into the C-Si bonds of a zinc compound

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kemp, Richard A.; McGrew, Genette I.; Khatri, Pathik A.; Geiger, William E.; Waterman, Rory

    2015-09-08

    Reaction of [κ2-PR2C(SiMe3)Py]2Zn (R = Ph, 2a; iPr, 2b) with CO2 affords the products of formal insertion at the C–Si bond, [κ2-PR2CC(O)O(SiMe3)Py]2Zn (R = Ph, 3a; iPr, 3b). Insertion product 3b was structurally characterized. As a result, the reaction appears to be a stepwise insertion and rearrangement of CO2 based on kinetic data.

  15. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  16. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  17. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  18. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  19. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  20. Radio-frequency and microwave load comprising a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Everleigh, C.A.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-04-21

    A billet of low-density carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) composite is machined into a desired attenuator or load element shape (usually tapering). The CBCF composite is used as a free-standing load element or, preferably, brazed to the copper, brass or aluminum components of coaxial transmission lines or microwave waveguides. A novel braze method was developed for the brazing step. The resulting attenuator and/or load devices are robust, relatively inexpensive, more easily fabricated, and have improved performance over conventional graded-coating loads. 9 figs.

  1. Radio-frequency and microwave load comprising a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Everleigh, Carl A. (Raleigh, NC); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A billet of low-density carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) composite is machined into a desired attenuator or load element shape (usually tapering). The CBCF composite is used as a free-standing load element or, preferably, brazed to the copper, brass or aluminum components of coaxial transmission lines or microwave waveguides. A novel braze method was developed for the brazing step. The resulting attenuator and/or load devices are robust, relatively inexpensive, more easily fabricated, and have improved performance over conventional graded-coating loads.

  2. Revenue-stability-target rate making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernick, P.L.

    1983-02-17

    The commonly used rate-making approaches necessarily base themselves on assumptions, vital to their success, about future levels of utility aservice sales. But since sales are a function of random variables beyond the control of the utility as well as actions by the utility itself, the resulting rates fail to protect the utility's revenue stream and its realized rate of return. This article proposes an alternative approach which would decouple utility revenues from sales, thus stabilizing revenue streams with respect to sales fluctuations and rate design changes. Among the benefits would be a lower cost of capital for the utility, as well as decreased utility resistance to conservation by consumers and to efficient rate design.

  3. Method of bonding a conductive layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, J.C.; Singh, P.

    1989-08-29

    A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer is bonded onto a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure, optionally supported by a ceramic support, by (A) providing an air electrode surface, (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, without the use of pressure, particles of LaCrO[sub 3] doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Sr, Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, and mixtures thereof, where the particles have a deposit on their surface comprising calcium oxide and chromium oxide; (C) heating the particles with the oxide surface deposit in an oxidizing atmosphere at from 1,300 C to 1,550 C, without the application of pressure, to provide a dense, sintered, interconnection material bonded to the air electrode, where calcium and chromium from the surface deposit are incorporated into the structure of the LaCrO[sub 3]. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell. 4 figs.

  4. Method of bonding a conductive layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey C. (Richland Township, Allegheny County, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded onto a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) providing an air electrode surface, (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface 24, without the use of pressure, particles of LaCrO.sub.3 doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Sr, Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, and mixtures thereof, where the particles have a deposit on their surface comprising calcium oxide and chromium oxide; (C) heating the particles with the oxide surface deposit in an oxidizing atmosphere at from 1,300.degree. C. to 1,550.degree. C., without the application of pressure, to provide a dense, sintered, interconnection material 26 bonded to the air electrode 16, where calcium and chromium from the surface deposit are incorporated into the structure of the LaCrO.sub.3. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

  5. Models for mean bonding length, melting point and lattice thermal expansion of nanoparticle materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, M.S.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Three models are derived to explain the nanoparticles size dependence of mean bonding length, melting temperature and lattice thermal expansion applied on Sn, Si and Au. The following figures are shown as an example for Sn nanoparticles indicates hilly applicable models for nanoparticles radius larger than 3 nm. Highlights: ? A model for a size dependent mean bonding length is derived. ? The size dependent melting point of nanoparticles is modified. ? The bulk model for lattice thermal expansion is successfully used on nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A model, based on the ratio number of surface atoms to that of its internal, is derived to calculate the size dependence of lattice volume of nanoscaled materials. The model is applied to Si, Sn and Au nanoparticles. For Si, that the lattice volume is increases from 20 ?{sup 3} for bulk to 57 ?{sup 3} for a 2 nm size nanocrystals. A model, for calculating melting point of nanoscaled materials, is modified by considering the effect of lattice volume. A good approach of calculating size-dependent melting point begins from the bulk state down to about 2 nm diameter nanoparticle. Both values of lattice volume and melting point obtained for nanosized materials are used to calculate lattice thermal expansion by using a formula applicable for tetrahedral semiconductors. Results for Si, change from 3.7 × 10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} for a bulk crystal down to a minimum value of 0.1 × 10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} for a 6 nm diameter nanoparticle.

  6. The role of hydrogen bonds in protein folding and protein association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Naim, A. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-02-07

    The contribution of a pair of functional groups that can form either intermolecular or intramolecular hydrogen bonds to the total standard free energy of the process of protein folding or protein association is examined. It is found that this contribution can be quite large, either positive or negative, depending on the particular process and on the solvent density. This is in contrast to the common belief that the hydrogen-bond energies tend to be compensated in these processes. For the binding process, in which the two functional groups are completely removed from the aqueous environment, the contribution of such a pair of functional groups to {Delta}G can be as high as +6.4 kcal/mol. This is the main reason why hydrophobic rather than hydrophilic surfaces tend to attach to each other. In contrast, when the two functional groups are only partially removed from the aqueous environment, as in the case of the formation of {alpha}-helix, their contribution to {Delta}G can be negative and of the order of about 1 kcal/mol.

  7. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  8. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  9. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2007-07-01

    A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack, impact, and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safely extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC), Boeing, and Federal Express completed a pilot program to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the U.S. commercial aircraft industry. This project focused on repair of DC-10 fuselage structure and its primary goal was to demonstrate routine use of this repair technology using niche applications that streamline the design-to-installation process. As composite doubler repairs gradually appear in the commercial aircraft arena, successful flight operation data is being accumulated. These commercial aircraft repairs are not only demonstrating the engineering and economic advantages of composite doubler technology but they are also establishing the ability of commercial maintenance depots to safely adopt this repair technique. This report presents the array of engineering activities that were completed in order to make this technology available for widespread commercial aircraft use. Focused laboratory testing was conducted to compliment the field data and to address specific issues regarding damage tolerance and flaw growth in composite doubler repairs. Fatigue and strength tests were performed on a simulated wing repair using a substandard design and a flawed installation. In addition, the new Sol-Gel surface preparation technique was evaluated. Fatigue coupon tests produced Sol-Gel results that could be compared with a large performance database from conventional, riveted repairs. It was demonstrated that not only can composite doublers perform well in severe off-design conditions (low doubler stiffness and presence of defects in doubler installation) but that the Sol-Gel surface preparation technique is easier and quicker to carry out while still producing optimum bonding properties. Nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods were developed so that the potential for disbond and delamination growth could be monitored and crack growth mitigation could be quantified. The NDI methods were validated using full-scale test articles and the FedEx aircraft installations. It was demonstrated that specialized NDI techniques can detect flaws in composite doubler installations before they reach critical size. Probability of Detection studies were integrated into the FedEx training in order to quantify the ability of aircraft maintenance depots to properly monitor these repairs. In addition, Boeing Structural Repair and Nondestructive Testing Manuals were modified to include composite doubler repair and inspection procedures. This report presents the results from the FedEx Pilot Program that involved installation and surveillance of numerous repairs on operating aircraft. Results from critical NDI evaluations are reported in light of damage tolerance assessments for bonded composite doublers. This work has produced significant interest from airlines and aircraft manufacturers. The successful Pilot Program produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. This report discusses both the laboratory data and Pilot Program results from repair installations on operating aircraft to introduce composite doubler repairs into mainstream commercial aircraft use.

  10. An investigation on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties during liquid state diffusion bonding of Al2024 to Ti–6Al–4V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samavatian, Majid; Halvaee, Ayoub; Amadeh, Ahmad Ali; Khodabandeh, Alireza

    2014-12-15

    Joining mechanism of Ti/Al dissimilar alloys was studied during liquid state diffusion bonding process using Cu/Sn/Cu interlayer at 510 °C under vacuum of 7.5 × 10{sup ?5} Torr for various bonding times. The microstructure and compositional changes in the joint zone were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Microhardness and shear strength tests were also applied to study the mechanical properties of the joints. It was found that with an increase in bonding time, the elements of interlayer diffused into the parent metals and formed various intermetallic compounds at the interface. Diffusion process led to the isothermal solidification and the bonding evolution in the joint zone. The results from mechanical tests showed that microhardness and shear strength values have a straight relation with bonding time so that the maximum shear strength of joint was obtained for a bond made with 60 min bonding time. - Highlights: • Liquid state diffusion bonding of Al2024 to Ti–6Al–4V was performed successfully. • Diffusion of the elements caused the formation of various intermetallics at the interface. • Microhardness and shear strength values have a straight relation with bonding time. • The maximum shear strength reached to 36 MPa in 60 min bonding time.

  11. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier2Adjustment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier2Adjustment&oldid539746...

  12. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier5Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier5Max&oldid539754...

  13. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier1Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier1Max&oldid539766...

  14. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier1Sell | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier1Sell&oldid539770...

  15. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier6Adjustment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier6Adjustment&oldid539759...

  16. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier4Max&oldid539751...

  17. Getting Rate Information from the utility_rates api | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Getting Rate Information from the utilityrates api Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hello, I am trying to use the API to generate information similar to what you can see here: http:...

  18. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Sell | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Sell Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  19. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Adjustment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Adjustment Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  20. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Sell | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Sell Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  1. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Period | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Number. The allowed values for this property are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructurePeriod" Showing...

  2. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Green Building Rate Discount

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This discounted rate is available to commercial customers whose building meets the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification or equivalent. To...

  3. Minority Utility Rate Design Assessment Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-20

    Econometric model simulates consumer demand response to various user-supplied, two-part tariff electricity rate designs and assesses their economic welfare impact on black, hispanic, poor and majority households.

  4. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  5. BPA Power Rates (pbl/main)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov BPA Fuel Mix 2012 2013 2014...

  6. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Global Atlas Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry Global Atlas IRENA...

  7. Utility Rates | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rates I'm considering removing the "Show Preview" button, since it does not work (javascript validation issue that could be fixed), and it doesn't make sense. The reason to...

  8. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  9. Contract and Tiered Rate Methodology Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    historical demand to provide incentive to lower their peak by providing a marginal price signal on an incremental component of demand. The CDQs are calculated outside of the rate...

  10. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Rate Home > Groups Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Share your own status updates, and follow the updates & activities of others by creating your own account. Or,...

  11. Revenue instability induced by conservation rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesnutt, T.W.; McSpadden, C.; Christianson, J.

    1996-01-01

    The shift toward conservation rate structures, although they may provide better incentives to use scarce water wisely, changes who pays what and can increase the variability of future revenue streams to the water agency. Though the definition of the correct rate structure varies by community, the managerial strategies necessary to cope with the uncertainty brought about by conservation rate structures apply universally. Revenue instability directly increases water supplier`s borrowing costs and adds indirect costs in the form of more complicated planning to provide for a reliable future water supply. This article describes an empirical study using data from two water agencies that have adopted conservation rate structures. The article proposes ways quantitative tools may be used to (1) measure and cope with added uncertainty and (2) make explicit the magnitude of trade-offs between revenue stability, equity, and the provision of incentives for efficient use of water resources.

  12. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  13. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  14. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate of Coral Growth Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth Objective The objective is to understand the fact that the growth of coral depends on water depth and the effect of sea level changes on corals. Materials Each student or group of students

  15. DWPF Macrobatch 2 Melt Rate Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-01-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister production rate must be increased to meet canister production goals. Although a number of factors exist that could potentially increase melt rate, this study focused on two: (1) changes in frit composition and (2) changes to the feed preparation process to alter the redox of the melter feed. These two factors were investigated for Macrobatch 2 (sludge batch 1B) utilizing crucible studies and a specially designed ''melt rate'' furnace. Other potential factors that could increase melt rate include: mechanical mixing via stirring or the use of bubblers, changing the power skewing to redistribute the power input to the melter, and elimination of heat loss (e.g. air in leakage). The melt rate testing in FY00 demonstrated that melt rate can be improved by adding a different frit or producing a much more reducing glass by the addition of sugar as a reductant. The frit that melted the fastest in the melt rate testing was Frit 165. A paper stud y was performed using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to determine the impact on predicted glass viscosity, liquidus, durability, and operating window if the frit was changed from Frit 200 to Frit 165. PCCS indicated that the window was very similar for both frits. In addition, the predicted viscosity of the frit 165 glass was 46 poise versus 84 poise for the Frit 200 glass. As a result, a change from Frit 200 to Frit 165 is expected to increase the melt rate in DWPF without decreasing waste loading.

  16. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  17. Realization rates of the National Energy Audit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, L.G.; Gettings, M.B.

    1998-11-01

    Engineering estimates of savings resulting from installation of energy conservation measures in homes are often greater than the savings actually realized. A brief review of prior studies of realization rates prefaces this study of rates from an engineering audit tool, NEAT, (developed for the Department of Energy`s Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program) used in a New York state utility`s low-income program. Estimates of metered and predicted savings are compared for 49 homes taken from a data base of homes that participated in the first year of the utility`s program. Average realization rates ranging from 57% to 69% result, depending on the data quality. Detailed examinations of two houses using an alternate engineering method, the DOE-2 computer program (considered an industry standard), seem to indicate that the low realization rates mainly result from factors other than inaccuracies in the audit`s internal algorithms. Causes of the low realization rates are examined, showing that the strongest single factor linked to the low rates in this study is the use of secondary heating fuels that supplement the primary heating fuel. This study, like the other similar studies, concludes that engineering estimates are valuable tools in determining ranked lists of cost-effective weatherization measures, but may not be accurate substitutes for measured results in evaluating program performance.

  18. Development of bonded composite doublers for the repair of oil recovery equipment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, David W.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack and corrosion flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, this effort is adapting bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are no rehabilitation options. It promises to be cost-effective with minimal disruption to the users of the structure. This report concludes a study into the application of composite patches on thick steel structures typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. The use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, can help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick structures. This study developed and proved an optimum field installation process using specific mechanical and chemical surface preparation techniques coupled with unique, in-situ heating methods. In addition, a comprehensive performance assessment of composite doubler repairs was completed to establish the viability of this technology for large, steel structures. The factors influencing the durability of composite patches in severe field environments were evaluated along with related laminate design issues.

  19. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 şC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as necessary, to complete the MEDE process.

  20. Communication: Towards the binding energy and vibrational red shift of the simplest organic hydrogen bond: Harmonic constraints for methanol dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heger, Matthias; Suhm, Martin A.; Mata, Ricardo A.

    2014-09-14

    The discrepancy between experimental and harmonically predicted shifts of the OH stretching fundamental of methanol upon hydrogen bonding to a second methanol unit is too large to be blamed mostly on diagonal and off-diagonal anharmonicity corrections. It is shown that a decisive contribution comes from post-MP2 electron correlation effects, which appear not to be captured by any of the popular density functionals. We also identify that the major deficiency is in the description of the donor OH bond. Together with estimates for the electronic and harmonically zero-point corrected dimer binding energies, this work provides essential constraints for a quantitative description of this simple hydrogen bond. The spectroscopic dissociation energy is predicted to be larger than 18 kJ/mol and the harmonic OH-stretching fundamental shifts by about ?121 cm{sup ?1} upon dimerization, somewhat more than in the anharmonic experiment (?111 cm{sup ?1})