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1

Heat flow in the postquasistatic approximation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We apply the postquasistatic approximation to study the evolution of spherically symmetric fluid distributions undergoing dissipation in the form of radial heat flow. For a model that corresponds to an incompressible fluid departing from the static equilibrium, it is not possible to go far from the initial state after the emission of a small amount of energy. Initially collapsing distributions of matter are not permitted. Emission of energy can be considered as a mechanism to avoid the collapse. If the distribution collapses initially and emits one hundredth of the initial mass only the outermost layers evolve. For a model that corresponds to a highly compressed Fermi gas, only the outermost shell can evolve with a shorter hydrodynamic time scale.

Rodriguez-Mueller, B. [Computational Science Research Center, College of Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California (United States); Peralta, C. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Frankfurter Strasse 135, 63067 Offenbach (Germany); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Barreto, W. [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Rosales, L. [Laboratorio de Fisica Computacional, Universidad Experimental Politecnica, 'Antonio Jose de Sucre', Puerto Ordaz (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Heat flow in the postquasistatic approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply the postquasistatic approximation to study the evolution of spherically symmetric fluid distributions undergoing dissipation in the form of radial heat flow. For a model which corresponds to an incompressible fluid departing from the static equilibrium, it is not possible to go far from the initial state after the emission of a small amount of energy. Initially collapsing distributions of matter are not permitted. Emission of energy can be considered as a mechanism to avoid the collapse. If the distribution collapses initially and emits one hundredth of the initial mass only the outermost layers evolve. For a model which corresponds to a highly compressed Fermi gas, only the outermost shell can evolve with a shorter hydrodynamic time scale.

B. Rodríguez-Mueller; C. Peralta; W. Barreto; L. Rosales

2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

3

Numerical approximation of null controls for the heat equation through transmutation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical approximation of null controls for the heat equation through transmutation Arnaud M components: Fourier filtering, Tychonoff regularization, mixed finite element methods, multi-grid strategies this issue for the heat equation, which is the op- posite paradigm because of its strong dissipativity

Sart, Remi

4

Inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate in xenon clusters in the eikonal approximation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) heating rates in the eikonal approximation (EA). The present analysis is performed using the plasma-screened Rogers and Debye potentials for Xe clusters with two different charge states (6 and 10). We compare the eikonal results with the first Born approximation (FBA) and classical-simulation (CL-sim) (Moll et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 033303 (2012)) calculations for clusters in infrared light. Calculations have been performed for the field strength of 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} V/cm. We find that compared to the FBA and CL-sim methods, the IB heating rate in the EA is less sensitive to the choice of the two potentials considered here. The present EA calculation shows that the influence of the inner structure of atomic ion on the heating rate is more prominent for the smaller ion charge (Xe{sup 6+}). In the case of low laser field approximation based on the elastic transport cross sections, it is seen that in contrast to the FBA and classical methods, the heating rate predicted by the EA does not deviate much all over the range of mean kinetic energy of electrons (20-500 eV) considered here for both the charge states of xenon (Xe{sup 6+} and Xe{sup 10+}). Furthermore, for the Rogers potential, EA is found to be in closer agreement with the classical method than the FBA. We also compare the results of the IB heating rate using the present and low-field approximation approaches to the above three methods and observe that the magnitudes of the IB heating rate calculated in the low field approximation are, in general, higher than the corresponding values predicted by the present approach for both the electron-ion potentials.

Dey, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roy, A. C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math, 711202 West Bengal (India)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Heat Transfer -1 A satellite in space orbits the sun. The satellite can be approximated as a flat plate with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Transfer - 1 A satellite in space orbits the sun. The satellite can be approximated as a flat plate with dimensions and properties given below. (a) Calculate the solar heat flux (W/m2 is at a distance where the solar heat flux (as defined above) is 500 W/m2 , and the flat plate is oriented

Virginia Tech

6

An Efficient Approximation of the Coronal Heating Rate for use in Global Sun-Heliosphere Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The origins of the hot solar corona and the supersonically expanding solar wind are still the subject of debate. A key obstacle in the way of producing realistic simulations of the Sun-heliosphere system is the lack of a physically motivated way of specifying the coronal heating rate. Recent one-dimensional models have been found to reproduce many observed features of the solar wind by assuming the energy comes from Alfvén waves that are partially reflected, then dissipated by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. However, the nonlocal physics of wave reflection has made it difficult to apply these processes to more sophisticated (three-dimensional) models. This paper presents a set of robust approximations to the solutions of the linear Alfvén wave reflection equations. A key ingredient of the turbulent heating rate is the ratio of inward-to-outward wave power, and the approximations developed here allow this to be written explicitly in terms of local plasma properties at any given location. The coronal heating also depends on the frequency spectrum of Alfvén waves in the open-field corona, which has not yet been measured directly. A model-based assumption is used here for the spectrum, but the results of future measurements can be incorporated easily. The resulting expression for the coronal heating rate is self-contained, computationally efficient, and applicable directly to global models of the corona and heliosphere. This paper tests and validates the approximations by comparing the results to exact solutions of the wave transport equations in several cases relevant to the fast and slow solar wind.

Steven R. Cranmer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

An Efficient Approximation of the Coronal Heating Rate for Use in Global Sun-Heliosphere Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The origins of the hot solar corona and the supersonically expanding solar wind are still the subject of debate. A key obstacle in the way of producing realistic simulations of the Sun-heliosphere system is the lack of a physically motivated way of specifying the coronal heating rate. Recent one-dimensional models have been found to reproduce many observed features of the solar wind by assuming the energy comes from Alfven waves that are partially reflected, then dissipated by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. However, the nonlocal physics of wave reflection has made it difficult to apply these processes to more sophisticated (three-dimensional) models. This paper presents a set of robust approximations to the solutions of the linear Alfven wave reflection equations. A key ingredient to the turbulent heating rate is the ratio of inward to outward wave power, and the approximations developed here allow this to be written explicitly in terms of local plasma properties at any given location. The coronal heating al...

Cranmer, Steven R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into "approximately convex" components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact convex decomposition and can...

Ghosh, Mukulika

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

9

A comparison of approximate models for radiation in gas turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Approximate equations for radiative heat transfer equations coupled to an equation for the temperature are stated and a comparative numerical study of the different approximations is given. The approximation methods considered here range from moment methods to simplified PN-approximations. Numerical experiments and comparisons in different space dimensions and for various physical situations are presented.

M. Frank; M. Seaid; A. Klar; R. Pinnau; G. Thommes; J. Janicka

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

HEAT RECOVERY FROM WASTE WATER BY MEANS OF A RECUPERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER AND A HEAT PUMP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The useful heat of warm waste water is generally transferred to cold water using a recuperative heat exchanger. Depending on its design, the heat exchanger is able to utilise up to 90% of the waste heat potential available. The electric energy needed to operate such a system is more than compensated for by an approximately 50-fold gain of useful heat. To increase substantially the waste heat potential available and the amount of heat recovered, the system for recuperative heat exchange can be complemented by a heat pump. Such a heat recovery system on the basis of waste water is being operated in a public indoor swimming pool. Here the recuperative heat exchanger accounts for about 60%, the heat pump for about 40% of the toal heat reclaimed. The system consumes only 1 kWh of electric energy to supply 8 kWh of useful heat. In this way the useful heat of 8 kWh is compensated for by the low consumption of primary energy of 2.8 kWh. Due to the installation of an automatic cleaning device, the heat transfer surfaces on the waste water side avoid deposits so that the troublesome maintenance work required in other cases on the heat exchangers is not required. KEYWORDS Shower drain water, recuperative heat recovery, heat recovery by means of a heat pump, combination of both types of heat recovery, automatic cleaning device for the heat exchangers, ratio of useful heat supply vs. electric energy consumption, economic consideration.

K. Biasin; F.D. Heidt

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a heat pump water heater in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

12

The Boussinesq approximation in rapidly rotating flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the classical formulation of the Boussinesq approximation centrifugal buoyancy effects related to differential rotation, as well as strong vortices in the flow, are neglected. However, these may play an important role in rapidly rotating flows, such as in astrophysical and geophysical applications, and also in turbulent convection. We here provide a straightforward approach resulting in a Boussinesq-type approximation that consistently accounts for centrifugal effects. We further compare our new approach to the classical one in fluid flows confined between two differentially heated and rotating cylinders. The results justify the need of using the proposed approximation in rapidly rotating flows.

Lopez, Jose M; Avila, Marc

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

A 6/5-approximation algorithm for the maximum 3-cover problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the maximum cover problem, we are given a collection of sets over a ground set of elements and a positive integer w, and we are asked to compute a collection of at most w sets whose union contains the maximum ...

Ioannis Caragiannis; Gianpiero Monaco

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Approximation Algorithms Tandy Warnow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

size and 1 / . #12;Approximation algorithms for: Minimum Vertex Cover (finding a set of vertices-SAT 3-SAT DIR-HAM-CYCLEINDEPENDENT SET VERTEX COVER GRAPH 3-COLOR HAM-CYCLE TSP SUBSET-SUM SCHEDULINGPLANAR 3-COLOR SET COVER NP-Completeness by definition of NP-completeness #12;NP-hard Optimization

Warnow,Tandy

15

On the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation on unbounded domains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation on unbounded domains Eduard Feireisl and Maria E. Schonbek Abstract We study the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation describing the mo- tion of an incompressible, heat that the total energy of any solution of the resulting Oberbeck-Boussinesq system tends to zero with growing time

Schonbek, Maria

16

Geothermal Heat Pumps- Heating Mode  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In winter, fluid passing through this vertical, closed loop system is warmed by the heat of the earth; this heat is then transferred to the building.

17

Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The multiple absorption coefficient zonal method (MACZM), an efficient computational approach for the analysis of radiative heat transfer in multidimensional inhomogeneous nongray media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Radiative Heat Transfer, the P-3 Approximation”, AIAAMedia”, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 109, No. 3 (1987),Media”, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B, Fundamentals, Vol.

Yuen, W W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Hybrid Heat Pump Design and Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Hybrid Heat Pump (HHP) converts industrial waste heat into process steam. Waste heat at temperatures as low as approximately 200°F can be used. Steam output covers a range between 12,000 Ib/h and 50,000 Ib/h, depending on the application...

Wagner, J. R.; Koebberman, W. F.

20

Design Considerations for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in these high-quality waste heat streams, at today's oil prices, is approximately 12 billion dollars per year. Heat recovery is perhaps one of the largest energy conservation opportunities available to U. S. industries today. The author reviews basic heat...

Bywaters, R. P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Compare All CBECS Activities: District Heat Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District Heat Use District Heat Use Compare Activities by ... District Heat Use Total District Heat Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 433 trillion Btu of district heat (district steam or district hot water) in 1999. There were only five building types with statistically significant district heat consumption; education buildings used the most total district heat. Figure showing total district heat consumption by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. District Heat Consumption per Building by Building Type Health care buildings used the most district heat per building. Figure showing district heat consumption per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800.

22

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

23

Solar Heating Rates: The Importance of Spherical Geometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A crucial component of any GCM is a scheme for calculating atmospheric heating rates. Since a detailed treatment of all processes involved is time consuming, many approximations are usually made. An approximation used in virtually all GCM ...

D. J. Lary; M. Balluch

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Algorithms for Polytope Covering and Approximation, and for Approximate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@research.att.com Abstract This paper gives an algorithm for polytope covering: let L and U be sets of points in RdAlgorithms for Polytope Covering and Approximation, and for Approximate Closest-point Queries draft , comprising n points altogether. A cover for L from U is a set C U with L a subset of the convex hull of C

Clarkson, Kenneth L.

25

Algorithms for Polytope Covering and Approximation, and for Approximate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@research.att.com Abstract This paper gives an algorithm for polytope covering : let L and U be sets of points in R dAlgorithms for Polytope Covering and Approximation, and for Approximate Closest-point Queries draft , comprising n points altogether. A cover for L from U is a set C #26; U with L a subset of the convex hull

Clarkson, Kenneth L.

26

Algorithms for Polytope Covering and Approximation, and for Approximate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an algorithm for polytope covering: let L and U be sets of points in Rd, comprising n points altogether Algorithms for Polytope Covering and Approximation, and for Approximate. A cover for L from U is a set C U with L a subset of the convex hull of C. Suppose c

Clarkson, Kenneth L.

27

Research and Development Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologi...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

fuels are split approximately evenly between gas and electric, with other (e.g., fuel oil, propane) representing only 5% of residential water heating energy consumption. Figure...

28

Heat Stroke  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

stress, from exertion or hot environments, places stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke A condition that occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature, and can cause death or permanent disability. Symptoms ■ High body temperature ■ Confusion ■ Loss of coordination ■ Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating ■ Throbbing headache ■ Seizures, coma First Aid ■ Request immediate medical assistance. ■ Move the worker to a cool, shaded area. ■ Remove excess clothing and apply cool water to their body. Heat Exhaustion The body's response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through sweating. Symptoms ■ Rapid heart beat ■ Heavy sweating ■ Extreme weakness or fatigue ■

29

Forward approximation and backward approximation in fuzzy rough sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract It is general to obtain rules by attribute reduction in fuzzy information systems. Instead of obtaining rules by attribute reduction, which may have a negative effect on inducting good rules, the objective of this paper is to extract rules without computing attribute reducts. Forward and backward approximations in fuzzy rough sets are first defined, and their important properties are discussed. Two algorithms based on forward and backward approximations, namely, mine rules based on the forward approximation (MRBFA) and mine rules based on the backward approximation (MRBBA), are proposed for rule extraction. The two algorithms are evaluated by several data sets from the UC Irvine Machine Learning Repository. The experimental results show that both MRBFA and MRBBA achieve better classification performances than the method based on attribute reduction.

Yi Cheng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Heat collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Heat collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

32

Approximation Algorithms for Covering Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?-approximation for general CIP with {0, 1} variables [24].details of an extension to CIP with general upper bounds onCovering Integer Programs ( CIP ). Given a non-negative cost

Koufogiannakis, Christos

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In physics and chemistry the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is a very important method for...1). It is based on the important fact that the molecular Schrödinger operator contains one small parameter, the ratio k

J. M. Combes; P. Duclos; R. Seiler

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Aldosterone receptors in A6 cells: physicochemical characterization and autoradiographic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The A6 cell line is derived from the kidney of Xenopus laevis. Aldosterone increases sodium transport across A6 cell epithelia. In the present study, aldosterone binding characteristics were studied in A6 cell cytosol. Both type I (mineralocorticoid) and type II (glucocorticoid) receptors are present in the cytosolic fraction of these cells. Aldosterone and corticosterone had a high affinity for type I sites (Kd = 1.25 and 0.16 nM, respectively) and a lower affinity for type II sites (Kd = 39 and 10 nM, respectively). Testosterone and estradiol did not compete for aldosterone binding. RU 26988, a highly specific glucocorticoid agonist, competed with aldosterone for type II but not for type I sites. Hydrodynamic parameters of both type I and type II corticosterone receptor complexes were identical. Their Stokes radius was approximately 6 nm, as estimated by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, and their sedimentation coefficient determined by ultracentrifugation on glycerol gradients was approximately 9s. The molecular mass calculated from these parameters was approximately 200 kDa, a value that is very close to the value estimated for nontransformed mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors of other species. The (3H)aldosterone labeling of intact A6 cells was examined by autohistoradiography. At every concentration tested (2, 20, and 50 nM), all cells were found to be specifically labeled in both cytoplasm and nucleus. At 20 nM, in the presence of an excess of RU 26988, labeling was also detected. At every concentration the labeling data were compatible with a Gaussian distribution, indicating that A6 cells correspond to a homogeneous population with regard to aldosterone binding and that probably both type I and type II sites are present in the same cells.

Claire, M.; Machard, B.; Lombes, M.; Oblin, M.E.; Bonvalet, J.P.; Farman, N. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U300, Montpellier (France))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Effects of the Boussinesq Approximation on the Results of Strongly-Buoyant Plume Calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nearly all mathematical models which are commonly used to predict the dispersion of chimney gases in the atmosphere or heated water discharges in the aquatic environment employ the so-called Boussinesq approximation. It is part of this ...

M. Schatzmann; A. J. Policastro

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

Day, Nancy

37

Ancilla Approximable Quantum State Transformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the transformations of quantum states obtainable by a process of the following sort. Combine the given input state with a specially prepared initial state of an auxiliary system. Apply a unitary transformation to the combined system. Measure the state of the auxiliary subsystem. If (and only if) it is in a specified final state, consider the process successful, and take the resulting state of the original (principal) system as the result of the process. We review known information about exact realization of transformations by such a process. Then we present results about approximate realization of finite partial transformations. We consider primarily the issue of approximation to within a specified positive epsilon, but we also address the question of arbitrarily close approximation.

Andreas Blass; Yuri Gurevich

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

38

Quasiclassical Born-Oppenheimer approximations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss several problems in quasiclassical physics for which approximate solutions were recently obtained by a new method, and which can also be solved by novel versions of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. These cases include the so-called bouncing ball modes, low angular momentum states in perturbed circular billiards, resonant states in perturbed rectangular billiards, and whispering gallery modes. Some rare, special eigenstates, concentrated close to the edge or along a diagonal of a nearly rectangular billiard are found. This kind of state has apparently previously escaped notice.

Oleg Zaitsev; R. Narevich; R. E. Prange

2000-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

39

Effects of the boussinesq approximation on the results of strongly-buoyant plume calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nearly all mathematical models which are commonly used to predict the dispersion of chimney gases in the atmosphere or heated water discharges in the aquatic environment employ the so-called boussinesq approximation. It is part of this approximation that density variations appear solely in the buoyancy term of the momentum equation and are neglected in all other terms.

Schatzmann, M.; Policastro, A.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

SOOT GENERATION IN FIRES: AN IMPORTANT PARAMETER FOR ACCURATE CALCULATION OF HEAT RELEASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

states that heat of complete combustion per unit mass of oxygen consumed is approximately constant similarly states that heat of complete combustion per unit mass of carbon dioxide generated is approximately constant for most organic liquid, gaseous and solid compounds [1]. The heat of combustion per unit mass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Approximate Method for the Free Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Articles Approximate Method for the Free Energy Akihide Oguchi Department of Physics...a lower bound of the Helmholtz free energy in the statistical physics. A new approximate expression of the free energy is obtained. This approximate......

Akihide Oguchi

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Approximate convex decomposition and its applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in representations with an unmanageable number of components. In this work, we have developed an approximate technique, called Approximate Convex Decomposition (ACD), which decomposes a given polygon or polyhedron into "approximately convex" pieces that may provide...

Lien, Jyh-Ming

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Geothermal district heating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A6 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A6 A6 Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A6 Existing Regulations A6: Procedural rulemakings Rulemakings that are strictly procedural, including, but not limited to, rulemaking (under 48 CFR chapter 9) establishing procedures for technical and pricing proposals and establishing contract clauses and contracting practices for the purchase of goods and services, and rulemaking (under 10 CFR part 600) establishing application and review procedures for, and administration, audit, and closeout of, grants and cooperative agreements. Previous Regulations Categorical Exclusion Determinations dated before November 14th, 2011 were issued under previous DOE NEPA regulations. See the Notice of Final Rulemaking (76 FR 63763, 10/13/2011) for information changes to this categorical exclusion.

45

Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

Kessler, A. F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the dump valve on these two appliances would have eliminated uncertainty in knowing when waste water was flowing and the recovery system operated. The study also suggested that capture of dryer exhaust heat to heat incoming air to the dryer should be examined as an alternative to using drying exhaust energy for water heating. The study found that over a 6-week test period, the system in each house was able to recover on average approximately 3000 W-h of waste heat daily from these appliance and showers with slightly less on simulated weekdays and slightly more on simulated weekends which were heavy wash/dry days. Most of these energy savings were due to the shower/GFX operation, and the least savings were for the dishwasher/GFX operation. Overall, the value of the 3000 W-h of displaced energy would have been $0.27/day based on an electricity price of $.09/kWh. Although small for today s convention house, these savings are significant for a home designed to approach maximum affordable efficiency where daily operating costs for the whole house are less than a dollar per day. In 2010 the actual measured cost of energy in one of the simulated occupancy houses which waste heat recovery testing was undertaken was $0.77/day.

Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Approximating Metal-Insulator Transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate metal-insulator transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-Andre model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.

C. Danieli; K. Rayanov; B. Pavlov; G. Martin; S. Flach

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

48

Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

Not Available

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

50

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, Phillip J. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, P.J.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

52

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis Y.Y. Yao, Yaohua Chen Department of Computer}@cs.uregina.ca Abstract-- An important topic of rough set theory is the approximation of undefinable sets or concepts of approximation operators. In this paper, the notion of rough set approximations is introduced into formal concept

Yao, Yiyu

53

Segmented heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

54

Heat Trace and Functional Determinant in One Dimension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the spectral properties of the Laplace type operator on the circle. We discuss various approximations for the heat trace, the zeta function and the zeta-regularized determinant. We obtain a differential equation for the heat kernel diagonal and a recursive system for the diagonal heat kernel coefficients, which enables us to find closed approximate formulas for the heat trace and the functional determinant which become exact in the limit of infinite radius. The relation to the generalized KdV hierarchy is discussed as well.

Ivan G Avramidi

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

55

Developing Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas Across the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and approximate state-wide fuel efficiency. Heat added by buildings take into account electricity (e.g., AC systems, appliances) and heating fuel usage. The building component relies on both population and climate, as heating and cooling degree days are proportional to the amount of heating fuel and electricity used

Hall, Sharon J.

56

Condensing Heat Exchanger for Optimization of Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

out, rapid deterioration, due to acid corrosion, of the outlet duct and stack would result. With the development of the condensing heat exchanger, boiler efficiency can now exceed 90%. Approximately 1% gain in boiler efficiency can be expected...

Carrigan, J. F.; Johnson, D. W.; DiVitto, J. G.; Schulze, K. H.

57

Influence of Infrared Radiation on Attic Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

roof temperatures. It was found that a radiant barrier such as aluminum foil can reduce the heat flux significantly. Experimental results were compared to a Three-Region approximate solution developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL). The model...

Katipamula, S.; Turner, W. D.; Murphy, W. E.; O'Neal, D. L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Approximate Truth and Descriptive Nesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Approximate Truth and Descriptive Nesting Jeffrey Alan Barrett Received: 7 July. This paper presents a notion of local probable approximate truth in terms of descriptive nesting relations

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

59

Multi topological approximations of rough set theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we generalise Pawlak's approximation spaces to topological approximation spaces. These topological approximation spaces are generated using many topological notions such as regular open sets, semi-open sets, pre-open sets, ?-open sets, ?-open sets and ?-open sets and others. The basic definitions and properties of these topological approximation spaces are introduced and sufficiently illustrated. We put all topological generalisations in one generalisation called m-generalisation spaces.

A.S. Salama; O.G. El-Barbary

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Hydrotreater feed/effluent heat exchange  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a hydrotreating process for catalytically hydrogenating a hydrocarbon stock. It comprises dividing the hydrocarbon stock into two portions comprising a major portion and a minor portion, mixing the major portion with hydrogen to form a major portion mixture at a first temperature, and passing the major portion mixture through a multiple pass tube furnace to yield a heated major portion mixture at a first reactor inlet temperature, passing the heated major portion mixture to a hydrogenation catalyst containing reactor, thereby hydrogenating and heating the major portion mixture by heat of reaction to a reactor outlet temperature, withdrawing a hot hydrogenated stock from the reactor at the reactor outlet temperature wherein the hot hydrogenated stock comprises the entire reactor effluent, mixing the minor portion with hydrogen to form a minor portion mixture at about the first temperature, heating the minor portion mixture by indirect heat exchange with the hot hydrogenated stock to a second reactor inlet temperature approximately equal to the first reactor inlet temperature and then passing the minor portion to the first hydrogenation catalyst containing reactor in the absence of additional heating, the minor portion in an amount sufficient to quench the hot hydrogenated stock to a third temperature approximately equal to the first reactor inlet temperature.

Steinberg, R.M.; Deshpande, V.A.

1991-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Floatable solar heat modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A floating solar heat module for swimming pools comprises a solid surface for conducting heat from the sun's rays to the water and further includes a solid heat storage member for continual heating even during the night. A float is included to maintain the solar heat module on the surface of the pool. The solid heat storage medium is a rolled metal disk which is sandwiched between top and bottom heat conducting plates, the top plate receiving the heat of the sun's rays through a transparent top panel and the bottom plate transferring the heat conducted through the top plate and rolled disk to the water.

Ricks, J.W.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

62

Paving materials for heat island mitigation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Paving materials for heat island mitigation Paving materials for heat island mitigation Title Paving materials for heat island mitigation Publication Type Report Year of Publication 1997 Authors Pomerantz, Melvin, Hashem Akbari, Allan Chen, Haider Taha, and Arthur H. Rosenfeld Keywords Cool Pavements, Heat Island Abstract This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

63

Approximation Algorithms for Maximization Problems arising in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Approximation Algorithms for Maximization Problems arising in Graph Partitioning Thesis for the M of size k that maximizes : Max­k­Vertex Cover : the weight of edges incident with vertices in U . Max a number of approximation algorithms based on linear and semidefinite programming, and obtain approximation

Langberg, Michael

64

Direct Observation of Born-Oppenheimer Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Observation of Born-Oppenheimer Approximation Breakdown in Carbon Nanotubes Adam W of the theoretically predicted breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes. The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) or adiabatic approximation is widely used to simplify the very complex

Cronin, Steve

65

Mathematical Analysis of Born{Oppenheimer Approximations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mathematical Analysis of Born{Oppenheimer Approximations George A. Hagedorn and Alain Joye concerning Born{Oppenheimer approximations in molecular quantum mechanics. Introduction The goal of this paper is to review rigorous mathematical results concerning Born{Oppenheimer approximations. We make

Hagedorn, George A.

66

Truth approximation via abductive belief change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in Model-Based Reasoning and Abduction Truth approximation via abductive belief change...of belief change, on the one hand, and truth approximation, construed as increasing...or beliefs does lead them closer to the truth, and hence tracks truth approximation......

Gustavo Cevolani

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Data:E9d5da6b-c9e2-49c6-94f7-7adc66a6f2bc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

d5da6b-c9e2-49c6-94f7-7adc66a6f2bc d5da6b-c9e2-49c6-94f7-7adc66a6f2bc No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Frankfort, Indiana (Utility Company) Effective date: 1997/10/27 End date if known: Rate name: B Commercial Sector: Commercial Description: Availability. Available through one meter for single phase commercial service including lighting, miscellaneous small appliances, refrigeration, cooking, water heating, and incidental small motors not exceeding five horsepower individual capacity. Character of service. Alternating current, 60 Hertz, single phase, at a voltage of approximately 120 volts two-wire or 120/240 volts three-wire.

68

Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future Vol.VIII-12-1 Heat Pump for High School Bathroom Heat Recovery Kunrong Huang Hanqing Wang Xiangjiang Zhou Associate professor Professor Professor School...

Huang, K.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

70

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

71

San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating...

72

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

73

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

74

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland,...

75

Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy Presentation-given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership...

76

Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power.

77

Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Geothermal Heat Pumps Work Using a heat exchanger, a geothermal heat pump can move heat from one space to another. In summer, the geothermal heat pump extracts heat from a building...

78

Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

designed consumes power and fuel that yields an energy efficiency of approximately 40% (Total Btu’s required to reduce to elemental form/ Btu Input). The vast majority of heat is lost to the atmosphere or cooling water system. The furnaces can be modified...

O'Brien, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

MEMORANDUM TO: FILE F3on: A 6 IL  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

F3on: A 6 IL F3on: A 6 IL ---A------------ ALTERNATE CITY: l4v+&a ------- _-__------___-___ STATE: -~-~-- if yes, date contacted _____ & Development a Facility Type 0 Prndurtion scale testing 0 Pilot Scale 0 Makfacturing .a Bench Scale 0 0 Process University 0 0 Theoretical Studies Reseaich Organization cl Sample & Analysis 0 Gopernment Sponsored Facility 0 Other -~~-~~~--_-~~-__----- 0 Production I 0 Disposal/Storage TYPE OF CONTRACT ~------__--_____ q Prime q Subcontract& u Purchase Order Cl Other'infcrmation (i.e., cost + fixed fee, unit price; time & material, +r) ------- ' 'Con+act/Purchase Order # nls.vP ---------------------------- --------------------_____________ CONTRACTING P=3IOD- -----------w-=---T- h,Jn<, ------------------------------- _

80

Woven heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, R.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Data:1a3a88f2-2197-48ef-8bfb-b3a3a6cbdc38 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a88f2-2197-48ef-8bfb-b3a3a6cbdc38 a88f2-2197-48ef-8bfb-b3a3a6cbdc38 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Eastern Illinois Elec Coop Effective date: 2010/08/27 End date if known: Rate name: SINGLE-PHASE - ELECTRIC HEAT & WATER HEATING RATE SCHEDULE NO. 20 Sector: Commercial Description: Available upon application to any member/owner who has permanently installed facilities using electricity as the sole source of energy for space heating and domestic water heating, subject to established rules and regulations of the Cooperative. A premise may qualify for this rate if electric resistance heat is used solely in over 75 percent of the inhabitable area or if an electric heat pump is used in conjunction with a fossil fuel furnace and the installation has a balance point setting of 25 degrees or below. The heat pump must be sized for the heating load. Service under this schedule to installations requiring more than 75 kVA of transformer capacity is subject to approval by the Cooperative on a case-by-case basis. Approval of the Cooperative must be obtained prior to installation of any motor requiring starting current in excess of 260

82

Data:D84018a6-3209-48d8-825c-87604f96e037 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4018a6-3209-48d8-825c-87604f96e037 4018a6-3209-48d8-825c-87604f96e037 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bangor Hydro-Electric Co Effective date: 2012/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Commercial space heating-separately metered Sector: Commercial Description: Service under this price is available for commercial premises with an electric resistance space heating system, an electric heat pump system or an electric storage space heating system that is capable of heating 50% or more of the premises. Electricity used under this price shall be exclusively limited to separately metered commercial space heating. Water heating may be included in conjunction with the space heating. The Company reserves the right to inspect any facility to ensure eligibility under this price schedule. Customers taking service under this rate schedule are responsible for paying both Distribution Service and Stranded Cost.

83

HEAT STORAGE AND ADVECTION IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEAT STORAGE AND ADVECTION IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE maintaining the seasonal heat storage in the 0 to 250 meter surface layer of the North Pacific Ocean. Approximately 140,000 bathy- thermograph observations taken in the Pacific Ocean from 10° South latitude to 70

Luther, Douglas S.

84

Towards Intelligent District Heating.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A district heating system consists of one or more production units supplying energy in the form of heated water through a distribution pipe network to… (more)

Johansson, Christian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Total Space Heat-  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

86

ARM - Heat Index Calculations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that combines air temperature and relative...

87

HEATING AND COOLING PROTOSTELLAR DISKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using three-dimensional radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magnetorotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers are heated by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations in the fields move the starlight-absorbing surface up and down. The height ranges between 13% and 24% of the radius over timescales of several orbits, with implications for infrared variability. The fields are buoyant, so the accretion heating occurs higher in the atmosphere than the stresses. The heating is localized around current sheets, caused by magnetorotational instability at lower elevations and by Parker instability at higher elevations. Gas in the sheets is heated above the stellar irradiation temperature, even though accretion is much less than irradiation power when volume averaged. The hot optically thin current sheets might be detectable through their line emission.

Hirose, S. [Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Turner, N. J., E-mail: shirose@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

88

Predicting free laminar convection heat transfer on curvilinear surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Free laminar convection on an isothermal surface of cylindrical and axisymmetric bodies of arbitrary cross section is considered in the Boussinesq approximation. The problem is solved by the method of generalized similarity in its local approximation. Universal formulae are obtained for calculating the local Nusselt number. Prediction of convection on a heated horizontal cylindrical and sphere are given as examples of the method.

Stepanyants, L.G.; Shelukho, S.I.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Estimate sequence methods: extensions and approximations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aug 11, 2009 ... Estimate sequence methods: extensions and approximations ... or both, and draw some guidelines on the design of further estimate sequence ...

Michel Baes

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

90

Born-Oppenheimer approximation in open systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We generalize the standard Born-Oppenheimer approximation to the case of open quantum systems. We define the zeroth order Born-Oppenheimer approximation of an open quantum system as the regime in which its effective Hamiltonian can be diagonalized with fixed slowly changing variables. We then establish validity and invalidity conditions for this approximation for two kinds of dissipations--the spin relaxation and the dissipation of center-of-mass motion. As an example, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation of a two-level open system is analyzed.

X. L. Huang; X. X. Yi

2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

91

Born-Oppenheimer approximation in open systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We generalize the standard Born-Oppenheimer approximation to the case of open quantum systems. We define the zeroth-order Born-Oppenheimer approximation for an open quantum system as the regime in which its effective Hamiltonian can be diagonalized with fixed slowly changing variables. We then establish validity and invalidity conditions for this approximation for two types of dissipations—the spin relaxation and the dissipation of center-of-mass motion. As an example, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for a two-level open system is analyzed.

X. L. Huang and X. X. Yi

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

92

Validity of several approximations for the turbulent buoyant jet in a stagnant neutrally-stratified ambient  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of approximations are usually made in deriving integral model equations for the dispersion of a round turbulent buoyant jet into a stagnant neutrally-stratified ambient fluid. The magnitudes of differences in model predictions caused by making four of these approximations are calculated as a function of the initial densimetric Froude number and the initial relative density difference. The four approximations studied are (1) the Boussinesq approximation, (2) the use of a common Gaussian width for both mean axial velocity and mean temperature (or concentration) excess, (3) the neglect of fluctuation-correlation terms, and (4) the assumption of a linear relationship between excess density and excess temperature (or concentration). The four approximations are studied singly and then cumulatively as the predictions of the two models, one with and one without all approximations, are compared to seven low Froude number data cases. Results show that the Boussinesq approximation produces percentage differences in predictions which are about half of the initial relative density difference expressed in percentage. Use of a common Gaussian width for velocity and temperature produces differences from 6% to 30% depending on the entrainment assumption used. Fluctuation correlation effects rarely exceed 8%. Lastly, at Froude numbers below about 10 the correct nonlinear equation of state must often be used for heated waste jets to acheive accurate results, and the correct air equation of state may also be needed for low Froude number heated air jets, depending on the initial diameter and velocity.

Ponce, T.C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Rotary magnetic heat pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

Kirol, L.D.

1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Thulium-170 heat source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

1990-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

95

Thulium-170 heat source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Heat Treating Apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

De Saro, Robert (Annandale, NJ); Bateman, Willis (Sutton Colfield, GB)

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

97

Radiative heating of the ISCCP upper level cloud regimes and its impact on the large-scale tropical circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative heating of the ISCCP upper level cloud regimes and its impact on the large-scale tropical 2012; accepted 14 December 2012; published 31 January 2013. [1] Radiative heating profiles. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating

98

Solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An evacuated double-tubing solar heat collector is described comprising: an inner tube having an open end and a closed end; a selective absorption film applied over an exterior surface of the inner tube; an outer tube having an open end and a closed end; the inner tube being constructed to be received within the outer tube; and a substantially continuous annular coil spring ring being substantially found in cross section and of a predetermined thickness. The coil spring ring is disposed between and engages an interior surface of the outer tube and the exterior surface of the inner tube for spacing and resiliently supporting the inner tube relative to the outer tube. The ring is freely rotatably positioned to be moved axially along the length of the inner tube due only to frictional forces exerted on the coil spring. The coil spring ring is positioned on the inner tube at approximately a middle position along the length of the inner tube by being initially positioned on the inner tube adjacent to the closed end thereof and rotated upon itself axially along the inner tube only by frictional engagement with the interior surface of the outer tube as the inner tube is inserted into the open end of the outer tube and moved to a fully inserted position within the outer tube. The open end of the inner tube and the open end of the outer tube are fused to form a junction and hermetically sealed.

Takeuchi, H.; Mikiya, T.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

CharacteristicGalerkin and Mixed Finite Element Approximation of Contamination by Compressible  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characteristic­Galerkin and Mixed Finite Element Approximation of Contamination by Compressible­disposal contamination in porous media is modeled by a coupled system of partial differential equations for the brine, radionuclides, and heat and by a mixed finite element method for the pressure and velocity

Chou, So-Hsiang

100

Delivery Cost Approximations for Inventory Routing Problems in a Rolling Horizon Framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Delivery Cost Approximations for Inventory Routing Problems in a Rolling Horizon Framework Patrick Research Program, grant ARP-003 1 #12;Abstract The inventory routing problem considered in this paper is concerned with the repeated distribution of a commodity, such as heating oil, over a long period of time

Jaillet, Patrick

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Force approximation for a plasma actuator operating in atmospheric air Kunwar Pal Singh and Subrata Roya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Force approximation for a plasma actuator operating in atmospheric air Kunwar Pal Singh and Subrata to the actuator, dielectric heating, and power required to maintain the atmospheric pressure plasma during Roya Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory and Test Facility, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace

Roy, Subrata

102

Thermoelectric heat exchange element  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

103

The Observer Algorithm for Visibility Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

other algorithms do. We test this algorithm in several settings: rural, mountainous and urban areasThe Observer Algorithm for Visibility Approximation Per-Magnus OLSSON a and Patrick DOHERTY present a novel algorithm for visibility approximation that is sub- stantially faster than ray casting

Doherty, Patrick

104

APPROXIMATE TAXI FARES From Midway -$35  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPROXIMATE TAXI FARES From Midway - $35 From O'Hare - $60 From Downtown - $35 MIDWAY Midway International Airport is approximately eight miles west of the University of Chicago campus. Midway is easily transportation, shuttle, car, and taxi. FROM MIDWAY AIRPORT Follow the airport signs to the CTA Orange Line

Issa, Naoum

105

Optimal Tree Approximation with Wavelets Richard Baraniuk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simply represented: the energy from a singularity localizes along one branch of the tree (see Figure 1Optimal Tree Approximation with Wavelets Richard Baraniuk Department of Electrical and Computer on trees and point out that an optimal tree approximant exists and is easily computed. The optimal tree

106

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis Yiyu Yao and Yaohua Chen Department of Computer}@cs.uregina.ca Abstract. A basic notion shared by rough set analysis and formal concept anal- ysis is the definability to each other based on defin- ability. In this paper, the notion of rough set approximations is introduced

Yao, Yiyu

107

Heat Integrate Heat Engines in Process Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and refrigeration systems. In many instances these real heat engines may appear as a complex process consisting of flash vessels, heat exchangers, compressors, furnaces, etc. See Figure 18a, which shows a simplified diagram of a "steam Rankine cycle." How... and rejection profiles of the real machine. For example, the heat acceptance and re jection profiles for the steam Rankine cycle shown in Figure 18a have been drawn on T,H coordinates in Figure 18b. Thus providing we know the heat acceptance and rejection...

Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.; Townsend, D. W.

108

Neutron imaging of alkali metal heat pipes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature heat pipes are two-phase, capillary driven heat transfer devices capable of passively providing high thermal fluxes. Such a device using a liquid-metal coolant can be used as a solution for successful thermal management on hypersonic flight vehicles. Imaging of the liquid-metal coolant inside will provide valuable information in characterizing the detailed heat and mass transport. Neutron imaging possesses an inherent advantage from the fact that neutrons penetrate the heat pipe metal walls with very little attenuation, but are significantly attenuated by the liquid metal contained inside. Using the BT-2 beam line at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, preliminary efforts have been conducted on a nickel-sodium heat pipe. The contrast between the attenuated beam and the background is calculated to be approximately 3%. This low contrast requires sacrifice in spatial or temporal resolution so efforts have since been concentrated on lithium (Li) which has a substantially larger neutron attenuation cross section. Using the CG-1D beam line at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the first neutron images of high-temperature molybdenum (Mo)-Li heat pipes have been achieved. The relatively high neutron cross section of Li allows for the visualization of the Li working fluid inside the heat pipes. The evaporator region of a gravity assisted cylindrical heat pipe prototype 25 cm long was imaged from start-up to steady state operation up to approximately 900 C. In each corner of the square bore inside, the capillary action raises the Li meniscus above the bulk Li pool in the evaporator region. As the operational temperature changes, the meniscus shapes and the bulk meniscus height also changes. Furthermore, a three-dimensional tomographic image is also reconstructed from the total of 128 projection images taken 1.4o apart in which the Li had already cooled and solidified.

Kihm, Ken [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kirchoff, Eric [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Golden, Matt [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rosenfeld, J. [Thermacore Inc.; Rawal, S. [Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company; Pratt, D. [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Walker, Lakeisha MH [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

ACCURATE CALCULATIONS OF HEAT RELEASE IN FIRES S. Brohez', C. Delvosalle', G. Marlair2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

values of the heat of combustion per unit mass of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide generated are used calorimetry states that heat of complete combustion per unit mass of oxygen consumed is approximately constant an average value of the heat of combustion to be 13.1 Id per gram of oxygen consumed with a ± 5% variation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in rotor-stator cavities with throughflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in rotor-stator cavities with throughflow S in a rotor-stator cavity subjected to a superimposed throughflow with heat transfer. Nu- merical predictions field from the heat transfer process. The turbulent flux is approximated by a gradient hypothesis

Boyer, Edmond

111

Heating Cooling Flows with Weak Shock Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The discovery of extended, approximately spherical weak shock waves in the hot intercluster gas in Perseus and Virgo has precipitated the notion that these waves may be the primary heating process that explains why so little gas cools to low temperatures. This type of heating has received additional support from recent gasdynamical models. We show here that outward propagating, dissipating waves deposit most of their energy near the center of the cluster atmosphere. Consequently, if the gas is heated by (intermittent) weak shocks for several Gyrs, the gas within 30-50 kpc is heated to temperatures that far exceed observed values. This heating can be avoided if dissipating shocks are sufficiently infrequent or weak so as not to be the primary source of global heating. Local PV and viscous heating associated with newly formed X-ray cavities are likely to be small, which is consistent with the low gas temperatures generally observed near the centers of groups and clusters where the cavities are located.

W. G. Mathews; A. Faltenbacher; F. Brighenti

2005-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

112

Data:9aad155d-b651-461f-b3a6-424e63661599 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

aad155d-b651-461f-b3a6-424e63661599 aad155d-b651-461f-b3a6-424e63661599 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Auburn Board of Public Works Effective date: 2012/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rural Electric Space Heating(Three Phase-Summer) Sector: Commercial Description: To customers outside the corporate limits of the city of Auburn, NE as a rider to the General Service or Demand Service where only electric heating, cooling, and electric water heating, and associated equipment are connected as a separate service. Source or reference: http://auburnbpw.com/wp-content/files/2012_Electric_Rates.pdf

113

Heat transfer system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Wound tube heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

116

Solar heating for indoor community swimming pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project demonstrates the application of solar technology to an existing public indoor swimming pool. An application makes use of a new type of solar collector material called SolaRoll. The pool water is cycled through collectors made of the material mounted on the pool's dome roof, reducing reliance on natural gas and fuel oil. Approximately 60% of the energy to heat pool water will be provided. The specific objective of the project is to reduce reliance on natural gas and fuel oil consumption used to heat the community's pool and in so doing provide an example for residential applications.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A deep-water approximation of the Stokes drift velocity profile is explored as an alternative to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profile investigated relies on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, namely, the ...

Øyvind Breivik; Peter A. E. M. Janssen; Jean-Raymond Bidlot

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Quasiclassical Approximation for Slow Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Approximation for Slow Neutron Scattering Takeo Nishigori Department...formula for the differential scattering cross section of a slow neutron is derived along the line...of Spherical Rotors and Neutron Scattering Juichiro Hama and Tuto......

Takeo Nishigori

1970-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Rough Approximate Operators: Axiomatic Rough Set Theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In rough set theory, the upper and lower approximations are ... are two abstract operators acting on the power set of U, the universe of discourse. ... The proof is an easy application of point set topology. Simi...

T. Y. Lin; Qing Liu

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

On the Born-Oppenheimer approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the validity of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for molecular levels. It is shown...1/4...and prescriptions are given for their calculation. In particular to fourth order some adiabatic corrections ...

J. M. Combes

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

NONLINEAR APPROXIMATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE CALCULATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NONLINEAR APPROXIMATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE CALCULATIONS G. BEYLKIN AND T. S. HAUT Abstract. We present a new method for electronic structure calculations based on novel algorithms for nonlinear numerical calculus suitable for electronic structure calculations. For any spatial orbital

Beylkin, Gregory

122

Approximate inference in Gaussian graphical models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The focus of this thesis is approximate inference in Gaussian graphical models. A graphical model is a family of probability distributions in which the structure of interactions among the random variables is captured by a ...

Malioutov, Dmitry M., 1981-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

A fresh look at the adhesion approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I report on a systematic derivation of the phenomenological ``adhesion approximation'' from gravitational instability together with a brief evaluation of the related status of analytical modeling of large-scale structure.

Thomas Buchert

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

124

Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Geothermal Technologies Office focuses only on electricity generation. For additional information about geothermal heating and cooling and ground source heat pumps, please visit the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Buildings Technologies Office.

125

HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

Lenert, Andrej

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Residential heating oil price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.10 from a year ago, based on the...

127

Residential heating oil price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to 2.84 per gallon. That's down 1.22 from a year ago, based on the...

128

Residential heating oil price  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.97 per gallon. That's down 1.05 from a year ago, based on the...

129

Residential heating oil price  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to 3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the...

130

MA HEAT Loan Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

131

Ductless Heat Pumps  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Heaters Showerheads Residential Weatherization Performance Tested Comfort Systems Ductless Heat Pumps New Construction Residential Marketing Toolkit Retail Sales...

132

Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Heaters Showerheads Residential Weatherization Performance Tested Comfort Systems Ductless Heat Pumps New Construction Residential Marketing Toolkit Retail Sales...

133

Solar heat receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

134

Electric resistive space heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cost of heating residential buildings using electricity is compared to the cost employing gas or oil. (AIP)

David Bodansky

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

Fosco, Cesar D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina) [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA (Argentina)] [Argentina; Mazzitelli, Francisco D., E-mail: fdmazzi@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Extended quasiparticle approximation and Brueckner theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The time-dependent Green’s function method provides a basic theory for nuclear dynamics and heavy-ion collisions. The spectral function plays an important role in this theory containing information on correlations in the medium. These are usually neglected by using a quasiparticle approximation. In order to evaluate this particular approach it is important to establish in the static limit a link between this method and other traditional nuclear many-body theories such as the Brueckner approach. Using a self-consistent T-matrix approximation for the self-energy in the Green’s-function approach, treating particles and holes on equal footing, the self-energy can be obtained and compared with the Brueckner expression. In the quasiparticle limit it contains terms up to and analogous to the Brueckner second order rearrangement energy. In an extended quasiparticle approximation (EQP) which does not violate the sum rule for the spectral function the Brueckner third-order rearrangement energy can also be reproduced. The latter approximation constitutes a bridge between the Brueckner and Green’s-function methods. It assumes small absorption (and energy dependence) of the mean field. Some numerical estimates of the different approximation schemes that we discuss are shown. An iteration scheme for applying the EQP approximation is suggested.

H. S. Köhler and Rudi Malfliet

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Heat Transfer Guest Editorial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

Kandlikar, Satish

139

Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acoustic Heating Peter Ulmschneider lnstitut fiir Theoretische Astrophysik der Universitat waves are a viable and prevalent heating mechanism both in early- and in late-type stars. Acoustic heating appears to be a dominant mechanism for situations where magnetic fields are weak or absent

Ulmschneider, Peter

140

Ammoniated salt heat pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat.

Haas, W.R.; Jaeger, F.J.; Giordano, T.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Pioneering Heat Pump Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

142

DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Announces Award of a Contract to Repurchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve July 23, 2008 - 2:15pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced the award of a contract to Hess Corporation for the delivery of approximately 808,625 gallons (approximately 19,250 barrels) of home heating oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR). The purchased oil is expected to be delivered to the Hess First Reserve terminal at Perth Amboy, NJ in New York Harbor later this week. The award resulted from a solicitation issued on June 23, 2008, to repurchase heating oil using $3 million in funds appropriated after the

143

Heat deliverability of homogeneous geothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the last two decades, the petroleum industry has been successfully using simple inflow performance relationships (IPR's) to predict oil deliverability. In contrast, the geothermal industry lacked a simple and reliable method to estimate geothermal wells' heat deliverability. To address this gap in the standard geothermal-reservoir-assessment arsenal, we developed generalized dimensionless geothermal inflow performance relationships (GIPR's). These ''reference curves'' may be regarded as an approximate general solution of the equations describing the practically important case of radial 2-phase inflow. Based on this approximate solution, we outline a straightforward approach to estimate the reservoir contribution to geothermal wells heat and mass deliverability for 2-phase reservoirs. This approach is far less costly and in most cases as reliable as numerically modeling the reservoir, which is the alternative for 2-phase inflow.

Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Moya, Sara L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Home Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Home Heating Everything you need to know about home heating, including how heating systems work, the different types on the market and proper maintenance. Read more Thermostats...

145

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Energy Saver Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs....

146

Microsoft Word - P450-2A6.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Highlight -November 2005 Figure 1. Stereo views of σ A -weighted 2|Fo|-|Fc| composite omit electron density maps contoured at 1σ and rendered within 1 Å of the heme and substrate for the P450 2A6 (a) coumarin or (b) methoxsalen complexes. Coumarin and methoxsalen are stabilized by hydrogen bonding with Asn297, which places the carbon atom to be oxidized 3.2 ± 0.13 Å (coumarin) or 3.8 ± 0.09 Å (methoxsalen) from the heme iron. The distances are shown as a red dotted line and the values quoted for distances are the mean and standard deviation for the four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The peptide backbone is represented as a thin gray coil, and side chains are rendered as stick figures with the following colors for atoms: carbons are colored gray for the

147

Calculations of Heat-Capacities of Adsorbates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 14, NUMBER 7 1 OCTOBER 1976 Calculations of heat capacities of adsorbates W. R. Lawrence and R. E. Allen Department of Physics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (Received 2 September 1975) The phonon... the substrate has a perfect (100) surface and the adsorbate goes down as a solid monolayer in registry with the substrate. The quasiharmonic approximation was used, and the results for Ne adsorbates were considerably different from those obtained...

LAWRENCE, WR; Allen, Roland E.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Residential Heating Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and This chart highlights residential heating oil prices for the current and past heating season. As you can see, prices have started the heating season, about 40 to 50 cents per gallon higher than last year at this time. The data presented are from EIA's State Heating Oil and Propane Program. We normally collect and publish this data twice a month, but given the low stocks and high prices, we started tracking the prices weekly. These data will also be used to determine the price trigger mechanism for the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve. The data are published at a State and regional level on our web site. The slide is to give you some perspective of what is happening in these markets, since you probably will get a number of calls from local residents about their heating fuels bills

149

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Nanofluid heat capacities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-? olefin mineral oil ethylene glycol a mixture of water and ethylene glycol and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate) and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

Anne K. Starace; Judith C. Gomez; Jun Wang; Sulolit Pradhan; Greg C. Glatzmaier

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger.… (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Including radiative heat transfer and reaction quenching in modeling a Claus plant waste heat boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to increasingly stringent sulfur emission regulations, improvements are necessary in the modified Claus process. A recently proposed model by Nasato et al. for the Claus plant waste heat boiler (WHB) is improved by including radiative heat transfer, which yields significant changes in the predicted heat flux and the temperature profile along the WHB tube, leading to a faster quenching of chemical reactions. For the WHB considered, radiation accounts for approximately 20% of the heat transferred by convection alone. More importantly, operating the WHB at a higher gas mass flux is shown to enhance reaction quenching, resulting in a doubling of the predicted hydrogen flow rate. This increase in hydrogen flow rate is sufficient to completely meet the hydrogen requirement of the H[sub 2]S recovery process considered, which would eliminate the need for a hydrogen plant.

Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Behie, L.A. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

Xing, Lu [Oklahoma State University; Cullin, James [Oklahoma State University; Spitler, Jeffery [Oklahoma State University; Im, Piljae [ORNL; Fisher, Daniel [Oklahoma State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PERFORMANCE OF A STIRLING ENGINE POWERED HEAT ACTIVATED HEAT PUMP W. D. C. Richards and W. L. Auxer General Electric Company Space Division King of Prussia, Pa. ABSTRACT A heat activated heat pump (HAHP for space heating since it directly utilizes the engine waste heat in addition to the energy obtained

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

155

Approximating European Options by Rebate Barrier Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When the underlying stock price is a strict local martingale process under an equivalent local martingale measure, Black-Scholes PDE associated with an European option may have multiple solutions. In this paper, we study an approximation for the smallest hedging price of such an European option. Our results show that a class of rebate barrier options can be used for this approximation, when its rebate and barrier are chosen appropriately. An asymptotic convergence rate is also achieved when the knocked-out barrier moves to infinity under suitable conditions.

Song, Qingshuo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Stochastic Approximation and Its Application in MCMC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) is known as observational noise, which is de ned as follows: t+1 = H t+1( t; xt+1) h t+1( t); In 1951, Robin and Monro introduced the so-called Robbins - Monro algorithm (1951) to solve the integration equation and the algorithm works as follows...: Algorithm 1.1.1. Stochastic Approximation 1 a. Generate Xt+1 g t(x), where t indexes the iteration. b. Set t+1 = t + atH( t; Xt+1), where at is the gain factor. This Robbins a^ Monro algorithm is the most popular stochastic approximation method used...

Cheng, Yichen

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Heat pump system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

159

Fluidized bed heat treating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

160

Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

Pablo Rodriguez-Lopez; Wang-Kong Tse; Diego A. R. Dalvit

2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Flameless heat generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A heating device generates heat by working a liquid in a closed container with a rotating stack of finely perforate square plates and recovering the heat from the thus heated liquid. In one embodiment a stack of a multiplicity of flat square plates radially offset one from another is rotated in an oil bath in a container under an inner perforate non-rotating cover over which is a similar non-rotating cover that is imperforate. The thermal energy developed through the mechanical working of the liquid is transferred to the main liquid bath and is then removed, as for example, by circulating air or a liquid around the outside of the container with the thus heated air or liquid being used to heat a house or the like.

Leary, C. L.; Leary, G. C.

1983-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

162

APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR CLUSTERING A Dissertation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

develop new algorithmic techniques that will find application in a wide range of settings. We consider problems such as the stochastic versions of the set cover, vertex cover, and facility location problemsAPPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR CLUSTERING PROBLEMS A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty

Swamy, Chaitanya

163

Symbolic Test Selection Based on Approximate Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Symbolic Test Selection Based on Approximate Analysis Bertrand Jeannet, Thierry J´eron, Vlad Rusu}@irisa.fr Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of generating symbolic test cases for testing the conformance. The challenge we consider is the selection of test cases according to a test purpose, which is here a set

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Approximate Relational Reasoning by Stochastic Propositionalization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Approximate Relational Reasoning by Stochastic Propositionalization Nicola Di Mauro, Teresa M fold recognition Nicola Di Mauro · Teresa M.A. Basile · Stefano Ferilli · Floriana Esposito Department.com c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 #12;82 N. Di Mauro et al. and drug design are relational

Di Mauro, Nicola

165

Correcting the diffusion approximation at the boundary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2011 The diffusion approximation to the radiative transport equation applies for light that has solutions of the radiative transport equation to evaluate each of their accuracy. Nonetheless, nearly all transport equation · I þ aI þ sLI ¼ 0; ð1:1� governs continuous light propagation in tissues [1

Kim, Arnold D.

166

Approximating the Permanent with Belief Propagation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, then use Bethe free energy to approximate this partition function. After deriving some speedups to standard, not to mention relatively high polynomial running times that discourage their usage in practical applications-connected networks such as trees. In certain special loopy graph cases, including graphs with a single loop

Huang, Bert

167

Approximated Distributions of Sampling Inequality Indices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Often, in finite samples, the true level of the confidence intervals for natural estimators of inequality indices belonging to the Gini family differs greatly from their nominal level, which is based on the asymptotic confidence limits. This paper ... Keywords: Gini index family, Gram-Charlier approximation, Monte Carlo experiment, algebraic computer software, income distribution

Paola Palmitesta; Corrado Provasi; Cosimo Spera

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Approximate Inference and Protein-Folding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Approximate Inference and Protein-Folding Chen Yanover and Yair Weiss School of Computer Science Side-chain prediction is an important subtask in the protein-folding problem. We show that #12;nding algorithms, including a widely used protein-folding software (SCWRL). 1 Introduction Inference in graphical

Weiss, Yair

169

Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Management Options Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases - combustion products - Temperature from 300 deg. F. to 3000 deg.F. * Radiation-Convection heat loss - From temperature source of 500 deg. F. to 2500 deg. F. * Sensible-latent heat in heated product - From temperature 400 deg. F. to 2200 deg. F. * Cooling water or other liquids - Temperature from 100 deg. F. to 180 deg. F.

170

Mechanical Compression Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MECHANICAL COMPRESSION HEAT PUMPS Thomas-L. Apaloo and K. Kawamura Mycom Corporation, Los Angeles, California J. Matsuda, Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Mechanical compression heat pumping is not new in industrial applications.... In fact, industry history suggests that the theoretical concept was developed before 1825. Heat pump manufacturers gained the support of consultants and end-users when the energy crisis hit this country in 1973. That interest, today, has been...

Apaloo, T. L.; Kawamura, K.; Matsuda, J.

171

Sorption heat engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a simple free energy generating device - driven by thermal cycling and based on alternating adsorption and desorption - that has not been explicitly recognized as heat engine the name sorption heat engine is proposed. The mechanism is generally applicable to the fields of physics, chemistry, geology, and possibly, if relevant to the origin of life, biology. Four kinds of sorption heat engines are distinguished depending on the occurrence of changes in composition of the adsorbent or adsorbate during the thermal cycle.

Muller, A W J; Muller, Anthonie W. J.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Tests of Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation With a Mixed-Layer Ocean Model  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tests of Monte Carlo Independent Column Tests of Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation With a Mixed-Layer Ocean Model Petri Simo Järvenoja Heikki Järvinen Räisänen Finnish Meteorological Institute Figure 1. Root-mean-square sampling errors in local instant- aneous total (LW+SW) net flux at the surface and total radiative heating rate for the 1COL, CLDS, and REF approaches. Global rms values are given at the upper right hand corner of the plots. 1. Introduction The Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation (McICA) separates the description of unresolved cloud structure from the radiative transfer solver very flexible ! unbiased with respect to ICA ! However, the radiative fluxes and heating rates contain conditional random errors ("McICA noise"). ? The topic of this poster: All previous tests of McICA

173

Combined Heat and Power  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

energy costs and 31 emissions while also providing more resilient and reliable electric power and thermal energy 1 . CHP 32 systems combine the production of heat (for both...

174

Waste Heat Recovery  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the TechnologySystem ......

175

Solar Heating in Uppsala.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The housing corporation Uppsalahem has installed asolar heating system in the neighbourhood Haubitsen,which was renovated in 2011. This report examineshow much energy the solar… (more)

Blomqvist, Emelie; Häger, Klara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Solar heating in Colombia.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This report describes the process of a thesis implemented in Colombia concerning solar energy. The project was to install a self-circulating solar heating system,… (more)

Skytt, Johanna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of building integrated photovoltaics on microclimateof a building's integrated-photovoltaics on heating a n dgaps for building- integrated photovoltaics, Solar Energy

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Passive solar space heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

Balcomb, J.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Combined Heat & Power  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

available today." -American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy What is Combined Heat & Power (CHP)? Federal Utility Partnership Working Group May 7 - 8, 2014 Virginia...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Heat rejection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Heat transfer dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As heat transfer technology increases in complexity, it becomes more difficult for those without thermal dynamics engineering training to choose between competitive heat transfer systems offered to meet their drying requirements. A step back to the basics of heat transfer can help professional managers and papermakers make informed decisions on alternative equipment and methods. The primary forms of heat and mass transfer are reviewed with emphasis on the basics, so a practical understanding of each is gained. Finally, the principles and benefits of generating infrared energy by combusting a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel are explained.

Smith, T.M. (Marsden, Inc., Pennsauken, NJ (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ListAtmospheric Heat Budget Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About...

184

Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including air-source; geothermal; ductless, mini-split; and absorption heat pumps. Learn more about the different options and how to use your heat pump efficiently to save money and energy at home. Featured Heat Pump Systems A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

185

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Waste Heat Recovery from Industrial Process Heating Equipment - Cross-cutting Research and Development Priorities Speaker(s): Sachin Nimbalkar Date: January 17, 2013 - 11:00am Location: 90-2063 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Aimee McKane Waste heat is generated from several industrial systems used in manufacturing. The waste heat sources are distributed throughout a plant. The largest source for most industries is exhaust / flue gases or heated air from heating systems. This includes the high temperature gases from burners in process heating, lower temperature gases from heat treat, dryers, and heaters, heat from heat exchangers, cooling liquids and gases etc. The previous studies and direct contact with the industry as well as equipment suppliers have shown that a large amount of waste heat is not

186

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ........................... 1,870 1,276 322 138 133 43.0 29.4 7.4 3.2 3.1 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 243 151 34 40 18 78.7 48.9 11.1 13.0 5.7 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 202 139 31 29 Q 54.8 37.6 8.5 7.9 Q 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 300 240 31 21 7 42.5 34.1 4.4 3.0 1.1 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 250 182 40 11 Q 41.5 30.2 6.6 1.9 Q 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 236 169 41 8 19 35.4 25.2 6.2 1.2 2.8 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 241 165 54 7 16 36.3 24.8 8.1 1.0 2.4 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 199 130 42 11 16 35.0 22.8 7.5 1.9 2.8 Over 500,000 ............................. 198

187

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ............................. 2,037 1,378 338 159 163 42.0 28.4 7.0 3.3 3.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 249 156 35 41 18 78.6 49.1 11.0 12.9 5.6 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 218 147 32 31 7 54.8 37.1 8.1 7.9 1.7 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 343 265 34 25 18 43.8 33.9 4.4 3.2 2.3 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 270 196 41 13 Q 40.9 29.7 6.3 2.0 2.9 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 269 186 45 13 24 35.8 24.8 6.0 1.8 3.2 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 267 182 56 10 19 35.4 24.1 7.4 1.3 2.6 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 204 134 43 11 17 34.7 22.7 7.3 1.8 2.9 Over 500,000 .............................

188

Steady response to heating: Gaussian heat source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+ prescribed latent heating => "Matsuno-Gill model" Moisture equation for precipitation term ¡ Can make. of Equatorial Waves Filter out "background spectrum": ¡ Can see all different wave types! Especially Kelvin #12;Equatorial Waves Alternative theory for wave speed: ¡ Higher vertical mode structure causes phase

Frierson, Dargan

189

Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of Heat Transfer 2003: ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference Las Vegas, Nevada, USA July 21-23, 2003 HT2003-47449 HEAT TRANSFER FROM A MOVING AND EVAPORATING MENISCUS ON A HEATED SURFACE meniscus with complete evaporation of water without any meniscus break-up. The experimental heat transfer

Kandlikar, Satish

190

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Microchannel heat sink assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

195

Heat Requirements of Buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... and Ventilating Engineers in a publication entitled “Recommendations for the Computation of Heat Requirements for Buildings” (Pp. iii+41. Is. 9d.) This comprises a section of the ... parts. That on temperature-rise and rates of change gives the recommended values applicable to buildings ranging alphabetically from aircraft sheds to warehouses. The design of heating and ventilating installations ...

1942-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Vibrational Superposition States Without Rotating Wave Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a scheme to generate superpositions of coherent states for the vibrational motion of a laser cooled trapped-ion. It is based on the interaction with a standing wave making use of the counter-rotating terms, i.e. not applying the rotating wave approximation. We also show that the same scheme can be exploited for quantum state measurement, i.e. with the same scheme non-classical states may be reconstructed

Mancini, S; Tombesi, P

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Limit theorems for stochastic approximation algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove a central limit theorem applicable to one dimensional stochastic approximation algorithms that converge to a point where the error terms of the algorithm do not vanish. We show how this applies to a certain class of these algorithms that in particular covers a generalized P\\'olya urn model, which is also discussed. In addition, we show how to scale these algorithms in some cases where we cannot determine the limiting distribution but expect it to be non-normal.

Renlund, Henrik

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Covering based approximation – a new type approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rough set theory, proposed by Pawlak is termed as basic (traditional) rough set theory and it has been extended in many directions. Covering based rough set is one of the extensions of the basic rough set theory. A covering is a generalisation of notion of partitioned rough set (Pawalk rough set) introduced by W. Zakowski. In this article it is introduced a new type of covering-based rough set in which both lower and upper approximation operators are improved.

Debadutta Mohanty

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Automating Logic Rectification by Approximate SPFDs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the digital VLSI cycle, a netlist is often modified to correct design errors, perform small specification changes or implement incremental rewiring-based optimization operations. Most existing automated logic rectification tools use a small set of ... Keywords: SAT-based algorithm, approximate SPFD, digital VLSI cycle, design errors, incremental rewiring-based optimization operations, automated logic rectification tools, predefined logic transformations, memory/time explosion problem

Yu-Shen Yang; S. Sinha; A. Veneris; R. K. Brayton

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Comparison of Numerical and Analytical Solutions of Heat Equation in R1n  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Example Analytical Calculation of Heat Equation in 1-D 4 4 2-D Matrix Methods for Numerical Approximations Bibliography 11 8 Appendices 11 8.1 Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8.2 Matlab Code

Marzuola, Jeremy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Comparison of Heating Methods for In-Situ Oil Shale Extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil shales are lamellar, non-porous, impermeable hydrocarbon bearing rocks that contain organic matter called kerogen which, when heated at pyrolysis temperature of approximately 600-800 ?, thermo-chemically decomposes to liberate hydrocarbons...

Hazra, Kaushik Gaurav

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

202

Solar heating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

Schreyer, James M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Concord, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate for dense plasmas in laser fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a theoretical analysis of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate in the eikonal approximation. The present analysis is performed for a dense plasma using the screened electron-ion interaction potential for the ion charge state Z{sub i} = 1 and for both the weak and strong plasma screening cases. We have also compared the eikonal results with the first Born approximation (FBA) [M. Moll et al., New J. Phys. 14, 065010 (2012)] calculation. We find that the magnitudes of inverse bremsstrahlung heating rate within the eikonal approximation (EA) are larger than the FBA values in the weak screening case (? = 0.03 a.u.) in a wide range of field strength for three different initial electron momenta (2, 3, and 4 a.u.). But for strong screening case (? = 0.3 a.u.), the heating rates predicted by the two approximations do not differ much after reaching their maximum values. Furthermore, the individual contribution of photoemission and photoabsorption processes to heating rate is analysed for both the weak and strong screening cases. We find that the single photoemission and photoabsorption rates are the same throughout the field strength while the multiphoton absorption process dominates over the multiphoton emission process beyond the field strength ? 4×10{sup 8} V/cm. The present study of the dependence of heating rate on the screening parameter ranging from 0.01 to 20 shows that whereas the heating rate predicted by the EA is greater than the FBA up to the screening parameter ? = 0.3 a.u., the two approximation methods yield results which are nearly identical beyond the above value.

Dey, R. [D-203, Samruddhi Residency, Motera, Ahmedabad-380009, Gujarat (India)] [D-203, Samruddhi Residency, Motera, Ahmedabad-380009, Gujarat (India); Roy, A. C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711202, West Bengal (India)] [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711202, West Bengal (India)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

VISCOSITY AND RELAXATION APPROXIMATIONS FOR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VISCOSITY AND RELAXATION APPROXIMATIONS FOR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS deal with the approximation of conservation * *laws via viscosity or relaxation. The following topics are covered: The general structure of viscosity and relaxation approximations is discu

Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

205

Nonlinear adaptive control using radial basis function approximants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this research is to present an adaptive control strategy using the radial basis function approximation method. Surface approximation methods using radial basis function approximants will first be discussed. The Hamiltonian dynamical...

Petersen, Jerry Lee

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Knapsack Problems with Sigmoid Utilities: Approximation Algorithms via Hybrid Optimization$  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Knapsack Problems with Sigmoid Utilities: Approximation Algorithms via Hybrid Optimization$ Vaibhav with sigmoid utilities. We merge approximation algorithms from discrete optimization with algorithms from continuous optimization to develop approximation algorithms for these NP-hard problems with sigmoid utilities

Bullo, Francesco

207

Radiant Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Radiant Heating Radiant Heating Radiant Heating June 24, 2012 - 5:52pm Addthis In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to panels in the wall or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer -- the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating.

208

Radiant Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Radiant Heating Radiant Heating Radiant Heating June 24, 2012 - 5:52pm Addthis In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to panels in the wall or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer -- the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating.

209

Collective Modes in a Superfluid Neutron Gas within the Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study collective excitations in a superfluid neutron gas at zero temperature within the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The particle-hole residual interaction is obtained from a Skyrme functional, while a separable interaction is used in the pairing channel which gives a realistic density dependence of the pairing gap. In accordance with the Goldstone theorem, we find an ungapped collective mode (analogous to the Bogoliubov-Anderson mode). At low momentum, its dispersion relation is approximately linear and its slope coincides with the hydrodynamic speed of sound calculated with the Skyrme equation of state. The response functions are compared with those obtained within the Landau approximation. We also compute the contribution of the collective mode to the specific heat of the neutron gas, which is relevant for the thermodynamic properties of the inner crust of neutron stars.

Noël Martin; Michael Urban

2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

210

Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting August 14, 2013 - 1:39pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's efforts to reduce energy bills for American families and businesses and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Energy Department today announced 12 projects to develop innovative heating, cooling and insulation technologies as well as open source energy efficiency software to help homes and commercial buildings save energy and money. These projects will receive an approximately $11 million Energy Department investment, matched by about $1 million in private sector funding. "Energy efficient technologies - from improved heating and cooling

211

The Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation’s Conditional Random Noise: Impact on Simulated Climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation (McICA) method for computing domain-average radiative fluxes is unbiased with respect to the full ICA, but its flux estimates contain conditional random noise. Results for five experiments are used ...

P. Räisänen; H. W. Barker; J. N. S. Cole

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Heat-Of-Reaction Chemical Heat Pumps--Possible Configurations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-807. (5) K. Kesavan. The Use of Dissociating Gases As the Working Fluid in Thermodynamic Power Conversion Cycles, Ph.D. thesis. Carnegie-Mellon University, 1978, Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1978. 5. Heat amplifier with a gas...ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilize working fluids which undergo reversible chemical changes. Mechanically driven reactive heat pump cycles or, alternatively, hl~a: driven heat pumps in which either heat engine or heat pump working fluid...

Kirol, L. D.

213

Chemical heat pump cools as well as heats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical heat pump cools as well as heats ... Innovative heat pump uses methanol refrigerant, calcium chloride absorber to use and store solar energy for heating, air conditioning, hot water ... Though the EIC heat pump is similar in concept to other chemical heat pumps now being used or developed, it does offer a number of innovations, not the least of which are its novel refrigerant (methanol) and absorption medium (calcium chloride). ...

RON DAGANI

1980-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

214

Integrating preconcentrator heat controller  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Arakaki, Lester H. (Edgewood, NM); Varley, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

215

City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility City of Klamath...

216

PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified...

217

Data:60981b12-829b-446d-a6d1-30439d8a0608 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1b12-829b-446d-a6d1-30439d8a0608 1b12-829b-446d-a6d1-30439d8a0608 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Columbus Southern Power Co Effective date: 2012/03/09 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Small Use Load Management Service(Storage Water Heating Energy Charge) Sector: Residential Description: Storage Water Heating Provision: Availability of this provision is limited to those customers served under this provision as of December 31, 2000. If the customer installs a Company approved storage water heating system which consumes electrical energy only during off-peak hours as specified by the Company and stores hot water for use during on-peak hours, the following shall apply: (a) For minimum capacity of 80 gallons, the last 300 KWH of use in any month shall be billed at the storage water heating energy charge. (Schedule Code 020).

218

Data:020e9ff7-9bc8-4947-aae1-3d6ed8607a6e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ff7-9bc8-4947-aae1-3d6ed8607a6e ff7-9bc8-4947-aae1-3d6ed8607a6e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Grand Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 2012/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule CDF - Commercial Dual Fuel Service Sector: Commercial Description: This efficient system is capable of heating an entire structure or house. Available for use of electricity for electric heating by commercial establishments, churches, schools, fire halls, community halls, township halls, and similar type consumers with a fully automatic, full requirement fossil fuel back-up heating system, and provided that the electric heat use is metered separately from other uses of electricity.

219

Heat treatment furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

220

Molecular heat pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a novel molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation waveforms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

Dvira Segal; Abraham Nitzan

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Heat storage with CREDA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principle of operation of ETS or Electric Thermal Storage is discussed in this book. As can be seen by the diagram presented, heating elements buried deep within the core are energized during off-peak periods or periods of lower cost energy. These elements charge the core to a per-determined level, then during the on-peak periods when the cost of electricity is higher or demand is higher, the heat is extracted from the core. The author discusses how this technology has progressed to the ETS equipment of today; this being the finer control of charging rates and extraction of heat from the core.

Beal, T. (Fostoria Industries, Fostoria, OH (US))

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Nonlinearity and memory effects in low temperature heat propagation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and bismuth at temperatures below where the materials reached their peak thermal conductivity (approximately of nonlinearity and memory on the propagation of heat waves through crystalline materials at low tempera- tures transverse and longitudinal mechanical waves). This material-dependent temperature of peak thermal

Saxton, Katarzyna

223

Heat pumps and under floor heating as a heating system for Finnish low-rise residential buildings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In bachelor’s thesis the study of under floor heating system with ground source heat pump for the heat transfers fluid heating is considered. The case… (more)

Chuduk, Svetlana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Generalized Polya urns via stochastic approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We collect, survey and develop methods of (one-dimensional) stochastic approximation in a framework that seems suitable to handle fairly broad generalizations of Polya urns. To show the applicability of the results we determine the limiting fraction of balls in an urn with balls of two colors. We consider two models generalizing the Polya urn, in the first one ball is drawn and replaced with balls of (possibly) both colors according to which color was drawn. In the second, two balls are drawn simultaneously and replaced along with balls of (possibly) both colors according to what combination of colors were drawn.

Renlund, Henrik

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Domestic Heating and Thermal Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... DIGEST 133 of the Building Research Station, entitled "Domestic Heating and Thermal Insulation" (Pp. 7. London : H.M. Stationery Office, 1960. 4insulation, the standard of heating, the ventilation-rate and the length of the heating season ...

1960-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

226

2659 heat insulation [n] (2)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

constr....(Protection against heat provided by heat-shielding materials in the outer walls of a building to prevent heat build-up in hot regions or in temperate climates during the summer. In tempera...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Heat Transfer and Convection Currents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...October 1965 research-article Heat Transfer and Convection Currents D. C...convection in a medium with internal heat generation is discussed semi-quantitatively...States English United Kingdom 1966 Heat transfer and convection currents Tozer D...

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Heat and Sound Insulation Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Of the three heat transfer processes: heat conduction, convection and radiation, convectional heat transfer is reduced by fiber and foam insulation materials1, 2). Air circulation is prevented by compartmentalizi...

Dr. Andre Knop; Dr. Louis A. Pilato

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Residential heating oil prices decline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices decline The average retail price for home heating oil is 3.48 per gallon. That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by...

230

Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with trapping height of approximately 240 micron. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates over an extended region of the trap. The noise spectral density of the trap falls in the range of noise spectra reported in ion traps at room temperature. We find that during the first months of operation the heating rates increase by approximately one order of magnitude. The increase in heating rates is largest in the ion loading region of the trap, providing a strong hint that surface contamination plays a major role for excessive heating rates. We discuss data found in the literature and possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in other systems, namely impurity atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces and amorphous dielectrics.

N. Daniilidis; S. Narayanan; S. A. Möller; R. Clark; T. E. Lee; P. J. Leek; A. Wallraff; St. Schulz; F. Schmidt-Kaler; H. Häffner

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Advances in induction heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric induction heating, in situ, can distill (underground) high-heat-value (HHV) gas, coal tar, bitumen, and shale oil. This technique permits potentially lower cost exploitation of the solid fossil fuels: coal, oil shale, tar sand, and heavy oil. The products, when brought to the surface in gaseous form and processed, yield chemical feedstocks, natural gas, and petroleum. Residual coke can be converted, in situ, to low-heat-value (LHV) gas by a conventional water-gas process. LHV can be burned at the surface to generate electricity at low cost. The major cost of the installation will have been paid for by the HHV gas and tar distilled from the coal. There are 2 mechanisms of heating by electric induction. One uses displacement currents induced from an electric field. The other uses eddy currents induced by a magnetic field.

Not Available

1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

Solar Heating Contractor Licensing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Michigan offers a solar heating contractor specialty license to individuals who have at least three years of experience installing solar equipment under the direction of a licensed solar contractor...

233

Heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heating and cooling of dwelling houses and other confined spaces is facilitated by a system in which thermal energy is transported between an air heating and cooling system in the dwelling and a water heat storage sink or source, preferably in the form of a swimming pool or swimming pool and spa combination. Special reversing valve circuitry and the use of solar collectors and liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers on the liquid side of the system , and special air valves and air modules on the air side of the system, enhance the system's efficiency and make it practical in the sense that systems employing the invention can utilize existing craft skills and building financing arrangements and building codes, and the like, without major modification.

Krumhansl, M.U.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

Solar heated swimming pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A swimming pool construction incorporating solar heating means to heat the pool water to a desired level. The pool includes a surrounding safety fence supported by a plurality of fence supports which are hollow and which include internal passageways. The pool water is passed through the pool support passageways whereupon it absorbs heat from the sidewalls of the fence supports, the surfaces of which have been heated by solar radiation. The fence supports can be made of plastic or other materials, but preferably are dark for improved absorptivity. The pool water can be passed serially through each of the fence supports and suitable thermostat control means can be provided to limit the water temperature increase.

Pettit, F.M.

1984-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

235

Electron Heat Transport Measured  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, J. K. Anderson, G. Fiksel, B. Hudson, S. C. Prager, J. S. Sarff, and J. C. Wright...

236

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute exempts from the state sales tax all wood or "refuse-derived" fuel used for heating purposes. The law does not make any distinctions about whether the qualified fuels are used for...

237

Absorption Heat Pump Developments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The implementation of both new thermodynamic cycles and new suitable fluids makes it possible to considerably widen the capacity to recover and upgrade low level heat contained particularly in industrial therm...

G. Cohen; A. Rojey

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Curling in the heat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... heat sensor, shown here, has been developed by Jim Gimzewski and colleagues at IBM Riis-chlikon specifically for studies of surface reactions . A spin-off of the scanning probe ...

David A. King

1994-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

239

ABSORPTION-DELAY MODELS OF HEAT TRANSPORT R.E. SHOWALTER AND D.B. VISARRAGA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSORPTION-DELAY MODELS OF HEAT TRANSPORT R.E. SHOWALTER AND D.B. VISARRAGA Abstract. A temperature jump in the water traveling through a pipe is delayed by the absorption of heat into the pipe wall transfer, absorption, memory, kinetic models, approximation. 1 #12;2 R.E. SHOWALTER AND D.B. VISARRAGA 1

240

JOURNAL OF THERMOPHYSICS AND HEAT TRANSFER Vol. 16, No. 3, JulySeptember 2002  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JOURNAL OF THERMOPHYSICS AND HEAT TRANSFER Vol. 16, No. 3, July­September 2002 Three against the sizes of time increment and grid cell and angular discrete order are examined. The false order in SN approximation n = number of angular discretization Q = radiative heat ux R = re ectance r

Guo, Zhixiong "James"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Approximation method for spin-½ Ising models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An approximation for calculating the thermodynamic properties of spin-½ Ising models is described. The method is based on the formulation of Kramers and Wannier for the square lattice, and involves expressing the free energy in terms of the limiting maximum eigenvalue of a matrix sequence which represents the contribution from a single spin of the lattice. The application of this formulation to various two- and three-dimensional lattices shows that many of these are characterized by an identically structured matrix sequence with exactly two nonvanishing elements in each row and column. To explore the potential of using this similarity and its simplicity for analyzing Ising models we consider the two-dimensional square lattice in an external field and approximate the doubly infinite lattice by a semi-infinite one consisting of n (?10) infinitely long rows. Calculations are carried out and compared with (1) Onsager's formula for the free energy, (2) the Onsanger-Yang formula for the spontaneous magnetization, and (3) values calculated from series. Except for the region around the critical point where the correlation length exceeds n lattice spacings, substantial agreement—to better than 12 places of decimals in some cases—is obtained. As an additional measure of the potential of this method, a value for the critical exponent ? is computed by the extrapolation of the magnetization along the critical isotherm. The result is found to be in excellent agreement with the known value for ?.

Solomon Gartenhaus

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to cut your water heating bill. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy...

243

Heat flux limiting sleeves  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*II. HEAT WAVE DEFINITIONS .. A . HCHANGE AND HEAT WAVES .. CLIMATE III. IV. HEAT

Carlson, Ann E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

An Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities #3; Rajiv Gandhi y Eran-hard as it generalizes the well-known vertex cover problem. Previously, approximation algorithms with an approximation version of this problem is at least as hard as set cover; in addition, they developed a 3-approximation

Srinivasan, Aravind

246

On the mathematical treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the mathematical treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Thierry Jecko AGM, UMR 8088 du the main ideas used by mathematicians to show the accuracy of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation of the approximation in Chemistry. We contribute in this way to the discussion on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Convective heat flow probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

248

Intrinsically irreversible heat engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Solar collector for fluid heating system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solar collector for use in either an upfeed forced hot water heating system or a downfeed system features a pair of serpentine coils arranged in opposing flow relationship within a shallow insulated collector housing having a sealed glass closure panel. The two serpentine coils lie in spaced parallel planes within the housing, and the two coils are offset laterally so that their individual longitudinal loops overlap laterally by approximately one-half the width of each loop. The flow of heated fluid in each serpentine coil is controlled independently of the other coil by a temperature-responsive modulating valve connected in each coil close to the outlet end thereof within the housing. Efficiency of operation and practicality and economy of construction are featured.

Wilson, D.C.

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bands Campaign (RHUBC) D. Turner and E. Mlawer RHUBC Breakout Session 2008 ARM Science Team Meeting 13 March, 2008 Norfolk, Virginia Motivation * Radiative heating/cooling in the mid-troposphere modulate the vertical motions of the atmosphere - This heating/cooling occurs primarily in water vapor absorption bands that are opaque at the surface * Approximately 40% of the OLR comes from the far-IR * Until recently, the observational tools were not available to evaluate the accuracy of the far-IR radiative transfer models - Spectrally resolved far-IR radiances, accurate PWV * Need to validate both clear sky (WV) absorption and cirrus scattering properties in these normally opaque bands Scientific Objectives * Conduct clear sky radiative closure studies in order to reduce uncertainties

251

FEMP--Geothermal Heat Pumps  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

heat pump-like an air conditioner or refrigera- heat pump-like an air conditioner or refrigera- tor-moves heat from one place to another. In the summer, a geothermal heat pump (GHP) operating in a cooling mode lowers indoor temperatures by transferring heat from inside a building to the ground outside or below it. Unlike an air condition- er, though, a heat pump's process can be reversed. In the winter, a GHP extracts heat from the ground and transfers it inside. Also, the GHP can use waste heat from summer air-conditioning to provide virtually free hot-water heating. The energy value of the heat moved is typically more than three times the electricity used in the transfer process. GHPs are efficient and require no backup heat because the earth stays at a relatively moderate temperature throughout the year.

252

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren �stergaard Jensen

253

PreHeat: Controlling Home Heating Using Occupancy Prediction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@comp.lancs.ac.uk ABSTRACT Home heating is a major factor in worldwide energy use. Our system, PreHeat, aims to more, and measuring actual gas consumption and occupancy. In UK homes PreHeat both saved gas and reduced MissTime (the Home heating uses more energy than any other residential energy expenditure including air conditioning

Krumm, John

254

The Approximability Behaviour of Some Combinatorial Problems with Respectto the Approximability of a Class of Maximum Independent Set Problems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We prove that the existence of a polynomial time ?-approximation algorithm (where ? < 1 is a fixed constant) for a class of independent set problems, leads to a polynomial time approximation algorithm with approximation ratio strictly ... Keywords: NP-complete problem, convex programming, independent set, polynomial time approximation algorithm, quadratic programming, vertex covering

Marc Demange; Vangelis Th. Paschos

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Influence of circumferential solar heat flux distribution on the heat transfer coefficients of linear Fresnel collector absorber tubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The absorber tubes of solar thermal collectors have enormous influence on the performance of the solar collector systems. In this numerical study, the influence of circumferential uniform and non-uniform solar heat flux distributions on the internal and overall heat transfer coefficients of the absorber tubes of a linear Fresnel solar collector was investigated. A 3D steady-state numerical simulation was implemented based on ANSYS Fluent code version 14. The non-uniform solar heat flux distribution was modelled as a sinusoidal function of the concentrated solar heat flux incident on the circumference of the absorber tube. The k–? model was employed to simulate the turbulent flow of the heat transfer fluid through the absorber tube. The tube-wall heat conduction and the convective and irradiative heat losses to the surroundings were also considered in the model. The average internal and overall heat transfer coefficients were determined for the sinusoidal circumferential non-uniform heat flux distribution span of 160°, 180°, 200° and 240°, and the 360° span of circumferential uniform heat flux for 10 m long absorber tubes of different inner diameters and wall thicknesses with thermal conductivity of 16.27 W/mK between the Reynolds number range of 4000 and 210,000 based on the inlet temperature. The results showed that the average internal heat transfer coefficients for the 360° span of circumferential uniform heat flux with different concentration ratios on absorber tubes of the same inner diameters, wall thicknesses and thermal conductivity were approximately the same, but the average overall heat transfer coefficient increased with the increase in the concentration ratios of the uniform heat flux incident on the tubes. Also, the average internal heat transfer coefficient for the absorber tube with a 360° span of uniform heat flux was approximately the same as that of the absorber tubes with the sinusoidal circumferential non-uniform heat flux span of 160°, 180°, 200° and 240° for the heat flux of the same concentration ratio, but the average overall heat transfer coefficient for the uniform heat flux case was higher than that of the non-uniform flux distributions. The average axial local internal heat transfer coefficient for the 360° span of uniform heat flux distribution on a 10 m long absorber tube was slightly higher than that of the 160°, 200° and 240° span of non-uniform flux distributions at the Reynolds number of 4 000. The average internal and overall heat transfer coefficients for four absorber tubes of different inner diameters and wall thicknesses and thermal conductivity of 16.27 W/mK with 200° span of circumferential non-uniform flux were found to increase with the decrease in the inner-wall diameter of the absorber tubes. The numerical results showed good agreement with the Nusselt number experimental correlations for fully developed turbulent flow available in the literature.

Izuchukwu F. Okafor; Jaco Dirker; Josua P. Meyer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Semiclassical approximation to supersymmetric quantum gravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop a semiclassical approximation scheme for the constraint equations of supersymmetric canonical quantum gravity. This is achieved by a Born-Oppenheimer type of expansion, in analogy to the case of the usual Wheeler-DeWitt equation. The formalism is only consistent if the states at each order depend on the gravitino field. We recover at consecutive orders the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the functional Schroedinger equation, and quantum gravitational correction terms to this Schroedinger equation. In particular, the following consequences are found: (i) the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and therefore the background spacetime must involve the gravitino, (ii) a (many-fingered) local time parameter has to be present on super Riem {sigma} (the space of all possible tetrad and gravitino fields) (iii) quantum supersymmetric gravitational corrections affect the evolution of the very early Universe. The physical meaning of these equations and results, in particular, the similarities to and differences from the pure bosonic case, are discussed.

Kiefer, Claus; Lueck, Tobias; Moniz, Paulo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary College, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transfer matrix of a possibly complex and energy-dependent scattering potential can be identified with the $S$-matrix of a two-level time-dependent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H(t). We show that the application of the adiabatic approximation to H(t) corresponds to the semiclassical description of the original scattering problem. In particular, the geometric part of the phase of the evolving eigenvectors of H(t) gives the pre-exponential factor of the WKB wave functions. We use these observations to give an explicit semiclassical expression for the transfer matrix. This allows for a detailed study of the semiclassical unidirectional reflectionlessness and invisibility. We examine concrete realizations of the latter in the realm of optics.

Ali Mostafazadeh

2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

258

Data:889a58e9-760a-406f-87a6-564f20a6eceb | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8e9-760a-406f-87a6-564f20a6eceb 8e9-760a-406f-87a6-564f20a6eceb No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Nebraska Public Power District Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: 250 W High Pressure Sodium- Wood Sector: Lighting Description: 154 To all night street lighting service (dusk to daylight) from the overhead systems conforming to the District's standard specifications. Wood; Enclosed Electricity is provided through the Village, which obtains electric power from Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD) Source or reference: http://www.nppd.com/assets/municipalstreetlightingservice.pdf

259

Data:Bcb8a58c-2869-4846-8fbb-828a6a6f50af | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a58c-2869-4846-8fbb-828a6a6f50af a58c-2869-4846-8fbb-828a6a6f50af No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Indiana Michigan Power Co (Indiana) Effective date: 2013/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: CS-IRP2 - Contract Service Interruptible Power Sector: Industrial Description: Availability of Service. Available to customers having interruptible demands of 1,000 kW/kVA or greater, who contract for service under one of the Company's interruptible service options. The Company reserves the right to limit the total contract capacity for all customers served under this tariff to 235,000 kVA.

260

Data:6a33a0ae-0a6d-4213-b422-bbb626ee43a6 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ae-0a6d-4213-b422-bbb626ee43a6 ae-0a6d-4213-b422-bbb626ee43a6 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Town of Erwin, Tennessee (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/08/01 End date if known: Rate name: SCHEDULE GSA Three Phase(Between 50 & 1000 KW)Secondary Instrument Rated Metering Sector: Commercial Description: per delivery point per month 3 Phase Secondary Instrument Rated Metering Source or reference: http://e-u.cc/#/commercial/rate-schedules/ Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh):

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

Data:2584292a-6b1d-4f33-a6b2-ea1a80447752 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2a-6b1d-4f33-a6b2-ea1a80447752 2a-6b1d-4f33-a6b2-ea1a80447752 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Modesto Irrigation District Effective date: 2013/04/01 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule SL - Lamp and Fixture on Existing Pole - 400 Watt MV Sector: Lighting Description: This section of this Schedule is applicable to all night lighting on the public streets, alleys, highways and parks for cities, lighting districts or other public bodies. Public outdoor area lighting for other than all night lighting is supplied under Rate Schedule GS. Source or reference: www.mid.org/tariffs/rates/SL_STREET_LIGHTING.pdf

262

Influence of roughness on near-field heat transfer between two plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The surface roughness correction to the near-field heat transfer between two rough bulk materials is discussed by using second-order perturbation theory. The results allow for estimating the impact of surface roughness to the heat transfer in recent experiments between two plates and between a microsphere and a plate (using the Derjaguin approximation). Furthermore, we show that the proximity approximation for describing rough surfaces is valid for distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface roughness even if the heat transfer is dominated by the coupling of surface modes.

Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

263

Heat exchanger-accumulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Data:33090037-2ef4-4735-999b-7526b96058a6 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

37-2ef4-4735-999b-7526b96058a6 37-2ef4-4735-999b-7526b96058a6 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southern Pine Elec Power Assn Effective date: 2010/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Agriculture/Farm Multi-Phase Sector: Commercial Description: *Available to agriculture production and three-phase farm consumers of the Association located on its lines for service including lighting, incidental appliances, cooking, heating and motors, all subject to the established rules and regulations of the Association covering this service. Agriculture production facilities shall include but are not limited to veal barns, poultry farms, hog parlors, dairy barns, grain drying facilities, etc. Single-phase consumers having their home on the same premises may include farm and home service on the same meter.

265

Definition: Heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat Heat Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Heat Heat is the form of energy that is transferred between systems or objects with different temperatures (flowing from the high-temperature system to the low-temperature system). Also referred to as heat energy or thermal energy. Heat is typically measured in Btu, calories or joules. Heat flow, or the rate at which heat is transferred between systems, has the same units as power: energy per unit time (J/s).[1][2][3][4] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition In physics and chemistry, heat is energy in transfer between a system and its surroundings other than by work or transfer of matter. The transfer can occur in two simple ways, conduction, and radiation, and in a more complicated way called convective circulation. Heat is not a property

266

Heat and Power Systems Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS DESIGN H. D. Spriggs and J. V. Shah, Leesburg. VA ABSTRACT The selection of heat and power systems usually does not include a thorough analysis of the process heating. cooling and power requirements. In most cases..., these process requirements are accepted as specifications before heat and power systems are selected and designed. In t~is article we describe how Process Integration using Pinch Technology can be used to understand and achieve the minimum process heating...

Spriggs, H. D.; Shah, J. V.

267

Acoustical heat pumping engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

268

Optical heat flux gauge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MaCarthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Optical heat flux gauge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Optical heat flux gauge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM); Borella, Henry M. (Santa Barbara, CA); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Turley, W. Dale (Santa Barbara, CA); MacArthur, Charles D. (Clayton, OH); Cala, Gregory C. (Dayton, OH)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Air heating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Data:8c282253-937f-4d56-a8a6-f79190a6e1e4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Effective date: 20140110 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule RHR: Residential Heart Rate (Over 200 Amps) Sector: Residential Description: * Heat Credit - 0.02979 kWh of...

273

Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas-  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Features And Examples Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Heat Flow, Heat Transfer And Lithosphere Rheology In Geothermal Areas- Features And Examples Details Activities (5) Areas (5) Regions (0) Abstract: Surface heat flow measurements over active geothermal systems indicate strongly positive thermal anomalies. Whereas in "normal" geothermal settings, the surface heat flow is usually below 100-120 mW m- 2, in active geothermal areas heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on different lateral, depth and time scales. Borehole temperature profiles in active geothermal

274

Potassium, Uranium, Thorium Radiogenic Heat Contribution To Heat Flow In  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Potassium, Uranium, Thorium Radiogenic Heat Contribution To Heat Flow In Potassium, Uranium, Thorium Radiogenic Heat Contribution To Heat Flow In The Precambrian And Younger Silicic Rocks Of The Zuni And Florida Mountains, New Mexico (Usa) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Potassium, Uranium, Thorium Radiogenic Heat Contribution To Heat Flow In The Precambrian And Younger Silicic Rocks Of The Zuni And Florida Mountains, New Mexico (Usa) Details Activities (4) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: High heat flow in the Zuni Mountains, New Mexico, U.S.A., has been explained by the possible presence of a buried felsic pluton. Alternately, high K, U, Th abundances have been proposed to account for part of the high heat flow. The mean radiogenic heat contribution for 60 samples of Precambrian core rocks is 7.23 μcal/gm-yr, which is slightly

275

Approximate von Neumann entropy for directed graphs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we develop an entropy measure for assessing the structural complexity of directed graphs. Although there are many existing alternative measures for quantifying the structural properties of undirected graphs, there are relatively few corresponding measures for directed graphs. To fill this gap in the literature, we explore an alternative technique that is applicable to directed graphs. We commence by using Chung's generalization of the Laplacian of a directed graph to extend the computation of von Neumann entropy from undirected to directed graphs. We provide a simplified form of the entropy which can be expressed in terms of simple node in-degree and out-degree statistics. Moreover, we find approximate forms of the von Neumann entropy that apply to both weakly and strongly directed graphs, and that can be used to characterize network structure. We illustrate the usefulness of these simplified entropy forms defined in this paper on both artificial and real-world data sets, including structures from protein databases and high energy physics theory citation networks.

Cheng Ye; Richard C. Wilson; César H. Comin; Luciano da F. Costa; Edwin R. Hancock

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

276

Femtolensing: Beyond the Semi-Classical Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Femtolensing is a gravitational lensing effect in which the magnification is a function not only of the positions and sizes of the source and lens, but also of the wavelength of light. Femtolensing is the only known effect of $(10^{-13}-10^{-16} M_{\\sun})$ dark-matter objects and may possibly be detectable in cosmological gamma-ray burst spectra. We present a new and efficient algorithm for femtolensing calculations in general potentials. The physical-optics results presented here differ at low frequencies from the semi-classical approximation, in which the flux is attributed to a finite number of mutually coherent images. At higher frequencies, our results agree well with the semi-classical predictions. Applying our method to a point-mass lens with external shear, we find complex events that have structure at both large and small spectral resolution. In this way, we show that femtolensing may be observable for lenses up to $10^{-11}$ solar masses, much larger than previously believed. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of a search for femtolensing of white dwarfs in the LMC at optical wavelengths.

A. Ulmer; J. Goodman

1994-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

277

Data:0fb798a6-a6bb-45c1-a0f6-6f6727504b4a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Requirement Service Curtailable CP3 <4,160 volts Sector: Description: To customers contracting for three-phase 60 hertz full requirements power service at approximately 2,400...

278

Heat driven heat pump using paired ammoniated salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cycle for a heat driven heat pump using two salts CaCl/sup 2/.8NH/sup 3/, and ZnCl/sup 2/.4NH3 which may reversibly react with ammonia with the addition or evolution of heat. These salts were chosen so that both ammoniation processes occur at the same temperature so that the heat evolved may be used for comfort heating. The heat to drive the system need only be slightly hotter than 122 C. The low temperature source need only be slightly warmer than 0 C.

Dunlap, R.M.

1980-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

279

Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-reaching meaning of solving energy and environment problems if new type energy conservation and environment protection heating system ? solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGHP) heating system with a latent heat storage tank will be practical... was established at the laboratory of construction energy conservation in Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) in 2004. It added a latent heat storage tank in original SAGHP system. The schematic diagram of the system is shown in Figure 1. The experimental...

Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Set Covering and Network Optimization: Dynamic and Approximation Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Set Covering and Network Optimization: Dynamic and Approximation Algorithms Orestis A. Telelis summarize our results on development and analysis of approximation and dynamic algorithms for set covering and network optimization problems. The results include probabilistic analysis of set covering algorithms

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

VISCOSITY AND RELAXATION APPROXIMATIONS FOR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VISCOSITY AND RELAXATION APPROXIMATIONS FOR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS Athanasios E. Tzavaras Abstract. These lecture notes deal with the approximation of conservation laws via viscosity or relaxation. The following topics are covered: The general structure of viscosity and relaxation

Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

282

Approximate Linear Programming for Firstorder MDPs Scott Sanner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the bounds that we derive for approximation error apply equally to all domain instantiations (i.eApproximate Linear Programming for First­order MDPs Scott Sanner University of Toronto Department

Sanner, Scott

283

Three fast computational approximation methods in hypersonic aerothermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three fast computational approximation methods in hypersonic aerothermodynamics V.V. Riabov* Rivier analyzed to study nonequilibrium hypersonic viscous flows near blunt bodies. These approximations allow; Nonequilibrium hypersonic flows 1. Introduction Numerous methods [1,2] that require significant computational

Riabov, Vladimir V.

284

The Hadley Circulation and the Weak Temperature Gradient Approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation is applied to simple shallow-water models of the Hadley circulation. While it is difficult to formally justify the use of the WTG approximation for this problem, the derived WTG solutions are ...

L. M. Polvani; A. H. Sobel

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Planetary heat flow measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ESA's Rosetta mission towards comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It...Heat flow measurements on comets have a different motivation...penetrator is by no means limited to comets; it has also been tested in...measurement. Currently, a landing on Mercury within the framework...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Solar Heating and Cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation during good weather are not very high, and...Atmospheric Administration weather ser-vice measures total...largely to experi-mental operation of 3-ton LiBr-H2O...a million solar water heaters are in use in these countries...air House heating load Cold air return 'S T~rgeo...

John A. Duffie; William A. Beckman

1976-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

287

Water-Heating Dehumidifier  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

A small appliance developed at ORNL dehumidifies air and then recycles heat to warm water in a water heater. The device circulates cool, dry air in summer and warm air in winter. In addition, the invention can cut the energy required to run a conventional water heater by an estimated 50 per cent....

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

288

INSULATION OF HEATING SYSTEMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... C. PALLOT gave a Cantor Lecture to the Royal Society of Arts on “Thermal Insulation at Medium Temperature” on November 23 ; the lecture, which included many topics of ... many topics of current interest, has now been published1. In a bulletin on heat insulation issued by the Ministry of Fuel and Power, it was pointed out that "In ...

1943-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

289

Exotic heat PDE's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exotic heat equations that allow to prove the Poincar\\'e conjecture, some related problems and suitable generalizations too are considered. The methodology used is the PDE's algebraic topology, introduced by A. Pr\\'astaro in the geometry of PDE's, in order to characterize global solutions.

Agostino Prástaro

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

290

Roberts's “Heat and Thermodynamics”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the last edition of the late Dr. J. K. Roberts's "Heat and Thermodynamics" appeared. The new material incorporated in this, the fourth edition, by Dr. ... ', but simply because new problems have afforded such excellent examples of the application of thermodynamics that their study must surely help the reader to a better understanding of the subject ...

G. R. NOAKES

1952-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

291

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Wastewater heat recovery apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn how to buy the right size of water heater. Read more You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies. Some simple do-it-yourself projects, like insulating hot water pipes and lowering your water heating temperature, can also help you save money and energy on your water heating.

294

An approximate thermal analysis of Stirling engine regenerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper approximates the transport phenomena in a Stirling engine regenerator to aid its practical design. The...

S. H. Park; Y. -S. Lee

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.

Butler, L.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Integrated solar heating unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an integral solar heating unit with an integral solar collector and hot water storage system, the unit comprising: (a) a housing; (b) a flat plate solar collector panel mounted in the housing and having a generally horizontal upper edge and an uninsulated, open back surface; (c) a cylindrical hot water tank operatively connected to the solar collector panel and mounted in the housing generally parallel to and adjacent to the upper edge; (d) the housing comprising a hood around the tank a pair of side skirts extending down at the sides of the panel. The hood and side skirts terminate at lower edges which together substantially define a plane such that upon placing the heating unit on a generally planar surface, the housing substantially encapsulates the collector panel and hot water tank in a substantially enclosed air space; (e) the collector including longitudinally extended U-shaped collector tubes and a glazed window to pass radiation through to the collector tubes, and a first cold water manifold connected to the tubes for delivering fresh water thereto and a second hot water manifold connected to the tubes to remove heated water therefrom. The manifolds are adjacent and at least somewhat above and in direct thermal contact with the tank; and, (f) the skirts and hood lapping around the collector panel, exposing only the glazed window, such that everything else in the heating unit is enclosed by the housing such that heat emanating from the uninsulated, open back face of the collector and tank is captured and retained by the housing to warm the manifolds.

Larkin, W.J.

1987-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

297

On the Computational Power of Molecular Heat Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A heat engine is a machine which uses the temperature difference between a hot and a cold reservoir to extract work. Here both reservoirs are quantum systems and a heat engine is described by a unitary transformation which decreases the average energy of the bipartite system. On the molecular scale, the ability of implementing such a unitary heat engine is closely connected to the ability of performing logical operations and classical computing. This is shown by several examples: (1) The most elementary heat engine is a SWAP-gate acting on 1 hot and 1 cold two-level systems with different energy gaps. (2) An optimal unitary heat engine on a pair of 3-level systems can directly implement OR and NOT gates, as well as copy operations. The ability to implement this heat engine on each pair of 3-level systems taken from the hot and the cold ensemble therefore allows universal classical computation. (3) Optimal heat engines operating on one hot and one cold oscillator mode with different frequencies are able to calculate polynomials and roots approximately. (4) An optimal heat engine acting on 1 hot and n cold 2-level systems with different level spacings can even solve the NP-complete problem KNAPSACK. Whereas it is already known that the determination of ground states of interacting many-particle systems is NP-hard, the optimal heat engine is a thermodynamic problem which is NP-hard even for n non-interacting spin systems. This result suggest that there may be complexity-theoretic limitations on the efficiency of molecular heat engines.

Dominik Janzing

2005-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

298

Improved Approximation Algorithms for the Partial Vertex Cover Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improved Approximation Algorithms for the Partial Vertex Cover Problem Eran Halperin 1? and Aravind words and phrases. Partial vertex cover, approximation algorithms, semide#12;nite programming edges are covered. Just as for the vertex cover problem, 2-approximation algorithms are known

Srinivasan, Aravind

299

An Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this problem is at least as hard as set cover; they have also developed a 3-approximation algorithm cover problem. Key Words and Phrases: Approximation algorithms, capacitated covering, set cover, vertexAn Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities (Extended Abstract) Rajiv

Khuller, Samir

300

A Local 2-approximation Algorithm for the Vertex Cover Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Local 2-approximation Algorithm for the Vertex Cover Problem Matti °Astrand, Patrik Flor.lastname}@cs.helsinki.fi Abstract. We present a distributed 2-approximation algorithm for the minimum vertex cover problem and Johnson's [2] list. In a centralised setting, the polynomial-time approximability of the vertex cover

Suomela, Jukka

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A Parallel Algorithm for Approximating the Minimum Cycle Cover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approximation algorithm for the problem of finding a minimum cycle cover. A cycle cover is a set of cycles cover [1, 7, 8]. The basis for our approximation algorithm is a routine to find a maximal set of edgeA Parallel Algorithm for Approximating the Minimum Cycle Cover Philip Klein \\Lambda Aiken

Yang, Junfeng

302

An Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as hard as set cover; they have also developed a 3-approximation algorithm for the unweighted version. We Words and Phrases: Approximation algorithms, capacitated covering, set cover, vertex cover, linearAn Improved Approximation Algorithm For Vertex Cover with Hard Capacities (Extended Abstract) Rajiv

Srinivasan, Aravind

303

Viscosity and Relaxation Approximation for Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Viscosity and Relaxation Approximation for Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws Athanasios E with the approximation of conservation laws via viscosity or relaxation. The following topics are covered: The general structure of viscosity and relaxation approximations is discussed, as suggested by the second law

Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

304

SUBTRACTING A BEST RANK-1 APPROXIMATION MAY INCREASE TENSOR RANK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUBTRACTING A BEST RANK-1 APPROXIMATION MAY INCREASE TENSOR RANK Alwin Stegeman Heymans Institute, fax: +33 4 92 94 28 98, pcomon@unice.fr ABSTRACT Is has been shown that a best rank-R approximation be solved by consecutively computing and substracting best rank-1 approximations. The reason

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

305

On the mathematical treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the mathematical treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Thierry Jecko AGM, UMR 8088 du the main ideas used by mathematicians to show the accuracy of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in this way to the discussion on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation initiated in [SW]. The paper neither

306

On the mathematical treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the mathematical treatment of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Thierry Jecko AGM, UMR 8088 du the main ideas used by mathematicians to show the accuracy of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in this way to the discussion on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation initiated in [SW1]. The paper neither

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

Smoluchowski-Kramers approximation in the case of variable friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the small mass asymptotics (Smoluchowski-Kramers approximation) for the Langevin equation with a variable friction coefficient. The limit of the solution in the classical sense does not exist in this case. We study a modification of the Smoluchowski-Kramers approximation. Some applications of the Smoluchowski-Kramers approximation to problems with fast oscillating or discontinuous coefficients are considered.

Mark Freidlin; Wenqing Hu

2012-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

308

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis and Knowledge Spaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis and Knowledge Spaces Feifei Xu1,2 , Yiyu Yao2 a generalized definition of rough set approximations, based on a subsystem of subsets of a universe. The sub set approximations. 1 Introduction Rough set theory [6, 7] is an extension of the set theory with two

Yao, Yiyu

309

Approximation of conic sections by curvature continuous quartic Bézier curves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we propose two approximation methods of conic section by quartic Bezier curves. These are the extensions of the quartic Bezier approximations of circular arcs presented in Ahn and Kim (1997) [1] and Kim and Ahn (2007) [10] to conic cases. ... Keywords: Approximation order, Conic section, Curvature continuity, Hausdorff distance, Quartic Bézier curves, Spline

Young Joon Ahn

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

GLOBAL WELL-POSEDNESS OF THE 3D PRIMITIVE EQUATIONS WITH PARTIAL VERTICAL TURBULENCE MIXING HEAT DIFFUSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the assumption of hydro- static balance, govern the large scale dynamics of atmospheric and oceanic motion heat diffusivity is usually added as a leading order approximation to the effect of micro

311

Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Pagosa Springs District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Pagosa Springs, Colorado Coordinates 37.26945°, -107.0097617° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

312

City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

District Heating District Heating Low Temperature District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility City of Klamath Falls District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Klamath Falls, Oregon Coordinates 42.224867°, -121.7816704° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

313

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Kethcum District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Ketchum, Idaho Coordinates 43.6807402°, -114.3636619° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

314

San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location San Bernardino, California Coordinates 34.1083449°, -117.2897652° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

315

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Boise City Geothermal District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Boise, Idaho Coordinates 43.6135002°, -116.2034505° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

316

Elko District Heat District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Heat District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Elko District Heat District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Elko District Heat Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Elko, Nevada Coordinates 40.8324211°, -115.7631232° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

317

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Philip District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Philip, South Dakota Coordinates 44.0394329°, -101.6651441° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

318

Modeling of Heat Transfer in Geothermal Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been gaining increasing popularity for space conditioning in residential and commercial buildings. The geothermal heat exchanger (GHE) is devised for extraction or injection of thermal energy from...

Cui, P.; Man, Y.; Fang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Cryogenic Fluid Flow Heat Transfer in a Porous Heat Exchanger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recent utilization of porous heat exchangers in various key industries has aroused considerable interest in the heat transfer and fluid dynamics processes in channel flows involving suction...1], suction with...

L. L. Vasiliev; G. I. Bobrova; S. K. Vinokurov…

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Convective Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics in Heat Exchanger Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article concerns the local structure of flow and temperature fields as well as overall heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops in flow passages of relevance for heat exchangers. Results from investi...

Bengt Sundén

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Solar Heating with Annual Heat Storage — Modelling and Practice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Central solar heating systems with seasonal heat storage are recognized as one of the most potential forms of solar energy utilization at northern latitudes. Because of ... and energy flows of a full-scale distri...

P. D. Lund; S. S. Peltola

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

Gilbert, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

itself * Waste heat recovery or auxiliary or adjoining systems within a plant * Waste heat to power conversion Recycle Copyrighted - E3M Inc. August 20, 2009 Arvind Thekdi, E3M...

324

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland, South Dakota Coordinates 44.0716539°, -101.1554178° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

325

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Susanville District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Susanville, California Coordinates 40.4162842°, -120.6530063° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

326

Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanofluids, dispersions of metal or oxide nanoparticles in a base working fluid, are being intensively studied due to improvements they offer in thermal properties of the working fluid. However, these benefits have been erratically demonstrated and proven impacts on thermal conductivity are modest and well described from long-established effective medium theory. In this paper, we describe a new class of metal-organic heat carrier (MOHC) nanofluid that offers potential for a larger performance boost in thermal vapor-liquid compression cycles. MOHCs are nanophase porous coordination solids designed to reversibly uptake the working fluid molecules in which the MOHCs are suspended. Additional heat can be extracted in a heat exchanger or solar collector from the endothermic enthalpy of desorption, which is then released as the nanofluid transits through a power generating device such as a turboexpander. Calculations for an R123 MOHC nanofluid indicated potential for up to 15% increase in power output. Capillary tube experiments show that liquid-vapor transitions occur without nanoparticle deposition on the tube walls provided entrance Reynolds number exceeds approximately 100.

McGrail, B. Peter; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Nune, Satish K.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Dang, Liem X.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Non-equilibrium electromagnetic fluctuations: Heat transfer and interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Casimir force between arbitrary objects in equilibrium is related to scattering from individual bodies. We extend this approach to heat transfer and Casimir forces in non-equilibrium cases where each body, and the environment, is at a different temperature. The formalism tracks the radiation from each body and its scatterings by the other objects. We discuss the radiation from a cylinder, emphasizing its polarized nature, and obtain the heat transfer between a sphere and a plate, demonstrating the validity of proximity transfer approximation at close separations and arbitrary temperatures.

Matthias Krüger; Thorsten Emig; Mehran Kardar

2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

328

Data:41f4059b-9a7d-41f1-a6ce-2689e003244c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b-9a7d-41f1-a6ce-2689e003244c b-9a7d-41f1-a6ce-2689e003244c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: 2013/12/31 Rate name: RSEH - Three Phase Sector: Residential Description: Residential Service Electric Heating (no wells on property) Source or reference: https://www.smud.org/en/business/customer-service/rates-requirements-interconnection/documents/1-R.pdf Source Parent: Comments Flat rate adjustment is the solar surcharge: https://www.smud.org/en/business/customer-service/rates-requirements-interconnection/documents/1-SB1.pdf

329

Data:5138fe97-ed01-4cf4-a567-b375b1a6ed5f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7-ed01-4cf4-a567-b375b1a6ed5f 7-ed01-4cf4-a567-b375b1a6ed5f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Wakefield, Michigan (Utility Company) Effective date: 2007/03/01 End date if known: Rate name: Water Heating Sector: Residential Description: Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 3 ISU Documentation Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

330

Data:4320c18c-8e89-4cc8-b523-074989da17a6 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8c-8e89-4cc8-b523-074989da17a6 8c-8e89-4cc8-b523-074989da17a6 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Long Island Power Authority Effective date: 2013/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: 293 - Commercial, Seasonal, Heating - Secondary Service Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: www.lipower.org/pdfs/account/rates_comm.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

331

Flow and heat transfer around a linear array of spheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laminar fluid flow and forced convection heat transfer over equally space linear arrays of spheres are analyzed using the finite element package FIDAP. For the arrays, sphere spacings of 1.5, 2, and 3 diameters are examined at Reynolds numbers of 40, 80, and 120 and Prandtl numbers ranging from 0.73 to 7.3. Average Nusselt numbers and drag coefficient data for a linear array of eight spheres (as an approximation to the developing region) and a single sphere with periodic boundary conditions (as an approximation to fully developed flow) are presented and correlated.

Lloyd, B. (Marathon Oil Co., Shreveport, LA (United States)); Boehn, R. (Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Heat engine Device that transforms heat into work.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and rocket engines are heat engines. So are steam engines and turbines #12;2 refrigerator Device that uses by steam turbines. Steam turbines, jet engines and rocket engines use a Brayton cycle #12;4 Steam turbines1 Heat engine Device that transforms heat into work. It requires two energy reservoirs at different

Winokur, Michael

333

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

334

Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

Huebotter, Paul R. (Western Springs, IL); McLennan, George A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Analysis of thermal response of a food self-heating system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a distributed model of heat transfer in a self-heating unit for group meals and its numerical simulation. A magnesium alloy and water exothermic reaction provides the necessary energy. The resulting governing equations of chemical reaction and heat conduction that depicts the heater performance were solved to develop an approximate analytical solution, to which experimental data found from literature were compared and curve fitted. Then, a model of a complete food-heating unit for group meals, which include a stack of four sets of food tray, heating tray, and heater sandwiched between them, as well as the cardboard container, was developed. The governing equations for heat conduction in the complete model were solved. The response in thermal performance of the heating system to the parameters that influence heating profiles of the heater such as decay constant and heat generation capacity were studied. The results show that the system thermal performance is most significantly affected by heat generation and a proper combination of heaters with different heat generation capacity can improve temperature uniformity between food trays. The results are useful for designing and optimizing self-heating multi-food tray units.

Son H. Ho; Muhammad M. Rahman; Aydin K. Sunol

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Performance investigation of a solar heating system with underground seasonal energy storage for greenhouse application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study reports the performance of a demonstrated 2304 m2 solar-heated greenhouse equipped with a seasonal thermal energy storage system in Shanghai, east China. This energy storage system utilises 4970 m3 of underground soil to store the heat captured by a 500 m2 solar collector in non-heating seasons through U-tube heat exchangers. During heating seasons, thermal energy is delivered by the heat exchange tubes placed on the plants shelves and the bare soil. The system can operate without a heat pump, which can save electricity consumption and further enhance the solar fraction. It was found that in the first operation year, 331.9 GJ was charged, and 208.9 GJ was later extracted for greenhouse space heating. No auxiliary heating equipment was installed so that solar energy covered all the heating loads directly or indirectly. It was demonstrated that this system was capable of maintaining an interior air temperature that was 13 °C higher than the ambient value when the latter temperature was ?2 °C at night. The ECOP (electrical coefficient of performance) of the first operation year was approximately 8.7, indicating a better performance than the common heat pump heating system.

J. Xu; Y. Li; R.Z. Wang; W. Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Geothermal heating from Pinkerton Hot Springs at Colorado Timberline Academy, Durango, Colorado. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efforts to establish a greater pool of knowledge in the field of low temperature heat transfer for the application of geothermal spring waters to space heating are described. A comprehensive set of heat loss experiments involving passive radiant heating panels is conducted and the results presented in an easily interpretable form. Among the conclusions are the facts that heating a 65 to 70 F/sup 0/ space with 90 to 100 F/sup 0/ liquids is a practical aim. The results are compared with the much lower rates published in the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers SYSTEMS, 1976. A heat exchange chamber consisting of a 1000 gallon three compartment, insulated and buried tank is constructed and a control and pumping building erected over the tank. The tank is intended to handle the flow of geothermal waters from Pinkerton Hot Springs at 50 GPM prior to the wasting of the spring water at a disposal location. Approximately 375,000 Btu per hour should be available for heating assuming a 15 F/sup 0/ drop in water temperature. A combination of the panel heat loss experiments, construction of the heat exchange devices and ongoing collection of heat loss numbers adds to the knowledge available to engineers in sizing low temperature heat systems, useful in both solar and geothermal applications where source temperature may be often below 110 F/sup 0/.

Allen, C.C.; Allen, R.W.; Beldock, J.

1981-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

338

Cooling characteristics of ground source heat pump with heat exchange methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the cooling performance for a water-to-water ground source heat pump (GSHP) by using the counter flow and parallel flow methods. The GSHP uses R-410A as a refrigerant, and its main components are a scroll compressor, plate heat exchangers as a condenser, an evaporator, a thermostatic expansion valve, a receiver, and an inverter. Based on our modeling results, the heat transfer rate of the counter flow evaporator is higher than that of the parallel flow evaporator for a heat exchanger length greater than 0.42 m. The evaporator length of the GSHP used in this study was set to over 0.5 m. The performance of the water-to-water GSHP was measured by varying the compressor speed and source-side entering water temperature (EWT). The cooling capacity of the GSHP increased with increased compressor \\{RPMs\\} and source side EWT. Also, using the counter flow method, compared to the parallel flow method, improves the COP by approximately 5.9% for an ISO 13256-2 rated condition.

Ohkyung Kwon; KyungJin Bae; Chasik Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faculty Positions Heat Transfer and Thermal/Energy Sciences Naval Postgraduate School Monterey-track faculty position at the assistant professor level in the areas of Heat Transfer and Thermal/Fluid Sciences

340

Solar Industrial Process Heat Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An overview of state of the art in producing industrial process heat via solar energy is presented. End-use matching methodology for assessing solar industrial process heat application potential is described f...

E. Özil

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial heat pumps. The main emphasis was directed towards a conceptual temperature amplifier bench scale prototype design, which allows for the conversion to heat amplifier operation by the mere exchange of adsorbent working fluid component without...

Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

342

Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoYinYang. If you live in a...

343

Residential heating oil prices decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.7 cents from a week ago to 4.02 per gallon. That's up 1.7 cents from a year ago, based on the...

344

Residential heating oil price decreases  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.8 cents from a week ago to 3.14 per gallon. That's down 81.1 cents from a year ago, based on the...

345

Residential heating oil price decreases  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to 3.22 per gallon. That's down 73.6 cents from a year ago, based on the...

346

Residential heating oil price decreases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to 2.82 per gallon. That's down 1.36 from a year ago, based on the...

347

Residential heating oil prices decline  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2 cents from a week ago to 3.36 per gallon. That's down 52.5 cents from a year ago, based on the...

348

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 3.9 cents last week to 3.96 per gallon. That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the...

349

Residential heating oil price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

05, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to 3.43 per gallon. That's down 39 cents from a year...

350

Residential heating oil price decreases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.6 cents from a week ago to 3.42 per gallon. That's down 39.5 cents from a year ago,...

351

Residential heating oil prices decrease  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.9 cents from a week ago to 3.45 per gallon. That's down 36.6 cents from a year ago, based on the...

352

Residential heating oil prices decline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.3 cents from a week ago to 3.38 per gallon. That's down 43.9 cents from a year ago, based on the...

353

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6.5 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 14.9 cents from a year...

354

Residential heating oil price decreases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.6 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 8.9 cents from a year...

355

Residential heating oil prices decline  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 3.08 per gallon. That's down 90.3 cents from a year ago, based on the...

356

Residential heating oil price decreases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.8 cents from a week ago to 3.33 per gallon. That's down 59.1 cents from a year ago, based on the...

357

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 5.4 cents from a week ago to 4.04 per gallon. That's up 4.9 cents from a year ago, based on the...

358

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from a week ago to 3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based...

359

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 4.4 cents from a week ago to 4.06 per gallon. That's up 4.1 cents from a year...

360

Residential heating oil prices decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to 4.00 per gallon. That's down 2-tenths of a cent...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Residential heating oil prices increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 12 cents from a week ago to 4.18 per gallon. That's up 13 cents from a year ago, based on the...

362

Residential heating oil prices available  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel price survey. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at 3.48 per gallon,...

363

Heat Pipes: An Industrial Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reviews the basics of heat pipe exchangers. Included are how they are constructed, how they operate, where they have application, and various aspects of evaluating a potential application. After discussing the technical aspects of heat...

Murray, F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Can You Afford Heat Recovery?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

many companies to venture into heat recovery projects without due consideration of the many factors involved. Many of these efforts have rendered less desirable results than expected. Heat recovery in the form of recuperation should be considered...

Foust, L. T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Low Level Heat Recovery Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

level heat recovery technology. This paper discusses heat distribution systems, latest developments in absorption refrigeration and organic Rankine cycles, and pressure, minimization possibilities. The relative merits and economics of the various...

O'Brien, W. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

data not collected over the summer? The residential pricing data collected on heating oil and propane prices are for the Winter Heating Fuels Survey. The purpose of this survey...

367

Heat Source Lire,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source Lire, Source Lire, (liayrICS-25 ) tooling Tulles (Ai 1,06:1) - 11 (31.118 Module Stack Thermoelectric Module:, (14) ltcal L/Mr r a it i lli tisli Block Mounting Interface MMRTG Design Housing (At 2219) Fin (At Go63) Thermal Insulation (Min-K & Microtherm) Space Radioisotope Power Systems Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator January 2008 What is a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator? Space exploration missions require safe, reliable, long-lived power systems to provide electricity and heat to spacecraft and their science instruments. A uniquely capable source of power is the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) - essentially a nuclear battery that reliably converts heat into electricity. The Department of Energy and NASA are developing

368

Solar Water Heating  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

publication provides basic informa- publication provides basic informa- tion on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available and the economic and environmental benefits of owning a system. Although the publica- tion does not provide information on building and installing your own system, it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar equipment dealer. Solar water heaters, sometimes called

369

Data:30d145d4-7eac-403c-89b1-4e740a6fe8a6 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

7eac-403c-89b1-4e740a6fe8a6 7eac-403c-89b1-4e740a6fe8a6 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of New Holstein, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2011/10/01 End date if known: Rate name: Cp-2 Large Power Time-of-Day Service Primary Metering and Transformer Ownership Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Sector: Industrial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0860 per kilowatt-hour.

370

Data:5f2021e6-12cc-4e28-a6a6-f978f90859c6 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

21e6-12cc-4e28-a6a6-f978f90859c6 21e6-12cc-4e28-a6a6-f978f90859c6 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Marshfield, Wisconsin (Utility Company) Effective date: 2012/02/01 End date if known: Rate name: Cp-2 Large Power Time-of-Day Service between 200kW and 500kW Demand Sector: Industrial Description: Power Cost Adjustment Clause - All metered rates shall be subject to a positive or negative power cost adjustment charge equivalent to the amount by which the current cost of power (per kilowatt-hour of sales) is greater or lesser than the base cost of power purchased (per kilowatt-hour of sales). The base cost of power (U) is $0.0515 per kilowatt-hour.

371

[Waste water heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

Not Available

1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

372

Heating Oil and Propane Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map...

373

Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Experimental and Analytical Studies on Pyroelectric Waste Heat Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste heat Pyroelectric energy3 Pyroelectric Waste Heat Energy Harvesting Using Heat4 Pyroelectric Waste Heat Energy Harvesting Using Relaxor

Lee, Felix

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spring 2014 1 Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of length L and diameter df and the tube at a rate m , and the outer surface of the tube is well insulated. Heat generation occurs within. The specific heat of water pc , and the thermal conductivity of the fuel rod fk are constants. The system

Virginia Tech

376

5. Heat transfer Ron Zevenhoven  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1/120 5. Heat transfer Ron Zevenhoven �bo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering / Värme Three heat transfer mechanisms Conduction Convection Radiation 2/120 Pic: B�88 �bo Akademi University | Thermal and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland #12;3/120 5.1 Conductive heat transfer �bo Akademi

Zevenhoven, Ron

377

Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Heat Pump Strategies and Payoffs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After evaluating numerous waste heat sources and heat pump designs for energy recovery, we have become aware that a great deal of confusion exists about the economics of heat pumps. The purpose of this article is to present some simple formulas...

Gilbert, J. S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

380

Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologies...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation This presentation outlines the goals of the Water Heating Standing...

382

Heat and moisture transfer through clothing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R. C. Eberhart (ed), Heat transfer in medicine and biology.Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients forsimulation of heat and moisture transfer in a human-

Voelker, Conrad; Hoffmann, Sabine; Kornadt, Oliver; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 175 stroke2001). 2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 177

Carlson, Ann E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces.

385

Process Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Roadmap for Process Heating Technology Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems Save Energy Now in Your Process...

386

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*II. HEAT WAVE DEFINITIONS .. A . HW aves B. Heat-related

Carlson, Ann E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average *...

388

Absorption Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics Absorption Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:11am Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption coolers available that work on the same principal, but are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. These are also called gas-fired coolers. How Absorption Heat Pumps Work Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

389

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

390

Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Tips: Heat Pumps June 24, 2013 - 5:48pm Addthis Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps are the most efficient form of electric heating in moderate climates. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide equivalent space conditioning at as little as one quarter of the cost of operating conventional heating or cooling appliances. A heat pump does double duty as a central air conditioner by collecting the heat inside your house and pumping it outside. There are three types of heat pumps: air-to-air, water source, and geothermal. They collect heat from the air, water, or ground outside your

391

Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as natural gas, propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption heat pumps, they are also referred to as gas-fired heat pumps. There are also absorption (or gas-fired) coolers available that work on the same principle. Unlike some absorption heat pumps, however, these are not reversible and cannot serve as a heat source. Residential absorption heat pumps use an ammonia-water absorption cycle to provide heating and cooling. As in a standard heat pump, the refrigerant (in this case, ammonia) is condensed in one coil to release its heat; its

392

Optimal Heat Collection Element Shapes for Parabolic Trough Concentrators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For nearly 150 years, the cross section of the heat collection tubes used at the focus of parabolic trough solar concentrators has been circular. This type of tube is obviously simple and easily fabricated, but it is not optimal. It is shown in this article that the optimal shape, assuming a perfect parabolic figure for the concentrating mirror, is instead oblong, and is approximately given by a pair of facing parabolic segments.

Bennett, C

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Chapter 17 - Nuclear heat energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter delves into the important heating processes within a nuclear power plant. Applying Fourier’s law of heat conduction permits determining temperature distributions within the nuclear fuel rods. In contrast, convective cooling occurs on the rod surface. The coolant, cladding and fuel temperature distributions through a reactor are determined. Besides heat transfer in the reactor core, some power plants employ heat exchangers to generate steam that is fed to a turbine-generator to produce electricity. As a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics, thermal power plants reject condenser heat to the environment through mechanisms such as cooling towers.

Raymond L. Murray; Keith E. Holbert

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Environmentally Friendly Systems: Earth Heat Pump System with Vertical Pipes for Heat Extraction for Domestic Heating and Cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Geothermal heat pumps (GSHPs), or direct expansion (DX) ground source heat pumps, are highly efficient renewable energy technology, ... the earth, groundwater or surface water as heat sources when operating in heating

Saffa Riffat; Siddig Omer; Abdeen Omer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Models of crustal heating in accreting neutron stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating associated with non-equilibrium nuclear reactions in accreting neutron-star crusts is reconsidered, taking into account suppression of neutrino losses demonstrated recently by Gupta et al. Two initial compositions of the nuclear burning ashes, A=56 and A=106, are considered. Dependence of the integrated crustal heating on uncertainties plaguing pycnonuclear reaction models is studied. One-component plasma approximation is used, with compressible liquid-drop model of Mackie and Baym to describe nuclei. Evolution of a crust shell is followed from 10^8 g/cm^3 to 10^(13.6) g/cm^3 The integrated heating in the outer crust agrees nicely with results of self-considtent multicomponent plasma simulations of Gupta et al.; their results fall between our curves obtained for A=56 and A=106. Total crustal heat per one accreted nucleon ranges between 1.5 MeV to 1.9 MeV for A=106 and A=56, respectively. The value of total crustal heat per nucleon depends weakly on the presence of pycnonuclear reactions at densities 10^(12)-10^(13) g/cm^3. Remarkable insensitivity of the total crustal heat on the details of the distribution of nuclear processes in accreted crust is explained.

P. Haensel; J. L. Zdunik

2007-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

396

Energetics of a fluid under the Boussinesq approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a theory describing the energy budget of a fluid under the Boussinesq approximation: the theory is developed in a manner consistent with the conservation law of mass. It shows that no potential energy is available under the Boussinesq approximation, and also reveals that the work done by the buoyancy force due to changes in temperature corresponds to the conversion between kinetic and internal energy. This energy conversion, however, makes only an ignorable contribution to the distribution of temperature under the approximation. The Boussinesq approximation is, in physical oceanography, extended so that the motion of seawater can be studied. This paper considers this extended approximation as well. Under the extended approximation, the work done by the buoyancy force due to changes in salinity corresponds to the conversion between kinetic and potential energy. It also turns out that the conservation law of mass does not allow the condition $\

Maruyama, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

NREL: Learning - Solar Process Heat  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Process Heat Process Heat Photo of part of one side of a warehouse wall, where a perforated metal exterior skin is spaced about a foot out from the main building wall to form part of the transpired solar collector system. A transpired collector is installed at a FedEx facility in Denver, Colorado. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be impractical for a home. These technologies include ventilation air preheating, solar process heating, and solar cooling. Space Heating Many large buildings need ventilated air to maintain indoor air quality. In cold climates, heating this air can use large amounts of energy. But a

398

Waste-heat recovery in batch processes using heat storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The waste-heat recovery in batch processes has been studied using the pinch-point method. The aim of the work has been to investigate theoretical and practical approaches to the design of heat-exchanger networks, including heat storage, for waste-heat recovery in batch processes. The study is limited to the incorporation of energy-storage systems based on fixed-temperature variable-mass stores. The background for preferring this to the alternatives (variable-temperature fixed-mass and constant-mass constant-temperature (latent-heat) stores) is given. It is shown that the maximum energy-saving targets as calculated by the pinch-point method (time average model, TAM) can be achieved by locating energy stores at either end of each process stream. This theoretically large number of heat-storage tanks (twice the number of process streams) can be reduced to just a few tanks. A simple procedure for determining a number of heat-storage tanks sufficient to achieve the maximum energy-saving targets as calculated by the pinch-point method is described. This procedure relies on combinatorial considerations, and could therefore be labeled the combinatorial method for incorporation of heat storage in heat-exchanger networks. Qualitative arguments justifying the procedure are presented. For simple systems, waste-heat recovery systems with only three heat-storage temperatures (a hot storage, a cold storage, and a heat store at the pinch temperature) often can achieve the maximum energy-saving targets. Through case studies, six of which are presented, it is found that a theoretically large number of heat-storage tanks (twice the number of process streams) can be reduced to just a few tanks. The description of these six cases is intended to be sufficiently detailed to serve as benchmark cases for development of alternative methods.

Stoltze, S.; Mikkelsen, J.; Lorentzen, B.; Petersen, P.M.; Qvale, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Lab. for Energetics

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Gelling by Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a simple model, a binary mixture of patchy particles, which has been designed to form a gel upon heating. Due to the specific nature of the particle interactions, notably the number and geometry of the patches as well as their interaction energies, the system is a fluid both at high and at low temperatures, whereas at intermediate temperatures the system forms a solid-like disordered open network structure, i.e. a gel. Using molecular dynamics we investigate the static and dynamic properties of this system.

Sandalo Roldan-Vargas; Frank Smallenburg; Walter Kob; Francesco Sciortino

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

400

Locating Heat Recovery Opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and for the years ahead is the de~ice known as the "Reat Pump," the "Reverse Ran,kine Cycle," or the "Vapor Compression System." ~'ctu? ally, all of these are the same thing. En-ergy level is restored by application of a ce~tain amount of prime energy (shaft... level Rankine cycle or bot toming cycle could have an application. Figure 11 shows the same hot process waste water heat source and the same disengaging drum that was shown in Figure 10. Instead of compressing the vapor, however, it is expanded...

Waterland, A. F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Data:A6b52d87-2294-4cb8-9006-ac9ed1a6f38c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2d87-2294-4cb8-9006-ac9ed1a6f38c 2d87-2294-4cb8-9006-ac9ed1a6f38c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Rolling Hills Electric Coop Effective date: 2010/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: Private Street and Area Lighting (PSL-10) metered HPS 100W Sector: Lighting Description: http://rollinghills.coopwebbuilder.com/sites/rollinghills.coopwebbuilder.com/files/rate_tariffs.pdf Source or reference: http://rollinghills.coopwebbuilder.com/sites/rollinghills.coopwebbuilder.com/files/rate_tariffs.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months):

402

Data:3b3a6c48-a461-4545-a6bd-000870dbb334 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c48-a461-4545-a6bd-000870dbb334 c48-a461-4545-a6bd-000870dbb334 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Public Service Co of NM Effective date: 2011/08/21 End date if known: Rate name: 20 Streetlights and Floodlights 25500 Lumen 250 Watt High Pressure Sodium Streetlight Customer Owned Sector: Lighting Description: Applicable to street lighting and floodlighting systems and under contract with any municipal corporation or other political subdivision within the State of New Mexico. Available within the incorporated limits of cities and towns and adjacent territory served by the Company in its Albuquerque, Valencia, Sandoval, Clayton, Deming, Las Vegas, East Mountain, and Santa Fe Divisions and territory contiguous thereto.

403

DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate February 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve will be converted to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate to comply with new, more stringent fuel standards by some Northeastern states, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) said today. The State of New York and other Northeastern states are implementing more stringent fuel standards that require replacement of high sulfur (2,000 parts per million) heating oil to ultra low sulfur fuel (15 parts per million). As a result, DOE will sell the current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, a total of approximately 2 million barrels, and

404

Determination of temperature-dependent heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.

Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Optimization Online - Fast Approximations for Online Scheduling of ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jun 19, 2014 ... Fast Approximations for Online Scheduling of Outpatient Procedure Centers. Berg(bberg2 ***at*** gmu.edu) Denton(btdenton ***at*** ...

Berg

2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

406

On Low Rank Matrix Approximations with Applications to Synthesis ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a given matrix by a matrix of specified (low rank) in the uniform norm. ... Note that in the existing literature on low rank approximation of matrices the empha-.

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

407

L^p Bernstein Inequalities and Radial Basis Function Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on scattered data This dissertation follows the style of the Journal of Approximation Theory. 2 sites. F.J. Narcowich and J.D. Ward have made signi cant contributions to this eld studying approximation on compact manifolds where the data sites are allowed... on scattered data This dissertation follows the style of the Journal of Approximation Theory. 2 sites. F.J. Narcowich and J.D. Ward have made signi cant contributions to this eld studying approximation on compact manifolds where the data sites are allowed...

Ward, John P.

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

408

Bethe free-energy approximations for disordered quantum systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Given a locally consistent set of reduced density matrices, we construct approximate density matrices which are globally consistent with the local density matrices we started from when the trial density matrix has a tree structure. We employ the cavity method of statistical physics to find the optimal density matrix representation by slowly decreasing the temperature in an annealing algorithm, or by minimizing an approximate Bethe free energy depending on the reduced density matrices and some cavity messages originated from the Bethe approximation of the entropy. We obtain the classical Bethe expression for the entropy within a naive (mean-field) approximation of the cavity messages, which is expected to work well at high temperatures. In the next order of the approximation, we obtain another expression for the Bethe entropy depending only on the diagonal elements of the reduced density matrices. In principle, we can improve the entropy approximation by considering more accurate cavity messages in the Bethe approximation of the entropy. We compare the annealing algorithm and the naive approximation of the Bethe entropy with exact and approximate numerical simulations for small and large samples of the random transverse Ising model on random regular graphs.

I. Biazzo; A. Ramezanpour

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

409

E-Print Network 3.0 - approximation descriptions microscopiques...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

de l'approximation locale. Ce calcul est entirement... :lpmmc.grenoble.cnrs.frspip.php?article404 Description : Les polaritons de cavit sont des quasiparticules hybrides...

410

Finding approximately rank-one submatrices with the nuclear norm ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nov 8, 2010 ... Abstract: We propose a convex optimization formulation with the nuclear norm and $\\ell_1$-norm to find a large approximately rank-one ...

Xuan Vinh Doan

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

411

Better approximation guarantees for job-shop scheduling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Job-shop scheduling is a classical NP-hard problem. Shmoys, Stein & Wein presented the first polynomial-time approximation algorithm for this problem that has a good (polylogarithmic) approximation guarantee. We improve the approximation guarantee of their work, and present further improvements for some important NP-hard special cases of this problem (e.g., in the preemptive case where machines can suspend work on operations and later resume). We also present NC algorithms with improved approximation guarantees for some NP-hard special cases.

Goldberg, L.A.; Paterson, M. [Univ. of Warwick, Conventry (United Kingdom); Srinivasan, A. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Ductless versions of air-source heat pumps. Absorption Heat Pump Uses heat as its energy source. Geothermal Heat Pumps Use the constant temperature of the earth as the exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. Addthis Related Articles A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/LordRunar.

413

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

414

The Homopolar Pulse Billet Heating Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of homopolar generators operated in the pulse mode to heat forging billets offers several possible advantages over present heating methods. Because heating is uniform throughout the entire cross section, billets can safely be heated...

Keith, R. E.; Weldon, W. F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Tips: Heat Pumps Tips: Heat Pumps July 20, 2014 - 5:48pm Addthis Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity....

416

Heating System Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heating System Basics Heating System Basics Heating System Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:32pm Addthis A variety of heating technologies are available today. You can learn more about what heating systems and heat pumps are commonly used today and how they work below. To learn how to use these technologies in your own home, see the Home Heating Systems section on Energy Saver. Furnaces and Boilers Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources. Electric Resistance Heating Can be supplied by centralized electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental

417

Definition: Heat pump | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pump pump Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Heat pump Heating and/or cooling equipment that, during the heating season, draws heat into a building from outside and, during the cooling season, ejects heat from the building to the outside[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a heat source to a heat sink against a temperature gradient. Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy opposite the direction of spontaneous heat flow. A heat pump uses some amount of external high-grade energy to accomplish the desired transfer of thermal energy from heat source to heat sink. While compressor-driven air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term "heat pump" is more general and applies to

418

Steam reformers heated by helium from high temperature reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The manifold possibilities of the application of helium-heated steam reformers combined with high temperature nuclear reactors are elucidated in this article. It is shown that the thermodynamic interpretation of the processes does not cause difficulties because of the good heat transfer in helium at high pressure and that helium peak temperatures of 950°C are sufficient for carrying out the process. The mechanical design of the reformer tube does not lead to problems because the helium and process pressures are so chosen as to be approximately equal. The problems of hydrogen and tritium permeation as well as the contamination of the reformer tube with solid fission products seem to be solvable using the knowledge available at present. Furthermore, the various possibilities for the design arrangements of helium-heated reformer tube furnaces are shown. The status of development attained to date is outlined and in conclusion there is a survey regarding the next steps to be taken in steam reformer technology.

K. Kugeler; M. Kugeler; H.F. Niessen; K.H. Hammelmann

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Performance Optimization of an Irreversible Heat Pump with Variable-temperature Heat Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An irreversible cycle model of a heat pump operating between two variable-temperature heat reservoirs is established and used to analyze the performance of the heat pump affected by heat resistances, heat leakage and internal dissipation...

Huang, Y.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Data:0c488bba-c7fe-486b-bd2e-30ed3589a6d3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8bba-c7fe-486b-bd2e-30ed3589a6d3 8bba-c7fe-486b-bd2e-30ed3589a6d3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: NSTAR Electric Company Effective date: 2012/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: ACUSHNET All Electric School G-6 (22)BS Sector: Commercial Description: This rate is available only at existing service locations to Customers who were taking service as of February 8, 1980 under an all-electric school rate schedule or under a special contract for all-electric school service. This rate is available for annual service in public and private school buildings where electricity supplies the total energy requirements of the premises served. The design and installation of electrical equipment for space heating, water heating, cooking and other purposes shall be acceptable to the Company. This rate is subject to the Company's printed requirements and the Company's Terms and Conditions - Distribution Service, each as in effect from time to time.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Data:Ce432bcf-5a6c-4b51-8e82-4281750b4231 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ce432bcf-5a6c-4b51-8e82-4281750b4231 Ce432bcf-5a6c-4b51-8e82-4281750b4231 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: San Diego Gas & Electric Co Effective date: 2012/09/01 End date if known: Rate name: DR-SES (Solar Energy Systems) Sector: Residential Description: TOU rate. Service under this schedule is available on a voluntary basis for individually metered residential customers with Solar Energy Systems. Service is limited to individually metered residential customers with a Solar Energy System with domestic service for lighting, heating, cooking, water heating, and power, or combination thereof, in single family dwellings and flats. Qualifying California Alternative Rates for Energy (CARE) customers are eligible for service on this schedule, as further described under Special Condition 7 of this schedule.

422

Data:C2f52fe1-d264-4a6d-9bc9-762042e0de97 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fe1-d264-4a6d-9bc9-762042e0de97 fe1-d264-4a6d-9bc9-762042e0de97 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Eastern Illinois Elec Coop Effective date: 2013/04/15 End date if known: Rate name: INTERRUPTIBLE WATER HEATING Sector: Commercial Description: This rider is available upon application to any member/owner served under Rates 1, 5, 8, or 20 utilizing electricity as the sole source of energy for domestic water heating, subject to established rules and regulations of the Cooperative. The water heater must be a 240-volt unit with a minimum size of 30 gallons that is capable of being cycled off and on by a control device provided and installed by the Cooperative.

423

Data:E1e7a6f5-8f2e-4671-ad41-50f8551e833f | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

e7a6f5-8f2e-4671-ad41-50f8551e833f e7a6f5-8f2e-4671-ad41-50f8551e833f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: PUD No 2 of Grant County Effective date: 2013/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: RATE SCHEDULE No. 7 LARGE GENERAL SERVICE Sector: Industrial Description: To accounts with loads not less than 200 kW or more than 5,000 kW Billing Demand for general service lighting, heating and power requirements. Service will NOT be provided under this rate schedule to process heating or boiler service loads greater than 3,000 kW unless such loads were served on this rate schedule prior to January 1, 2001. Such loads will be served on Rate Schedule 85 or its successor.

424

Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite TE modules were...

425

Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for...

426

Passive Solar Space Heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePassiveSolarSpaceHeat&oldid26718...

427

Geothermal energy utilization with heat pipes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several variants of heat pipes for utilization of geothermal energy and underground rock heat are studied. An...

L. L. Vasil'ev

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with Furmans Sustainability Goals.

429

Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy; Grid systems; Optimization; Heat flow; Financialof grid power and by utilizing combined heat and power (CHP)

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings* ........................... 3,037 115 397 384 52 1,143 22 354 64 148 357 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 386 19 43 18 11 93 7 137 8 12 38 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 262 12 35 17 5 83 4 56 6 9 35 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 407 20 46 44 8 151 3 53 9 19 54 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 350 15 55 50 9 121 2 34 7 16 42 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 405 16 57 65 7 158 2 29 6 18 45 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 483 16 62 80 5 195 1 24 Q 31 56 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 361 8 51 54 5 162 1 9 8 19 43 Over 500,000 ............................. 383 8 47 56 3 181 2 12 8 23 43 Principal Building Activity

431

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Quantum Heat Bath  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model for a quantum heat bath is introduced. When the bath molecules have finitely many degrees of freedom, it is shown that the assumption that the molecules are weakly interacting is sufficient to enable one to derive the canonical distribution for the energy of a small system immersed in the bath. While the specific form of the bath temperature, for which we provide an explicit formula, depends on (i) spectral properties of the bath molecules, and (ii) the choice of probability measure on the state space of the bath, we are in all cases able to establish the existence of a strictly positive lower bound on the temperature of the bath. The results can be used to test the merits of different hypotheses for the equilibrium states of quantum systems. Two examples of physically plausible choices for the probability measure on the state space of a quantum heat bath are considered in detail, and the associated lower bounds on the temperature of the bath are worked out.

Dorje C. Brody; Lane P. Hughston

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

433

STRUCTURE ORIGIN OF THE ENHANCED THERMOELECTRIC POWER Today approximately 60% of the energy consumption in the US is lost, mostly through waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumption in the US is lost, mostly through waste heat. Development on thermoelectric technologySTRUCTURE ORIGIN OF THE ENHANCED THERMOELECTRIC POWER Today approximately 60% of the energy to significant energy savings. Many recent advances in thermoelectric materials are attributed to nanoscale

Homes, Christopher C.

434

Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

Hankins, J.D.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Divertor heat flux reduction by D sub 2 injection in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

D{sub 2} gas injected into ELMing H-mode discharges in DIII-D reduced total integrated heat flux to the divertor by {approximately}2{times} and peak heat flux by {approximately}5{times}, with only modest degradation to plasma stored energy. Steady gas injection without particle pumping results in eventual degradation in stored energy. The initial reduction in peak heat flux at the divertor tiles may be primarily due to the increase in radiated power from the X-point/divertor region. The eventual formation of a high density region near the X-point appears to play a role in momentum (and energy) transfer from the flux surfaces near the outboard strike point to flux surfaces farther out into the scrapeoff. This may also contribute to further reduction in peak heat flux.

Petrie, T.W.; Groebner, R.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Lippmann, S.I.; Mahdavi, A.M.; West, W.P. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)); Buchenauer, D.; Campbell, R.B. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L.; Futch, A.H.; Resink, M.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Klepper, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Divertor heat flux reduction by D{sub 2} injection in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

D{sub 2} gas injected into ELMing H-mode discharges in DIII-D reduced total integrated heat flux to the divertor by {approximately}2{times} and peak heat flux by {approximately}5{times}, with only modest degradation to plasma stored energy. Steady gas injection without particle pumping results in eventual degradation in stored energy. The initial reduction in peak heat flux at the divertor tiles may be primarily due to the increase in radiated power from the X-point/divertor region. The eventual formation of a high density region near the X-point appears to play a role in momentum (and energy) transfer from the flux surfaces near the outboard strike point to flux surfaces farther out into the scrapeoff. This may also contribute to further reduction in peak heat flux.

Petrie, T.W.; Groebner, R.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Lippmann, S.I.; Mahdavi, A.M.; West, W.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Buchenauer, D.; Campbell, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L.; Futch, A.H.; Resink, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Klepper, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Heat pump having improved defrost system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

438

Heat Pump Markets UK in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Pump Markets UK in Europe IEA Heat Pump Workshop 13. November 2012 Zoltan Karpathy #12;2 Excellence in Market Intelligence Agenda About BSRIA WMI UK in the European Heat Pump Market Heating BSRIA WMI UK in the European Heat Pump Market Heating Technologies in New and Existing Buildings Hybrid

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

439

The Temperature of Interstellar Clouds from Turbulent Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To evaluate the effect of turbulent heating in the thermal balance of interstellar clouds, we develop an extension of the log-Poisson intermittency model to supersonic turbulence. The model depends on a parameter, d, interpreted as the dimension of the most dissipative structures. By comparing the model with the probability distribution of the turbulent dissipation rate in a simulation of supersonic and super-Alfvenic turbulence, we find a best-fit value of d=1.64. We apply this intermittency model to the computation of the mass-weighted probability distribution of the gas temperature of molecular clouds, high-mass star-forming cores, and cold diffuse HI clouds. Our main results are: i) The mean gas temperature in molecular clouds can be explained as the effect of turbulent heating alone, while cosmic ray heating may dominate only in regions where the turbulent heating is low; ii) The mean gas temperature in high-mass star-forming cores with typical FWHM of ~6 km/s (corresponding to a 1D rms velocity of 2.5 km/s) may be completely controlled by turbulent heating, which predicts a mean value of approximately 36 K, two to three times larger than the mean gas temperature in the absence of turbulent heating; iii) The intermittency of the turbulent heating can generate enough hot regions in cold diffuse HI clouds to explain the observed CH+ abundance, if the rms velocity on a scale of 1 pc is at least 3 km/s, in agreement with previous results based on incompressible turbulence. Because of its importance in the thermal balance of molecular clouds and high-mass star-forming cores, the process of turbulent heating may be central in setting the characteristic stellar mass and in regulating molecular chemical reactions.

Liubin Pan; Paolo Padoan

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

440

Polynomialtime approximation algorithms for the Ising model \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polynomial­time approximation algorithms for the Ising model \\Lambda Mark Jerrum and Alistair, Scotland November 1989 (revised December 1991) Abbreviated title: Approximation algorithms for the Ising evaluates the partition function of an arbitrary ferromagnetic Ising system to any specified degree

Sinclair, Alistair

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Generalizing the Boussinesq Approximation to Stratified Compressible Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generalizing the Boussinesq Approximation to Stratified Compressible Flow Dale R. Durran a Akio The simplifications required to apply the Boussinesq approximation to compressible flow are compared with those compressible fluid with the Boussinesq continuity equation has led to the development of several different sets

442

Dynamic Enthalpy, Conservative Temperature, and the Seawater Boussinesq Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic Enthalpy, Conservative Temperature, and the Seawater Boussinesq Approximation WILLIAM R (Manuscript received 8 June 2009, in final form 27 August 2009) ABSTRACT A new seawater Boussinesq system of the full system. The seawater Boussinesq approximation simplifies the mass con- servation equation to $ Á u

Young, William R.

443

Lecture 20: Approximate algorithms Outline of this Lecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for approximation algorithms. ffl Vertex­cover problem. ffl Traveling­salesman problem. 1 #12; Introduction Many. Another example is we are looking for a maximum size independent set (IS). An approximate algorithm; Vertex­cover Vertex Cover: A vertex cover of a graph G is a set of vertices such that every edge in G

Wu, Dekai

444

Lecture 20: Approximate algorithms Outline of this Lecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for approximation algorithms. Vertex-cover problem. Traveling-salesman problem. 1 #12;Introduction Many. Another example is we are looking for a maximum size independent set (IS). An approximate algorithm Cover: A vertex cover of a graph is a set of vertices such that every edge in is incident

Wu, Dekai

445

10 -Approximation Algorithm for a Generalization of the Weighted  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A 2 1 10 -Approximation Algorithm for a Generalization of the Weighted Edge-Dominating Set Problem consider a natural strategy, reducing edge-dominating set to edge cover. Our main result is a simple 2 1 10 -approximation algorithm for the weighted edge-dominating set problem, improving the existing ratio, due

Parekh, Ojas

446

Parametric Optimization of Artificial Neural Networks for Signal Approximation Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parametric Optimization of Artificial Neural Networks for Signal Approximation Applications J. Lane.thames@gatech.edu randal.abler@gatech.edu dirk.schaefer@me.gatech.edu ABSTRACT Artificial neural networks are used to solve set of configuration parameters for artificial neural networks such that the network's approximation

447

Fast Vectorless Power Grid Verification Using an Approximate Inverse Technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast Vectorless Power Grid Verification Using an Approximate Inverse Technique Nahi H. Abdul Ghani Department of ECE University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada f.najm@utoronto.ca ABSTRACT Power grid Aids General Terms Performance, Algorithms, Verification Keywords Power grid, voltage drop, approximate

Najm, Farid N.

448

Neural Network-Based Accelerators for Transcendental Function Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neural Network-Based Accelerators for Transcendental Function Approximation Schuyler Eldridge accelerators has the potential to sustain the his- toric energy and performance improvements of computing systems. We propose the use of NN-based accelerators to approximate mathematical functions in the GNU C

Joshi, Ajay

449

Born-Oppenheimer approximation for a harmonic molecule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to a harmonic diatomic molecule with one electron. We compare the exact and approximate results not only for the internal degrees of freedom but also for the motion of the center of mass. We address the problem of identical nuclei and discuss other applications of the model and its limitations.

Francisco M. Fernandez

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

450

The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation C. David Sherrill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation C. David Sherrill School of Chemistry and Biochemistry Georgia as a product of nuclear and elec- tronic terms, (r, R) = (r)(R). We thus introduce the Born-Oppenheimer that the total wavefunction is given as (r; R)(R). The Born-Oppenheimer approximation rests on the fact

Sherrill, David

451

Parallel algorithms for approximation of distance maps on parametric surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

results demonstrate up to four orders of magnitude improvement in execution time compared to the state(n) numerical algorithm for first-order approximation of geodesic distances on geometry images, where n charts, parallel algorithms, GPU, SIMD 1. INTRODUCTION Approximation of geodesic distances on curved

Kimmel, Ron

452

APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF ROBUSTLY EXPANDING REGULAR DIGRAPHS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPROXIMATE HAMILTON DECOMPOSITIONS OF ROBUSTLY EXPANDING REGULAR DIGRAPHS DERYK OSTHUS and is a robust outexpander has an approximate decomposition into edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles, i.e. G contains a set of r -o(r) edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. Here G is a robust outexpander if for every set S which

Osthus, Deryk

453

Probabilistic Rough Set Approximations Yiyu (Y.Y.) Yao  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Probabilistic Rough Set Approximations Yiyu (Y.Y.) Yao Department of Computer Science University have been applied to the theory of rough set in sev- eral forms, including decision-theoretic analysis and rough inclusion functions, we revisit probabilistic rough set approximation operators and present

Yao, Yiyu

454

ROUGH SET APPROXIMATIONS: A CONCEPT ANALYSIS POINT OF VIEW  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ROUGH SET APPROXIMATIONS: A CONCEPT ANALYSIS POINT OF VIEW Yiyu Yao University of Regina, Regina and content of data, definable concepts, lower and upper ap- proximations, rough set approximations Contents 1. Conclusion Bibliography Biographical Sketches Summary Rough set theory was proposed by Pawlak for analyzing

Yao, Yiyu

455

Relational Interpretations of Neighborhood Operators Rough Set Approximation Operators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relational Interpretations of Neighborhood Operators and Rough Set Approximation Operators Y.Y. Yao and rough set approximations using the more familiar notion of binary relations. A special class of neigh sets, partitions, coverings. 1 INTRODUCTION The theory of rough sets is motivated by practical needs

Yao, Yiyu

456

Absolute Approximation of Tukey Depth: Theory and Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absolute Approximation of Tukey Depth: Theory and Experiments Dan Chen School of Computer Science¨ur Theoretische Informatik Abstract A Monte Carlo approximation algorithm for the Tukey depth problem in high. Keywords: Tukey depth, computational geometry 1. Introduction Tukey depth is also known as location depth

Morin, Pat

457

HEREDITARY APPROXIMATION PROPERTY W. B. JOHNSON AND A. SZANKOWSKI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEREDITARY APPROXIMATION PROPERTY W. B. JOHNSON AND A. SZANKOWSKI Abstract. If X is a Banach space approximation property, trace formula. Johnson was supported in part by NSF DMS-0500292, DMS-1001321, and the U.S.-Israel Binational Science Foundation. 1 #12;2 W. B. JOHNSON AND A. SZANKOWSKI (S) Is there a HAPpy space that has

Johnson, William B.

458

Energy Content of Colliding Plane Waves using Approximate Noether Symmetries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is devoted to study the energy content of colliding plane waves using approximate Noether symmetries. For this purpose, we use approximate Lie symmetry method of Lagrangian for differential equations. We formulate the first-order perturbed Lagrangian for colliding plane electromagnetic and gravitational waves. It is shown that in both cases, there does not exist

M. Sharif; Saira Waheed

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

459

Approximate Dynamic Programming for High Dimensional Resource Allocation Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the dimensionality of these variables is in the ten thousand to one million range. We describe an approximation in Section II by presenting a simple but general model for the management of discrete resources. Section III describes an algorithmic strategy using the principles of approximate dynamic programming. Section IV

Powell, Warren B.

460

Radiant Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via the radiation of heat, which is also called infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating. Despite the name, radiant floor heating systems also depend heavily on convection, the natural circulation of heat within a room, caused by heat rising from the floor. Radiant floor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "a6 approximate heat" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Definition: District heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

District heat District heat Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png District heat A heating system that uses steam or hot water produced outside of a building (usually in a central plant) and piped into the building as an energy source for space heating, hot water or another end use.[1][2][3] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating. The heat is often obtained from a cogeneration plant burning fossil fuels but increasingly biomass, although heat-only boiler stations, geothermal heating and central solar heating are also used, as well as nuclear power. District heating plants can provide higher efficiencies and better

462

Radiant Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics Radiant Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis Radiant heating systems involve supplying heat directly to the floor or to panels in the walls or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer: the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and objects in the room via the radiation of heat, which is also called infrared radiation. Radiant heating is the effect you feel when you can feel the warmth of a hot stovetop element from across the room. When radiant heating is located in the floor, it is often called radiant floor heating or simply floor heating. Despite the name, radiant floor heating systems also depend heavily on convection, the natural circulation of heat within a room, caused by heat rising from the floor. Radiant floor

463

FEMP--Solar Water Heating  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- nesses in the United States are using the sun to heat domestic water efficiently in almost any climate. In summer, a solar system properly sized for a resi- dential building can meet 100% of the building's water-heating needs in most parts of the country. In winter, the system might meet only half of this need, so another source of heat is used to back up the solar system. In either case, solar water heating helps to save energy, reduce utility costs, and preserve the environment. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector-the device that actually captures the sun's energy.

464

Water Heating | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Heating Water Heating Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average household expenditures on energy for water heating in the United States in 2005. Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (6 years ago) Keywords Energy Expenditures Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Total.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 70.1 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Avg.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 69.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

465

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: The outlook for heating oil costs this winter, due to high crude oil costs and tight heating oil supplies, breaks down to an expected increase in heating expenditures for a typical oil-heated household of more than $200 this winter, the result of an 18% increase in the average price and an 11% increase in consumption. The consumption increase is due to the colder than normal temperatures experienced so far this winter and our expectations of normal winter weather for the rest of this heating season. Last winter, Northeast heating oil (and diesel fuel) markets experienced an extremely sharp spike in prices when a severe weather situation developed in late January. It is virtually impossible to gauge the probability of a similar (or worse) price shock recurring this winter,

466

Table A45. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation" " by Enclosed Floorspace, Percent Conditioned Floorspace, and Presence of Computer" " Controls for Building Environment, 1991" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" ,,"Presence of Computer Controls" ,," for Buildings Environment",,"RSE" "Enclosed Floorspace and"," ","--------------","--------------","Row" "Percent Conditioned Floorspace","Total","Present","Not Present","Factors" " "," " "RSE Column Factors:",0.8,1.3,0.9 "ALL SQUARE FEET CATEGORIES" "Approximate Conditioned Floorspace"

467

Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spring 2014 Heat Transfer - 2 A thin electronic chip is in the shape of a square wafer, b = 1 cm surface of the chip with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 100 W/m2 -K. Assume the chip has a uniform per side with a mass of m = 0.3 grams and specific heat of C = 103 J/kg-K. The chip is mounted

Virginia Tech

468

Energy-efficient water heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Frame Heat Transfer Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools Arild Gustavsen 1,* , Dariush Arasteh 2 , Bjørn Petter Jelle 3,4 , Charlie Curcija 5 and Christian Kohler 2 1 Department of Architectural Design, History and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Alfred Getz vei 3, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway 2 Windows and Daylighting Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 90R3111, Berkeley, CA 94720- 8134, USA 3 Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 7A, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway 4 Department of Building Materials and Structures, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Høgskoleringen 7B,NO-7465 Trondheim, Norway

470

Heat flux solarimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Echarri, R. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Samson, I. [INTEC (Instituto Tecnologico Santo Domingo), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Cooling by heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched.

A. Mari; J. Eisert

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Heating oils, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Properties of 235 heating oils marketed in the United States were submitted for study and compilation under agreement between BETC and API. The fuels were manufactured by 25 petroleum refining companies in 88 domestic refineries. The data are tabulated according to six grades of fuel and subdivided into five geographic regions in which the fuels are marketed. The five regions containing a total of 16 marketing districts are shown on a map in the report. Trend charts are included showing average properties of the six grades of fuel for the past several years. Summaries of the results of the tests by grade and by region for 1982 compared with data for 1981 are tabulated. Analyses of grade 6 foreign import oils are presented.

Shelton, E.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Heating oils, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Properties of 247 heating oils marketed in the United States were submitted for study and compilation under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center and the American Petroleum Institute. The fuels were manufactured by 26 petroleum refining companies in 87 domestic refineries. The data are tabulated according to six grades of fuel and subdivided into five geographic regions in which the fuels are marketed. The six grades of fuel are defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials Specification D396. The five regions containing a total of 16 marketing districts are shown on a map in the report. Trend charts are included showing average properties of the six grades of fuel for the past several years. Summaries of the results of the tests by grade and by region for 1980 compared with data for 1979 are shown in tables. Analyses of grades 2, 5(light), and 6 foreign import oils are presented.

Shelton, E.M.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Heating oils, 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Properties of 195 heating oils marketed in the United States were submitted for study and compilation under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The fuels were manufactured by 25 petroleum refining companies in 83 domestic refineries. The data are tabulated according to six grades of fuel and subdivided into five geographic regions in which the fuels are marketed. The six grades of fuels are defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specification D396. The five regions containing a total of 16 marketing districts are shown on a map in the report. Trend charts are included showing average properties of the six grades of fuel for the past several years. Summaries of the results of the tests by grade and by region for 1983 are compared with data for 1982. 7 figures, 12 tables.

Shelton, E.M.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Heating oils, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Properties of 249 heating oils marketed in the United States were submitted for study and compilation under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The fuels were manufactured by 28 petroleum refining companies in 92 domestic refineries. The data are tabulated according to six grades of fuel and subdivided into five geographic regions in which the fuels are marketed. The six grades of fuels are defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specification D396. The five regions containing a total of 16 marketing districts are shown on a map in the report. Trend charts are included showing average properties of the six grades of fuel for the past several years. Summaries of the results of the tests by grade and by region for 1981 compared with data for 1980 are shown in Tables 1 through 6. Analyses of grade 6 foreign import oils are presented in Table 13.

Shelton, E.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tube containment system is disclosed. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture. 6 figs.

LaHaye, P.G.; Rahman, F.H.; Lebeau, T.P.; Severin, B.K.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

477

Ceramic heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tube containment system. The tube containment system does not significantly reduce heat transfer through the tube wall. The contained tube is internally pressurized, and is formed from a ceramic material having high strength, high thermal conductivity, and good thermal shock resistance. The tube containment system includes at least one ceramic fiber braid material disposed about the internally pressurized tube. The material is disposed about the tube in a predetermined axial spacing arrangement. The ceramic fiber braid is present in an amount sufficient to contain the tube if the tube becomes fractured. The tube containment system can also include a plurality of ceramic ring-shaped structures, in contact with the outer surface of the tube, and positioned between the tube and the ceramic fiber braid material, and/or at least one transducer positioned within tube for reducing the internal volume and, therefore, the energy of any shrapnel resulting from a tube fracture.

LaHaye, Paul G. (Kennebunk, ME); Rahman, Faress H. (Portland, ME); Lebeau, Thomas P. E. (Portland, ME); Severin, Barbara K. (Biddeford, ME)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Holographic Heat Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

Clifford V. Johnson

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

479

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings ............................. 91.0 33.0 7.2 6.1 7.0 18.7 2.7 5.3 1.0 2.2 7.9 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 99.0 30.7 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.9 7.1 19.9 1.1 1.7 8.2 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 80.0 30.1 5.5 2.6 6.1 13.6 5.2 8.2 0.8 1.4 6.6 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 71.0 28.2 4.5 4.1 4.1 14.5 2.3 4.5 0.8 1.6 6.5 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 79.0 29.9 6.8 5.9 6.3 14.9 1.7 3.9 0.8 1.8 7.1 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 88.7 31.6 7.6 7.6 6.5 19.6 1.7 3.4 0.7 2.0 8.1 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 104.2 39.1 8.2 8.9 7.9 22.9 1.1 2.9 Q 3.2 8.7 200,001 to 500,000 ....................

480

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings ............................. 91.0 33.0 7.2 6.1 7.0 18.7 2.7 5.3 1.0 2.2 7.9 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 99.0 30.7 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.9 7.1 19.9 1.1 1.7 8.2 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 80.0 30.1 5.5 2.6 6.1 13.6 5.2 8.2 0.8 1.4 6.6 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 71.0 28.2 4.5 4.1 4.1 14.5 2.3 4.5 0.8 1.6 6.5 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 79.0 29.9 6.8 5.9 6.3 14.9 1.7 3.9 0.8 1.8 7.1 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 88.7 31.6 7.6 7.6 6.5 19.6 1.7 3.4 0.7 2.0 8.1 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 104.2 39.1 8.2 8.9 7.9 22.9 1.1 2.9 Q 3.2 8.7 200,001 to 500,000 ....................

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481

Heating Degree Days  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Heating Degree Days Heating Degree Days New England ................ 2,626 737 115 2,062 3,105 849 159 2,247 3,184 872 136 2,180 5,541 6,359 6,373 Middle Atlantic .............. 2,326 576 85 1,899 2,906 672 123 2,041 2,924 682 90 1,986 4,886 5,742 5,682 E. N. Central ................. 2,440 621 139 2,150 3,279 772 119 2,343 3,141 726 129 2,230 5,350 6,514 6,227 W. N. Central ................ 2,515 520 143 2,360 3,424 908 103 2,541 3,216 677 152 2,404 5,539 6,976 6,450 South Atlantic ............... 1,129 168 16 992 1,513 217 21 1,059 1,466 202 16 1,010 2,306 2,809 2,695 E. S. Central ................. 1,361 180 28 1,326 1,939 289 16 1,430 1,839 245 23 1,336 2,896 3,675 3,443 W. S. Central ................ 913 38 3 729 1,189 141 2 909 1,150 83 5 821 1,682 2,239 2,060 Mountain ....................... 2,063 542 98 1,741 2,430 689 101 1,885 2,189 642 130 1,817 4,444

482

Heat pumps | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pumps Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Heat pumps Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleHeatpumps&oldid26717...

483

Second look at pool heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The market for solar heating systems for swimming pools is discussed. The reasons for the decline in the sales of these systems are described.

Best, D.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Accelerating Combined Heat & Power Deployment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ACCELERATING COMBINED HEAT & POWER DEPLOYMENT An Industry Consultation by the United States Energy Association August 31, 2011 Cover Photograph: CHP Plant at the Mueller Energy...

485

Geothermal Heat Pumps- Cooling Mode  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In summer, the fluid removes heat from the building and transfers it to the relatively cooler ground in order to cool the building.

486

Heat Kernel Based Community Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Kernel Based. Community Detection. Kyle Kloster. Purdue University. Joint with. David F. Gleich,. (Purdue), supported by. NSF CAREER. 1149756-CCF ...

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

487

Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Heating Research Water Heating Research to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research Building Envelope Research Windows, Skylights, & Doors Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Water Heating Research Lighting Research Sensors & Controls Research Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

488

Effect of heat treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack growth response of Alloy 718  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fatigue-crack growth behavior of seven heats of Alloy 718 was studied at five different test temperatures. These seven heats represented at least four different producers, four different product forms, two melt practices, and most of the heat were tested in two different heat-treated conditions. Heat-to-heat variations were noted; these were most obvious in material given the conventional heat-treatment. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

James, L.A.; Mills, W.J.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Scaling and profiles of heat flux during partial detachment in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors examine the scaling of the peak divertor heat flux and total divertor plate power in partially detached divertor (PDD) discharges in DIII-D, as a function of input power and radiated power. The peak divertor heat flux in the attached plasma increases linearly with input power, but saturates in the detached cases. The total divertor plate power remains linear with input power in both the attached and detached plasmas. This is consistent with the fact that the heat flux peak is reduced from the attached case but other areas receive increased radiant heating from the detached plasma. The divertor plate radiant heating is linear with input power because the total radiated power from the entire plasma is a linear function of input power in both attached and detached plasma. In the private flux region, radiated heat flux absorbed on the target plate calculated from bolometer data is enough to account for the measured plate heating. Approximately half of the overall plate heating power in detached plasma is due to absorbed radiation. By mapping the divertor heat flux before and during the PDD to flux coordinates, and comparing with a flux mapping of inserted bolometer and tangential TV data, they have verified that the radiated power is emitted from the same flux surfaces on which heat flux is reduced.

Lasnier, C.J.; Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porter, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Data:9da2a6c6-2035-4b4e-bb8a-c6303c82b738 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9da2a6c6-2035-4b4e-bb8a-c6303c82b738 9da2a6c6-2035-4b4e-bb8a-c6303c82b738 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Haywood Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2013/09/01 End date if known: Rate name: 17 Small General $mart Rate Service Single Phase- Controlled Kwh Sector: Commercial Description: AVAILABILITY At the Cooperative's option, this schedule is available on a voluntary and limited basis, subject to the Cooperative's established Service Rules and Regulations. APPLICABILITY This schedule is applicable to residential or general service customers with single-phase or three-phase service supplied through a meter to each individual residence or service unit. The home must have primary electric space heating and water heating separately metered and controlled with a load management switch. The member may also elect to have electric air conditioning and/or the following 240-volt (minimum 2 kW each) appliances separately metered and controlled as well: clothes dryers, hot tubs, spas, saunas, or pool heaters. The air-conditioning mode of a heat pump is automatically included for a heat pump on this rate. All the separately metered and controlled appliances and devices will automatically be switched off when the Cooperative controls peak demand with its load management system. Members are responsible for the operation of their backup heating or cooling systems and their own comfort during these control times. TYPE OF SERVICE The type of service available under this schedule shall be single-phase, 60 cycles, at 120/240 volts, and where available, three-phase at this and other secondary voltages. NOTE: Subject to a wholesale power cost adjustment. Subject to REPS Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard Rider Rate, depending on revenue class. See rider rates for more details. See also Load Management Rider LM

491

Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Generalized Divided Flow Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The concept of a "Divided-flow" heat exchanger is generalized by locating the shell inlet (or outlet) nozzle off-center such that the two shell sub-streams are unequal and traverse unequal flow paths. The governing equations for heat transfer...

Singh, K. P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (2): Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Using the efficiency-number of transfer units method ( ), the heat-transfer efficiencies of the parallel-flow and reverse-flow TDTH...

Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Zhuang, Z.; Sun, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Design of Heat Exchanger for Heat Recovery in CHP Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research is to review issues related to the design of heat recovery unit in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems. To meet specific needs of CHP systems, configurations can be altered to affect different factors of the design...

Kozman, T. A.; Kaur, B.; Lee, J.

494

Effects of finite heat conductivity on instabilities in a rotating plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical theory of magnetorotational and convective instabilities in a rotating cylindrical plasma with finite heat conductivity is developed and discussed. The heat conductivity is incorporated into the standardized equations of the regular magnetohydrodynamic approach to studying these instabilities. A case of high-{beta} plasma ({beta} is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure) and the modes with parallel phase velocity much smaller than the sound velocity is particularly emphasized and considered in the quasi-incompressible approximation. It is shown that this approximation is more adequate than the Boussinesq approximation. Both these approximations lead to the same results for aperiodical instabilities of the axisymmetric modes which are hybrids of the magnetorotational and convective instabilities. On the other hand, the Boussinesq approximation overlooks the heat-conductivity-induced instabilities predicted by the quasi-incompressible approximation describing the dissipative excitation of the slow magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves. Non-axisymmetric aperiodical instabilities are considered. It is shown that, for such modes, the role of convective instabilities is greater than for the magnetorotational instability.

Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Smolyakov, A. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Nuclear Fusion (Russian Federation); Lominadze, J. G. [Kharadze Abastumani National Astrophysical Observatory (Georgia); Churikov, A. P. [Syzran Branch of Samara Technical University (Russian Federation); Pustovitov, V. D. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Nuclear Fusion (Russian Federation); Kharshiladze, O. V. [Nodia Institute of Geophysics (Georgia)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

Flow and heat transfer in porous micro heat sink for thermal management of high power LEDs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel porous micro heat sink system is presented for thermal management of high power LEDs, which has high heat transport capability. The operational principle and heat transfer characteristics of porous micro heat sink are analyzed. Numerical model ... Keywords: Heat dissipation, High heat flux, High power LEDs, Porous media, Porous micro heat sink

Z. M. Wan; J. Liu; K. L. Su; X. H. Hu; S. S. M

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heaters Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters May 4, 2012 - 5:21pm Addthis A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient than conventional electric storage water heaters. Heat pump water heaters work in locations that remain in the 40º-90ºF range year-round. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore, they can be two to

498

The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized earthlike aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is put on the Lorenz energy cycle and the atmospheric mean meridional circulation. The latter is analysed by means of the Kuo-Eliassen equation. The atmospheric heat transport compensates the imposed oceanic heat transport changes to a large extent in conjunction with significant modification of the general circulation. Up to a maximum about 3PW, an increase of the oceanic heat transport leads to an increase of the global mean near surface temperature and a decrease of its equator-to-pole gradient. For larger transports, the gradient is reduced further but the global mean remains approximately constant. This is linked to a cooling and a reversal of the temperature gradient in the tropics. A larger oceanic heat transport leads to a reduction of all reservoirs and conversions of the Lorenz energy cycl...

Knietzsch, Marc-Andre; Lunkeit, Frank

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

FIVE-YEAR PROGRESS REPORT ON A SUCCESSFUL SOLAR/GEOTHERMAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM FOR A COMMERCIAL OFFICE BUILDING IN BURLINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to present: 1) a description of a solar/geothermal heating and cooling system that has been in successful operation in a commercial office building for over five years; and 2) to present technical and cost operational results that indicate a total annual energy consumption of approximately 25,000 Btu/sq ft/ year. The paper includes a general description of the three-story multi-tenant office building located in Burlington, Massachusetts, its energy efficient design features, its active solar space heating and hot water system, its solar/geothermal heat pump back-up heating system and its geothermal cooling system. A description of the solar/geothermal system is presented including the liquid flat plate collectors, storage tanks, heat exchangers, heat pump, heat transfer fluid, control system, operational modes and the energy monitoring system. KEYWORDS Solar space heating; geothermal heating; geothermal cooling; solar domestic hot water; energy monitoring and control.

John Zvara; P.E.; Ronald J. Adams

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Approximating Probability Density Functions with Mixtures of Truncated Exponentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Thus, the parameters to be estimated are a 0k , a 1k , a 2k ,a 3k , b (j) 1k ,b (j) 2k and b (j) 3k . Define ? ? (k) (x;? mk ) (abbreviated ? ? (k) (x)) as the initial MTE approximation for PDF f X (x) in interval D k .To estimate the parameters ? mk... = {a 0mk ,a 1mk ,a 2mk ,a 3mk ,b (j) 1mk ,b (j) 2mk ,b (j) 3mk } in (1), the discrete approximation to KL divergence between the standard PDF and the MTE approximation is minimized sub- ject to continuity, probability mass and non-negativity constraints...

Cobb, Barry R.; Shenoy, Prakash P.; Rumi, Rafael

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z